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June 10, 1958 2,837,972 J. R. KNOWLES ACCESSORY FOR METAL CUTTING MACHINES Filed Feb. 17, 1955 FIGS F162. INVENTOR. JOSEP? Russgm. KNQWL£s > BY :ATT ORNEY United States Patent 0 ” C6 _ ' 2,837,972 Patented June 10, 1958 1 2 2,837,972 '_ ?uid is discharged downwardly over, the cutting tool 11 (here shown in transverse section) has mounted thereon a liquid distributor which comprises a frusto-conical de— ?ector 12 formed with a tubular extension 13 by which it is secured to the pipe 10. An annular ?ange 14 on ACCESSORY FOR METAL CUTTING MACHINES the tubular extension 13 supports an inverted cup-like cap 15, the depending rim of which extends to within a Joseph’ Russell Knowles, London, England, assignor to Gulf Research & Development Company, Pittsburgh, short distance of the frusto-conical member 12 thereby ‘ Pa., a corporation of Delaware providing a circular slit ori?ce 16 at the periphery of Application February 17, 1955, Serial No. 488,952 1 Claim. (Cl. 90-11) the cap. ' ' A cutting liquid supply pipe 17, which may be a branch of pipe 10 leading from a single source, enters the cap 15. Another pipe 18 passes through the cap 15 and the frusto-conical member 12, and connects with a pump or This invention relates to an accessory for metal cutting other suction creating device (not shown). machines, having as its object the con?nement and re moval of smoke and fumes which are produced in the In order to avoid collapse of the con?ning liquid cur tain 19 when suction is applied, and especially if the cur tain closes at bottom in bubble form, air is admitted to the enclosed space through a pipe 20 which passes through operation of a lathe, milling machine or the like when a ?uid. coolant comes into contact with the highly heated cutting tool. the cap and -frusto-conical member and extends to a low Oils and other ?uids are commonly used with the view point within the curtain adjacent the cutting tool 11. The ?ow of air around the cutting tool thus assists in ‘to facilitating the cutting operation by cooling and lubri cation, to reduce wear on the tool and improve the ?nish ‘ cooling chip 21 over which the large, low pressure stream of the work. The cutting edge of the tool becomes highly heated in use, but since it is shielded by a continuously ‘ formed chip of metal being removed from the work, an overhead stream of coolant such as is usually employed ?ows over the chip and is de?ected so that it bathes the tool at some distance back of the cutting edge, little of it reaching the region of highest heat where it is most needed. Nevertheless, both the chip and tool shank are sufficiently hot to produce irritating smoke on contact with the liquid, and the emission of smoke is frequently so profuse that exhaust systems and various other costly installations are required for alleviation of the nuisance. of liquid discharges. Cooling of the cutting edge of the tool is, however, principally effected by a small, high speed jet of the cutting liquid which is discharged in upward direction from nozzle 22 through the clearance space between the tool and work piece 23. This jet strikes with high impact effect in the region of extreme heat and with accompanying generation of smoke and vapors. These are confined within the enveloping liquid curtain and are sucked away through pipe 18, being there upon displacmi by air which is admitted through pipe 20. The direction of ?ow is shown by arrows in the drawings. In the modi?ed form of invention shown in Figure 3 the central pipe 24, which passes through the tubular ex Where a thin, high speed jet of the ?uid is projected upwardly from beneath the tool into the wedge-shaped tension 13 of frusto-conical de?ector 12, serves as the clearance space between ‘the tool and work, that is, from smoke eduction conduit, such pipe being connected ‘by the under or cut side of the chip, the smoke problem is a T-?tting 25 to an angularly disposed pipe 26 in which 40 heightened for here the ?uid penetrates effectively to the an injector nozzle 27 is mounted. Fluid ?owing from cutting edge which is at maximum temperature and con the nozzle 27 draws the smoke into pipe 24 and entrains sequently more smoke is produced. it in the ?uid which is discharged in the direction of the While it is to :be understood that my invention is not arrow, thereby creating suction within the liquid envelope limited in its application to the system last referred to, 19 and drawing in air through breaks which may occur it is described in such relation for purposes of illustration. Generally speaking, the present invention provides a ’ means for evacuating smoke from within a ‘bubble-like in its lower portion where the liquid ?ows over the ma chine and work piece, especially if the liquid has low sur face tension and lacks a tendency to draw into bubble curtain of ?owing liquid which surrounds both the cutting shape. end of the tool and the contiguous portion of the work. A tube which projects into the con?ned space is connected 7 In this form of the invention, as in that previously to a suction means and serves to draw o? the smoke as described, the primary application of cutting ?uid is by rapidly as it is formed. Where the curtain is completely the small high speed jet projected from nozzle 22 to the cutting edge of tool 11. Larger streams, in addition, ?ow closed and in the form of a bubble, or even where it is parted in ?ow over some projection on the machine, or downwardly over the chip 21, these being discharged through tubes 28 and 29 which extend through the liq uid distributor and terminate within the enclosed space is torn by chips thrown outwardly from the work, an additional tube terminating near the cutting end of the tool may be employed to admit air which serves the dual closely adjacent the tool. purpose of assisting in cooling the tool and in preventing inward collapse of the liquid wall under suction. ' I claim: In a smoke suppressing system for machine tools hav ‘ The invention is shown in the accompanying draw 60 ing a downwardly ?aring liquid distributor from which a curtain of liquid ?ows to surround the end of the cutting Figure l is a side view, partly in vertical section, show tool and the contiguous portion of a work piece, the com ing the invention applied to a lathe and used in associa bination therewith of a smoke eduction pipe extending tion with both an overhead stream of coolant and an up through the distributor inwardly of its periphery and ter— wardly projected, thin jet of the coolant. 65 minating within the space con?ned by the liquid curtain, ’ Figure 2 is a bottom view of the liquid distributor. Figure 3 is a side view, partly in vertical section, show and a second pipe extending through the distributor in ing a modi?ed form of the invention in which the smoke wardly of its periphery for admitting air to the space eduction pipe is centrally located and a plurality of pipes con?ned by the liquid curtain, said second pipe terminat- ' ings wherein, carry overhead streams of coolant to the tool. Referring more particularly to the drawings, and ?rst to Figure l, a pipe 10 from which oil or other cutting 70 ing nearby the cutting tool. (References on following page) ~ 7 2,837,972 3 . 4 References Cited in the file of this patent 2,716,914 Pigott ________________ _._ Sept. 6, 1955 UNITED STATES PATENTS 2,716,915 Bibel‘ --‘ -------------- _- Sept 6, 1955 2,093,478 Partsch ______________ __ Sept. 21, 1937 2,361,861 Masowich ____________ __ Oct. 31, ‘1944 5 ' OTHER REFERENCES Hi-Iet System for Increasing Tool Life, by R. J. S. Pigott and A. T. Colwell. Pages 23-24 relied on.