# Патент USA US2509868

код для вставкиMay 30, 1950 s. E. HEDSTRGM ET AL 2,509,855 FREQUENCY COMPENSATED SATURABLE REACTOR SYSTEM Filed Aug. 16, 1947 ,10/20 F291 /0 l "6“ ‘ . / 5 /9 4. I 9. 4. 1 //1 yen fars 51/01 t'r/c f/a/sfra/u A; F0602‘ fry/7x50” Patented May 30, 1950 2,509,865. UNITED. STATES PATENT orFicE FREQUENCY COMPENSATED SATURABLE REACTOR SYSTEM 1 Sven Eric Hedstriim and Robert Svensson, Lud vika, Sweden, assignors to Allmanna Svenska Elektriska Aktiebolaget, Vasteras, Sweden, a corporation of Sweden Application August 16, 1947, Serial No. 769,027 In Sweden August 19, 1946 8 Claims. (Cl. 323-589) 1 . In a known connection of regulators operating with direct current saturable reactors, in which the regulated quantity consists of or is repre sented by a voltage, the reactor is provided with two direct current windings opposing each other, which are connected to‘ the said voltage across two impedances having essentially different char acteristics so that the windings. will mutually 4 shows a portion of a modified form 01 the in‘ vention. In Fig. 1, the numeral 2 designates an induct ance with a normally saturated iron core, which is connected in series with a recti?er 3 between a pair of alternating current terminals i, the voltage between which is to be regulated. On the direct current side, the recti?er 3 is connected compensateeach other’s action for a certain nor to a winding 4 of a direct current saturable re mal voltage, while the influence of one or the 10 actor having an alternating current winding 5. other winding predominates as soon as the volt v6 designates an essentially constant impedance, age exceeds or falls below the said normal volt which is connected in parallel with a condenser age. As a rule, it is most convenient, especially if the regulated or representative voltage is an 1 between the voltage terminals l and a rectifier 8, which feeds a winding 9 of the same reactor 5. The winding 9 opposes the winding 4. Load I0 is connected in the alternating current circuit in alternating current voltage, to construct the im is pedances essentially as reactances and rectify the series with winding 5. ' traversing currents. In this case it is, as a rule, The current through the winding 4 as a func most appropriate to construct’ one of the react ances with a practically straight characteristic tion of the voltage between the terminals l is and the other with a characteristic strongly dif~ 20 represented at normal frequency by the curve A fering from the straight form. The most simple way of obtaining such a characteristic is to em ploy an inductance with a normally saturated iron core, but sometimes a more complicated in Fig. 2, where the abscissae designate currents and the ordinates voltages. The current through the winding 9 is similarly represented by the straight line B. The windings 4 and 9 should type is employed‘, for instance an inductance of 25 have the same number of turns so that the curves A and B also represent their numbers of ampere the aforesaid kind in parallel with a capacity, turns. When these are equal at the point of in which after rectifying the current gives an 8 tersection e, the regulator should be in equilib shaped characteristic, of which the portion util ized for the regulation has a negative value of the rium, and it thus tends to maintain the voltage 30 corresponding to the point e. If the frequency derivative of the current with respect to the volt age. Hereby a more accurate voltage regulation now rises by for instance 20%, the curve A is replaced by the dotted curve A1 provided that the can be obtained under otherwise equal conditions. inductance 2 essentially determines the current An inconvenience of the use of two such react in the winding 4, If a constant impedance (for ances having strongly different characteristics is, however, that the position of the point of inter instance an ohmic resistance) were connected section and thereby the value of the regulated in series with the winding 9, the new point of intersection would be the point a’ corresponding quantity will depend rather strongly on the fre quency. The present invention relates to a de to a voltage raised by more than 20%. If a sim ple frequency-dependent impedance, for instance vice for avoiding this inconvenience, which is es an inductance without a normally saturated iron sentially characterized by the fact that the im pedance having the most nearly straight char core, were connected in series with the winding acteristic. is composed in such manner of an im 9, the line B would be changed into the line B1, pedance and a capacity that the slope of its which intersects the curve A1 in the point :21, > characteristic will be essentially more dependent 45 which lies 20% above the point e and thus gives a on the frequency than that of the characteristic voltage raised by 20%. By a suitable mutual di of a simple inductance. In which direction the mensioning of the constant inductance 6 and the slope should be altered upon an alteration of the condenser ‘I; it is, however, possible to make the frequency depends on the characteristic of the line B change into the line B2, which intersects the curve A1 in the point as, which is at the same other inductance, as is made clear by the follow 50 level as the point eand thus gives the same volt mg. A form of the invention is diagrammatically age at the increased frequency. With the form illustrated in Fig. '1 of the accompanying'draw illustrated of the curve A and the dimensions 11 ing, where Fig. 2 shows a diagram of the manner lustrated, this corresponds, as a calculation of operation of this form and Fig. 3 a correspond shows, to a value of the admittance of the con ing diagram for a somewhat different form. P18. 55 denser, which at normal frequency is about 0.38 d accuses of that 01' the inductance, and generally it should be smaller than the admittance of the induct ance, i. e. the value of the inductance should be smaller than that giving resonance with the ca ity and said constant impedance being such as to reduce the in?uence of frequency variations upon the resultant saturating ampereturns of said sat pacity at norma1 frequency. Instead of keeping the regulated voltage en tirely constant during frequency variations as 2. An electric regulator comprising an alter just described, it may in certain cases be advis able to cause the said voltage to vary slightly with a varying frequency, either in the same direc tion as the frequency or in the opposite direction. urable reactor. ' nating current voltage source normally operating at a certain frequency, a direct current saturable reactor in?uencing said voltage source to keep its voltage normally constant, a ?rst circuit fed by said alternating current voltage source and ’ containing a highly voltage dependent impedance An alteration of the frequency is generally giving, in the neighborhood of normal voltage, a caused by an alteration of the proportion between positive value of the derivative of the voltage the supply and demand of electric power, and this with respect to the current, said ?rst circuit con proportion may sometimes be in?uenced by a volt 15 taining further a recti?er and a saturating wind age regulation. Such a mall variation of the ing of said reactor, a second circuit fed by said voltage with the frequency can easily be accom alternating current voltage source and contain plished by a suitable proportioning of the ad ing in parallel a capacity and a substantially mittances of the inductance t and the con constant inductance smaller than that giving res denser ‘i. > 20 onance with said capacity at normal frequency, If in Fig. l, in a manner lmown per se, a con said second circuit containing further a recti?er denser is connected in parallel to the inductance and a saturating winding of said reactor oppos 2, the characteristic A in Fig. 2’ can be modi?ed ing said ?rst-named saturating winding. to the form shown by the curve C in Fig. 3. The 3. An electric regulator comprising an alter~v point of intersection f between this curve and the 25 nating current voltage source normally operating ' straight characteristic D represents in this case at a certain frequency, a direct current saturable the normal value of the voltage. When the fre reactor in?uencing said voltage source to keep . quency is raised by 10%, the curve C is changed its voltage normally constant, a first circuit fed into 01, and the point of intersection f1 between by said alternating current voltage source and this curve and the line D1, rotated in proportion 30 containing a highly voltage dependent indeped to the increase of frequency, represents an essen ance giving, in the neighborhood of normal volt tially raised voltage. For restoring in this 'case age, a negative value of the derivative of the volt the normal voltage value, a rotation of the line D age with respect to the current, said ?rst'circuit in the opposite direction is necessary, namely to containing further a recti?er and a saturating the position D2, which obviously depends on the 35 winding of said reactor, a second circuit fed by fact that the derivative of the voltage with re said alternating current voltage source and con spect to the current of the curve C is negative taining in parallel a capacity and a substantially within the region in question. A rotation to the constant inductance larger than that giving res position D2 can be obtained in a parallel connec onance with said capacity at normal frequency,‘ tion of an inductance and a condenser by mak said second circuit containing further a recti?er ins’ the admittance of the latter greater than and a saturating winding of said reactor oppos that of the former. ing said ?rst-named saturating winding. The increased sensibility to the frequency of 4. An electric regulator comprising an alter the substantially constant impedance may also be nating current voltage source normally operating obtained by composing the said impedance of an at a certain frequency, a direct current saturable inductance t and a condenser l in series as shown in Fig. ti, which is otherwise similar to Fig. 1. A calculation in this case shows that a value of the ratio between voltage and current, which in reactor in?uencing said voltage source to keep its voltage normally constant, a ?rst circuit fed by said alternating current voltage source and containing a highly voltage dependent imped creases with the frequency, such as is necessary 50 ance giving, in the neighborhood of normal volt age, a positive value of the derivative of the volt in Fig. 2, is obtained, if the reactance of the in ductance at normal frequency is greater than age with respect to the current, said first circuit the numerical value of the reactance of the con containing further a recti?er and a saturating denser, while a value of the said ratio, which winding of said reactor, a second circuit fed by decreases upon an increase of frequency, as nec 55 said alternating current voltage source and con essary according to Fig. 3, is obtained if the reactance of the inductance at normal frequency is lower than the numerical value of the react ance of the condenser. We claim as our invention: taining in series a capacity and a substantially constant inductance larger than that giving res onance with said capacity at normal frequency, said second circuit containing further a recti?er and a saturating winding of said reactor oppose 1. An electric regulator comprising an alter ing said ?rst-named saturating winding. _ hating current voltage source normally operat 5. An electric regulator comprising an alter ing at a certain frequency, a direct current sat urable reactor in?uencing said voltage source to keep its voltage normally constant, a ?rst cir cuit fed by said alternating current voltage source and containing a highly voltage dependent im pedance, a recti?er, and a saturating winding of said reactor, a second circuit fed by said alter hating current voltage source, containing a ca nating current voltage source normally operating pacity and another substantially constant im pedance considerably out of resonance with said capacity, a recti?er, and a saturating winding of said reactor opposing the aforesaid saturating winding, the mutual dimensioning of said capac at a certain frequency, a direct current saturable reactor influencing said voltage source to keep its voltage normally constant, a first circuit fed by said alternating current voltage source and containing a highly voltage dependent imped ance giving, in the neighborhood of normal volt age, a negative value of the derivative of the voltage with respect to the current, said ?rst circuit containing further a recti?er and a sat urating winding of said reactor,‘ a second circuit fed by said alternating current voltage source and containing in series a capacity and a substan 9,509,865 5 . tially constant inductance smaller than that giving resonance with said capacity at normal frequency, said second circuit containing further a recti?er and a saturating winding of said re actor ' opposing said ?rst-named saturating at a certain frequency, a direct current saturable reactor in?uencing said voltage source to keep its voltage normally constant, a ?rst circuit fed by said alternating current voltage source and containing a highly voltage-dependent impedance and a saturating winding of said reactor, a sec ond circuit fed by the alternating current voltage 6. An electric regulator comprising an alter and containing a capacity and a substantially nating current voltage source, a saturable re constant reactor in such a connection that char actor, a ?rst circuit fed by said voltage source and containing a highly voltage dependent im 10 acteristic quantities of the group reactance and admittance thereof are added together, the pendance, a recti?er and a saturating winding di?ference between the numerical values of that " of said reactor, and another circuit fed by said of the said characteristic quantities which is voltage source containing a capacity, another added to that of the condenser by the connection substantially constant impedance considerably and that of the condenser at normal frequency out of resonance ‘with said capacity, a recti?er, being of the same sign as the derivative of the and a saturating winding of said reactor oppos voltage with respect to the current of said volt ing said ?rst named saturating winding. age-dependent impedance in the neighborhood 7. An electric regulator comprising an alter of normal voltage, said second circuit contain nating current voltage source normally operating at a, certain frequency, a direct current saturable 20 ing further a recti?er and a saturating winding on said direct current saturable reactor, opposing reactor in?uencing said voltage source to keep winding. its voltage normally constant, a ?rst circuit fed ‘ by said alternating current voltage source and containing a highly voltage-dependent imped ance and a saturating winding of said reactor, a second circuit red by the alternating current voltage and containing a combination of a capac ity and a substantially constant reactor in dis said ?rst-named saturating winding. ROBERT SVENSSON. REFERENCES CITED The following references are of record in the ?le of this patent: sonance at normal frequency and so dimensioned with respect to each other that the phase angle 30 di?erence between the voltage impressed 'on said combination and the resultant ‘current ?ow _ SVEN ERIC HEDSTROM. UNITED STATES PATENTS Number 1,968,576 Name Date Suits ____________ __ July 31, 1934 ing therethrough has the same sign as the deriv 2,066,919 West ____________ __ Jan. 5. 1937 ative of the voltage with respect to the current of 2,067,143 2,138,732 2,194,299 2,217,457 2,367,625 2,399,872 Logan ___________ __ Jan. 5, Craig ___________ __ Nov. 29, Edwards ________ __ Mar. 19, Schmutz __________ _- Oct. 8, Short ___________ __ Jan. 16, Krussman ________ .. May 7, said voltage-dependent impedance in the neigh 35 borhood of normal voltage, said second circuit containing further va recti?er and a saturating winding on said direct current saturable reactor, opposing said ?rst-named saturating winding. 8. An electric regulator comprising an alter 40 2,409,610 nating current voltage source normally operating 1937 1938 1940 1940 1945 1946 Bixby ___________ -_ Oct. 22, 1946

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