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Патент USA US2511837

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June 20,1950
2,51 1,836
Filed May 3, 1945
June 20, 1950.
Filed May 3, 1945
FIG. 8.
'4 Sheets-Sheet 2
- --‘
June 20, 1950
Filed May 5, 1945
4 Sheets-Sheet s
9o 98 86 11
June 20, 1950
Filed llay 3. I945
_ 2,511,836
FIG. 36.
Patented June 20, 1950
2,511,836 .f
I - “
John J. ouuen, Brighton, Mass.
Application May 3, 1945, Serial Nb.‘ 591365 ‘ ,
2 Claims. <(o1. 29-1482)
(Granted under the act of ‘March 3,1883, as
amended April 30, 1928,; ‘370 Q. G. 757)
My invention relates to tube joining. More
particularly, it relates to the joining of pieces of
thin-wall metal tubingin angular relationship
' thevlholeirequently to prevent cracking of the
metal. The cup or boss is raised until it has any
outside diameter equal to the inside diameter of
to each other. It deals with a method and appa
the branch which will be indicated by reaching.
ratus for forming the necessary inter?tting por
a the ‘circle scribed on the main tube.
tions on a main tube and a branch tube for con
To form the saddle on the end of the branch
tuber-to ?ti over the boss on the main tube, the
following steps are, necessary with the hand.
method. 1- It is ?rst necessary to lay out a template
paper pattern for the branch so that it ?ts the
circumference of the ‘main tube. The pattern is
then (cut out,~wrapped around a tube of a size
proper for the branch, and the end of the branch
necting the tubes together in angular relation
The method used at present to join thin-wall
tubes in angular relationship is a hand method
which is both laborious and slow and is, therefore,
costly. Furthermore, the hand method necessi
tates the use of extreme care to attempt to obtain
accuracy and often results in non-uniform, prod
is marked along the curved end of the pattern.
_ In joining the tubes, it is the practice to form
on the side of the mainrtube, at the location
With a hammer-and chisel, the branch is out o?
and the burr is ?led away.‘ The trimmed branch
where the branch tube is to be connected, a suit-1
able boss. On the end of the branch tube which
is to be connected to the main tube, a saddle,
which is complemental to the boss, is formed.
The saddle is ?tted over the boss and the main
tube and branch tube are suitably secured to
snugly- and. further ?ling may be necessary to
make-it fit properly. Using. dividers, an arcuate
line parallelto'the arcuate end of the branchis
gether, for example, by soldering.
is placed on the main tube to see that it ?ts
scribed ‘at a-point spaced ashort distance there;
from" and‘is'subsequently used as a guide while
turningthe saddle. Since the cutting operation
hardens the. adjacent metal, especially if it is
To form the boss on the side of the main tube, 25 copper or copper alloy, it is necessary to anneal
the trimmedv end of the tube. Then using :a
it is necessary, with the hand method, to ?rst
locate exactly on the side of the main tube, the
bumping hammer or a similar tool, the branch
end is worked on the edgeof an anvil. The area
center of the branch to lead therefrom. The
main tube is then held in ‘such a position that
from the scribed line to the end of the branch‘
the center mark is uppermost and by use of di 30 is worked outwardly until the saddle of proper.
viders, a circle is scribed on the tube. This circle
shape andisize is formed thereon. During the
metal-working operation, frequent annealing will
has a diameter equal to the inside diameter of
be necessary to prevent cracking of the metal. ,
the branch less the thickness of the metal of
the main tube. Then the cup or boss is raised
a Before the branch is connectedto the main
on the main tube. This is accomplished by ?rst 35 tube, ‘it is usually necessary to place the saddle.
drilling a relatively small hole at the center ‘mark
over they cup or boss to ?nally check the ?tbe
which is then ?led smooth to prevent cracking
tween the saddle and the boss. ,It is often neces-:
during the subsequent metal-working or ham
sary to further .work, the boss up into the saddle.
mering operation. The drilling operation hardens
The boss. must rise well into the saddle before;
the surrounding metal, especially if ‘it is copper‘ 40 finally smoothing the saddlewith a planishing?
or copper alloy, and consequently, it is necessary
hammer. The surfaces where the boss and saddle.
to anneal such metal to facilitate the subsequent
meetarethen cleaned and __?ux_ed and ?nally sol;
metal-Working operation. The end of a metal
dered to secure the boss to the, main tube;
working pin or bar is then inserted in the drilled
Obviously ,the hand method discussed above is.
opening and by hammering on the side of‘the 45.1 not readily. adaptable ,to' modern production,
pin, the metal is worked upwardly to form’ a
methods and, therefore, is costly. Extreme carei
?ange around. the hole. While hammering, the
mustqbe exercised and it is necessary that, the
pin is moved around the edge of the hole to‘
work- be performed by skilled labor. Even, with’v
attempt to raise the metal uniformly as the hole
such care by quali?ed labor, the resulting prod
is enlarged. This operation causes the raised 50 uot‘is .not always of the desired accuracy and;
metal and the adjacent metal of the tube to
harden, and it is necessary to anneal the tube
1, .Oneofthe objects of my invention is to pro,-;_
from time to time to prevent cracking of the
vide a methodfor forming. the desired compleg;
raised metal and distortion of the tube itself.
mental portions; on sections; of tubing to join.
Furthermore, it is necessary to ?le the edge of
them;in"zangular relationship,‘ the method being.
2,61 1,836
simple, emcient, economical, and readily adapta
ble to modern production methods.
Another object of my invention is to provide
a method and apparatus for forming the desired
complemental portions on sections of tubing to
join them in angular relationship of such a nature
member. This die member has ‘a cylindrical tube
receiving chamber and a semi-cylindrical channel
or chamber disposed at right angles thereto for
receiving a male die member. The tube is so dis
posed in the tube-receiving chamber that its
trimmed end extends a selected distance into the
that the forming operations ‘can be 1performed
with ease by unskilled labor.
semiec'ylindrical ‘channel. The ‘male die has a
cylindrical forming portion which is comple
Another object of my invention is to provide
mental to and is adapted to be inserted into the
apparatus for forming the desired complemental 310 tube-receiving chamber, and a semi-cylindrical
forming portion at right angles thereto which is
portions on sections of tubing to join them in,
angular relationship which is of such a nature
complemental to and is adapted to be forced into
that the complemental portions will be »~accu
the semi-‘cylindrical channel. When the male
rately formed to predetermined dimensions and _ die member is inserted into the female die mem
will be accurately located at predetermined posi
ber, the extending end of the tube is engaged by
the Ysemiwylindrical portion of the male die and
Still another object of my invention is to pro
is bent to the shape of the channel in the female
vide a method and apparatus b‘f the type indif
die member. This channel will be of the same
cated of such a nature that the complemental
shapeand ‘size as ‘the outside contour of the main
portions may be so formed that the sections of 20 tube to which the branch is to be joined. Thus,
tubing can be joined to each ‘other at. various
the desired s'a'ddle is formed on ‘the end of the
selected angles.
Various other objects will be apparent from the
After the boss v'or'i‘th‘e main ‘tube and the com
following description‘.
pleme'ntal saddle on the branch tube are formed
According to my invention, the branch-receiv 25 as'ind'i‘cated, the saddle is positioned over the boss
ing boss is formed on :the side of the main tube
and ‘the two sections are suitably joined together,
and the ‘complemental saddle is formed on ‘the
as "by soldering. It will be found that the‘two
end of the branch tube by a novel method and
portions accurately inter?t and will serve to con
apparatus. The ‘complemental portions on the
nect the “branch to the main tube at the desired
two tube ‘sections will be accurately formed and 30 angle.
lo'cated'so that‘the sections‘can then be connected
The preferred embodiment of my invention is
to ‘each other in the desired angular relationship.
iliustrated in ‘the accompanying drawings where
‘The branch-receiving boss is formed ‘on the side
in similar characters of reference designate cor
of the ‘main tube by ?rst punching an elongated
responding parts and ‘wherein:
opening in the form of an ellipse in one side of
Fig. 1 is a front elevational view, partly broken
the main tube. This tube is usually larger than
away, of a machine which I ‘preferably employ in
the branch tube although'both may be the same
forming the branch receiving boss on the main
size. The opening is disposed at ‘such apoint that
its center will be at the desired center of the
branch to be joined to the main tube. Also, the
opening is so disposed that its longer or ‘trans
verse axis extends longitu‘dinally'of the tube and
is in the same plane as ‘the ‘axis of the tube.
'Fig. 2 is an end elevational viewio'f the machine
shown in Fig. 1.
Fig. 3 is a transverse sectional view illustrating
the _main tube positioned between the cooperating
male and ‘female die members used on the ma
chine of Figures 1 and 2 in forming a boss adapted
of a ?ange of desired height around it to form a 45 to receive a branch at right angles to the main
boss having an external diameter cor-responding
tube, the male die member shown being the one
to the internal diameter of the branch which :it
used in the ?rst step of the forming operation.
is to receive. The ?ange ‘israis'ed by placing the
Fig. 4 is a similar view to Fig. 3, illustrating the
tube in a female ‘die which has afsemi-cylindrical
male member used in the second and ?nal step in
The ropening is of a proper size to permit raising
channel for receiving it. At right angles to the
the formation of the boss in position in the female
channelii’s a circular boss-forming chamber which
die member.
is adapted to receive a male ‘die ‘member. This
Fig. 5 is a perspective view of the bottom side
boss-‘forming chamber is disposed in surrounding
of the female die used in the 90° boss forming
relationship to the opening in the tube and has a
diameter greater than-the ‘transverse axis ‘of the 55 Fig. 6 is a plan view of a short length of a tube
opening in the tube, to ‘permit raising of the
having an opening of preselected size and shape
?ange of desired height around the'o'pening. The
to facilitate the formation of the 90° boss.
male die member is disposed initially within the
Fig. 7 is a side elevational view of the length of
tube and is then moved at right angles to the
tubing showing the boss formed thereon.
axis of the tube through such opening into the 60 Fig. 8 is a longitudinal sectional view illustrat-v
chamber of the female die member. The male
ing cooperating male and female die members for
die member is of such size that it will 1'raise the
forming a boss adapted to receive a branch at
metal around the opening until it"contacts ‘with
approximately 45° from the main tube, the male
the wall of the chamber, thereby forming the‘
upstanding flange. Thus, the desired boss is 65 die member shown being the one used in the ?rst
formed on the tube.
The saddle complemental to the boss is ~formed
step of the forming operation.
Fig. 9 is a view similar to Fig. 8 but taken at
on 5the end of the branch tube by first trimming
right angles thereto.
the main tube.
Fig. 11 is a perspective View of the male die
member of Fig. 8.
Fig. 10 is a longitudinal sectional view taken
the end 'to-a-suitable shape. This shape is such
that the -'end fits the contour of ‘the main tube 70 through the female die of Fig. 8 and illustrating
the male die member used in the second step of
when the branch is disposed on the main tube at
the forming operation in position in the female
the same angle at which it is to be connected "to
To form the desired flange on
the trimmed end of ‘the branch ‘and, thereby,
fdrm‘the saddle, the end is placed in a female die
‘to support the dies and the actuating means, for
Rig-.12‘ is a similar .view‘of the'malesliemember
40f Fig. 10. .
:the dies.
of. the ‘female die used. in the. formation of the
45° angle boss.
A; m,
The standard 2 consists of a. pair of vertically
disposed supporting Plates 3. These plates are
laterally spaced on the ‘table I and each of them
- ., Fig. 13 is a perspective view of the :buttom. side
Fig. 14 is a top plan yiew?of a. length._.<>,f.,tubing
. has a horizontal ?ange 4 which rests on the upper
showing an openingformed therein of preselected
.size and shape toyfacilitate forming the 45°. angle
surface of the table and. which is bolted thereto
by bolts 4a.
Each of the plates 3' has a lower
vertically disposed section 5, which carries ?ange
Fig. 15 is..J
a‘ side elevationalNi?W showing ,the. .10 4, an intermediate forwardly and upwardly curved
section 6, and an upper vertically disposed. sec
completed 45° angle boss formed-,onthe tube. _,
tion ‘I. The lower edge of the section 1, indicated
». Fig. 16 is a side elevationaleviewiofamachine
by the numeral ‘Ia, is horizontally disposed at a
.which I preferably employinzforming the. saddle
point spaced a, suitable distance above the upper
.on theuend of the branch tube. '
. Fig. ,17 is a longitudinal .sectionalwiew illus- ; v .15 surface of the table. It will be noted in Fig. 2
that the section ‘I of the plate and, consequently,
.trating the . cooperating. male. and female, die
the edge ‘Ia is disposed forwardly beyond the
members used on the machine .of Fig.;{.16 in. form
front edge of the table. The plates 3 are rigidly
ing the 90° saddle, ‘the end of. the,;branch being
joined together by a vertically disposed rear plate
~in.position therebetween.
1.‘ .v
1 -.
Fig. 18 isaview. similar to Fig. 17. but'taken at - 20' 8, which has its ends bolted thereto by the bolts
9 adjacent the upper ends of plates 3, and by a
.right angles thereto...
I "
horizontally disposed plate ID which‘ is bolted by
Fig. 19 is an enlarged perspective view of, the
bolts I I to the extreme upper ends of the plates 3.
male die member used for forming the 90°. saddle.
Mounted for vertical movement between the
Fig. 20 is an enlarged perspectiveviewillus
trating the female die member usedforforming' 25 plates 3 is a slide I2. This slide ‘has the lower
end of a piston. rod l3 threaded thereinto, as at
the 90° saddle.
. .
I4. The rod I3 extends upwardly through a
Fig.‘ 21 is a side elevational view illustrating
packing glandwl? into a vertically disposed hy
'the manner in which the end .of theibranch is
draulic cylinder IS. The cylinder I6 is carried by
trimmed to facilitate formation of the 90°..saddle.
Fig. 22. is a view similar to. Fig. 21 but taken at . 30 the horizontal plate ID. The cylinder l6 has a
piston I'I disposed therein which is connected to
right. angles thereto.I
. '
. Fig. .23 is aview similar to Fig. 21 butshowing
the upper end of the rod I3.‘ Mounted above
the hydraulic cylinder I6 is an air cylinder I8.
the 90° saddle formed on the .end of. the branch.
The cylinder I8 has a piston I9 therein which is
Fig. 2iv is a view. similar .to Fig. .23..but.taken
at right angles thereto. .. .
.Y 1 ,,
.35 connected to the piston IT by a vertical rod 20.
A. hydraulic pump___2l is secured to the upper
Fig. 25 is a detailed‘ viewymainly in. section,
surface of table I and may be of any suitable
illustrating the female dieimember used inform
type. The pump is connected by a line 22 to
ingthe 45° angle saddle, the male __die.member
the lower end of the cylinder IS. The ?ow of
which isused in the ?rst forming. operation being
shown in position therein with the: end of. the 40 ?uid to and from the cylinder I6 is controlled
by a valve 23 of a suitable type. The valve 23
branch being positioned between the; two die
may be opened to connect the pump 2| to the
., i;~‘lower end of cylinder I6 and by actuating the
Fig. 26 is a similar view. illustratingthemale
handle 24 of the pump, fluid will be forced into
die member used in the ?nal. 45? saddle forming
operation positioned in the female die member.‘ 45 thelower end of cylinder I6 and will force the
piston I‘I upwardly. This will also force the
,Fig. 27 is a perspective view; of the male die
piston I9 of the air cylinder I8 upwardly. The
member of Fig. 25.
upper end of cylinder I8 is connected by a line
> . Fig. 28 is a perspective view 1dr the mat‘ die
25 to a valve 26 of a suitable type. The valve 26
Fig. 29ofis Fig.
a perspective-viewer
member shown in Figs. 25,and 26..v
' _' .
.50 will serve to connect the line 25 either to an air
pressure line 21 orv to a vent 28.
At the time
the hydraulic piston I1 is moved upward, the
Fig. .30 is a side elevationalv view.,;_illustrating
valve 28 will be in such a position as to vent the
line 25. To move the slide I2 downwardly,‘ the
Fig. 31 is a view. similar to Fig. 30 but taken, 55 valve 23 is actuated to permit hydraulic ?uid to
howthe end of the branchis trimmed tofacilitate
formation of the 45‘? ‘saddle.
at right angles thereto.
.' _, i‘). 1.;
?ow from cylinder IS, through line 22, back into
Fig. 32 is a similar view ‘to, Fig.- 3Q illustrating
the pump 2! . At the same time, the valve 26 will
the-45° saddle formed on the end of the branch.
,Fig. 33 vis a view similar totFig. 3,2.but taken
‘begin such position as‘ to connect the pressure
at right angles thereto.
line 21 to the line 25. This will cause air to be
so supplied to the upper end of cylinder I8 and
4 b Fig. 34 is a transverseusectioinaliview throughw
force the piston I9 downwardly.
the main tube and-associated 905. branch illus
_ Hydraulic pressure will move the slide I2 up
wardly, which operation will require the greater
secured together.
.force, while air pressure will move the slide I 2
Fig. 35 is a side elevational view, partly broken .365 downwardly and more quickly than the upward
movement. Thus, means is ‘provided for moving
away, of the structure illustrated in Fig. 34.
the’ sliderl2 vertically relative tov plates 3. 'An
j_ Fig. 36 is a view, partly inside elevation and
indicating‘ pointer I2a may be attached to the
partly in section, illustrating the 45° angle branch
trating how the two members interiit and are
b ,
front side of the slide I2 for cooperation with
on the
1, and
a tube.
upon- which
the .70_ suitable calibrations on the forward edge of one
of the plates 3 to indicate the vertical position
boss forming dies are adapted to be mountedfor
actuation. This machine comprises a table I
vupon the. upper surface ,of . which-risrsupported
of The
the male
I2 member,
‘is in. theas form
will appear
of an.later.
box ‘and a link 29_,extends upwardlydnto‘the
ayertical standards-aimsstandard zris~.adapted.;-,75-hqllow pprtiqn thei'sqt. .The. 'uppert?ud?fsthe
iiliiiléi‘ipivoted-lat ‘ a " point in‘n'dwayi 'be'tweeni the
sides of slide l2 by means of a pin 30. The link
Ianiiifmldwayibétweerilltsi'efids?there chromed. an
opening extending through the top of the die
‘inf-is ‘provide‘d‘with'albifurcated lowerien'd‘3l,
w‘vhich-v'producesia vsiibstan-tially‘cylindricalfform
eas indicated in'Figs. 3-‘an'd4. :AsWill later appear,
fting Echamber?‘5Ell disposedl'atf rightangles to the
i-this‘ bifurcated’ lower end 13 |~ is adapted to‘ receive
channel 49.
eat-cooperating lug" formed on‘ a male ‘die member.
'iEachi-ofithe-malei‘die members is provided'with
'7I‘he‘end3 I-' carries-a'pin-‘32 which-extends through
aaneupwardly éxteridingilugfiilfadapted'to'bei'djg_
‘aligned transverse openings 33‘ formed therein.
~'"p0se“d"'-in 'theibifurcated. lower-end 3i1oftther1i?k
":ATIMBQQ, which is " designed v1J0 Carry ‘the
2B. The lug 5| is Provided with a transverse
*‘Tfemale' die, is adapted toi'be mounted: in horizon-i110 topepingifor receiving the pin 32, The lug 5|"wi11
*tal position ‘on the‘ lower e‘dges‘la of‘the vertical
?bi'tig-htly-iwithjn-the.end:3|‘I0f'lthe 11111;,
*sections' 1 ofthelplates-‘t. I’I‘heplate 34 carries
.i'Asliillustrated‘fbest‘in>FigS.~31and"4,’the.t0p 0f
mmea'chend-an-angle membeft‘tfsuitably secured
T-‘thereto. Each angle member cooperates‘withlthe
‘the 1'female if‘die "member ‘1148 ‘.is "provided "with
threaded sockets ¢5z:fortreeeiving;thexscrew-rbolts
\‘top surface of‘ the plateisli to form a channel’for 115 '39-‘carrie'd byi'itheif'plateiiu. 1-‘ It‘ will'be apparent
ireceivinga tongue 36'fastened to the ‘outer‘surithatvwithfvthef‘female die'i'member 48rzsecure'd'to
ffaceofi'eachplate 3 in alignment with the edge
'the'lplateii iwithithef plate “positioned ontth'e
'i’lai thereof. iThus, the die-carrying plate 34 may
sstan‘dailid'fl'iian‘d‘ withv'one bf them-ale die'mem
i‘bei‘qui'cltly mounted on the‘ stan‘dard'lz by slipping
bers suspended by the link‘: 29;?themale'die'mem
{the angle: members 35 over'the' tonguesitt. The iizoiberlqnaylbe m‘ove'd upwardly-through the cham
lupperlsurface of plate‘dd will abutedges‘ia while
ber 50 of the female die member-‘by raising’ the
"the inner-edges "of ‘angle members '35 "willie-but
'theiouterl surfaces of the plates'tfOne of the plates
‘ll‘nlfo'rming ‘a : 90° angle Lboss :iaccording to' my
'-"'3*carries'a sleeve‘3'l on its outer surface at a point
~methodiand'iwithitheapparatus described, Il'?rst
"slightly above the edge ‘la. This sleeve 3'! carries i325 l-talkeia' length offmain tubing 53'i(Fig. 6)'and'form
“a pin‘ 38 which maybe moved vertically therein
an elliptical opening 54 therein. This opening- 54
*and relative to aligning openings formed in the
fmayibeifpunched 'or'iotherwisefformed inlthe'side
‘adjacent angle member'35 and tongue 36. When
?;0f"the"t1'1be." Thdcenter of'i‘this openingilViH-be
*Ithe' plate 34 is positioned on the standard 2, the
vlocated‘iat the centertofthébranch to extend from
*pin? 38 ‘will extend into the aligned openings in 930 iltheltl'l'be-llil *The‘openmgI‘YM' willxexten'dilength
‘mem’bers‘35 and‘tt and will serve to lock the
*plate 34 in position. Thus, horizontal and vertical
wise of the tube with its transverse axisiin’the
rsamei'rlane as the axisefithe‘ tube- ‘The “Open
"movement of the plate 34 relative to thestandar'd
ing'??srdf a’predetermined'size‘vtoz-permit raising
"*2 will be precluded.
io?iai?an’gei 6f desired heightraround it to form the
i The plate'13ii, as previously indicated,’ is-iadapte‘d i355 cylindrical boss 55 (Fig. l7) ihavlngean ‘external
*to ‘carry the female die member of the boss forminiameterlcorrespondirrg toithezinternalidiameter
‘Inge die. ‘The die member will be bolted‘ thereto
“ofithe'rbranchiwhichf it is to‘. receive. The trans
"by-means of screwbolts 39,-as indicated in Figs.
'=versef‘axisr‘rof Ithe opening?“ will‘be of alength
Z1, 3, and'ili. The plate‘??- is provided with a‘large,
:e'qualrto" the‘fdeslrédi'internal diameteriof the‘ boss
'centrally disposed opening 46 extending com- '40 555‘ less the total ‘height'irof the two portions‘of' the
:pletely' therethrough. This openingilll- will receive
t“?ange raise‘d atithe' ends of the'lopen'ing and which
‘*the'lower‘end of1‘1ink‘29 and is adapted to‘ permit
will extend upwardly from the highestpoint‘on
“thermale die member to pass upwardly through
'itheitube. ‘fThe'f conjugate axist'o'f the .opening 54
‘the plate, as Will later appear. The die carried
:W'ill‘be ofla' ilen'gthtequal'tmthe 'diameterof the
"by plate 34 may be easily removed, by removing 45 vboss? 55‘les's1 the-‘height of 'the" two portions of the
"bolts ‘SS, and be‘replaced with a die of di'?erent
T‘flange'raise'd at the-sides of the'opening. :Thus, a
“size. On‘ the other hand, 'if preferred, several
?ange can be raised around theopenin'g'andithls
"of-the plates fit may be‘provided for carrying
iflangeiwill'fhave ia‘leveliupperiedge, as shown in
“diil‘erent size dies and maybe quickly'm'ounted
'on ‘thesta-ndard Z2 orbe removed therefrom.
'Attached to the table l, ubstantially midway
"betweenthe plates 3, and extending outwardly
‘from the table‘is-a horizontal Supporting arm-‘4|.
Fig. 7.
"‘Toraise'the ?ange‘ in'theman'ner indicated to
produce the boss 55,'fthe't1’1be53’withftheopen
lingi54"formedithereiniis placed upwardly within
‘the- channelllll'o'f‘theifemale die '48,‘ the'die being
This arm carries a Tsplitsleeve or vcollar 42 on
carried by the plate4'34jwhich5is‘mounted'on’the
rits‘outer end'w-hich is in axial alignment with a 55=gtandeird 2'. The channel <49‘ has the same Poon
ithe Opening 49 in the plate 3.4- 'The Sleeve M
tour as the outer surface of‘theltube 53. 'The’tube
receives a post 43 which may be adjusted veriis=suppoi~bediby the disk.“ which is'adjuste'd to
‘tically therein. The post "43 may be held in any
the ‘proper vertical position. ‘The tube 53 'is ‘so
.desired“ position by means of an eccentric locking
'posltioned-‘that'th'e‘ opening "54 is centeredrela
'device 44 which will actuate the split sleeve'it2 to ‘60 tive to the forming chamb'er’50 in the die '48,‘?it
The upper end of the post ~43
‘being understoo‘dlthat‘a selected area'o'f the metal
carries a horizontally‘ disposed tube supporting
grip the post.
"surromidigg'the opening’ill will'extend’inwar‘dly
ithedlsk t5.
‘from'all?ire'ctions towards ‘the center of the
In Figs. v3 to'-5,1I have illustrated'the die memchamber 50 beyond the wall thereof. Since'the
“bers which are used in forming the 90° angle'boss ~65 "diameter; or ‘the-‘chamber ‘50 ‘ corresponds to vthe
on the tube. In this operation I preferably emexternal diameter‘o’ffthe‘bossi55‘to be formed,an'd
'ploy‘the two male die members 46 and 41 and a
‘since-‘the‘sizeidf‘and ‘shape of the'opening'5'4 is
single female die member '48. The die members
ipreselectedi'asi indicated above, the area of‘lth'e
46 and 41 are substantially bell shape.‘ The memmetal extending inwardlylbeyond'the wall ofi-the
1"ber 41 is of somewhatgreater diameter than the‘i'm "chamber‘50'I-wi1libe’just sufficient‘ to form the up
'member 48. The female die member is shown'in
*s'tan‘din‘g’?ange‘;which'iwil1 produce'fthe'cylindri
.inverted position in Fig. 5.
It comprises a tube-
‘receiving channel 49 which is formed on the lower
side of the die'and extends lengthwise thereof.
"cal bos's"55.‘ ‘
The’ flange is preferably‘ raised ‘in two succes
isivefoperation's'iby employing"?rst"the male-‘die
iThe-"channel‘w-is substantially semi-‘cylindrical ‘+75 S‘menilzier348v i-Eig.‘i3')~=fantlIthen‘the'imale rliein'eme
x‘ The male die member 62 is ‘considerably longer
ber \41‘ (Fig. 4-) .: vTo accomplish this, the die mem
than the die member Bl although it has a mid
ber 45 is first positioned in the tube with the lug
portion of the same width as the mid-portion of
5i extending upwardly through the opening 54, as
die 6|. It is of elliptical cross-section and has
indicated‘ in Fig. 1. The pin 32 is used to attach
an inwardly tapering forming surface 66 which
lug "5| to the link 29. The slide I2 is then raised.
extends completely ‘therearound with the excep-é
This pulls die member 46 upwardly through the
tion of one ‘end thereof.‘ At'this'end there is
opening 54. The tapering side of member 46 en
gages the edge of opening 54 and gradually raises
formed a blunt vertical lower ‘end- portion 61 and
the surrounding metal and presses it outwardly,
an upper concave forming surface 68. ‘Attached
in the manner indicated in-Fig. 3. The metal is 10 to‘ the upper top surface‘ of the die 62 is a lug
bent without contacting the wall of the forming
69fwhich is used for connecting'the die to the
chamber 50 even as the die is pulled completely
through the opening 54 and out of the tube, due
The female die member 63 ‘is-shown‘in inverted
position in Fig. 13. It comprises a tube-receiving
to the fact that the largest diameter. of die. 45
isconsiderably less than the diameter of chamber 15 channel 10 which is- formed'on‘the lower side of
the ‘die and extends‘ lengthwise thereof. "The
The next operation employs the male die mem
channel 10 is substantially semi-cylindrical‘ and
her 4'! (Fig. 4) which is of larger diameter, and
is of the same contour as the outer surface of the
which is positioned in the tube 53 with its upper
tube 56. Midway between-the ends of channel
end extending through the partly formed boss.
‘Ill, there is formed an‘opening extending through
the‘ t0p~0f the die ‘which’ produces a ‘forming
The male die member 4'! is attached, as before,
to the slide I2. which is raised to pull the die up
- chamber-1|. The forming chamber ‘II is mainly
wardly. As the member 41 is pulled upwardly
of elliptical form with itsv transverse axis in the
through the partly formed boss, it completes the
same plane'as the axis of ‘channel ‘HI. As best
formation of the boss. The greatest diameter of
shown in Figs.‘ 10 and 13 at one end of the chami
member 41 is equal to the internal diameter of
ber '11 there is aconvex‘surfa‘ce ‘I2 complemental
chamber 50 less twicethe thickness of the metal
of the tube 53. Consequently, as the member
to the surface 68 formed'onfthe end of the male
die member 62. The remaining surface of the
chamber ‘II is complemental to the surface 65 of
41 is raised, it willpress the metal of the partly
formed boss intocontact with the wall of cham-. 30
' To raise the ?ange in‘th‘e- manner indicated to
ber 50, as indicated in Fig. 4, and will form cy
lindrical boss 55, illustrated in Fig. 7. It is PI‘B-r
produce/the boss‘ 58,.thetube-5G with the open
ing 51' formed therein. is placedupwardly within
ferred to draw the metal, surrounding opening 54
to form the boss in twogsuccessive operations
the channel“). of thefemale die 63, the die be
rather than in a single operation to prevent 35 ing carried-‘by the plate-34 on the standard 2. The
the-male die
tube is supported by'the disk-'45. The tube 56
cracking of the metal. However, it will be noted
that metal extending completely around the
opening is raised simultaneously, as distinguished
is so. positioned-that the opening 51 is centered
relative to theforming chamber ‘It in the die 63.
A: selected .area of the‘ metal surrounding the
from the hand method where only small sections
are raised by successive contact of the pin with
the edge of the opening. Better and more uni
form results will be obtained with my method.
The boss 55 will serve to connect the branch
at right angles to the tube 53. However, ‘it is
often desirable to connect branches at other an 45
gles. In Figs. 8 to 15, I have illustrated die mem
openingET-will ‘extendiinwardly from all direc
tions towards-the center of the chamber ‘H be-.
yondthe wall thereof, Since the size and-shape
of ‘the chamber ‘H correspond to that of the boss
58 to be-formed, and-since the size and shape of
the opening‘51 is preselected as indicated above,
the area of the’metal extending inwardly beyond
the -,wall of the chamber 1 twill-bejust su?icient
to form the upstanding ?ange and will produce
bers for producing a boss for connecting a branch
to the main tube at an angle of approximately 45°.
the ellipticalboss 58.
In forming a 45° angle boss, I ?rst take a. length
of main tubing 56 (Fig. 14) and form an opening 50
The ?ange is preferably raised in two succes
sive operations by employing ?rst the male die
51 ‘therein. The‘opening 51 will be similar to
opening 54 (Fig. 6) except that it will be more
member 6| (Fig. 11') and then the male die member '62 (Fig.~12). To accomplishthis, the‘ die
elongated since the boss 58 (Fig. 15) to be pro
member 6! is ?rst positioned in the tube “with
duced in this instance must be of elliptical form.
The boss 58 will have a beveled shoulder 59 at one 55 the lug 65 extending upwardlythrough the open
ing 51. The lug 65 is attached to link-29 and
end and a curved shoulder 6|] at the other end
formed on the upstanding ?ange. The elliptical
the slide "is then raised. This vpulls die;mem
ber 6| “upwardlyithrough the opening 51. The
boss 58 will have transverse and conjugate axes
corresponding in lengths to those of the elliptical
tapering forming surface 64 of'the' die engages
end of the branch which the boss is to. receive. 60 the ‘edge "of opening 59. and‘ gradually raises the
surrounding metal and presses‘ it outwardly, in
Therefore, the corresponding axes of the opening
51 will be the same lengths, less the height of the
the‘manner indicated‘ in Figs. Band/9.- As shown
in Fig. 8, the‘width of themid-portion of the die
portion of the ?ange raised at the ends thereof,
as those of the boss. The die members which ‘I
is the same as that of‘chamber 1| less the thicke
employ in forming to the 45° boss include the two 65 ness of the metal of the tube at each side thereof.
Consequently, themetalwill be-pressed against
male die members BI and 62, illustrated in Figs.
8 to 12, and a single female die member 63, illus
the sides- oft-the chamber 1|." However, the metal
trated in Figs. 8, 9, 10 and 13.
at the‘ end of the opening 51 will not be'pressed
The male die member 6| has the shape illus
against the ends of- the chamber ‘H, as shown in
trated best in Fig. 11. It is of elliptical cross-sec 70 Fig. 9, due to the fact that the'die member lit-is
tion and has a vertical lower surface Bio and an
shorter than the chamber-H.411 order» to permit
inwardly tapering upper forming surface 64. It
upward passage of the, male‘die 6| through the
is provided with an upstanding lug‘ 65 for con
female die 63.
9 1
The next operation employs the male die mem
necting it to the link 29 depending from the slide
-7-5 ber 62(Fig. 12)‘. This die memberis alsoposl
tioned in thet'ube 56 and has its upper end ‘ex
tending through the partlyformed boss. The
mounted therein.
This piston is "secured to a.
piston rod 9| ‘which projects from the cylinder‘
through ‘a packing ‘gland 92. As ‘shown best in
Figs. 17 and 183 the end of piston i‘od'9'l is pre
vided With an enlarged disk-like portion 93 which
has a reduced 'c'ylihdrical shank 94 extending
male die member 62 is ‘attached to link 29. As
the die member 62 is pulled upwardly into the
partly formed boss and the complemental form
ing chamber "II, the formation of the boss is
completed. However, it will be noted that the
therefrom. ‘This shank 94 is adapted to extend
in‘ale die member 62 merely moves completely into
into a vv‘cylil'rdi‘ical secket termed 'in'the l’male' ‘die
the female die member 63 ‘and not through it.
member; indicated generally by numeral 96. l
The tapering ‘surface 66 ‘will further bend the
A hydraulic pump 91 is provided for‘ mating the
metal with which ‘it ‘contacts into forming rela
‘piston ‘90 invt'he cylinder 86.‘ Thispump maybe
tionship with the complemental surface ‘of the
01’ any suitable type and is operated by aha'ndle
chamber ‘II. Also, the ‘concave forming ‘surface
98. A line 99 leads from one ‘end of the cylinder
68 ‘will bend the adj'a'c'entmetal "into contact with
to the 'puhip'while a second line 160 leads ‘from
the complemental ‘convex surface ‘I2. Thus. the 115 the ‘other "end of the cylinder to the pump. Fey
elliptical boss 58 will be formed with the inclined
actuating a suitable valve IDI, thelines 99 and
portion '59 of the ?ange ‘formed by cooperating
'I 99 maybe selectively connected to the high pres
stiff‘aee‘s 66 and TI ‘and'with the 'c'onvexly curved
sure or low pressure side of the ‘pump. Thus by
portion 60 of the ?angeformed by the cooper
actuating valve I01 and handle ‘98, the ‘piston 90
ating ‘complemental surfaces 68 and 12.
and,>ccnsequent1y, the rod 9| may be moved in
It is to be understbod that bosses of other
the desired axial direction.
shapes and sizes may be formed by varying the
The female die unit "BI includes a tube-holding
shapes of the 'die members.
I92 and a forming section I93, which
In Fig. 16, I have illustrated a machine upon
to be disposed side by side in the
which the saddle-forming *die's are adapted to be 25 manner illustrated in Figs. ldan‘cl 17. The sec
inounted ‘for actuation.‘ This ‘machine comprises
tion 102 is composed of an upper block 104 (Fig;
a supporting table ‘I3. 011 the ‘top surface of this
16) and a lower block I05‘ which have semi=
table ‘I3 ‘at one 'e'iid thereof ‘is a die-supporting
cylindrical channels of proper contour and size to
receive and clamp the tube upon which the ‘sad
‘dle is to be formed. The cooperating blocks
I04 vand I05’which embrace the tube are secured
in clamping relationship to the ‘tube by bars I96
which have their lower ends pivoted to blocks
5'95 and which swing into and out of vertical
bed ‘plate ‘M which may be 'wel'de‘dv ‘to ‘the table.
Also at this end is a U-shaped standard ‘I5 ‘which
has its open end ‘directed ‘toward the front of the
table. At the opposite end of the table is ever
ti'c'al standard ‘I6. The standards 75 and 16 are
connected ‘together by a top ‘plate ‘I1’ ‘which has
it's-‘one ehd bolted to member 76 by bolts ‘I8. The
opposite end of plate I‘! carries an "abutment ‘I9,
aligning channels formed on the outer surfaces
of the blocks. (Each bar has threaded on its up
per end a nut I91. By tightening nuts IIl'I after
the bars are swung into operative positions, the
which may be welded thereto, and which abuts
the outer surface ‘or standard 15 adjacent its
upper "end. A similar abutment 80 is welded to
the top surface of the ‘table ‘I3 and abuts the
outer surface of standard‘ ‘I5 'at‘its lower 'end.
The'meihbers 19 "and 8t serve as thrust members
to ‘prevent ‘outward ‘movement of the ‘standard 15.
curing the metal-arming‘ ‘farming ' operatioii,
as‘ will 1at‘er wheat. The lower portion of stand
ai‘d ‘I6 has its inner surface abutihg theend of
151' e "M ‘whicnwin serve topr'event inward ‘move
neat cf standard T5.
The female die unit, illustrated generally bythe
atheism, merely'rest‘s-"oh th‘e't‘op surface of'the
plate 14. Its outer‘e’ffdTw'iIl 'ep‘g'agejthe standard
‘I5. Adjacent the ‘inner end o'f'the die unit 81 , an
upstairs ‘bin '82 ‘is ‘provided on the bed plate 14
for ‘preventing ‘inward movement of ‘the unit =8I.
two blocks I94 and I95 will 'beclamped together.
The forming section I03 of the female die unit
is adapted to be used in forming the ‘90° saddle.
It is similarly formed of two blocks I98 and I09,
as shown ‘best in Fig. 20. These blocks have semi
cylindrical channels therein adapted to cooperate
to form -'a cylindrical chamber _I I9 in which ‘the
tube will be ‘clamped. These blocks are secured
together by pivoted barsv ‘I II similar to the bars
I06 of the unit I02.
The ‘faces of the blocks
V50 I08 and I99 are provided with aligning semi
cylindrical channels which cooperate to produce ‘a
forming channel 1I-2 having its axis disposed‘at
right angles to the axis ‘of the forming‘chazn
ber III]. Securedto the outer side of the block
199 Iand projecting ‘into the channel II-Z is'a
tongue ‘I I3.
The male die member 96 for cooperating with
the section 163 of the female die member to form
the 96° saddle is illustrated in Fig. 9. It com
plate ‘88 "is secured "in a suitable ‘manner
prises a l‘semi-cyiindrica-l ‘forming portion ‘H4
welding. This ~plate 83 has a guid'ew'ay ‘84 ‘formed
which is complemental to thechannel 'II-2 of
therein and extending longitudinally thereof.
the “female die ~section I63. ‘0n the vcurved side
This guidew'a‘y receives suitable rguide members
of the portion ‘H4 midway between the ‘ends
85 that'iare ‘attached to the lower 'side of a hh‘ori
thereof and at right angles thereto ‘is a cylin
zoht'ally disposed hydraulic cylinder ‘86. Thus,
the cylinder "86 is vmerited "'for ‘axial movement. I drical shaped forming ‘portion 115 which is com
ple'rhen'tal to the ‘chamber III] of ‘the female die
it’ is ‘adjusted many is’ means "of a ‘screw 81.
section ‘I03; ‘One end of the portion H4 is pro
This screw is"!
its inner end frc'tatably con
vided with a channel I I6 for receiving the tongue
netted at as t'o-‘the outer ‘end of ‘cylinder 96'and
I=I3Tas the male and fem-ale dies are moved ‘into
is threaded through an ‘opening in the standard
it. The outer
or ‘the screw 81 ‘has a hand 70 cooperative relationship as will vlater appear.
When the male die member 96 is disposed on
wheel :89 keyed thereto by means of which it may
the piston rod 9I, the cylindrical shank 94 ex;
oelrdtateu. Thus, ‘byfrota‘ting' handwheel as the
tends into "a cylindrical socket I-I‘I (Figs. 17 and
cylinder 86 may be moved longitudinally en the
18) which is formed at a {central position in
table 13.
- ‘The ‘cylinder ‘at has ‘a bist’on 90 =slidably 7' $5 the ?at surface II 8 of the forming portion I'll
'Oh't‘h‘e upper "siii‘face of 'the “table 13 at the end
opposite to ‘where the plate PM is disposed, a bed
of the die. To fasten the die to the’ piston rod,
a screw bolt H9 is provided which is inserted
through a chamber I20, formed in the portion H5
of the die, and which is threaded into the shank
In forming the 90° saddle, the end of the
branch tube I2! is trimmed in the manner illus
trated in Figs. 21 and 22. The edge I22 will have
the 45°5‘boss'58 of Fig. 15, I employ the die mem~'
bers illustrated in Figs. ‘25 to‘ 29 inclusive.
The forming section of the female die unit is
illustrated in Figs. 25, ‘26 and 29. This section
I25» is made from two parts‘ I26 and I21. These
parts are secured together by pivoted rods I28,
which cooperate with aligning channels in the
two parts in the manner described with reference
to the die unit BI. The parts I26 and I21 have
such a curvature that it will straddle the main
tube‘ 56, to which it is to be joined, when it is’ 10' semi-cylindrical channels formed therein which
cooperate to produce ‘a tube receiving chamber
disposed at right angles thereto. To form the
I29 of cylindrical form. One face I30 of the
desired ?ange on the trimmed end of thebranch,
section I25 is ?at and vertically disposed. The
and thereby, form the saddle I23 (Figs. 23 and
other face includes an inclined surface I3I and a
24), the‘end of the tube I2I is disposed in the
female die unit 8|. It is so disposed in the form 15 vertical surface I32 at the lower end thereof.
The surface I3l is disposed at an angle of 45°.
ing portion I03 of the die unit that its trimmed
Joining the surface of the chamber I29 to the
end I23 extends a selected distance into the semi
surface I3I and the vertical surface I32 is a'
cylindrical channel H2, as illustrated in Fig. 16.
saddle forming seat I33. This seat I33 inclines
To properly position the end of tube I2I in the
die I03 it is merely necessary to align the outer 20 inwardly from the surface I32 to its junction
most extremity I22a of edge I22 with the ?at
with the wall of chamber I29. The seat I33 also
inclines inwardly from the surface I3I to its
face H8 of the die. The portion of the metal
junction with the wall of chamber I29 with the
extending into the channel H2 will be su?icient
exception of a convex portion I34 at its upper
The die unit 8|, in which the tube I2I is 25 end.
clamped, will be positioned on the bed plate 14
The male die members for forming the 45° sad
in the manner illustrated in Fig. 16, the outer
dle are illustrated best in Figs. 25 to 28. I pref
end of the tube extending through the member
erably employ a male die member I35 and a male
15. The male die member 96 is mounted on the
die member I36 which are used successively with
piston rod M. The cylinder 86 is adjusted by 30 the female die member I25. The member I35‘
operating the handwheel 89 until the forming
is adapted to be attached to the piston rod 9I in
portion H5 of the male die extends into the end
the same manner as described with reference to
of the tube I2I in the female die section I03.
the die member 96 (Fig. 17). This die member
The unit 8I is shifted laterally to the necessary
I35 comprises a forwardly projecting portion I31,
extent to permit this. It maybe necessaryalso
which is of smaller cross-section than that, of the
to initially adjust the die 96 about the axis of
tube to be formed, and an upstanding forming
rod 9| until the tongue H3 is guided into slot
portion I36. The top surface I39 of portion I31
to form the ?ange or saddle I23.
This properly aligns the forming portion
is curved to the same contour as the inner sur
H4 of the male die with the channel H2 of the
face of the tube to be formed. A forming surface
female die. To complete the metal drawing or 40 I40 is formed on the forward edge of the portionv
forming operation, it is' merely necessary to prop
I38and merges with the surface I39. The sur
face I40 curves concavely in a vertical plane and
erly actuate pump 91 to move piston rod 9| in
convexly in a horizontal-plane. Also, it is angu
the proper direction. This will force the male
die member completely into the‘ female die
larly disposed relative to the horizontal so that’
it will be complemental to the convex surface I34
As the male die member is forced into the fe
of the female die I25, as shown in Fig. 25.
The male die member I36 is similar to the die
member I35 but is of larger cross-section. It is
within chamber I I0 and will maintain the tubu
provided with a forming surface I4I which is of
lar shape of the end of the tube. The semi 50 the same outline as the surface I40 of die I35 and
male die member, the cylindrical portion H5
will extend into the end of the tube disposed
cylindrical forming portion H4 will engage the
which, consequently, will be complementary to
projecting trinnned edge, I22 of the tube and will
the convex surface I34 of the female die I25, as
bend it into contact with the surface of the
shown in Fig. 26. However, the forwardly ex
channel H2 around the end of chamber H0.
tending portion I42 is of larger cross-section
Thus, all of the material of the projecting edge 55 than the similar portion I39 of. the die I35. This
I22 is simultaneously bent to form the saddle
extension I42 is mainly of cylindrical form and
I23 which will be at right angles to the axis of
will fit into the tube to be formed, corresponding
the tube. Consequently, the saddle will be more
in contour to the inner surface thereof. The rear
accurately and uniformly formed than with the
endof the die I36 at its lower edge is provided
prior art‘ method wherein small sections of the
further with an inclined forming surface I43,
metal are bent successively with a hammer.
which merges with the lower curved surface of
‘ As shown in Figs. 34 and 35, the end of the
extension I42. This surface I43 will be comple
branch tube I2I which has the saddle I23 formed
mental to the inclined surface I33 of the female
thereon, is placed over the boss 55 of the main 65 die I25, as illustrated best‘ in Fig. 26.
tube 53. The external diameter of the boss 55
In forming the 45° saddle, the branch tube I44
will be the same as the internal diameter of the
is trimmed in the manner illustrated in Figs. 30
tube I2I. The saddle I23 will exactly ?t the con
and 31. The trimmed edge will ?t the contour
tour of the tube 53 around the boss. The branch
of the main tube 56, when the branch is posi
tube I2I may be secured to the main tube by 70 tioned at the angle it is to extend therefrom,
soldering, as indicated at I24. The saddle and
which in this instance will be at an angle of 45°.
the boss will accurately inter?t and will serve to
Thus the trimmed edge will have the concave
join the tube sections at right angles to each
curve I46, as shown in Fig. 31, and the convex
' ‘In forming the 45° saddle for cooperation'with
curve I41, ‘as shown in- Fig. 30, at right angles
thereto, the curve I41 extending at an angle of
substantially 45°. The open end of the tube will,
formity. ‘Consequently, it is notfnecessary-lto
consequently, be of elliptical outline.
?t each saddle to a boss with which it is, to cos
operate. Any saddle will ?t any boss for which: it
.Theend of the tube I44 is clamped in the fe
male die I25 so that its trimmed end will extend
from the forming chamber I29 of the die a
su?icient amount to produce the saddle I48 illus
trated'in Figs. 32 and 33. To properly locate the
tube in the female die, it is merely necessary to
position the outermost extremity I49 thereof in
substantially the same vertical plane as the sur
face I32 of the die, asshown in Fig. 25.,
As shown in Figs. 32 and 33, the ?nal saddle
to‘be produced will be of elliptical form and will
is designed to cooperate. The saddles and bosses
will not only be accurately formed so that they
properly inter?t but also will be accurately lo
cated so that the branch will extend from. the
main tube at the proper position. They will
also be so formed that the branch and main
10 tube will be disposed in the proper angular re
The invention described herein may be manu?
factured and used by or for the Government of.
the United States of America for government‘
be disposed at a 45° angle relative to the axis of
the branch. Its ?ange will include an inclined is purposes without the payment of any royalty
forward section I50 and, a concave rear section
thereon orytherefo’r.
I5I. It is preferred that this saddle be formed by
two successive metal forming or drawing opera
tions to prevent cracking of the metal.
_ In the ?rst forming operation, the male
I35» is employed. This die is forced into
trimmed end of the tube I 44 disposed in
female die I25. The only surfaces of the die
Having thus described my invention, I claim;
1. The. method of‘ joining a branch tube and
a main tube in angular relationship, which com
die 20 prises forming in the main tube an opening of
elliptical ‘outline, the opening being so disposed
that its transverse axis extends longitudinally
of the tube and is in the same plane as the axis
which will. contact with the trimmed end of the
tube will be the surfaces I39 and I40. The sur
face I39 cooperates with the top of chamber
I29 in the female die I25 to maintain the con
tour of the tube. The surface I40 engages the
of the tube, the transverse axis of said opening
being of a length substantially equal to thatof
the corresponding axis of the branch less the
height of the ?ange portions to be raised at the
ends of said opening, the conjugate axis of the
opening being. of a length substantially equal
metal adjacent the end of the tube and bends
is-upwardly and rearwardly into contact with 30 to that of the corresponding axis of the branch
the complemental forming surface I34 of the
less the height of the ?ange portions to be raised
at the sides of said opening, simultaneously forc
female die member. Thus, the complemental
ing the entire edge of said opening outwardly to‘
surfaces A40 and E34 will produce the curved.
section I5I of the saddle.
raise a continuous boss around the opening
The next forming operation employs the male 35 which has a level upper edge, shaping the‘ end of
die I 35. In this operation, the die I36 is forced
the branch tube to ?t the contour of the main
tube when disposed at the angle it is tolbe' con‘
into the partly formed saddle and the female
die in which the tube is supported. The ex
nected to the main tube, simultaneously‘ forcing’
the entire edge of the shaped end of the tube
tension I42 will serve to maintain the tubular
shape of the tube adjacent its end. The surface‘ 40 outwardly to form a saddle of uniform width
which ?ts the contour of the main tube when
I M will cooperate with the surface I34_to main
disposed at the angle it is to be connected to
tain the shape of the‘ section I5I of the‘ flange
the main tube, disposing the saddle of the branch
tube over the boss of the main tube, and secur--v
of die I35 will engage the extremity I49 of the
tube and bend it downwardly into contact with‘ 45 ing the tubes together.
2. The method of joining a branch tube and‘
the complemental surface I33 on the female
a main' tube in angular relationship, which com
die I25, as shown in Fig. 26. These surfaces
prises forming in the main tube an opening of
I43 and I33 cooperate to produce the inclined
elliptical outline, the opening being so disposed
section I50 of the saddle.
It is to be understood that saddles disposed 50 that its transverse axis extends longitudinally of
the tube and is in the same plane as the axis of
at angles other than 45° on the branch maybe
produced by variations in the shape of the male
the tube, the transverse axis of said opening be
ing of a length substantially equal to that of the
and female dies.
previously formed. ‘The inclined surface I33
" The‘ branch I44 may now be mounted on the
corresponding axis ofthe branch less the height
main tube £45 at a 45° angle. This is accom 55 of the flange portion to be raised at the ends/of
said opening, the conjugate axis of the opening
plished by placing the saddle I48 over the bossi
being of a length substantially equal to that of
58. The curved section I5I of the saddle will
the corresponding- axis of the branch less the
inter?t with the curved section 60‘ of the ‘boss;
height of the ?ange portions to be raised at the‘
The section I53 of the saddle will cooperate with
the inclined section 59 of the boss. The two: 60 sides of said opening, placing over said opening
a female die having an opening therein corr'eh
sections may be secured together, as by solder
sponding to the shape of the boss to be raised
indicated at I52. The saddle I48 and the boss
on said main tube, inserting a shaped male die
50v are accurately formed so that they will prop
into said tube, forcing said male die outwardly
erly inter?t and so that the branch I44: will be
connected to the line 56 at an angle ‘of approxi 65 through said opening thereby simultaneously
mately 45°.
It will be apparent from the above description.
forcing the entire edge of said opening outwardly
to raise a continuous boss around the openingv
which has a level upper edge, shaping the end
forming the necessary complemental portions on‘
of the branch tube to ?t the contour of the main
sections of tubing tov permit joining of the sec 7-0 tube when disposed at the angle it is to be con-k
tions in various desired angular relationships.
nected to the‘ main tube, clamping the end of
said tube in a shaped female die with said shaped
The method is simple, e?icient, economical, and
that‘ I have provided a, method and apparatus for
readily adaptable to modern production methods.
The use of dies in forming the boss and the
end projecting therefrom a preselected distance,
forcing a shaped male die against said projecti
saddle will result in extreme‘ accuracy and uni-1
ing end thereby simultaneously forcing the yen
tire edge of the shaped end of the tube outwardly
to form a saddle of uniform width which fits the
contour of the main tube when disposed at the
angle it is to be connected to the main tube, dis
posing the saddle of the branch tube over the
boss of the main tube, and securing said tubes
‘ 1,574,900
The following references are of record in the
?le of this patent:
> Date
Youngs -__-_...._....- Dec. 21, 1886
2,1 12,673
Higgins __________ __ Apr. 14, 1896
Chillingworth ____ __ Jan. 4, 1898
Halifax __________ __ Nov. 21, 1899
Sneddon _________ __ Feb. 11, 1902
McCoy __________ __ May 14,
Kellogg __________ __ Mar. 2,
Kellogg __________ __ Jan. 17,
Lewis ___________ __ Mar. 29,
Vogel ___________ __ Aug. 9,
Ferris ___________ __ Mar. 12, 1940
Cornell ___'_ _______ -_ Apr. 5,
Nichols __________ __ Sept. 29,
Holmes et a1. _____ __ Feb. 2,
Kalwitz _________ __ Oct. 16,
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