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Патент USA US2509868

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May 30, 1950
s. E. HEDSTRGM ET AL
2,509,855
FREQUENCY COMPENSATED SATURABLE REACTOR SYSTEM
Filed Aug. 16, 1947
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Patented May 30, 1950
2,509,865.
UNITED. STATES PATENT orFicE
FREQUENCY COMPENSATED SATURABLE
REACTOR SYSTEM
1
Sven Eric Hedstriim and Robert Svensson, Lud
vika, Sweden, assignors to Allmanna Svenska
Elektriska Aktiebolaget, Vasteras, Sweden, a
corporation of Sweden
Application August 16, 1947, Serial No. 769,027
In Sweden August 19, 1946
8 Claims. (Cl. 323-589)
1
.
In a known connection of regulators operating
with direct current saturable reactors, in which
the regulated quantity consists of or is repre
sented by a voltage, the reactor is provided with
two direct current windings opposing each other,
which are connected to‘ the said voltage across
two impedances having essentially different char
acteristics so that the windings. will mutually
4 shows a portion of a modified form 01 the in‘
vention.
In Fig. 1, the numeral 2 designates an induct
ance with a normally saturated iron core, which
is connected in series with a recti?er 3 between
a pair of alternating current terminals i, the
voltage between which is to be regulated. On
the direct current side, the recti?er 3 is connected
compensateeach other’s action for a certain nor
to a winding 4 of a direct current saturable re
mal voltage, while the influence of one or the 10 actor having an alternating current winding 5.
other winding predominates as soon as the volt
v6 designates an essentially constant impedance,
age exceeds or falls below the said normal volt
which is connected in parallel with a condenser
age. As a rule, it is most convenient, especially
if the regulated or representative voltage is an
1 between the voltage terminals l and a rectifier
8, which feeds a winding 9 of the same reactor 5.
The winding 9 opposes the winding 4. Load I0
is connected in the alternating current circuit in
alternating current voltage, to construct the im is
pedances essentially as reactances and rectify the
series with winding 5.
'
traversing currents. In this case it is, as a rule,
The current through the winding 4 as a func
most appropriate to construct’ one of the react
ances with a practically straight characteristic
tion of the voltage between the terminals l is
and the other with a characteristic strongly dif~ 20 represented at normal frequency by the curve A
fering from the straight form. The most simple
way of obtaining such a characteristic is to em
ploy an inductance with a normally saturated
iron core, but sometimes a more complicated
in Fig. 2, where the abscissae designate currents
and the ordinates voltages. The current through
the winding 9 is similarly represented by the
straight line B. The windings 4 and 9 should
type is employed‘, for instance an inductance of 25 have the same number of turns so that the curves
A and B also represent their numbers of ampere
the aforesaid kind in parallel with a capacity,
turns. When these are equal at the point of in
which after rectifying the current gives an 8
tersection e, the regulator should be in equilib
shaped characteristic, of which the portion util
ized for the regulation has a negative value of the
rium, and it thus tends to maintain the voltage
30
corresponding to the point e. If the frequency
derivative of the current with respect to the volt
age. Hereby a more accurate voltage regulation
now rises by for instance 20%, the curve A is
replaced by the dotted curve A1 provided that the
can be obtained under otherwise equal conditions.
inductance 2 essentially determines the current
An inconvenience of the use of two such react
in the winding 4, If a constant impedance (for
ances having strongly different characteristics is,
however, that the position of the point of inter
instance an ohmic resistance) were connected
section and thereby the value of the regulated
in series with the winding 9, the new point of
intersection would be the point a’ corresponding
quantity will depend rather strongly on the fre
quency. The present invention relates to a de
to a voltage raised by more than 20%. If a sim
ple frequency-dependent impedance, for instance
vice for avoiding this inconvenience, which is es
an inductance without a normally saturated iron
sentially characterized by the fact that the im
pedance having the most nearly straight char
core, were connected in series with the winding
acteristic. is composed in such manner of an im
9, the line B would be changed into the line B1,
pedance and a capacity that the slope of its
which intersects the curve A1 in the point :21, >
characteristic will be essentially more dependent 45 which lies 20% above the point e and thus gives a
on the frequency than that of the characteristic
voltage raised by 20%. By a suitable mutual di
of a simple inductance. In which direction the
mensioning of the constant inductance 6 and the
slope should be altered upon an alteration of the
condenser ‘I; it is, however, possible to make the
frequency depends on the characteristic of the
line B change into the line B2, which intersects
the curve A1 in the point as, which is at the same
other inductance, as is made clear by the follow
50 level as the point eand thus gives the same volt
mg.
A form of the invention is diagrammatically
age at the increased frequency. With the form
illustrated in Fig. '1 of the accompanying'draw
illustrated of the curve A and the dimensions 11
ing, where Fig. 2 shows a diagram of the manner
lustrated, this corresponds, as a calculation
of operation of this form and Fig. 3 a correspond
shows,
to a value of the admittance of the con
ing diagram for a somewhat different form. P18. 55 denser, which at normal frequency is about 0.38
d
accuses
of that 01' the inductance, and generally it should
be smaller than the admittance of the induct
ance, i. e. the value of the inductance should be
smaller than that giving resonance with the ca
ity and said constant impedance being such as to
reduce the in?uence of frequency variations upon
the resultant saturating ampereturns of said sat
pacity at norma1 frequency.
Instead of keeping the regulated voltage en
tirely constant during frequency variations as
2. An electric regulator comprising an alter
just described, it may in certain cases be advis
able to cause the said voltage to vary slightly with
a varying frequency, either in the same direc
tion as the frequency or in the opposite direction.
urable reactor.
'
nating current voltage source normally operating
at a certain frequency, a direct current saturable
reactor in?uencing said voltage source to keep
its voltage normally constant, a ?rst circuit fed
by said alternating current voltage source and
’ containing a highly voltage dependent impedance
An alteration of the frequency is generally
giving, in the neighborhood of normal voltage, a
caused by an alteration of the proportion between
positive value of the derivative of the voltage
the supply and demand of electric power, and this
with respect to the current, said ?rst circuit con
proportion may sometimes be in?uenced by a volt 15 taining further a recti?er and a saturating wind
age regulation. Such a mall variation of the
ing of said reactor, a second circuit fed by said
voltage with the frequency can easily be accom
alternating current voltage source and contain
plished by a suitable proportioning of the ad
ing in parallel a capacity and a substantially
mittances of the inductance t and the con
constant inductance smaller than that giving res
denser ‘i.
>
20 onance with said capacity at normal frequency,
If in Fig. l, in a manner lmown per se, a con
said second circuit containing further a recti?er
denser is connected in parallel to the inductance
and a saturating winding of said reactor oppos
2, the characteristic A in Fig. 2’ can be modi?ed
ing said ?rst-named saturating winding.
to the form shown by the curve C in Fig. 3. The
3. An electric regulator comprising an alter~v
point of intersection f between this curve and the 25 nating current voltage source normally operating
' straight characteristic D represents in this case
at a certain frequency, a direct current saturable
the normal value of the voltage. When the fre
reactor in?uencing said voltage source to keep
. quency is raised by 10%, the curve C is changed
its voltage normally constant, a first circuit fed
into 01, and the point of intersection f1 between
by said alternating current voltage source and
this curve and the line D1, rotated in proportion 30 containing a highly voltage dependent indeped
to the increase of frequency, represents an essen
ance giving, in the neighborhood of normal volt
tially raised voltage. For restoring in this 'case
age, a negative value of the derivative of the volt
the normal voltage value, a rotation of the line D
age with respect to the current, said ?rst'circuit
in the opposite direction is necessary, namely to
containing further a recti?er and a saturating
the position D2, which obviously depends on the 35 winding of said reactor, a second circuit fed by
fact that the derivative of the voltage with re
said alternating current voltage source and con
spect to the current of the curve C is negative
taining in parallel a capacity and a substantially
within the region in question. A rotation to the
constant inductance larger than that giving res
position D2 can be obtained in a parallel connec
onance with said capacity at normal frequency,‘
tion of an inductance and a condenser by mak
said second circuit containing further a recti?er
ins’ the admittance of the latter greater than
and a saturating winding of said reactor oppos
that of the former.
ing said ?rst-named saturating winding.
The increased sensibility to the frequency of
4. An electric regulator comprising an alter
the substantially constant impedance may also be
nating current voltage source normally operating
obtained by composing the said impedance of an
at a certain frequency, a direct current saturable
inductance t and a condenser l in series as shown
in Fig. ti, which is otherwise similar to Fig. 1. A
calculation in this case shows that a value of the
ratio between voltage and current, which in
reactor in?uencing said voltage source to keep
its voltage normally constant, a ?rst circuit fed
by said alternating current voltage source and
containing a highly voltage dependent imped
creases with the frequency, such as is necessary 50 ance giving, in the neighborhood of normal volt
age, a positive value of the derivative of the volt
in Fig. 2, is obtained, if the reactance of the in
ductance at normal frequency is greater than
age with respect to the current, said first circuit
the numerical value of the reactance of the con
containing further a recti?er and a saturating
denser, while a value of the said ratio, which
winding of said reactor, a second circuit fed by
decreases upon an increase of frequency, as nec 55 said alternating current voltage source and con
essary according to Fig. 3, is obtained if the
reactance of the inductance at normal frequency
is lower than the numerical value of the react
ance of the condenser.
We claim as our invention:
taining in series a capacity and a substantially
constant inductance larger than that giving res
onance with said capacity at normal frequency,
said second circuit containing further a recti?er
and a saturating winding of said reactor oppose
1. An electric regulator comprising an alter
ing said ?rst-named saturating winding.
_
hating current voltage source normally operat
5. An electric regulator comprising an alter
ing at a certain frequency, a direct current sat
urable reactor in?uencing said voltage source
to keep its voltage normally constant, a ?rst cir
cuit fed by said alternating current voltage source
and containing a highly voltage dependent im
pedance, a recti?er, and a saturating winding
of said reactor, a second circuit fed by said alter
hating current voltage source, containing a ca
nating current voltage source normally operating
pacity and another substantially constant im
pedance considerably out of resonance with said
capacity, a recti?er, and a saturating winding of
said reactor opposing the aforesaid saturating
winding, the mutual dimensioning of said capac
at a certain frequency, a direct current saturable
reactor influencing said voltage source to keep
its voltage normally constant, a first circuit fed
by said alternating current voltage source and
containing a highly voltage dependent imped
ance giving, in the neighborhood of normal volt
age, a negative value of the derivative of the
voltage with respect to the current, said ?rst
circuit containing further a recti?er and a sat
urating winding of said reactor,‘ a second circuit
fed by said alternating current voltage source
and containing in series a capacity and a substan
9,509,865
5
.
tially constant inductance smaller than that
giving resonance with said capacity at normal
frequency, said second circuit containing further
a recti?er and a saturating winding of said re
actor ' opposing said ?rst-named saturating
at a certain frequency, a direct current saturable
reactor in?uencing said voltage source to keep
its voltage normally constant, a ?rst circuit fed
by said alternating current voltage source and
containing a highly voltage-dependent impedance
and a saturating winding of said reactor, a sec
ond circuit fed by the alternating current voltage
6. An electric regulator comprising an alter
and containing a capacity and a substantially
nating current voltage source, a saturable re
constant reactor in such a connection that char
actor, a ?rst circuit fed by said voltage source
and containing a highly voltage dependent im 10 acteristic quantities of the group reactance and
admittance thereof are added together, the
pendance, a recti?er and a saturating winding
di?ference between the numerical values of that "
of said reactor, and another circuit fed by said
of the said characteristic quantities which is
voltage source containing a capacity, another
added to that of the condenser by the connection
substantially constant impedance considerably
and that of the condenser at normal frequency
out of resonance ‘with said capacity, a recti?er,
being of the same sign as the derivative of the
and a saturating winding of said reactor oppos
voltage with respect to the current of said volt
ing said ?rst named saturating winding.
age-dependent impedance in the neighborhood
7. An electric regulator comprising an alter
of normal voltage, said second circuit contain
nating current voltage source normally operating
at a, certain frequency, a direct current saturable 20 ing further a recti?er and a saturating winding
on said direct current saturable reactor, opposing
reactor in?uencing said voltage source to keep
winding.
its voltage normally constant, a ?rst circuit fed ‘
by said alternating current voltage source and
containing a highly voltage-dependent imped
ance and a saturating winding of said reactor, a
second circuit red by the alternating current
voltage and containing a combination of a capac
ity and a substantially constant reactor in dis
said ?rst-named saturating winding.
ROBERT SVENSSON.
REFERENCES CITED
The following references are of record in the
?le of this patent:
sonance at normal frequency and so dimensioned
with respect to each other that the phase angle 30
di?erence between the voltage impressed 'on
said combination and the resultant ‘current ?ow
_
SVEN ERIC HEDSTROM.
UNITED STATES PATENTS
Number
1,968,576
Name
Date
Suits ____________ __ July 31, 1934
ing therethrough has the same sign as the deriv
2,066,919
West ____________ __ Jan. 5. 1937
ative of the voltage with respect to the current of
2,067,143
2,138,732
2,194,299
2,217,457
2,367,625
2,399,872
Logan ___________ __ Jan. 5,
Craig ___________ __ Nov. 29,
Edwards ________ __ Mar. 19,
Schmutz __________ _- Oct. 8,
Short ___________ __ Jan. 16,
Krussman ________ .. May 7,
said voltage-dependent impedance in the neigh 35
borhood of normal voltage, said second circuit
containing further va recti?er and a saturating
winding on said direct current saturable reactor,
opposing said ?rst-named saturating winding.
8. An electric regulator comprising an alter 40 2,409,610
nating current voltage source normally operating
1937
1938
1940
1940
1945
1946
Bixby ___________ -_ Oct. 22, 1946
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