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Патент USA US2513322

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July 4, 1950
2,513,339
J. E. HAWKINS
GEOPHYSICAL PROSPECTING SYSTEM
Filed Sept. 22, 1948
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ZNVHVTOR.
James E. Hawkins
J. E. HAWKINS
2,513,339
GEOPHYSICAL PROSPECTING SYSTEM
Filed Sept. 22, 1948
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INVENTOR.
James E . Hawkins
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GEOPHYSICAL PROSPECTING SYSTEM
Filed Sept. 22, 1948
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James E. Hawkins
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Patentecl July 4, i950
2,513,319
GEOPHYSICAL PROSPECTING SYSTEM
James E. Hawkins, Tulsa, Okla., assignor to Seis
mograph Service Corporation, Tulsa, Okla", a
corporation of Delaware
3
Application September 22, 1948, Serial No. 50,493
'2’ Claims. (Cl. 343-105)
The present invention relates to improvements
in systems of geophysical prospecting and more
particularly to an improved system for obtain
ing and correlating seismic data, position data
and elevation data in conducting geophysical
transmitter unit forming a part of the system
shown in Fig. 1;
Fig. 3 illustrates the elevation signal wave
transmitting antennas, the elevation and posi
tion signal wave collecting antenna and the rela
survey operations over land areas. This appli
tive positions of these antennas, as well as the
cation is a continuation-in-part of applicant's
family of isophase surfaces developed in space
copending application Serial No. ‘778,793, ?led
as a result of elevation signal wave radiation by
October 9, 1947.
the transmitting antennas; and
In certain classes of geophysical prospecting 10 Figs. 4 and 5 when placed one above the other
operations, such, for example, as seismic pros—
in the order named illustrate the mobile receiv
pecting operations on land, it is necessary to ob
ing unit forming a part of the system shown in
Fig. 1.
tain elevation data as well as survey point posi
tion data with a high degree of accuracy and to
Referring now to the drawings and more partic
correlate this data with the seismic data in order 15 ularly to Fig. 1 thereof, the present improved
to determine and record subsurface conditions
system is there illustrated as comprising a plu
of the earth. Conventional‘ surveying methods
rality of geographically spaced apart broadcast
are now universally used to obtain elevation and
transmitters til, it and i2 having radio antennas
position data. Radio position ?nding systems
located at precisely known geographic locations,
have not been used for the reason that while 20 which commonly radiate program modulated car
reliably accurate systems for this purpose are
rier waves to an overlap area which includes an
' known, no reliable system for utilizing radio
area 13 under survey. If the area it under survey
waves to obtain elevation data has heretofore
is located in the western or central part of Mich
been available. Moreover, from the standpoint
igan, for example, the broadcast transmitters
of actual operating practice using conventional 25 employed in obtaining the desired position and
surveying methods, it is practically as economical
elevation data may. comprise transmitter W'I'MJ
to obtain both elevation and position information
located adjacent Milwaukee, Wisconsin, and op
as it is to obtain either type of information alone.
erating at a carrier frequency of 620 kilocycles,
- Hence, radio systems of position determination
transmitter WMAQ located adjacent Chicago,
have not been used to any appreciable extent in 30 Illinois, and operating at a carrier frequency of
geophysical prospecting work.
It is an object of the present invention, there
fore, to provide an improved system of geophysical
prospecting in which position and elevation data
670 kilocycles and transmitter ‘WJR located ad
jacent Detroit, Michigan, and operating at a car
rier frequency of ‘760 kilocycles. These relatively
high power transmitters are easily capable of re
are obtained radioelectrically without resorting 35 ception at any reception point located within the
to conventional manual survey methods.
central and western portions of the State of Mich
It is another object of the present invention
igan, using standard broadcast receivers. As
to provide a system of prospecting of the char
suming, therefore, that the prospect area l3 un
acter described, particularly suitable for use in
der survey is located in one of the western or
prospecting over land, in which position and ele 40 central counties of Michigan, the program modu
vation data and indications or signals repre
.lated carriers radiated by the three identi?ed
sentative of subsurface structural conditions are
transmitters may easily be received at all points
recorded on a common record element in a form
within the area under survey at all times when
which permits ready correlation and interpreta
the three transmitters are in operation.
tion thereof.
For the purpose of utilizing the signals radiated
45
The invention, both as to its organization and
by the three identi?ed transmitters to provide
method of operation, together with further ob
position and elevation dataat a point located
jects and advantages thereof, will best be under
within the prospect area l3 under survey, a ref
stood by reference to the following speci?cation
erence and elevation transmitter unit It and a
taken in connection with the accompanying draw
ings, in which:
.
Fig. 1 diagrammatically illustrates the funda
50 mobile receiving unit l5 are provided.
In con
ducting a given prospecting operation, the ref
erence and elevation transmitter unit It may be
set up at any desired location; preferably a lo
terized by the features of the present invention;
cation adjacent to or just within the border of
Fig. 2 diagrammatically illustrates the equip 55 the area to be prospected in order to reduce the
ment provided at the reference and elevation
power requirements of the transmitters em
mental arrangement of a survey system charac
2,518,819
-
s
bodied in the unit H and hence the likelihood of
interference with other radio communication fa
cilities operating in the same area. During op
eration of the system, the unit I4 is essentially
a ?xed position unit, although for purposes of
transportation the components of the unit may
be carried by a trailer which is hitched onto the
vehicle carrying the components of the mobile
ingly narrow band pass ?lters I1, 20 and 22 for
respectively passing the carrier components of
the reproduced waves developed at the output
sides of the selector and ampli?er units II, II
and 22 while rejecting the modulation compo
nents of these waves; a pair of mixers I2 and
2| for heterodyning the carrier wave components
of the received signals in pairs to obtain sum and
difference frequency signals; ?lters 24 and 2C for
receiving unit I 5. The latter unit may be moved
to any desired position or point within the pros 10 selectively passing the difference or beat fre
quency components of the heterodyned signals:
pect area l3 under survey.
and frequency dividers 25 and 21 for reducing
As speci?cally-described below, the transmit
ters l0, II and I2 continuously radiate amplitude
the beat frequency signals to the desired fre
speci?cally, the continuously radiated carrier
power just suiilcient to permit adequate recep
quency values. With this arrangement, the de
modulated carrier waves having carrier compo
nents of di?erent frequencies, such that an inter 15 sired pair of position reference signals are devel
oped acrossthe respective sets of output termi
ference pattern is formed in space to blanket the
nals of the frequency dividers 2B and 21.
area under survey, all in a manner which will be
For the dual purpose of transmitting the de
fully apparent from the mathematical expla
scribed position reference signals to the mobile
nation appearing in Honore Patent No. 2,148,267,
granted February 21, 1939. Three sets of hyper 20 receiving unit I! and of radiating elevation sig
nals which blanket the area 12 under survey, a
bolic isophase surfaces are thus' effectively pro
pair of ultra high frequency transmitters 28 and
duced in space by the carrier components of the
29 are provided, which preferably are of limited
waves radiated by the three transmitters. More
wave components of the waves radiated by the 25 tion of the signals radiated thereby at all points
within the survey area I! under all operating con
transmitters I0 and II effectively produce an in
ditions. Each of the two transmitters 28 and 29
terference pattern characterized by a set of hy
comprises an ultra high frequency master oscil
lator and a modulator and power ampli?er unit
points of the transmitters i0 and II as foci. Each
of these surfaces is representative of the loci of 30 and includes its own'individual antenna. Thus
the transmitter 28 comprises a master oscillator
positions of constant phase difference between
29a, designed to operate at a stable frequency
the carrier components of the waves radiated by
of 152 megacycles, for example, a modulator and
the transmitters I 0 and il. Similarly, the sig
power ampli?er unit 29b in which the position
nals radiated by the transmitters Ii and I2 pro
signal developed across the output terminals of
vide a carrier wave interference pattern effec
the frequency divider 25 is amplitude modulated
tively characterized by a second set of hyperbolic
upon the carrier wave output of the oscillator 29a
isophase surfaces which transversely intersect the
and an antenna 40 at which theposition signal
surfaces of the ?rst set and have the radiation
modulated elevation signal developed by the
points of the transmitters ii and I2 as foci. The
hyperbolic surfaces of the second set represent 40 transmitter 28 is radiated. Similarly, the trans
mitter 29 comprises a master oscillator 29a, de
the loci of positions of constant phase difference
signed to operate at a stable frequency of 152.1
between the carrier components of the waves ra
megacycles, for example, a modulator and power
diated by the transmitters l I and 12. In the sys
ampli?er unit 29b in which the position signal
tem arrangement herein disclosed, the third set
of isophase surfaces produced in space by the 45 developed across the output terminals of the fre
quency divider 21 is amplitude modulated upon
carrier components of the signals radiated by the
'the carrier wave developed by the oscillator 29a
two transmitters i0 and 12 are not used. The
and an antenna H from which the pmition sig
manner of determining the effective spacing be
nal modulated elevation signal developed by the
tween the isophase surfaces is discussed more fully
below. By heterodyning the carrier components 50 transmitter 29 is radiated.
As stated above, facilities are also provided in
of the signals radiated by the transmitters i0, II
the reference and elevation transmitter unit it
and 12 in pairs to produce resultant signals in
for developing reference signals and transmitting
the manner more fully explained below, the need
the same to the mobile receiving unit 15. These
for phase synchronization between the carrier
components of the radiated signals is entirely ob 65 facilities comprise radio frequency selector and
ampli?er units 92 and Y35 for respectively receiv
viated. For a mathematical analysis of the man
ing the signals radiated by the transmitters 29
ner in which this is accomplished, attention is
and 29, narrow band pass ?lters 23 and 39 for
directed to the disclosure of the above cited Hon
perbolic isophase surfaces having the radiation
ore patent.
_
'
passing the carrier wave components of the waves
The equipment provided at the reference and 60 reproduced respectively by the units 32 and 22
while rejecting the modulation components there
elevation transmitter unit It serves the three
of, a mixer 34, a ?lter 3'! for selecting the differ
fold function of converting the waves radiated
ence or beat frequency component of the hetero
from the transmitters H), II and I2 into position
dyned waves, a frequency divider 29 for reducing
reference signals and transmitting these signals
to the mobile receiving unit i5; generating ele 65 the selected beat frequency signal to the desired
frequency value and a link transmitter 29 for
vation signals; and converting the generated ele
transmitting the elevation reference signal to
vation signals into' elevation reference signals and
the mobile receiving unit it. The transmitter 99
radiating the latter signals to the mobile unit
is preferably of the low power, ultra high fre
i5. In brief and as best shown in Fig. 2 of the
drawings, the equipment provided in the unit ll 70 quency, line-of-sight type and comprises a mas
ter oscillator 39a operated at a distinctive fre
to develop the position reference signals com
quency of 170 megacycles and a modulator and
prises radio frequency selector and ampli?er units
power ampli?er unit 99b in which the elevation
It, l9 and 22 of conventional design for respec
reference signal developed across the output ter
tively receiving and amplifying the signals radi
ated by the transmitters H), II and I2; exceed
minals of the frequency divider 28 is amplitude
2,518,819
5
modulated on the carrier wave output of the os
cillator 39a, ampli?ed and delivered to the an
tenna ground circuit of the transmitter 39 for
radiation to the mobile receiving unit l5.
As indicated above, one of the functions as
signed the transmitters 28 and 29 is that of pro
ducing elevation signalsirom which may be de
termined the elevation of any survey point with
in the prospect area. 13 under survey. To this
/
end, the antennas 40 and 4| of these transmitters
are positioned at different known elevations above
the earth's surface or more particularly above
a known elevation datum plane. Thus and as
best shown in Fig. 3 of the drawings, the antenna
48 is disposed above the antenna 4| in vertical
alignment therewith and the two antennas are
disposed different known or determinable dis
tances above a point A of known elevation. The
point A should have an elevation greater than
the elevation of any surface point of the earth 20
transmitters III, II and I2 into indications repre
sentative of the position and elevation of a sur
vey point at which the signals are collected.
Brie?y, and as best shown in Figs. 4 and 5 of the
drawings, the equipment provided in the mobile
receiving unit l5 to perform this function com
prises wave receiving, translating, phase compar
ing and recording equipment, and wave collectors
in the form of antennas 44a and 44b. As best
shown in Fig. 3 of the drawings, the wave col
lecting antennas 44a and 44b are insulated from
each other and ground and are carried by a
mobile antenna support 46 consisting of a frame
46a and wheels 46b. The two antennas are dis
posed in vertical alignment and preferably are
adjustable, within limits, to position theantenna
440 a desired elevation D3 above the survey point
B on the earth's surface. From the antenna 44a
the collected ultra high frequency waves are
transmitted through a coaxial cable 45 to three
within the area under survey and the exact ele
vation of which may be determined by conven
ultra high frequency receivers 48, 49 and 58.
tional surveying methods. Preferably, the facili
cast band collected by the antenna 44?) are trans
Similarly, modulated carrier waves in the broad
mitted over an insulated conductor 45b to the
ties for supporting the antenna 4| are such that
this antenna may be adjusted to an exact pre 25 input terminals of three radio frequency selector
and ampli?er units 59, GI and 64. The receiver
48 is designed to accept the modulated 152 mega
able to a precisely determined elevation D2 above a cycle signal radiated from the transmitter 28 and
comprises radio frequency selector and ampli?er
the antenna 4|. The vertical space D2 between
the two antennas 48 and 4| is preferably an 30 stages 50 followed by the usual converter, inter
mediate frequency selector, second detector and
integer multiple of the mean wavelength of the
low frequency ampli?er stages which are col
carrier wave components of the modulated sig
lectively indicated as being included in the block
nals radiated by the transmitters 28 and 29. Co
5|. Similarly, the receiver 49 is designed to
axial cables 42 and 43 are employed respectively
to connect the antennas 40 and 4| to the antenna 85 accept the modulated signal radiated by the
transmitter 29 and comprises the usual radio fre
terminals of the modulator and power ampli?er
quency selector and ampli?er stages 52 followed
units 28?) and 291').
by the usual converter, intermediate frequency
With the transmitters 28 and 29 in continuous
ampli?er, second detector and low frequency
operation, a set of hyperbolic isophase surfaces
is produced in space through interference of the 40 ampli?er stages collectively indicated as being
carrier wave components of the signals radiated
included within the block 53. Portions 'of the
signal voltages developed across the respective
by these transmitters. These surfaces represent
output terminals of the selector and ampli?er
the loci of positions of constant phase difference
stages 58 and 52 are impressed upon the input
between the carrier components of the radiated
terminals of exceedingly narrow band pass ?lters
waves and have the antennas 48 and 4| as foci.
54 and 55 having the function of passing the
In any vertical plane bisecting the antennas 48
carrier components of the selected waves and re
and 4|, the loci of points of constant phase dif
jecting the modulation components of these
ference between the radiated waves may of course
waves. The carrier wave components passed by
be represented as hyperbolic lines in the man
ner shown in Fig. 3. Thus the hyperbolic lines 50 the filters 54 and 55 are heterodyned in a mixer
56 to produce sum and difference frequency sig
41 represent the loci of points of constant phase
nals in the usual manner, and the difference or
di?erence between the carrier components of
beat frequency signal equaling that of the signal
the radiated waves at points spaced laterally
developed at the output terminals of the fre
from the radiating antennas 40 and 4| disposed
in a common vertical plane bisecting these two 55 quency divider 38 is selected by a ?lter 56a, fre
quency divided by a frequency divider 51 and im
antennas. Obviously, by rotating this plane
pressed upon the upper set of input terminals
through 360°, the isophase surfaces are developed.
of a phase meter ‘I3 over the circuit conductors
The manner in which this family of isophase
51a. As explained more fully below, this signal
surfaces is utilized in conjunction with the po
sition signals radiated from the transmitters l0, 60 is phase compared with the elevation reference
signal transmitted to the mobile receivingr unit
II and I2 and the position reference signals
l5 from the transmitter 38. More speci?cally,
radiated from the unit M to determine the elevaé
the receiver 58 performs the function of select
tion of any point within the area under survey
ing and demodulating the modulated wave trans
and the e?ective spacing between these surfaces
is determined are explained more fully below.
65 mitted by the link transmitter 39 to reproduce
From the above explanation, it will be appar
the elevation reference signal across its output
terminals. This reference signal is impressed
ent that three reference signal modulated carrier
across the lower set of input terminals of the
waves are radiated from the transmitters 28, 29
and 39 at the reference and elevation transmitter
phase meter ‘I3 over the circuit conductors 58a.
unit Hi to the mobile receiving unit l5 which 70
The position reference signals respectively
may be located adjacent any survey point in the
transmitted to the mobile receiving unit 15 from
prospect area under survey. It is the purpose
the transmitters 28 and 29 are selected, detected
and function of the equipment provided in the
and ampli?ed respectively in the stages 58 and
mobile receiving unit I 5 to convert these received
5| of the receiver 48 and the stages 52 and 53 of
signals and those received directly from the 75 the receiver 48. Thus the position reference
determined elevation DI above the point A.
Similarly, the antenna 40 is preferably adjust
2,513,319
7
8
signal resulting from heterodyning. selecting and
frequency dividing the carrier components of the
coils of the recorder. The oscillographic recorder
signals radiated from the transmitters i0 and H
and may be of any desired commercial construc
tion. It comprises twenty-four galvanometer
coils, eight of which are illustrated in the draw
at the reference and elevation transmitter unit
M are reproduced across the output terminals
of the receiver/i8. Similarly, the position refer
ence signal resulting from heterodyning, select
ing and frequency dividing the carrier wave com
14 is preferably of the twenty-four trace variety
ings, each having the function of variably con
trolling the impingement of a light beam on a
common light sensitive strip‘ 15. The phase
meters ‘H, 12 and 13 may be of any desired com
ponents of the signals radiated by the trans
mitters II and i2 at the reference and elevation 10 mercial type (see Patent No. 1,762,725-Marri
transmitter unit H are reproduced across the
son—granted June 10, 1930), and are capable of
output terminals of the receiver 49. These posi~
measuring phase angles in excess of 360 elec
tion reference signals are impressed respectively
» trical degrees between two impressed signal volt
upon the lower sets of input terminals of the
ages of the same frequency. Each phase meter
phase meters 12 and ‘II over the circuit con 16 is equipped with a rotor element carrying a
ductors 5m and 53a.
pointer which indexes with a circular scale 'to
In order to develop "position signals at the
indicate the phase relationship between the two
mobile receiving unit ii for phase comparison
impressed voltages. The rotor shafts of the three
with the position reference signals impressed
phase meters, indicated at 1B, 85 and “,are
upon the respective lower sets of input terminals
also arranged to control the settings of six
of the phase meters ‘I2 and ‘H, facilities are pro
potentiometers ‘I9, 92, 99, 9f, 91 and III! which
vided in the unit [5 for directly receiving the
govern the magnitude of current ?ow through
signals radiated by the transmitters I0, I! and
six galvanometer coils 8|, 94, 90, 93, 99 and I02
I2. More speci?cally, the signal originating at
of the recorder 14. More speci?cally, the rotor
the transmitter H] is selected and ampli?ed by
shaft ‘I6 of the phase meter ‘If is connected in
the selector and ampli?er unit '59 and delivered
driving relationship with the wiper 19a of the
to an exceedingly narrow band pass ?lter 60 hav
potentiometer 19 through reduction gearing com
ing the function of passing‘ the carrier wave com
prising a pair of gears 1'! and 18. The resistor
ponent of the signal while rejecting the modula
19b of this potentiometer is arranged to be ad
tion components thereof. Similarly, the radio
justably encircuited in the energizing circuit for
frequency selector and ampli?er unit 6| selects
the galvanometer coil 8| in series with an ener
and ampli?es the signal modulated carrier
gizing battery 90. The purpose of providing the
radiated by the transmitter H and transmits the
described facilities comprising the reduction
same to an exceedingly narrow band pass filter
gears 11 and 18, the potentiometer 19 and the
62 which passes the carrier component of‘ the 35 battery 90 to control the magnitude of current
signal and rejects the modulation components
flow through the galvanometer coil If is that of
thereof. The signal modulated carrier radiated
permitting the recordation of data identifying a
by the transmitter I2 is selected and passed by
particular lane in which the wave collecting
the selector and ampli?er unit GI and delivered
antenna 44 may be positioned or more particu
to an exceedingly narrow band pass ?lter 65 40 larly the particular pair of effective isophase
which passes the carrier wave component thereof
lines of the family of isophase lines produced by
and rejects the modulation components. Thus
the carrier wave components of the signals
originating at the three transmitters Hi, If and
I2 are received, selected, amplified and separated
from the modulation components of these signals
at the receiving unit l5. After such separation,
the carrier waves developed at the output ter
minals of the ?lters 60 and 62 are heterodyned
in a mixer 63 to produce the usual sum and
difference frequency signals. The difference fre
quency signal is selectively passed by a ?lter 61,
frequency divided by a frequency divider 68 and
impressed upon the upper set of input terminals
of the phase meter 12 over the circuit conductors
69a. Similarly, the carrier wave components of
the signals originating at the transmitters H and
I 2 as reproduced at the output sides of the ?lters
62 and 65 are heterodyned in a mixer 66 to pro
duce the usual sum and difference frequency
signals. The difference frequency signal is selec
tively passed by a ?lter 69, frequency divided by
a frequency divider ‘I0 and impressed upon the
upper set of input terminals of the phase meter
‘II over the circuit conductors 10a.
In accordance with the present invention, the
indications produced by the three phase meters
‘H, ‘I2 and 13 along with seismic wave data are
recorded upon a common record strip, thereby
the'transmitters I0 and II between which this
antenna is disposed at any particular survey
point B. Similar facilities comprising the re
duction gears 88 and 81, the potentiometer 89
and the battery 99 are provided to control the
‘magnitude of current flow through the galvan
ometer coil 90 in identical fashion, so that lane
identi?cation in respect to the position of the
survey point B relative to the family of hyperbolic
isophase lines produced by the signals radiated
from the transmitters H and I2 is recorded
on the record strip ‘I5. Recordation of phase
meter indications identifying the particular pair
of effective isophase lines 41 between which the
wave collecting antenna 44 may be disposed is
accomplished by connecting the rotor shaft 94
of the elevation phase meter ‘I3 through the re
duction gears 95 and 96 to control the setting
of the wiper 91a embodied in the potentiometer
91. The setting of this wiper obviously controls
the magnitude of current flow from the ener
gizing battery 98 through the galvanometer
coil 99.
‘ In order to provide visual indications of the
lanes in which the wave collecting antenna 44 is
disposed, the shafts 18c, 81c and 960 rotated re
spectively by the large gears 18, 81 and 96 are re
to facilitate interpretation and analysis thereof. 70 spectively equipped with pointers 19a, 81a and
To this end, a strip recorder 14 of the well known
96a arranged to cooperate with scales 19b, 91b
oscillographic type is provided, together with
and 96b in producing the desired lane indica
facilities for translating angular variations in
tions. Preferably, the scales 18b, 81b and 96b
the indicating needles of the three phase meters
are each graduated in terms of lane width as de
into current variations through the galvanometer 75 termined by the transmitter operating frequen
2,513,319
f- cies, so that the particular lanes in which the
antenna 44 is disposed may be read directly by
observing the positions of the pointers 18a, 81a
and 300 relative to their respective associated
i
As previously pointed out with reference to
Fig. 3 of the drawings, in setting up the equip
ment to perform survey work in the prospect
area I3 under survey, the reference and eleva
tion transmitter unit I4 is located at a high point
preferably adjacent or within the boundary of
In addition to controlling the operation of the
the area. Further, the elevation of the earth's
recorder 14 in the recording of lane'identi?cation
surface point A in vertical alignment with the
information on the ‘record strip 15, the three
two elevation transmitting antennas 40 and 4|
phase meters ‘II, 12 and 13 are arranged to so
govern the recorder that records are also pro 10 is determined by conventional survey methods.
These two antennas are adjusted to'the desired
duced on the record strip from which the particu
known elevations which will produce in space the
lar phase settings of the rotor elements embodied
vertically spaced hyperbolic isophase surfaces.
in the three meters may respectively be deter
More particularly, the two antennas are spaced
mined. To this end, the shaft 15 is arranged di
apart an integer multiple of the wave length of
rectly to actuate the wiper 82a of the potentiom
the average frequency of carrier radiation‘by the
eter 82 so that an adjustable portion of the po
two transmitters 20 and 29. Since the eleva
tentiometer resistor 82b is encircuited with the
tions of the two antennas 4| and 40 are known
galvanometer coil 84 in series with an energizing
or may easily be determined from the known ele
battery 83. Similarly, the rotor shafts 85 and
94 are arranged respectively to control the set- 20 vation of the surface point A, the actual elevation
at any point within the system of isophase sur
tings of the two potentiometers 9| and I00 which
faces provided by the carrier waves radiated
govern the magnitudes of current flow from the
from these antennas may be determined when
batteries 92 and IOI through the galvanometer
the position of the point laterally with respect to
coils 93 and I02, respectively. Thus the phase
meters ‘II, ‘I2 and ‘I3 are arranged to produce a 25 the transmitting antennas 40 and M is known.
Determination of the position of the wave col
full and complete record identifying the position
lecting point is effected by utilizing the two in
and elevation of the survey point on the record
tersecting hyperboloidal systems of isophase sur
strip ‘I5. In this regard, it is noted that the
faces produced in space by the carrier com
galvanometer elements in which the coils 8|, 84,
S0, 93, 99 and I02 are respectively embodied in 30 poneiits radiated by the three transmitters I0, II
and 2.
dividually control the positions of the record
Before describing the operation of the system,
traces 8Ia, 84a, 90a, 93a, 99a and IBM transverse
it should be pointed out that as viewed from the
ly of the strip 15 or more particularly the vertical
receiving and translating equipment provided at
displacement of these traces from respective as
sociated reference traces 8"), 84b, 90b, 93b, 99b 35 the mobile unit or station I5, the effective spac
ing between the hyperbolic isophase surfaces pro
and I02b.
duced by the carrier waves radiated by each pair
The seismic wave detecting and translating
of transmitters I0—I I, II—I2 and 28-49 is that
equipment associated with the remaining gal
which will produce 360 degrees of rotation of the
vanometer elements of the recorder ‘I4 or a por
rotor element in the phase meter ‘II, ‘I2 or ‘I3
tion thereof comprises a plurality of seismic wave
which responds to the carrier waves radiated by
detectors, two of which are indicated at I03 and
the particular pair of transmitters when the col
I04, and amplifying channels individually asso
lecting antennas 44a and 44b are moved across
'ciated with these detectors. In the arrange
the interference pattern produced by these car
ment illustrated, the detector I03 is connected to
transmit detected seismic waves through an 45 rier waves. This effective spacing is determined
by two factors, namely, the mean frequency of
ampli?er I05 to the galvanometer coil I01 of the
the carrier waves radiated by the pair of trans
recorder ‘I4. Similarly, the detector I04 is ar
mitters and the extent to which the beat fre
ranged to deliver detected seismic waves through
quency signal produced by heterodyning these
an amplifying channel I06 to the galvanometer
element I08 of the recorder ‘I4. It will be under 50 carrier waves at the stations I4 and I5 is fre
quency divided at these stations to obtain the
stood that any number of seismic wave detectors
signals which are phase compared at the station
and associated amplifying channels may be em
l5. More speci?cally, the effective isophase sur
ployed in a given set-up within the limitation im
face spacing as measured along the base line
posed by the available galvanometer elements of
the recorder. It will also be understood that in 55 between the radiation points of a particular pair
of transmitters is equal to one-half the wave
an actual set-up, the detectors may be arranged
length corresponding to the mean frequency of
in any desired arrangement relative‘ to a shot
the carriers radiated by the two transmitters mul
point at which seismic wave generation occurs.
tiplied by the factor used in frequency dividing
Where not otherwise speci?ed in the foregoing
description, the components of the described sys 60 the beat frequency signal- obtained by hetero
dyning the two carriers at the stations I4 and
tem are entirely conventional and well known in
I5. In the illustrated system arrangement, each
the art. It should be pointed out that the ?lters
‘of the three beat frequency signals developed at
I1, 20, 23, 33, 38, 54, 55, 00, 62 and 65 are prefer
each of the stations I4 and I5 is frequency divided
ably of the crystal controlled type, each having
a narrow pass band of the order of ?fty cycles 05 by a factor of ten. Accordingly and considering
. the pair of elevation position signal transmitters
or less in width, such that all side band fre
quencies are substantially completely suppressed
28 and 29 by way of example, the effective spac
ing between the isophase surfaces resulting from
without undue attenuation of the carrier wave
components. Filters of the type indicated hav
carrier wave radiation by these transmitters as
ing the desired narrow band pass characteristics 70 measured along the vertical line connecting the
- are well known in the art. If found necessary to
antennas 40 and M, is ?ve times the wave length
provide adequate driving voltage for the various
corresponding to the mean carrier frequency of
frequency dividers, one or more stages of carrier
152.05 megacycles, i. e., approximately ten meters.
wave ampli?cation may be provided immediate
At points laterally displaced from this vertical
ly following each of the enumerated ?lters.
75 line, the effective spacing between the equiphase
scales.
-
'
2,518,819
v -
12
11
is greater due to the hyperbolic contour
of, the frequency divider 88 and impressed upon
of the surfaces. rm- convenience of explanation,
it is assumed that the isophase lines "shown in
the 170' megacycle carrier wave output of the
transmitter 38 for radiation to the mobile receiv
Pig. 8 of the drawings are spaced in accordance
ins unit It.
with the effective spacing described above, i. e.,
tely ten meters along
From the preceding explanation, it will be
apparent that ?ve distinct and useful signals are
a
.
radiated from the reference and elevation trans
and ll.
'
'
In
the operation of the abov
described system, it will be understood that at
any location of the mobile receiving unit it and
‘ mitter unit It to the mobile receiving unit It
even though only three transmitters are provided
at the reference and elevation unit. This is ac
complished by employing the transmitters 28 and
' more particularly the wave collecting antennas
28 in the dual capacity of elevation signal trans- '
“a and “b within the radius of tron of
the transmitten II, II, II, 2|, 2! and 38, the
equipment provided in the mobile receiving unit
is arranged to provide-three phase indications
which de?nitely locate the position of the col
mitter and link transmitters for relaying the
two position reference signals to the mobile re
15
ceiving uni't. More speci?cally, the modulated
wave radiated by the transmitter 25 consists of
a 152 megacycle carrier component which is used
lecting antennas and the elevation of the antenna
as an elevation signal and a 5 kilocycle modula
“a above the survey point. The survey points
tion component which is employed as a position
may comprise the location of shot holes and the 20 reference signal; the modulated wave radiated by
locations of the seismic wave detectors arranged
the transmitter 29 consists of a 152.1 megacycle
in a given array relative to a particular shot hole.
carrier wave component whichis used as the sec
More in detail, the amplitude modulated signal
ond elevation signal and a 9 kilocycle modulation
radiated ,by the transmitter I8 is selected and
component which constitutes the second position
ampli?ed’at the unit I‘ by the selector and ampli 25 reference signal; and the transmitter 39 radiates
?er stages I I and the 620 kilocycle carrier wave . e170 megacycle carrier wave modulated with a
component is selectively
to the exclusion
10 kilocycle component which ‘is used as an elc
of the modulation components by the band pass
vation reference signal.
?lter II and impressed upon the upper set of
At the mobile receiving unit It, the ultra high
input terminals of the mixer l8. Similarly, the 30 frequency waves radiated from the three trans
selector and ampli?er unit 22 and the band pass
mitters 28, 28, and 39 are collected by the antenna
?lter 23 function to separate the 760 kilocycle
“a and'transmitted over the coaxial cable ‘to
carrier wave component of the signal radiated
to the input terminals of the three receivers 48,
by the transmitter l2 and to impress this carrier
4s and 58. Similarly, the relatively low fre
wave upon the lower set of input terminals of .35 quency waves radiated by the transmitters III, II
the mixer 2i. The selector and ampli?er unit
and I2 are collected by the antenna “b and
It and the band pass ?lter 28 separate the 6'70
transmitted over the conductor 45b to the three
kilocycle carrier wave component from the sig
radio frequency selector and ampli?er units 58,
nal radiated by the transmitter II and impress
ii and 64. The radio frequency selector and
this carrier wave upon the respective upper and 40 ampli?er section 50 of the receiver 48 selects the
lower sets of input terminals, respectively, of the
modulated 152 megacycle signal radiated by the
two mixers 2| and I8. The mixer It operates
transmitter 28, and the 5 kilocycle position ref
to produce the usual sum and difference frequency
signals ‘across its output terminals when ener
erence signal component of the selected wave is
50 kilocycles as developed across the output ter
the circuit conductors 5 la. Similarly, the modu
lated 152.1 megacycle wave radiated by the trans-'
mitter 28 is selectively passed and ampli?ed by
detected and reproduced ‘by the succeeding stages
giaed by the 6'10 and 620 kilocycle input signals. 45 of the receiver 48 and impressed uponthe lower
However, only the difference frequency signal of
set of input terminals of the phase meter ‘I2 over
minalsofthemixer llispassedbythe?lter?.
,This 50 kilocycle signal is frequency divided by a
factor of ten through operation of the frequency 50 the, selector and ampli?er section 82 of the re
divided 2! which may comprise one or more
A ceiver 48 and the 9 kilocycle position reference
stages, such that a 5 kilocycle signal is developed
signal component of this wave is reproduced by
the succeeding stages of the receiver is and ap
plied to the lower set of input terminals of the
phase meter ‘H over the. circuit conductors Ila.
The 9 and 5 kilocycle position signals which are
phase compared with. the described position ref
erence signals of like frequencies are developed
locally at the mobile receiving unit II. To this
end, the modulated 620, 670 and 760 kilocycle sig
at the output terminals of the frequency divider
for modulation upon the 152 megacycle carrier
wave radiated by the transmitter 28. In a simi
lar manner, the 8'10 kilocycle and 760 kilocycle
carrier waves developed at the respective output
sides of the ?lters 28 and 28 are‘ heterodyned in
the mixer ‘2| to produce a 90 kilocycle difference
frequency signal which is selectively passed by
the ?lter 28 and frequency divided by a factor of
ten through operation of the frequency divider
21 to produce a 8 kilocycle signal. This signal
is modulated upon the 152.1 megacycle carrier
wave radiated by the transmitter 28.
When the illustrated system arrangement is
med, the two position reference signal modulated
nals radiated by the transmitters in, II and I2
are respectively selected by‘ the radio frequency
selector and ampli?er units 59, 6| and 64 for
carrier wave ?ltering by the narrow band pass
?lters 68, 62 and 65. Thus the 620 kilocycle and
670 kilocycle carrierv wave components of the _
signals originating at the transmitters it and I l
carrier waves radiated by the transmitters 28 and
are impressed upon the two sets of input termi
28. are respectivelyreceived and ampli?ed by the
nals of the mixer 63 and the 670 and 760 kilo
selector and ampli?er units 32 and It. The car 70 cycle carrier wave components of the signals
rier wave components of the selected waves are
originating at the transmitters H and I2 are
passed by the two ?lters 83 and 38,-heterodyned
impressed upon the two sets of input terminals
in the mixer 84 to produce a di?'erence frequency
of the mixer 66. The mixer 83 functions to pro
signal‘of one hundred kilocycles which is reduced
duce the usual sum and difference frequency sig
to a frequency of 10 kilocycles through operation 75 nals, the latter of which is selectively passed by
2,513,319
213
c
the 50 kilocycle ?lter 51 and frequency divided by
along the vertical line extending through the
_a factor of ten in the frequency divider 58 to pro
duce a 5 kilocycle position signal which is im
pressed upon the upper set of input terminals of
the phase meters 12 over the circuit conductors
68a. In an identical manner, the mixer 65 func
tions to heterodyne the 670 and 760 kilocycle sig
nals to produce sum and di?erence frequency
signals. The difference frequency signal of 90
antennas 40 and 4| and an increasingly greater
distance at lateral points increasingly distant
from this vertical line. Hence the indication
provided by the phase meter ‘I3 identifies the po
sition of the wave collecting antenna 44a within
kilocycles is selectively passed by the ?lter 59
and frequency divided by a factor of ten in the
frequency divider ‘Ill to produce a 9 kilocycle posi
tion signal which is impressed upon the upper set
of input terminals of the phase meter ‘ll over the
circuit conductors 10a.
‘
The 10 kilocycle elevation reference signal
modulated on the carrier wave radiated by the
transmitter 39 is detected and reproduced by
the receiver 58 for application to the lower set of
input terminals of the phase meter 13 over the
circuit conductors 58a. An elevation signal is
also developed locally at the mobile receiving unit
I5 by heterodyning the carrier wave components
of the waves radiated by the transmitters 28 and
29. To this end, a portion of the signal voltage
appearing at the output side ‘of the selector and
ampli?er section 50 ofthe receiver 48 is impressed
upon the input terminals of the ‘band pass'?lter
a vertical zone having a minimum width of about
10 meters. Speci?cally, the indication provided
by the meter 13 shows the position of the wave
10 collecting antenna in terms of the vertical dis
tance of this antenna from each of the two ad
.iacent isophase lines 41a and 41b. Further, the
position of the indicating needle 95a relative to
the lane scale 96?) identifies the particular pair
15 of isophase lines between which the wave col
lecting antenna, 44a is disposed. Thus the phase
meter 13 in cooperation with the scale and
pointer assembly actuated by this meter func
tions to provide an indication of the exact lo
20 cation of the antenna 44a relative to a particular
pair of isophase lines 41a and 4'"). However,
these facilities do not alone indicate the posi
tion of the antenna 44a relative to the transmit
ting antennas 40 and 4| and hence do not alone
25 indicate the elevation of the survey point B. Po
sitional information is supplied by the phase
meters ‘H and 12 which identify the geographic
location of the survey point B.
54 which functions to pass the 152 megacycle car
At this point it may be noted that if the beat
rier wave component and to reject the 5 kilocycle 30 frequency signals are frequency divided by a
modulation component.
The carrier wave com
ponent selected by the ?lter 54 is impressed upon
factor of ten in the manner described and the
vertical spacing between the antennas 40 and 4|
the lower set of input terminals of the mixer 56.
equals ?ve times the wave length of a wave hav
Similarly, a portion of the signal voltage appear
ing a frequency equaling the mean frequency of
ing at the output side of the radio frequency sec 35 the elevation signals, only two isophase surfaces
tion 52 of the receiver 49 is impressed upon the
are effectively produced in space and hence the
input terminals of the band pass ?lter 55 with the
total indicating range of the phase meter 13 is
result that the 152 megacycle carrier wave com
360°. Thus if the transmitters are operated at
ponent of the signal voltage is passed by this
the indicated carrier frequencies of 152 and 152.1
?lter for application to the upper. set of input 40 megacycles such that the mean carrier frequency
terminals of the mixer 56. This mixer functions
is 0.1 megacycle, the beat frequency signal there
to heterodyne the two signals with the result
between is divided by ten, and the antennas 40
that the usual sum and di?erence frequency sig
and 4| are spaced apart a distance of approxi
nals are developed across the output terminals
mately 10 meters, the total 360° indicating range
thereof. The one hundred kilocycle difference
of the phase meter 13 covers a vertical distance
frequency signal is selectively passed by the ?lter
range of approximately thirty-three feet at the
56a and frequency divided by a factor of ten
antennas and ranging upward from this distance
through operation of the frequency divider 51 to
produce a 10 kilocycle elevation signal which is
impressed upon the upper set of input terminals
of the phase meter 13 over the circuit conductors
51a.
.
When thus energized by the two input signals
of like frequency, i. e., 10 kilocycles, which may
at points spaced laterally from the transmitters.
An arrangement of this character obviously
makes it possible to omit the lane identi?cation
apparatus comprising the elements 95, 96, 96a,
96b, 96c, 91 and 98 from the indicating and re
cording equipment.
As will be partially apparent from the forego
have a phase displacement ranging from zero
55 ing explanation, the phase meter 1| responds
to more than 360°, the rotor element of the phase
to the two 9 kilocycle position and position refer
meter 13 assumes a setting precisely representa
ence signals derived from the carrier wave com
tive of the phase angle between the two signal
ponents radiated by the transmitters II and I2
voltages and hence provides an indication of the
to produce an indication of the position of the
position of the wave collecting antenna 44a rela 60 wave collecting antenna 44b relative to the hy
tive to two of the isophase lines 41. As noted
perbolic surfaces de?ning the loci of constant
above, with the described arrangement, wherein
phase difference between the standing waves pro
elevation signals having frequencies of 152 and
duced in space by the carrier wave components
152.1 megacycles are heterodyned, the effective
of the signals radiated by the 'two identi?ed
spacing between the isophase surfaces produced 65 transmitters. In this case, wherein the mean car
in space and hence the isophase lines 41‘ is in
rier wave signal frequency of the‘two signals
part determined by the mean frequency of 152.05
originating at the transmitters II and I2 is 715
megacycles between the two elevation signal fre
quencies and in part by the factor of ten used in
frequency dividing the beat frequency signals in 70
the frequency dividers 38 and 51. Using the
values given, the isophase lines 41 representative
of the same phase relationship between the
standing waves are effectively spaced apart ver
tically a minimum distance of-about 10 meters 75
kilocycles and the beat frequency signals are
each frequency divided by ten, the effective spac
ing between the isophase surfaces is approxi
mately 6880 feet along the base line connecting
the radiating antennas of these two transmitters
and greater at positions on either side of this
base line. Hence‘ theindication provided by the
phase meter ‘ll identi?es the position of the an
9,818,819
tenna “b within a zone having a minimum width
equal to ?ve times the wave length of the mean
16
signals developed during a seismic shootin
operation.
‘
frequency signal or 6880 feet. Further, the indi
The manner in which the seismic wave detec
cating needle 81a in cooperation with the lane
tors IDS-4M are arranged in a predetermined
identi?cation scale 81b function to identify the 5 array relative to a shot point and function to
particular pair of isophase surfaces between
convert into electrical signals the re?ected and
which the antenna “b is disposed.
refracted seismic waves resulting from detona
In a similar manner, the phase meter ‘I2 re
sponds to the 5 kilocycle position and position
reference signals derived from the carrier wave
components of the signals radiated by the trans
mltters In and II to provide an indication repre
sentative of the position of the wave collecting
tion of an explosive charge at the shot point ‘will
be readily understood by those skilled in the art
of seismic surveying.
In the usual case, the ex
plosive charge is detonated beneath the surface
of the earth at a known position displaced a pre
determined distance from the detector array,
antenna “b relative to-a particular pair of hy
and the detectors are likewise displaced from
perbolic isophase surfaces produced in space by 15 each other predetermined distances and arranged
the carrier wave components of the signals radi
ated from the two identi?ed transmitters. This
in a de?nite array, such, for example, as in line
with the shot‘ point. The described system may
be employed for the purpose of de?nitely deter
quency of 645 kilocycles between the carrier wave
mining the position and elevation of the shot
frequencies of the signals radiated by the two 20 point as well as the position and elevation of each
transmitters l0 and II and the factor of ten used
detector location point in the detector array, all
in frequency dividing the beat frequency sig
in a manner which will be fully apparent from
indication is likewise based on the mean fre
nals and is equal to 7630 feet. Here also, the
the foregoing
explanation. Speci?cally,
the
indicating needle 18a in cooperation with the
mobile unit l5 may be moved from point to point
associated lane identi?cation scale 18b identi?es
to locate the antennas “a and “b directly over
the particular pair of isophase surfaces between
di?'erent survey. point; B at which the shot point
which the antenna “b is disposed.
and each detector placement point are located.
From the preceding explanation, it will be
As the shot and detector points are successively
understood that the three phase meters ‘ll, 12,
located, the recorder 14 may be successively oper
and 13 in cooperation with the associated lane 80 ated to produce a series of record indications on
identi?cation scale and pointer assemblies func
the recording strip 15 which may be easily in
tion to provide indications which when corre
terpreted de?nitely to identify the geographic lo
lated speci?cally identify the position of the an
cation and elevation of each of the points. In
tennas “a and “b relative to the known posi
this regard it will be understood that during each
tions of the transmitters III, II and I2 and also 85 operation of the recorder ‘ll, each galvanometer
the elevation of the antenna “a relative to the
element produces a separate and distinct trace
known elevations of the transmitting antennas
on the record strip ‘I5 and the’position of the
40 and 4|. Further, location of the position of
trace transversely of the strip follows variations
the antenna “a relative to the known positions
in the energization of the galvanometer coil em
of the transmitters l0, Ii and i2 de?nitely ?xes 40 bodied in the element. Thus as the galvanome
the geographic position of this antenna. Once
ter coil ii is variably energized under the con
this position is known, the elevation of the an
trol of the potentiometer 19 during a given re
tenna “a may readily be determined by con
cording operation, a trace 8la is produced on the
sulting hyperbolic charts prepared to show the
record strip which follows variations in the en
effective isophase lines produced in space by the
ergization of the coil 8| . Since, however, at any
waves radiated from the antennas ill and 4| by.
given location on the antenna “a, the coil 8|
the transmitters 28 and 29. Once the elevation
is constantly energized by current having a con
of the antenna “a, relative to the known eleva
stant magnitude related to the setting of the
tion of the antennas 40 and 4| is thus deter
lane identi?caion needle 1811, a straight line trace
mined, it is a simple matter to determin the ele 60 ii a is produced on the record strip 15 during the
vation of the survey point B by subtracting the
recording operation. The distance between this
distance D3 from the indication elevation of the
trace and the reference line 8lb, representative
antenna “a. To summarize, the phase meters
of zero energization of the coil BI, is accurately
1 I , ‘l2 and 13 provide indications which de?nitely
indicative of the particular pair of isophase lines
fix in three dimensions the position of the wave
41 relative to which the antenna “a is disposed.
collecting antenna “a in space and hence iden
Further, the setting of the potentiometer 82 as
tify the geographic position of this antenna as
determined by the angular position of the rotor
well as the elevation thereof relative to a known
element in the phase meter ‘H establishes a given
datum elevation such, for example, as sea level.
current flow through the galvanometer coil 84 to
As described above, the rotatable indicating
produce a straight line trace 84a on the record
elements of the three phase meters ‘H, 12 and
strip ‘I5 which is displaced from the reference
13 are arranged to control the settings of the
line “b a distance directly representative of the
six potentiometers ‘I9, 82, 88, 9|, 91 and HID.
phase indication provided by the phase meter ‘II.
Hence as the settings of the phase meter in
In a similar manner, the phase meters 12 and
dicating elements are changed, the magnitudes
13 cause straight line traces 90a, 93a, 89a and »
of current ?ow through the respective asociated
102a to be produced on the record strip 15 during
galvanometer coils BI, 84, 90, 93, 99 and I02 are
each recording operation which are respectively
correspondingly changed to produce correspond
spaced from their associated reference lines 902)a
ing changes in the settings of the galvanometer
9315.!” and'lMb by distances accurately in-'
mirrors respectively associated with these coils. 70 dicative of the lane and phase indications pro
Thus the system is so arranged that the six in
vided by the two phase meters and their respec
dications necessary to determine in three dimen
tive associated scale and pointer assemblies. 4
sions the position of the wave collecting antenna
Thus by operating the recorder 14 for a very
“a. in space may be recorded by the recorder
short interval as each shot and detector point is
40 on the same record strip 15 as the seismic 1| located. a pictorial record is produced on the
17
2,513,319
record strip 15 which may readily be interpreted
to provide all of the necessary position and ele
vation information regarding the set-up made
prior to a shooting operation.
‘
18
said position ?nding apparatus for governing
said recording apparatus to produce a, record on
said record element of the geographic location at
which said ?rst-named record is produced on said
After the explosive charge is located at the shot 5
record element, radio elevation ?nding apparatus,
point and the detectors I03-l04 are located in
and means responsive to operation of said eleva
the proper positions relative to the shot points,
tion ?nding apparatus for governing said record
the explosive charge may be detonated in the
ing apparatus to produce a separate record on said
usual manner to propagate seismic waves through
record element of the earth’s elevation at said
the subsurface structure of the earth. These 10 location.
waves are reflected and refracted from strata in
4. In a system of geophysical prospecting, pros
terfaces and the like to be detected by the de
specting apparatus including means for producing
tectors I03—l04. The detected waves are con
an electrical signal representative of a character~
verted into corresponding electrical signals by
istic
of the earth’s subsurface structure, radio ele
the detectors l03—l04 in the usual manner and 15 vation
?nding apparatus including means for pro
these signals are ampli?ed by the ampli?ers
ducing an electrical signal at least partially rep
lB5-l06 and impressed upon the galvanometer
resentative of earth’s elevation above said subsur
coils l?‘l-I08 of the recorder 14. This recorder
face structure, and recording means responsive to
is operated continuously during the shooting op—
said
?rst and second-named signals for record
eration so that record traces I 01a~l08a are pro 20 ing said signals on a common record element.
duced on the record strip 15 which pictorially
5. In a system of geophysical prospecting, pros
depict the detected seismic waves. Concurrently
pecting apparatus including means for producing
with recording of the seismic wave trains picked
an electrical signal representative of a charac
up by the detectors IB3-IM, the traces Bla, 84a,
teristic of the earth’s subsurface structure, radio
90a, 93a, 99a and IBM are again produced on the 25 elevation
?nding apparatus including means for,
record strip to identify the location of the wave
producing an electrical signal at least partially
collecting antenna 44a during the shooting op
representative of earth’s elevation above said sub
eration. After the record is thus completed, it
surface structure, radio position ?nding appa
may be severed from the record strip supply roll,
ratus for producing an electrical signal at least
developed and interpreted, with all of the neces 30 partially
representative of the geographic loca
sary information regarding the geographic loca
tion
of
said
subsurface structure, and-recording
tions and elevations of the shot and detector
means responsive to said signals for recording
points being portrayed on the same record on
said signals on a common record element. '
which the seismic information is recorded.
6. In a system of geophysical prospecting, a
While one embodiment of the invention has
been described, it will be understood that various
modi?cations may be made therein which are
within the true spirit and scope of the invention
as de?ned in the appended claims.
What is claimed is:
1. In a system of geophysical prospecting, re
cording apparatus including means for driving a
movable record element, prospecting apparatus
including means for activating said recording
apparatus to produce a record on said record
element representative of a characteristic of the
earth’s subsurface structure, radio elevation ?nd
ing apparatus, and means responsive to operation
of said elevation ?nding apparatus for governing
recorder including record producing elements
adapted to be separately activated to produce
separate records on a common record element,
prospecting apparatus including means for ac
tivating one of said elements in accordance with
a signal representative of a characteristic of the
earth’s subsurface structure, and radio elevation
?nding apparatus including means for activating
another of said elements in accordance with a
signal at least partially representative of the
earth’s elevation at a point above said subsurface
structure.
'7. In a system of geophysical prospecting, a
recorder including record producing elements
adapted to be separately activated to produce
said recording apparatus to produce a record on 50
separate records on a common record element,
said record element of the earth’s elevation at
the location at which said ?rst-named record is
prospecting apparatus including means for ac
tivating one of said elements in accordance with
a signal representative of a characteristic of the
produced on said record element.
2. In a system of geophysical prospecting, re
subsurface structure, radio elevation ?nd
cording apparatus including means for driving a 55 earth’s
ing apparatus including means for activating an
movable record element, prospecting apparatus
other of said elements in accordance with a sig
including means for activating said recording ap
paratus to produce a record on said record ele
ment representative of a characteristic of the
nal at least partially representative of the earth’s
‘elevation at a point above said subsurface struc
ture, and radio position ?nding apparatus‘ in--"
earth’s subsurface structure, radio position and 60 cluding means for activating still another of
elevation ?nding apparatus, and means respon
sive to operation of said position and elevation
said elements in accordance with a signal at least
?nding apparatus for governing said recording
tion of said point.
‘ apparatus to produce records on said record ele
partially representative of the geographic loca
JAMES E. HAWKINS.
ment indicating the location at which said ?rst
named record is produced on said record element
and the earth’s elevation atsaid location.
REFERENCES crrnn
The following references are of record in the
?le of this patent:
movable record element, prospecting apparatus 70
UNITED STATES PATENTS
including means for activating said recording
Number
Name
Date
3. In a system of geophysical prospecting, re
cording apparatus including means for driving a
apparatus to produce a record on said record
element representative of a characteristic of the
earth’s subsurface structure, radio position ?nd~
ing apparatus, means responsive to operation of 76
1,706.066
Karcher __________ __Mar. 19, 1929
1,843,725
2,148,267
Karcher __________ _._ Feb. 2, 1932
Honore __________ __ Feb. 21, 1939
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