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Патент USA US2863359

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Dec. 9, 1958
Filed Oct. 25, 1954
2 Sheets-Shéet 1
Dec. 9, 1958
Filed 001;. 25, 1954
2 Sheets-Sheet 2
//v VENTOR.‘
United States Fatent ‘O??ce
Patented Dec. 9, 1958
EricClitford Turner, Hampton, England
Application October 25,1954, Serial No. 464,538
1 Claim. (Cl. 81-99)
Figure 4 is a fragmentary section corresponding to the
upper portion of Figure 3, but includes a modi?ed ro
tatable element, and a modi?cation of the nut-engaging
surfaces of the tool.
Referring to Figure 1 of the drawing, 1 and 2 are the
neighboring ends of two pipes to be ?xed together by a
union. The male member 3 of the union is brazed or
otherwise ?xed to the pipe 2. The member 3 is counter
bored at 4 to receive a washer or gasket 5.
Above the
gasket is a thimble 6 having a ?ange 7, which is engaged
by a ?ange 8 of a nut 9. The thimble is ?xed, as by
brazing, to the pipe 1.
The exterior surface of the nut 9 is a surface of com
This invention relates to beveled cylindrical devices 15 plete revolution concentric with the axis of the nut and
quite free of notches, holes, depressions, or the like. As
which require to be rotated in either direction for the
shown, its larger diameter is on a cylindrical surface, the
purpose of effecting adjustment, for example, items such
as union nuts, screw closures and like devices.
Cylindrical nuts, as at present constructed, are provided
with ?ats, holes, lugs, grooves and so forth, whereby .a
tool can be engaged to effect a positive purchase on the
nut. Apart from the expense involved in making such
nuts, the holes, recesses and the like, harbour dirt and
if a correct tool is not immediately available, something
such as a hammer or mallet and a chisel or like tool is
often resorted to and the nut is damaged. Much treat
ment of this kind reduces the life of the nut and mean
while it is unsightly or dangerous from burrs or sharp
edges. Other devices require rotation for the purpose of
adjustment, for example a ?ange coupled to a rotatable
part, in which case the component need not be threaded
and the term “rotatable element” is to be deemed to
apply to any part requiring occasional rotation for tighten
ing parts together or for simple rotational adjustment.
An object of the invention is to provide a tool for
turning a rotatable element, the periphery of which is a
surface of complete revolution about the axis of the ele
ment and is without depressions, holes or the like in said
surface. The surface, or a part of it, may be a cylin
drical surface. This tool, whose ‘construction is more
fully described later, has an engaging surface which is
shaped to co-operate closely with said surface of the
rotatable element, and to engage the same solely by
According to the invention, there is provided a tool for
rotating the element, said tool comprising two parts
pivoted together and jointly providing a gripping surface
adapted to closely embrace the element on an arc exceed~
ing 180° and a lever to urge the free ends of said parts
towards one another whereby a frictional gripping en
gagement adequate to secure rotation of the element is
To this end the element and tool may have
coacting beveled and sloping surfaces, respectively.
The tool may comprise an arcuate member whose
cross~section and curvature are such as to closely ?t the
surface of the rotatable element when engaged therewith,
ends of the cylinder merging into oppositely sloping
A tool, generally indicated by the refer
' beveled surfaces.
ence It), Figure 2, is provided for the purpose of rotating
the nut 9 and, as seen in Figure 3, the cross section of
the tool is of the same shape as that of the exterior of
the nut. The tool comprises a handle or lever 11 having
a pivot at 12 and an extension or toe l3 beyond the pivot,
of the same curvature and section as the nut exterior.
This toe may be about 60° in extent from pivot to the
free end.
Attached to the pivot 12 is an arcuate member 14 of
the same cross-section as that of the exterior of the nut
and extending for 180° or less from the pivot to its free
It cannot have an arc of more than 180° or it
could not be put on the nut shown, and it is preferably
rather less than this, as shown, for convenience in appli
cation to the nut.
The curved parts of the tool may be
shaped by being bent, ‘cast or otherwise formed to the
shape shown, so that the radius of curvature of the vari~
ous parts of the nut engaging surface is the same as the
corresponding radius of the nut. The width of the tool
may be the same as the thickness of the nut. Near the
pivot 12 the toe is formed to provide a stop 15 to prevent
unnecessary Swinging movement of the part 14. The
movement of the two parts of the tool must be su?icient
to clear the maximum diameter of the nut.
The nut 9 may be made of any suitable material such
as metal or plastic or a combination thereof having the
required frictional properties, an excellent example being
the material known as Tufnol (R. T. M.) which possesses
the desired frictional and mechanical properties in a high
If the use of special friction materials is undesirable for
any reasons, the friction necessary may be obtained by
shaping the parts so that one engages the other by a kind
of wedging action. For example, if the apex angle of the
oppositely sloping surfaces is made larger, so that the
angle E, Figure 3 is increased, or if the axial extent of
an interior cylindrical portion of a tool 114' is made smaller
than the axial extent of a cylindrical portion of a ro
the member being pivoted to a lever which has an exten
tatable element 9' (see Fig. 4) the tool will engage the
sion beyond the pivot of similar contour to the arcuate
nut or rotatable element by a wedging movement and by
member so that said extension and member together em
choosing a sufficiently large angle for B, depending on
brace a suf?cient arc of the element to afford the de
the normal friction between the materials of which nut
sired gripping engagement when pressure is applied to
and tool are made, any suitable gripping engagement be
the lever.
tween the parts may be obtained.
The invention will be more fully described with refer
In use the tool is applied to the nut so that the inner
ence to the accompanying drawings in which:
surfacesof the tool closely embraces the nut exterior and
Figure 1 shows a pipe union in plan, parts being broken
as pressure is applied to the lever 11 the toe l3 acts as a
away and shown in section, the nut whereof is of the
fulcrum causing pressure to be exerted on the nut through
type that can be turned by a tool constructed according
the pivot 12 and curved part 14, so that the nut is ?rmly
to the invention.
gripped between parts 13 and 14. In this way, the not
Figure 2 is a side elevation of a tool, shown in engage
can be rotated in either direction according to the manner
ment with the nut of Figure 1.
of application of the tool and the grip of the tool is such
Figure 3 is a vertical section of Figure 2 on the line
that a nut may be tightened or loosened thereby in any
3-—3, but omits the nut.
by only said oppositely sloping gripping surfaces contact
From the foregoing, it will be seen that the tool can
be engaged at any position, which is a great advantage
in con?ned spaces, and that the tool can be “ratcheted”
through quite a small angle if need be. Since the nut
such rotatable object, said ?rst gripping member having
an arcuate length approaching but not exceeding 180°
and said second gripping member having an arcuate
length at least slightly exceeding the difference between
180° and the arcuate length of said ?rst gripping member,
said gripping members being connected to each other at
can be engaged by the tool in any position, pipes may be
run very close together.
-In the construction illustrated, it will be seen that the
nut and tool, so far as their cross sections are concerned,
may be regarded as male and female members respec
one of their respective ends for movement relative to each
other about a pivot axis into and out of an operative
tively, and it will be readily understood that the sections ,10 position wherein the gripping surfaces of both of said
gripping members together form a composite arcuate
gripping surface having an arcuate length at least slightly
section engages a nut having a similar V groove. '
exceeding 180° so that when said gripping members are
In order to facilitate the gripping engagement between
in their operative position,>they may grip such beveled
tool and element, the parts 14 and 13 of the tool may be
urged or biased towards one another by a spring, for 15 surfaces of a rotatable object throughout an arcuate length
example, a torsion spring associated with the pivot. The
at least slightly exceeding 180°; and means connected to
one of said gripping members at the end thereof nearest
movement can be restricted by having a small abutment on
the pivot end of part 14 adapted to contact a similar abut
~ said pivot axis for applying thereto, while said gripping
members are in their operative position, a turning force‘
ment on the stop 15, so that when free the two parts
about said pivot axis in a direction which will urge said
approach under spring pressure to a slight extent, and
require a little opening movement to go over the element.
gripping members toward each other, whereby a rotatable
object will be clamped between said gripping members
Then the spring will provide sufficient initial friction to
and will simultaneously have a force applied thereto which
prevent the tool from slipping round; whereafter the lever
will tend to rotate such object about its turning axis.
pressure will speedily apply the friction necessary for the
may be reversed so that a tool substantially of V cross
desired gripping engagement.‘
I References Cited in the ?le of‘ this patent
The application of the invention to other kinds of ro
tatable element will be obvious from the foregoing de
scription of the application to a nut.
All that is necessary
is to shape the tool to suit the contour of the element,
that is the contour parallel to the axis of the element.
I claim:
For turning about a turning axis a rotatable object hav
ing a cylindrical periphery which merges into oppositely
beveled surfaces and which is coaxial with its turning
axis, a wrench comprising, in combination, ?rst and sec
ond arcuate gripping members each being formed with
interior, oppositely sloping arcuate gripping surfaces that
complement such beveled surfaces of a rotatable object, '
and with an interior cylindrically shaped surface disposed
between said gripping surfaces, said interior cylindrically 40
Farlow ______________ __ Nov. 11, 1890
Miner _______________ __ Oct. 15, 1901
Enderes ______________ __ Aug. 1, 1905
May _________________ __ Nov. 5, 1907
Allen ________________ __ Mar. 16, 1915
Jones et al. __________ __ Apr. 28, 1925
Stainbrook ___________ __ Jan. 12, 1926
Burkeybile ___________ __ Apr. 27,
Williams ______________ __ Aug. 4,
Stibbe _______________ __ Sept. 29,
Sisley ________________ __ Aug. 1,
Hopmann ____________ __ Oct. 19,
shaped surface having an axial extent smaller than that
of such cylindrical periphery of a rotatable object, where
Great Britain _________ __ Aug. 24,‘ 193]‘
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