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Патент USA US2837982

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June 10, 1958
2,837,972
J. R. KNOWLES
ACCESSORY FOR METAL CUTTING MACHINES
Filed Feb. 17, 1955
FIGS
F162.
INVENTOR.
JOSEP? Russgm. KNQWL£s >
BY
:ATT ORNEY
United States Patent 0 ”
C6
_
'
2,837,972
Patented June 10, 1958
1
2
2,837,972 '_
?uid is discharged downwardly over, the cutting tool 11
(here shown in transverse section) has mounted thereon
a liquid distributor which comprises a frusto-conical de—
?ector 12 formed with a tubular extension 13 by which
it is secured to the pipe 10. An annular ?ange 14 on
ACCESSORY FOR METAL CUTTING MACHINES
the tubular extension 13 supports an inverted cup-like
cap 15, the depending rim of which extends to within a
Joseph’ Russell Knowles, London, England, assignor to
Gulf Research & Development Company, Pittsburgh,
short distance of the frusto-conical member 12 thereby ‘
Pa., a corporation of Delaware
providing a circular slit ori?ce 16 at the periphery of
Application February 17, 1955, Serial No. 488,952
1 Claim. (Cl. 90-11)
the cap.
'
'
A cutting liquid supply pipe 17, which may be a branch
of pipe 10 leading from a single source, enters the cap
15. Another pipe 18 passes through the cap 15 and the
frusto-conical member 12, and connects with a pump or
This invention relates to an accessory for metal cutting
other suction creating device (not shown).
machines, having as its object the con?nement and re
moval of smoke and fumes which are produced in the
In order to avoid collapse of the con?ning liquid cur
tain 19 when suction is applied, and especially if the cur
tain closes at bottom in bubble form, air is admitted to
the enclosed space through a pipe 20 which passes through
operation of a lathe, milling machine or the like when a
?uid. coolant comes into contact with the highly heated
cutting tool.
the cap and -frusto-conical member and extends to a low
Oils and other ?uids are commonly used with the view
point within the curtain adjacent the cutting tool 11.
The ?ow of air around the cutting tool thus assists in
‘to facilitating the cutting operation by cooling and lubri
cation, to reduce wear on the tool and improve the ?nish ‘
cooling chip 21 over which the large, low pressure stream
of the work. The cutting edge of the tool becomes highly
heated in use, but since it is shielded by a continuously ‘
formed chip of metal being removed from the work, an
overhead stream of coolant such as is usually employed
?ows over the chip and is de?ected so that it bathes the
tool at some distance back of the cutting edge, little of
it reaching the region of highest heat where it is most
needed. Nevertheless, both the chip and tool shank are
sufficiently hot to produce irritating smoke on contact
with the liquid, and the emission of smoke is frequently
so profuse that exhaust systems and various other costly
installations are required for alleviation of the nuisance.
of liquid discharges. Cooling of the cutting edge of the
tool is, however, principally effected by a small, high
speed jet of the cutting liquid which is discharged in
upward direction from nozzle 22 through the clearance
space between the tool and work piece 23. This jet
strikes with high impact effect in the region of extreme
heat and with accompanying generation of smoke and
vapors. These are confined within the enveloping liquid
curtain and are sucked away through pipe 18, being there
upon displacmi by air which is admitted through pipe 20.
The direction of ?ow is shown by arrows in the drawings.
In the modi?ed form of invention shown in Figure 3
the central pipe 24, which passes through the tubular ex
Where a thin, high speed jet of the ?uid is projected
upwardly from beneath the tool into the wedge-shaped
tension 13 of frusto-conical de?ector 12, serves as the
clearance space between ‘the tool and work, that is, from
smoke eduction conduit, such pipe being connected ‘by
the under or cut side of the chip, the smoke problem is
a T-?tting 25 to an angularly disposed pipe 26 in which
40
heightened for here the ?uid penetrates effectively to the
an injector nozzle 27 is mounted. Fluid ?owing from
cutting edge which is at maximum temperature and con
the nozzle 27 draws the smoke into pipe 24 and entrains
sequently more smoke is produced.
it in the ?uid which is discharged in the direction of the
While it is to :be understood that my invention is not
arrow, thereby creating suction within the liquid envelope
limited in its application to the system last referred to,
19 and drawing in air through breaks which may occur
it is described in such relation for purposes of illustration.
Generally speaking, the present invention provides a ’
means for evacuating smoke from within a ‘bubble-like
in its lower portion where the liquid ?ows over the ma
chine and work piece, especially if the liquid has low sur
face tension and lacks a tendency to draw into bubble
curtain of ?owing liquid which surrounds both the cutting
shape.
end of the tool and the contiguous portion of the work.
A tube which projects into the con?ned space is connected 7
In this form of the invention, as in that previously
to a suction means and serves to draw o? the smoke as
described, the primary application of cutting ?uid is by
rapidly as it is formed. Where the curtain is completely
the small high speed jet projected from nozzle 22 to the
cutting edge of tool 11. Larger streams, in addition, ?ow
closed and in the form of a bubble, or even where it is
parted in ?ow over some projection on the machine, or
downwardly over the chip 21, these being discharged
through tubes 28 and 29 which extend through the liq
uid distributor and terminate within the enclosed space
is torn by chips thrown outwardly from the work, an
additional tube terminating near the cutting end of the
tool may be employed to admit air which serves the dual
closely adjacent the tool.
purpose of assisting in cooling the tool and in preventing
inward collapse of the liquid wall under suction.
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I claim:
In a smoke suppressing system for machine tools hav
‘
The invention is shown in the accompanying draw 60
ing a downwardly ?aring liquid distributor from which
a curtain of liquid ?ows to surround the end of the cutting
Figure l is a side view, partly in vertical section, show
tool and the contiguous portion of a work piece, the com
ing the invention applied to a lathe and used in associa
bination therewith of a smoke eduction pipe extending
tion with both an overhead stream of coolant and an up
through the distributor inwardly of its periphery and ter—
wardly projected, thin jet of the coolant.
65
minating within the space con?ned by the liquid curtain,
’ Figure 2 is a bottom view of the liquid distributor.
Figure 3 is a side view, partly in vertical section, show
and a second pipe extending through the distributor in
ing a modi?ed form of the invention in which the smoke
wardly of its periphery for admitting air to the space
eduction pipe is centrally located and a plurality of pipes
con?ned by the liquid curtain, said second pipe terminat- '
ings wherein,
carry overhead streams of coolant to the tool.
Referring more particularly to the drawings, and ?rst
to Figure l, a pipe 10 from which oil or other cutting
70
ing nearby the cutting tool.
(References on following page)
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2,837,972
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References Cited in the file of this patent
2,716,914
Pigott ________________ _._ Sept. 6, 1955
UNITED STATES PATENTS
2,716,915
Bibel‘ --‘ -------------- _- Sept 6, 1955
2,093,478
Partsch ______________ __ Sept. 21, 1937
2,361,861
Masowich ____________ __ Oct. 31, ‘1944 5
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OTHER REFERENCES
Hi-Iet System for Increasing Tool Life, by R. J. S.
Pigott and A. T. Colwell. Pages 23-24 relied on.
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