close

Вход

Забыли?

вход по аккаунту

?

Патент USA US2834853

код для вставки
May 13, 1958
R. N. AUGER
CONTROL APPARATUS
2,834,843
Filed Dec. 1, 1955
INVENTOR
RAYMOND IV. AUGER
BY M ,L M
ATTORNEYS
United States Patent
1
1
IC€
2,834,843
Patented May 13, less
o
All
a predetermined extent, the link serves to trip one or the
2,834,843
CONTROL APPARATUS
Raymond N. Auger, New York, N. Y.
Application December 1, 1955, Serial No. 550,264
14 Claims. (Cl. 200-17)
This invention relates to control apparatus, and more
particularly, to apparatus for controlling the application
of power.
In the design of machines of various types, it is some
times necessary to employ apparatus for amplifying the
torque or force of a signal in order that the signal may
be utilized in the desired manner. Such mechanisms
are sometimes referred to as torque ampli?ers. They
are useful wherever a low torque source is called upon
to drive a relatively high torque device.
Another factor which is sometimes encountered in
the design of machinery is the necessity for utilizing the
movement of a driving member to produce a stepped
or intermittent movement in a driven member. This
other of the latches. Then movement of the output
shaft in response to the release of power returns the con
trol link to its neutral position.
A better understanding of the invention and its many
objects and advantages will be gained from a considera
tion of the following detailed description of an embodi
ment thereof illustrated in the accompanying drawings
in which:
10
Fig. 1 is a diagrammatic perspective view of a rotary
switch and torque ampli?er according to the invention;
and
Fig. 2 is a vertical sectional view taken approximately
along the axes of the output and input shafts in Fig. 1.
In the drawings, the numeral 2 indicates a switch
plate which may be of any known form. The switch
plate 2 carries a plurality of pairs of contacts 4 and 6,
spaced angularly about the central axis thereof. The
contacts 4 and 6 of each pair are spaced from each other,
as indicated by the numeral 8, so that a circuit, of which
the contacts of the pair are a part, normally is open.
However, the contacts 4 and 6 of a pair may be bridged
by a rotary switch element ill to complete the circuit.
It is contemplated that a plurality of circuits be as
sociated with the several pairs of contacts 4 and 6 to be
controlled thereby. Hence, it will be seen that the angular
position of the rotary switch element 10 determines
which of the various circuits will be closed. This rela
type of conversion is desirable, for example, in apparatus
tionship is common to various known switching devices,
for driving a rotary switch. The steps of the output 30 and it will be evident to persons skilled in the art that the
motion may be made to correspond in extent to the
switching apparatus illustrated is merely an example of
spacing of the contacts of the switch so that rotary ele
many to which the present invention is applicable. The
ment will never stop intermediate adjacent contacts even
known shaft-input analog-to-digital converters are simi
though the input or driving movement may be irregular.
lar, and they constitute commercially important examples.
It is an object of the present invention to provide a
The rotary switching element 10 is ?xed, as by means
force or torque ampli?er which can be produced eco
nomically and which will be durable and efficient in
operation.
Another object of this invention is to provide simple
and reliable apparatus for converting input movements
into a series of stepped output movements.
A more speci?c object of this invention is to provide
a mechanical torque ampli?er having a stepped output
of a set screw 12, to an output shaft 14 of a torque
ampli?er. The output shaft 14 is mounted for rotation
in spaced apart frame members 16 and 18, and is driven.
by means of an output differential designated generally
by the numeral 20.
The output differential 20 includes a ?rst rotatable
member 22, mounted for rotation relative to the output
shaft 14 on a suitable bearing 24, and a second rotatable
and being capable of operation in either direction of
rotation.
Still another object of this invention is to provide
switching apparatus in which the movable element is
member 26, mounted for rotation relative to the output
shaft 14 on a suitable bearing 28. The member 22 includes
driven in stepped fashion to cooperate with a plurailty
of spaced contacts.
a notched wheel 34 and a gear 36 spaced
The gears 32 and 36 are in engagement with
or spider gear 38, rotatably mounted on a
40 which is welded or otherwise secured at
notched or toothed wheel 30 and a gear 32 spaced from
the notched wheel 30. The member 26 is similar in that
it includes
therefrom.
50
The foregoing objects are accomplished according to
a follower
one embodiment of the invention by the provision of
radial arm
a plurality of contacts spaced angularly about an axis,
a rotary switch element cooperating with such contacts
to complete different ones of a plurality of circuits, and
a torque ampli?er for driving the rotary switch element.
The torque ampli?er has an output shaft adapted to be
rotated in one direction or the other by means of an out
put differential which includes two sources of mechanical
power and means for releasing one or the other of these
sources for predetermined amounts of angular move
ment. The release of power is accomplished by the use
of latches and notched wheels. The latches normally
prevent rotation of the notched wheels, but they may be
released when desired.
The tripping of the latches is accomplished by a con
trol link which is movable under the in?uence of an in
its inner end to the output shaft 14.
Forces are applied to the rotatable members 22 and
r 26 tending to rotate these members in opposite directions.
In the illustrated embodiment of the invention, such
forces are applied by power means in the form of weights
42 and 44 attached to the members 22 and 26 by flexible
cords 46 and 48 wound about the central portions of
the members 22 and 26 in opposite directions.
This particular power means was selected for. illus
tration because of its simplicity. It should be under
stood, however, that other power means may be employed
if desired. For example, solenoid-wound springs, par
ticularly those employing the one-pulse solenoid winding
common in automobile clocks, would be quite suitable
for use in place of the illustrated weights 42 and 44.
put differential. The input differential compares the
Mainspring winding without interruption of operation
angular position of an input shaft with the angular posi
may be accomplished by using two springs in series and
tion of the output shaft, and any difference in such posi 70 applying the re-wind torque between them.
tions causes movement of the control link from its neutral
Cooperating with the notched wheels 30 and 34 of the
position. When the movement of the control link is of
rotatable members 22 and 26 are a pair of stop means or
2,834,843
3
4I
-'
latches 50 and 52, mounted for independent pivotal move
ment upon a stationary shaft 54 extending between'the
frame portions 16 and 18. Normally, the latches 50
and 52 are biased, respectively, by springs 56 and 58,
into holding engagement with the notched 'wheels'30'and"
34. With the parts in this position, no power ‘is applied “
spider gear 38 drives the radial arm 40 about the axis
of the output shaft 14'to cause the output‘ shaft“ to ro
tate in a clockwise direction in Fig. 1. This clockwise
rotation of the output shaft is transmitted through the
dead-space coupling 86 to the feedback shaft 82, and
hence, to the feedback gear 78, which serves to return
the input spider gear 72 to its original position.
to the output shaft 14, and the rotary switchele‘ment' 10 "
If it is assumed that the inputshaft 92 is rotated in a
remains stationary.
counterclockwisedirection, as viewed in Fig. l, the oper
Extending between the latches 50 and 52 is a portion
of a control link or trip arm 60. One 'end portion of. "10 ation will be very similar to that described above, except
as to directions and. except that 'thetlatch50 instead of
the control link 60'is ?xed, by welding or otherwise, to‘
the latch 52, will be. released by the control link 60.
a collar 62 which is rotatably mounted upon the output;
The operation of the torque ampli?er in response to
shaft 14 by means of a bearing 64. The collar '62,is
other types of input will‘not vary materially from that
biased to an angular position in which the control arm
60'is in a neutral position between the two latches 50 " '
and 52 by means of a Weight 66. The weight 66 is ad
justably mounted, as by means of a set screw 68, on a
rod 70 ?xed to the collar 62 at a point opposite the con
trol link 60'. By changing the distance of the weight 66
from the axis of rotation of the collar 62, the bias of
the link 60 may be regulated.
.
described above. If, for example, the input is in the form
of continuous rotation, the output shaft 14 will move in
a series of steps like the step described above, with the
appropriate one of the latches 50 or 52 being alternately
released ‘from and applied to the notched wheel cooperat
ing therewith.
It should be noted at this point that, whatever the
The other end of the control link 60 has rotatably
mounted thereon a spider or follower gear 72, which is
nature of the input may be, the output shaft‘ 14 moves
The feedback gear 78 is attached, as by means of a set
the positions of the pairs of contacts‘4 and 6. This type
only in quick steps of de?nite angular extent correspond
a part ofan input differential designated generally by the 25 ing to the spacing of the notches on the wheels 30 and
34. Therefore, the rotary switch element 10 moves
numeral74. The spider gear 72 engages both a drive
rapidly between positions which correspond exactly with
gear 76 and a feedback gear 78.
of operation is highly advantageous .in ‘that arcing is min
imized
and ‘reliability is enhanced.
member 84. The feedback shaft‘ 82 is coupled to the 30
The stepped or digital output of the torque ampli?er
output shaft 14 by means of a dead-space coupling 86
screw 80,'to a feedback'shaft 82, supported by a frame
of any suitable design. Couplings of this type are well
known in theart and need not be described in detail in
this application. In the drawings, a space 88 has been
shown to suggest the lag produced by the dead-space cou
pling between motion of the output shaft and motion of
the feedback shaft.
In order to prevent thefeedback gear 78 from moving,
of this invention is of particular signi?cance. in many
applications other than the rotary, switching apparatus.
For example, it may be used to drive counter mecha
nisms in such'a way that they show only full numerals,
to position analog components to precise points, or to
operate light-duty valves directly from pressure or tem
perature sensers.
Since various‘ modi?cations and alterations will be ap
except when driven by the output shaft 14 through the
dead-space coupling 86, a spring 89 is attached to the 40 parent to persons skilled in the art,.the foregoing detailed
description of an embodiment of the present invention
frame of the apparatus and arranged to bear against the
is intended as an example only. The scope of the inven
periphery ofv the gear 78. The spring 89 cooperates with
tion isto be ascertained from the following claims.
the surface of the gear 78 to frictionally resist rotation
of the gear 78.
This frictional resistance is su?icient to .
hold the gear 78 stationary,v except when the gear is
driven by the output shaft- 14.
The drive gear 76 is ?xed, as by means of a set screw.
90, to an input shaft 92, mounted for rotation in a frame.
portion 94. The input shaft 92.may be driven by any
I claim:
1; The combination which comprises a movable mem
ber, a source-of mechanically stored energy operatively
connected ‘to said member and applying a-force to said
member tending to cause said member to move, stop
~ means movable between a ?rst position in which it con
suitable means. Forthe sake of simplicity, the illustrated 50 tacts said member to prevent movement of the member
and a second position in which it is out of contact with
said member, means for moving saidv stop means from
said ‘?rst position to said second position to free said
movable member for motion under the in?uence of the
force applied by said source of mechanically stored
indicia 100 on the face of the frame member 94.
energy, and means operable in response to movement of
The operation of the illustrated. embodiment of the
said movable member for returning said stop means to
invention now will be described in detail. Assuming
said ?rst position.
?rst that the input shaft 92 is rotated in a clockwise direc
2. The combination which comprises arotatable mem
tion, as viewed in Fig. 1. It will be evidentv that the
ber,
21 sourcegof mechanicallystored energy for applying
angular movement of the drive .gear 76 will:tend tocause 60
a force tending to rotate said member, stop-means mount
the spider 72 to walk or move about the axis of the sta
ed adjacent said member for movement between a ?rst
tionary feedback gear 78.
.
position in which. it is in holding engagement with any
As the spider gear 72 moves 'in this fashion, it, carries
one of a plurality of angularly spaced portions of the
with it the control link.60' in a clockwise direction, as
surface of said member to prevent rotation thereof and
viewed in Fig. 1, into a positionin which the control .link
a second position in which it is out of holding engage
60 causes the latch 52 to pivot about the shaft 54 in a
ment with respect to said member, means for moving said
clockwise direction. It can be assumed for the purposes-.:
stop means from said ?rst position to said second posi
of this description that movement of theinput shaft 92
tion to free said member for angular movement under
ceases at this instant.
the in?uence of said force, and ‘means operating in re
When the ‘latch 52 releases its hold on .the.notched
sponse to angular movement of said member for return
wheel 34, the weight 44 begins to descend, causing the
ing said stop means to said‘?rst position.
‘
rotatable member 26 to rotate in a clockwise direction.
3. The combination which comprises a movable mem
The gear 36 then moves the-follower or spider gear 38"
embodiment contemplates that the input shaft 92 may
be moved manually. For this purpose, the end of the
shaft 92 is provided with a knob 96 having-a pointer 98
associated therewith and arranged 1 to cooperate with
aboutits axis to cause such gear to move bodily ‘or walk
along the stationary gear 32.1 Bodily .movement of the
ber having a plurality of teeth‘ thereon, a source of me
chanically stored energyv operatively connected ‘to said
5
2,834,843
member for applying a force thereto tending to move
said member, latch means mounted adjacent the path of
6
said mechanism comprising a ?rst rotatable member, a
second rotatable member, power means operatively con
movement of said teeth for movement between a ?rst
nected to said members for applying forces thereto tend
position in which it is in holding engagement with at
ing to rotate each of said members, ?rst stop means
least one of said teeth to prevent movement of said mem UK movable between a ?rst position to which it is normally
ber and a second position in which it is out of holding
engagement with said teeth, means for moving said latch
means from said ?rst position to said second position
to free said movable member for movement under the
biased and in which it is in holding engagement with
said ?rst rotatable member to prevent rotation thereof
and a second position in which it is out of holding en
gagement with said ?rst rotatable member, second stop
influence of the force applied by said source of mechan 10 means movable between a ?rst position to which it is
ically stored energy, and means operable in response to
normally biased and in which it is in holding engagement
movement of said movable member for returning said
with said second rotatable member to prevent rotation
latch means to said ?rst position.
thereof and a second position in which it is out of hold
4. Switching apparatus comprising a plurality of con—
ing engagement with said second rotatable member, a
tacts mounted in angularly spaced relation about an axis, 15 control element movable along a path and being effec
an element mounted for angular movement about said
tive when moved to one end only of said path to move
axis for cooperation with selected ones of said contacts,
said ?rst stop means from its ?rst to its second position
a rotatable member for moving said element, means for
and effective when moved to the other end only of said
applying a force tending to rotate said member, stop
path to move said second stop means from its ?rst to
means mounted adjacent said member for movement be 20 its second position, means connecting said ?rst and sec
tween a ?rst position in which it is in holding engage
ond members to said shaft for rotating said shaft in
ment with any one of a plurality of angularly spaced
one direction upon rotation of said ?rst member and in
portions of the surface of said member to prevent rota
the opposite direction upon rotation of said second mem
tion thereof and a second position in which it is out of
ber, means for moving said control element along said
holding engagement with respect to said member, means
path to move either of said stop means from its ?rst to
for moving said stop means from said ?rst position to
its second position, and means for returning said control
said second position to free said member for angular
element to the central portion of its path in response to
movement under the influence of said force, and means
rotation of said shaft.
operating in response to angular movement of said
8. Switching apparatus comprising a plurality of con
member for returning said stop means to said ?rst posi
tacts mounted in angularly spaced relation about an axis,
tion.
an element mounted for movement about said axis to a
5. The combination which comprises a rotatable mem
plurality of angularly spaced positions for cooperation
ber, means for applying a force tending to rotate said
with selected ones of said contacts, a shaft for driving
member, stop means mounted adjacent said member for
said element, ?rst and second rotatable members each
movement between a ?rst position in which it is in hold
having a series of angularly spaced notches extending
ing engagement with any one of aplurality of angularly
about the axis of rotation thereof, means for applying
spaced portions of the surface of said member to pre
forces to said members tending to rotate said members,
vent rotation thereof, and a second position in which it
?rst and second latches associated respectively with the
is out of holding engagement with respect to said member,
notches of said ?rst and second rotatable members,
means biasing said stop means toward said ?rst posi
means connecting said ?rst and second members to said
tion, a rotatable feedback element operatively connected
shaft for rotating said shaft in one direction upon rota
to said rotatable member, a rotatable drive element,
tion of said ?rst member and in the opposite direction
means engaging said elements and movable thereby in
upon rotation of said second member, and control means
accordance with differences in the angular velocities of
for said latches operable to release either of said latches
said elements, and a control link connected to the last
to free the corresponding rotatable member for angular
mentioned means for moving said stop means from its
movement under the influence of said force and then to
?rst to_its second position upon angular movement of
re-apply such latch to such rotatable member in response
said drive element to free said member for angular move
to angular movement of said shaft.
ment and for permitting the return of said stop means to
9. The combination which comprises a rotatable out
its ?rst position upon angular movement of said feed 50 put shaft; an output differential including ?rst and second
back element.
rotatable members and means connected thereto for move
6. A torque ampli?er comprising an output shaft, ?rst
ment in accordance with any difference in the angular
and second rotatable members each having a series of
velocities of said members, said means being operatively
angularly spaced notches extending about the axis of
connected to said shaft; power means for applying forces
rotation thereof, mechanical power means for applying
to said members tending to rotate them in opposite di
forces to said members tending to rotate them, ?rst and
rections; ?rst stop means mounted for piovtal movement
second latches associated respectively with said ?rst and
between a ?rst position to which it is normally biased
‘second rotatable members for normally holding said
and in which it is in holding engagement with said ?rst
members stationary, means connecting said ?rst and
member to prevent rotation thereof and a second posi
second members to said shaft for rotating said shaft in 60 tion in which it is out of holding engagement with said
one direction upon rotation of said ?rst member and
?rst member; second stop means mounted for pivotal
in the opposite direction upon rotation of said second
movement about a pivotal axis extending in substantially
member, a rotatable feedback element, a dead-space cou—
the same direction as the pivotal axis of said ?rst stop
pling between said feedback element and said output
means, said second stop means being movable between a
shaft, a rotatable drive element, means engaging said
?rst position to which it is normally biased and in which
elements movable thereby in accordance with dilferences
it is in holding engagement with said second member to
in the angular velocities of said elements, and a control
prevent rotation thereof and a second position in which
link connected to the last~mentioned means for releas
it is out of holding engagement with said second member;
ing either of said latches upon angular movement of said
drive element to free the corresponding rotatable mem 70 an input differential including a movable drive element,
a movable feedback element connected to'said output
ber for angular movement under the influence of said
shaft, and means connected to said elements for move
force and for permitting such latch to be re-applied upon
ment in accordance with any difference in the velocities
angular movement of said feedback element.
7. The combination with a rotatable shaft of a mecha
of said elements; and a control link connected to the
nism for controlling the angular movement of said shaft, 75 last-mentioned means for movement along a path be
2,834,843
7
tween said step means for moving each of said stop means
separately from its ?rst to its second position.
10. A torque ampli?er comprising a rotatable output
shaft, ?rst and second members rotatably mounted on
said shaft in spaced apart relation, an arm ?xed to said
shaft and extending radially therefrom in the space be
tween said members, a gear mounted on said arm for ro
tation about an axis perpendicular to the axis of said out
put shaft, said ?rst and second members each having
teeth thereon in engagement with the teeth of said gear
and also having a series of regularly spaced notches ex
tending around the circumference thereof, power means
for applying forces to said members tending to rotate
them in opposite directions, a ?rst latch pivotally mount
ed adjacent the path of the notches on said ?rst member,
a second latch pivotally mounted adjacent the path of the
notches on said second member, the pivotal axes of said
latches being spaced from and parallel to the axis of said
output shaft, means biasing each of said latches toward
a position in which a portion thereof engages one of said
notches, a trip arm mounted for angular movement about
the axis of said output shaft and including a ?rst portion
located between portions of said latches spaced from the
pivotal axes thereof and a second portion extending ra
dially toward the extended axis of said output shaft at a
point beyond an end of said output shaft, means biasing
said trip arm toward a neutral position in which it is
spaced from both of said latches, a gear rotatably mount
8
means mounted adjacent the path of movement of said
teeth for movement between a ?rst position in which it is
in holding engagement with at least one of said teeth to
prevent movement of said member and a second position
in which it is out of holding engagement with said teeth,
means biasing said stop means toward said ?rst position,
means for supplying an input signal, means operatively
connected to said movable member for supplying a feed
back signal corresponding to the extent of movement of
10 said member, and control means responsive to both of
said signais for moving said stop means to its second po
sition in response to an input signal of predetermined
magnitude and for permitting the return of said step
means to its ?rst position in response to a feedback signal
corresponding to a movement of said movable member
equal to the distance between successive teeth thereon.
13. A servo-mechanism comprising a rotatable output
shaft, ?rst and second rotatable members each having a
series of angularly spaced teeth extending about the axis
of rotation thereof, means for mechanically storing
energy operatively connected to said members to apply
forces thereto tending to rotate said members, ?rst and
second stop means cooperating respectively with the
teeth on said ?rst and second members, each of said
stop means being biased toward a ?rst position in which
it is in holding engagement with at least one tooth on
a rotatable member but being movable to a second posi
tion in which it is out of holding engagement with re
spect to such member, means operatively connecting said
ed on said second portion of said trip arm above and for
rotation about an axis perpendicular to the extended axis 30 ?rst and second rotatable members to said output shaft
of said output shaft, a feedback gear and a drive gear
mounted in spaced apart relation for rotation about the
extended axis of said output shaft and engaging the gear
on said trip arm, a dead-space coupling connecting said
feedback gear to said output shaft, and an input shaft
?xed to said drive gear.
11. The combination which comprises a rotatable
member, means for applying a force tending to rotate
said member, stop means mounted adjacent said member
for rotating said shaft in one direction upon rotation of
said ?rst member and in the opposite direction upon r0
tation of said second member, means for supplying an
input signal, means operatively connected to said output
shaft for supplying a feedback signal corresponding to
the extent of angular movement of said output shaft, and
control means responsive to both of said signals for mov
ing either of said stop means to its second position in
response to an input signal of predetermined magnitude
for movement between a ?rst position in which it is in 40 and for permitting the return of such stop means to its
?rst position in response to a feedback signal correspond
holding engagement with the surface of said member to
ing to the output shaft movement produced by move
prevent rotation thereof and a second position in which
ment of one of said rotatable members through an angu
it is out of holding engagement with respect to said mem
lar distance corresponding to the space vbetween suc
ber, means biasing said step means toward said ?rst po
cessive teeth thereon.
sition, control means for moving said stop means to Said
14. The combination which comprises a movable
second position, said control means including a control
member, a source of mechanically stored energy opera
element movable between a normal ?rst position in which
tively connected to said member and continuously ap
said control means is not effective to move said step
plying a force to said member tending to cause said
means and a second position in which said control means
is effective to position said stop means in its second posi
tion, means for supplying an input signal to said control
means, means operatively connected to said rotatable
member to move, stop means movable between a ?rst
position in which it contacts said member to prevent
movement of the member and a second position in which
it is out of contact with said member, means for mov
member for supplying a feedback signal to said control
means corresponding to the extent of movement of said or Cl ing said stop means from said ?rst position to said sec
rotatable member, and means responsive to both of said ; ond positionto free said movable member for motion
under the influence of the force applied by said source
signals for moving said control element, whereby, when
of mechanically stored energy, and means operable in
an input signal of predetermined magnitude is supplied to
response to movement of said movable member for re
said control means, said control element will move to
said second position thereof and said stop means will (30 turning said stop means to said ?rst position.
move to said second position thereof to permit movement
References Cited in the ?le of this patent
of said rotatable member under the in?uence of said
UNITED STATES PATENTS
force, which movement will cause a feedback signal to be
fed to said control means to return said control element
1,377,844
2,078,161
McCutchen et al. ____ __ May 10, 1921
Rietsch _____________ __ Apr. 20, 1937
thereon, a source of mechanically stored energy opera
2,266,237
2,542,088
2,551,943
Newell _____________ __ Dec. 16, 1941
Krieger _____________ __ Feb. 20, 1951
Gulow ______________ __ May 8, 1951
tively connected to said member for continuously apply
ing a force thereto tending to move said member, stop
2,625,619
2,738,390
Rigert ______________ __ Jan. 13, 1953
Bentley _____________ __ Mar. 13, 1956
to said normal ?rst position thereof.
12. In a servo~mechanism, the combination which
comprises a movable member having a plurality of teeth
Документ
Категория
Без категории
Просмотров
0
Размер файла
821 Кб
Теги
1/--страниц
Пожаловаться на содержимое документа