close

Вход

Забыли?

вход по аккаунту

?

Патент USA US2863101

код для вставки
Dec. 2, 1958
E. c. DENCH
2,863,092
MAGNETRON OSCILLATORS
Filed Aug. 5, 1953
IMPEDANCE
//
MATCHE'D
'
'
2 Sheets-Sheet 1
52
//7
24
ANODE
VOLTAGE
SUPPLY
7%. /
/
ANODE
‘
so
/
VOLTAGE
SUPPLY
FIG. 2
45
/
ourpur
LOAD
4'7\
44
IMPEDANCE
MATCHED
TERM/M770
IN VENTOR ~
EDWARD C. DENCH
BY
ATTCR/VEY’
Dec. 2, 1958
E. c. DENCH
MAGNETRON OSCILLATORS'
2,863,092
Filed Aug. 5, 1953
2 Sheets-Sheet 2
P-=_'
w
m
Iv)
s”
\N)
g
v
A
5° N,
158 \M
o “
\
/NVENTOI2
EDWARD C. DENCH
5V
gym,
ATTORNEY
United States Patent 0
1
2,863,092
Patented Dec. 2, 1958
2
Referring now to Fig. 1, there is shown an anode struc
ture 10 comprising a metallic cylinder 11. Extending radi
2,863,092
ally inwardly from the. inner surface of anode cylinder
11 is a plurality of anode members 12 comprising sub
MAGNETRON OSCILLATORS
stantially planar rectangular metallic conductors which
Edward ‘C. Dench, Needham, Mass., assignor to Raytheon
Manufacturing Company, Newton, Mass, 21 corpora
tion of Delaware
Application August 5, 1953, Serial No. 372,522
3 Claims.‘ (01. sis-39.3)
are positioned substantially parallel to the axis of anode
cylinder 11. Alternate anode members 12 are connected
at points adjacent their inner ends on the upper and‘lower‘
edges thereof by conductive straps 13 according to well
10 known practice. At one point in the anode structure 10,
the anode members 12 and strapping 13 are omitted, and
a block of conductive material 14 is substituted therefor.
Block 14 occupies the space of several anode members 12.
Block 14 is rigidly attached to anode cylinder 11, and ex—
This is a continuation-in-part of application, Serial No. 15 tends radially inwardly therefrom for substantially the
253,879, ?led October 30,1951, by Edward C. Dench,
same distance as the anode members 12. The inner face
now abandoned and application, Serial No. 268, 097, ?led
of block 14 has a slot 15 therein which extends radially
January 24, 1952, by Edward C. Dench.
outwardly toward anode cylinder 11. Slot 15 is appro
This invention relates to electron discharge devices and
priately dimensioned to cause the metallic block 14 to be
more particularly to high frequency oscillation generat 20 have as a radio frequency choke at the desired operating
ing devices of the magnetron type.
frequency of the device. The purpose of the radio fre
In copending application, Serial No. 253,879, ?led
quency choke is to effectively isolate signal waves in the
October 30, 1951, by Edward C. Dench, now abandoned,
anode structure on one side of the metallic block 14 from
there is disclosed a microwave oscillator utilizing travel
being fed through the choke to the anode structure on the
ing waves in a magnetron ampli?er device. The operat 25 other side thereof, Because of the break in the anode
ing frequency of the device may be tuned over a relative
structure 10 and the presence of the slotted block 14, the
ly wide range of frequencies by varying the reactance of
signal wave transmission network 11, 12, 13 is nonre
the tuning structure, and the device may be made to op
entrant.
. ,
erate at a plurality of di?erent discrete frequencies for a
Signal coupling devices 17 are connected to the ends of
given tuning structure setting by varying the velocity of 30 the signal wave transmission network by connecting one
the electron stream moving along paths adjacent the anode
of the straps 13 to a lead-in member 18, which extends
network. Preferably this variation of electron velocity is
achieved by variation of the anode voltage.
outwardly through anode cylinder 11 spaced therefrom.
After lead-in member 18 passes outside cylinder 11 it is
This invention discloses that the frequency may be made
surrounded by an outer conductor 19 spaced therefrom
to vary continuously over a relatively wide range of fre 35 and coaxial therewith, outer conductor 19 being sealed to
quencies by terminating the end of the anode network
the aperture in cylinder 11 through which lead-in mem
toward which electrons are moving in an energy-absorb
ber 18 passes. Outer conductor 19 is insulatedly sealed
ing medium, such as a resistive load, which is impedance
to lead-in member 18 by a glass seal 20 in a well—known
matched to the characteristic impedance of the line over
manner.
40
as wide a range of frequencies as is feasible. The output
Positioned in the space de?ned by the inner ends of,
signal from the device is then coupled otf the anode struc
anode members 12 is a cathode structure 21 comprising a
ture adjacent the end away from which the electrons are
cathode cylinder 22 positioned concentric with anode
moving. Such a device will oscillate at a frequency de
cylinder 11. The outer surface of cathode cylinder 22 is
termined by the intensity of the electrostatic ?eld in the
coated with electron-emissive material, and is adapted to
space between the anode and the electrode member posi 45 produce clouds of electrons in the space between the
tioned adjacent thereto which may be the cathode or an
cathode cylinder 22 and the inner ends. of the anode,
auxiliary electrode. Variation of this electrostatic ?eld is
members 12 when cathode cylinder 22 is heated by a
achieved by variation of the anode voltage, thereby vary
heater coil, not shown, ‘in a well-known manner. The ‘
ing the frequency as a continuous function of anode volt—
upper and lower ends of cathode cylinder 22 are covered
50 by end shields 23 which tend to prevent movement of the
age.
This invention further discloses that a more nearly
electrons in a direction axial to the cathode cylinder 22.
single velocity electron beam may be ‘achieved by position
ing a cathode adjacent one end of the anode structure
and directing the beam by means of crossed electrostatic
and magnetic ?elds along paths adjacent the network.
Other and further objects and advantages of this in
vention will become apparent as the description thereof
progresses, reference being had to the accompanying draw
ing wherein:
It is to be clearly understood that the particular details
of the cathode structure are disclosed herein by way of ex
ample only, and any desired cathode structure or electron
55
source can be used. While the support and lead-in struc
ture for the cathode is not disclosed in this embodiment of
the invention, it may be, for example, of the type disclosed
in copending application, Serial No. 81,804, filed March
16, 1949, by William C. Brown and Edward C. Dench,
Fig. 1 illustrates a transverse cross-sectional view of a 60 now Patent No. 2,673,306, issued March 23, 1954, to
?rst embodiment of this invention wherein the anode
structure comprises a plurality of anode members alter
nately connected by conductive strapping;
Fig. 2 illustrates a partially broken away transverse
cross-sectional view of the second embodiment of this in
vention wherein the signal transmission network com~
prises an unstrapped anode structure wherein lumped con
stants are connected between adjacent anode member's;
Fig. 3 illustrates a longitudinal cross-sectional view of
a further modi?cation of the invention; and
Fig. 4 illustrates a transverse cross-sectional view of
the device shown, in Fig. 3.
William C. Brown. A voltage is produced between the
anode structure 10 and the cathode structure 21 by means
of an anode voltage supply 24, which is made adjustable
in order to select the particular frequency at which it is
desired that the device shall operate.
An impedance-matched resistive termination 25 is con
nected to the signal coupling device 17 which is con
nected to the end of the line toward which electrons
are moving. Termination 25 is preferably of the energy.
absorbing type which absorbs and dissipates any energy
traveling along the anode network in the same direction
,as the electron beam. An output load 52 is connected
2,863,092
3
to the coupling device 17 attached to the end of the anode: '
network away from which electrons are traveling along
the device
anode network.
of Fig. l isThe
indicated
directionbyoftheelectron
arrow motion
53, being:
clockwise about'the cathode 2,3 for the particular view!
illustrated in Fig. 1.
Y Referring now to Fig. 2, there is shown a further em~
bodiment of this invention wherein the signal transmis~
sion network comprises a plurality of adjacent anode:
members connected together through lumped electrical‘.
constants to form an equivalent unstrapped type of anode:
structure. The anode structure comprises an anode cylin-
4
i .
of the device to the input thereof. If desired, plate 49
. may be omitted or, if desired, it may be added in the
embodiment of the invention illustrated in Fig. 1.
A variable anode supply 50 is connected between the
cathode structure and the anode structure whereby the
particular frequency at which the device will oscillate
is controlled by adjustment of the anode-to-cathode volt
age. A magnet coil 51 is positioned around anode cyl
inder 26 whereby the desired magnetic ?eld may be pro
duced in thespace between-theanode members 39 and
der 26, the ends of which are ‘covered by upper and‘.
lower end plates 27 and 28;, respectively. Positioned in.-<
the cathode cylinder 30 in a direction transverse to the
direction of motion of the electrons.
It is to be clearly understood that any desired means,
such as a permanent magnet, could be substituted for the
side anode cylinder 26 is a cathode structure 29 com-- 1
magnet coil illustrated in the species of Figs. 1 and 2,
prising a cathode cylinder 30 whose outer surface is‘
coated with electron-emissive material. The upper and,
lower ends of cathode cylinder 30 are covered by end.
and that either means for producing a magnetic ?eld
could be used with the species of Fig. 1.
Referring now to Figs. 3 and 4, there is shown ‘another
shields 31 which extend outwardly beyond cathode cylin-4
embodiment of the invention comprising ranode structure
der 30. Cathode 29 is rigidly mounted with respect to 120 110 which‘is fabricated to form a signal wave transmis
the anode cylinder 26 by a cathode support structure 32
sion network. Anode structure 110 comprises a backing
comprising a cylindrical member 33 attached to one of‘
support member 111 which is shown as a ?at plate of
the end shields 31, which member extends upwardlyv
through an aperture in upper end plate 27, and is rigidly‘
conductive material such as copper. Extending down
wardly from plate 111 is a plurality of anode members
supported with respect thereto by being attached through.
112 which are shown here, for example, as substantially
rectangular planar members. Anode members 112 are
a cylindrical member 34 and a cup member 35 to a.
ceramic sleeve 36 surrounding cylinder 33 and sealed
rigidly attached at their upper ends to support member
to a recess in upper end plate 27. Extending downwardly
111 and are alternately connected at points on their edges
through cylinder 33 into the cathode structure 29 is a
adjacent their lower ends by conductive straps 113 ac
lead-in member 37, which is connected to one end of‘ 30 cording to well-known practice. Planar members 112 are
positioned substantially perpendicular to support member '
a heater wire inside cathode cylinder 30, the other end
of said heater wire being connected to cathode cylinder
1,11 and to the conductive straps ‘1'13.
30. Lead-in member 37 is insulatedly sealed to cathode
Thejanode members 112 are positioned within a con
cylinder 34 by an insulating seal 38 so that by applica~
ductive evacuated envelope of which the support mem
ber 111 is a part. The envelope comprises’side walls
tion of a potential between lead-in wire 37 and cylinder‘
114 attached to support member 111, a lower wall 115
34, a current may be caused to pass through the cathode
sealed to side members 114, and end walls 116 which‘are
heater coil, thereby heating the cathode to the desired.
sealed to the ends of the box-like structure made up of
electron emitting temperature.
members 111, 114 and 115.
Surrounding cathode structure 29 is a plurality of
Positioned inside the envelope adjacent the lower ends
anode members 39 comprising elongated conductive mem» 40
of anode members 112 is a metallic trough-like member
bers which extend upwardly through upper end plate 27,
117, the bottom of said trough-like member being posi
and are insulatedly supported with respect thereto by
tioned parallel to the lower edges of anode members 112,’
insulating beads 40, sealed around anode rods 39, and.
and the sides 118 of trough-like member 117' extending
inside apertures in end plate 27. Extensions of anode
upwardly to a point slightly above, but spaced from,
members 39 extend upwardly above upper end plate 27
the lower corners of anode members 112. Trough 117
outside anode cylinder 26, said extensions forming termi
is supported by vmeans of insulated supports 119, which
nal posts to which lumped constants may be connected
provide electrical connection of trough 117 with circuits
to form with anode members 39 a signal wave trans
outside the envelope, but which prevent electrical contact
mission network. Speci?cally, inductors 4,1 are connected
of trough 117 with the envelope or the anode structure
between each pair of adjacent anode members 39, and
110. Trough 117 and the insulated supports therefor are
each anode member 39 is connected to a ground refer
ence plane comprising upper end plate 27 through con
described in greater detail in my copending application,
densers 42.
Serial No. 255,499, ?led November 8, 1951, now U. S.
Inductors 41 are supported on rings 43
which are supported with respect to upper end plate
27' by means of rods 44. At one point in the anode
structure, the inductor connecting a pair of adjacent anode
members is omitted, said pair of adjacent anode mem—
bers forming respectively the ends of the signal wave
Patent No. 2,809,328.
' i
A cathode structure 120 is positioned adjacent one end
of the signal wave transmission network made up of anode
members 112 while a catcher electrode 121 is positioned
adjacent the other end of signal wave transmission net
work. The purpose of the cathode 120‘ is to emit elec
transmission line.
One end of the transmission line is connected to an 60 trons which, under the in?uence of the proper electro
output load 45 by connecting the anode member 39 at
static and magnetic ?elds produced in the space between
trough 117 and the lower ends of the anode member 112,
this point directly to the output load, the other terminal
will move along paths adjacent the anode members 112
of the output load being connected directly to the anode
and, after amplifying any signal present in the network
ground plane comprising upper end plate 27. The trans
through interaction therewith, the electrons will impinge
mission line has the other end thereof connected by
on the catcher electrode 121, The particular details of
means of a lead-in member 4a to one side of an imped
the cathode 120 and catcher electrode 121, as well as the
ance-matched energy-absorbing termination 47, the other
support and electrical connections thereto, is described
side of termination 47 being connected to the upper end
in greater detail in the aforesaid copending application,
plate 27.
A metallic plate 49 is rigidly attached to cathode cyl 70 Serial No. 255,499, now Pat. No. 2,809,328. The mag
netic’ ?eld may be produced by means of a magnet which
inder 30, and extends radially outwardly therefrom to a
is connected to magnetic pole pieces 122, positioned adja
point intermediate the anode members 39 “which con
stitute the ends of the transmission line. Thus, electrons
,cent the external sides of side members 114.
emitted from the cathode are prevented from passing
The anode members 112 do not extend all the way to
completely around the anode structure» from the output 75 ‘the end members 116 but a space‘is left adjacent the end‘
5
2,863,092
members 116 where the members 112 have been omitted.
Signal coupling devices 123 are connected to the signal
stream. Accordingly, it is desired that this invention
be not limited by the particular details illustrated herein
except as defined by the appended claims.
wave transmission network made up of the anode mem
bers 112. The coupling device 123 comprises a coaxial
line, having an outer conductor 124 sealed through end
plate 116, and terminating in the end anode member 112
at a point substantially halfway between the sets of straps
113 and adjacent the lower end of said anode member.
What is claimed is:
1. An electron discharge oscillation generating device
comprising a signal wave transmission network having
?rst and second ends, means for electrically isolating
said ends from each other at high frequencies, a source
of electrons spaced from and substantially coextensive
with said network, said means for isolating being spaced
Positioned inside conductor 124, and spaced therefrom,
is a central conductor 125 which extends through an aper
ture in the end anode member 112 spaced therefrom and
is connected to the anode member adjacent the end anode
member. Inner and outer conductors 124 and 125, after
from said source substantially the same distance as
said network, means for directing a stream of electrons
from said source along paths adjacent said network,
passing outwardly through end plate 116, having a tapered
signal output means coupled to said device adjacent the
transition section 126 designed to match the impedance 15 end thereof away from which electrons move along said
of the device being coupled to the signal wave transmis
sion network to the impedance of said network. There‘
after, central conductor 125 is insulatedly sealed to the
paths, and means coupled to said network adjacent the
end toward which electrons move along said paths for
outer conductor 124 by means of an insulating seal, not
quencies.
absorbing incident energy over a wide range of fre—
shown. A signal coupling device 123 is coupled to each 20 2. An electron discharge oscillation generating device
end of the transmission network. An output load 133 is
comprising a signal wave transmission network includ
coupled to the signal coupling device 123 connected to
ing several spaced members, said network having ?rst
the end of the network adjacent the cathode 120 while
and second ends, means for electrically isolating said
an energy-absorbing impedance-matched termination 134
ends from each other at high frequencies, a source of
. is coupled to the signal coupling device 123 at the other 25 electrons arranged substantially coextensive with said
end of said network.
network, said means for isolating being spaced from
A variable anode voltage supply 135 is impressed be
said source substantially the same distance as said net
tween the electrode 117 and the anode 110. A voltage
work, means for directing a stream of electrons from
supply, not shown, is connected between the cathode 120
said source along paths adjacent said network, signal
and the electrode 117 whereby the cathode 120 may be 30 output means coupled to said device adjacent the end
adjusted somewhat positive or negative with respect to
thereof away from which electrons move along said
the electrode 117 to adjust the position of the beam in
paths, and means coupled to said network adjacent the
the space between the electrode 117 and the anode 110.
end toward which electrons move along said paths for
It can be shown that a wave traveling along the net
absorbing incident energy over a wide range of fre
work in a direction opposite to the direction of the
quencies.
electron stream will have a component which travels
3. An electron discharge oscillation generating device
backward along the network in the same direction as
comprising a signal wave transmission network including
the electron stream. If the velocity of the electron
a cylindrical member and several spaced members extend
stream is made substantially equal to the velocity of the
ing radially inward from said cylindrical member, a ?rst
backward component of the wave, that is, the component
electrically-conductive element interconnecting a non
which is traveling in the same direction as the electron
alternate set of spaced members and a second electri
stream, interaction will occur and a signal will build up
cally-conductive element interconnecting the other set of
in the network. The energy content of the signal, how
spaced members, said network having ?rst and second
ever, will travel in a direction opposite to the direction
ends, means for electrically isolating said. ends from each
of the electron stream. If the end of the network toward 45 other at high frequencies, a source of electrons arranged
which the electron beam is moving is terminated in a
substantially coextensive with said network, said means
matched impedance over a wide range of frequencies
for isolating extending radially inward from said cylindri
and absorbs any energy impinging thereon, the device
cal member for substantially the same distance as said
will generate oscillations whose frequency is dependent
substantially entirely on the velocity of the electron
stream. If the velocity of the backward component of
50
spaced members, said means for isolating further includ
ing a slot extending radially outward toward said cylindri
cal member and dimensioned to form a radio frequency
the wave varies with frequency, as is the case with all
the network structures described herein and as is the
case with most network structures used in the micro
‘choke at the desired operating frequency of said device,
wave field, and since the electron velocity is determined
means coupled to said device adjacent the end thereof
away from which electrons move along said paths, and
means coupled to said network adjacent the end toward
by the intensity of the electrostatic field produced by
the voltage applied between the anode and cathode or
anode and substantially non-emissive electrode 117,
variation of this voltage will vary the oscillation frequency
of the device.
The oscillation frequency may also be (it)
controlled or varied by variation of the transverse
magnetic field.
This completes the description of the embodiments
of the invention illustrated herein. However, many
modifications thereof will be apparent to persons skilled 65
in the art without departing from the spirit and scope
of this invention. For example, many different types
of anode structures could be used, other types of cathode
structures could be used and the principles illustrated
herein could be utilized in devices not employing a trans 70
verse magnetic field. In addition, output power may
be varied by variation of the intensity of the electron
means for directing a stream of electrons from said
source along paths adjacent said network, signal output
which electrons move along said paths for absorbing
incident energy over a wide range of frequencies.
References Cited in the. ?le of this patent
UNITED STATES PATENTS
2,511,407
2,566,087
2,673,306
2,735,958
Kleen et al. __________ __
Lerbs _______________ __
Brown ______________ ._
Brown ______________ __
June
Aug.
Mar.
Feb.
13,
28,
23,
21,
1950
1951
1954
1956
FOREIGN PATENTS
987,573
France ______________ __ Apr. 18, 1951
510,250
699,893
Belgium _____________ .._ Apr. 15, 1952
Great Britain _________ .._ Nov. 18, 1953
Документ
Категория
Без категории
Просмотров
0
Размер файла
709 Кб
Теги
1/--страниц
Пожаловаться на содержимое документа