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Патент USA US2872792

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Feb. 10, 1959
o. N. LAWRENCE
‘2,872,784
LIQUID FUEL CONTROL MEANS FOR JET ENGINES
Filed Mai‘ch 31, ,1953
2 Sheets-Sheet 1
FIG‘. /
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O. MLawpelzce '
Feb. 10, 1959
o. N. LAWRENCE
2,872,784
LIQUID FUEL CONTROL MEANS FOR JET ENGINES
Filed March 31, 1953
2 Sheets-Sheet 2
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United States Patent ‘6 ” rice
2,872,784
Patented Feb. 10, 1959
2
1.
bustion chamber of the turbine. When the vent valve q
is closed the piston is moved by the spring u to the right
for increasing the rate of fuel supply. When the valve is
2,872,784
opened, the preponderating liquid pressure acting on the
moon) FUEL corzrnor MEANS FOR JET
ENGINES
piston moves the latter to the left for reducing the rate
of fuel supply.
Owen Napier Lawrence, Dorridge, England, assignor to
in‘ Figure 1, the combustion chamber of .the engine is
of annular form, and is represented diagrammatically at 2.
'lJoseph Lucas (Industries) Limited, Birmingham, Eng
and
The fuel burner nozzles are indicated by 3. 'Within the
space bounded by the inner wall of the combustion cham
Application March 31, 1953, Serial No. 345,946
ber is‘ mounted a spindle 4 which at one end carries the
turbine rotor 5, and which at the other end carries the
blower impeller 6. Air is supplied to the blower from
7 Claims- (‘1 ?ll-.3928)
the atmosphere by a duct 7 and is discharged from the
This invention relates to liquid fuel control means for 15 blower into the combustion chamber. After the com
bustion products have passed through the turbine they
jet engines of the kind in which the air is supplied to
the combustion chamber by a ‘turbine-driven blower, the
liquid fuel being supplied by a pump.
are discharged into the jet pipe 8 of the engine. ‘Further,
in Figure 1 liquid fuel is supplied to the burners 3 through
a pipe 21 from a variable delivery pump of the swash—
When the attendant vmoves the fuel control means for
increasing the speed of the engine, the proper air-fuel 20 plate type. This pump comprises a rotor 22 having
bores 23 containing reciprocatory plungers 24 which co
operate with an annularly adjustable swash plate 25 in
ratio "may be temporarily disturbed during the accelera
tion period by ‘excess of fuel, and ‘the object of the present
invention is to enable this condition to be obviated or
known manner. Fuel is supplied to the pump through an
inlet 26, and is delivered by the pump through an outlet
The invention comprises means adapted to control a 25 27 which communicates with the pipe 21 leading to the
burners 3, and also communicates at x with the cylinder
liquid-operated servo-mechanism which controls the rate
v of the servolmechanism.
of supply of fuel to the engine, and means operable by
minimized.
?uid pressure vdi?erences associated with the air blower
and turbine for actuating the said servo-mechanism con
trol means.
In accordance with the arrangement shown in Figure 1,
air is admitted at atmospheric pressure to one of the
30 compartments of the chamber b of the apparatus above
described by a pipe 9, and air at blower outlet pressure
is admitted to the other compartment by a pipe 10. Gas
is conducted from the combustion chamber at the inlet
In the accompanying drawings:
Figures 1, 2' and ‘3 respectively illustrate diagrammati
cally ‘three typical embodiments of the invention.
side of the turbine to one of the compartments of the
Figure 4 is a section taken on the line 4—4 of Figure 3.
Referring to Figure l, a hollow body part a includes 35 chamber c by a pipe ll, which may include a restricted
ori?ce l2, and gas from the exit side of the turbine is
two chambers b, c. The chamber b is divided into two
conducted to the other compartment by the pipe 13. The
compartments by a diaphragm (or equivalent piston) a’,
diaphragm d is thus subject to the difference of blower
and the chamber 0 is likewise divided into two compart
inlet and outlet pressures, and the diaphragm e is subject
ments rbya diaphragm (or piston) e.
In the partition‘wall between the‘ two chambers is 40 to the difference of gas pressure at the inlet and outlet side
of the turbine, ‘me turbine inlet gas pressure being sub
pivoted a lever j’ which extends into the adjacent com
stantially the same as that of the blower delivery pressure.
partments of the two ‘chambers. The diaphragm d acts
The apparatus above described is so adjusted that
on the adjacent end ,of the lever through a stern g, alever
h and a ball or roller 1', the latter being carried by an 45 during normal running conditions, the pressures acting
on the diaphragm d, e (or pistons) hold the vent valve
arm j pivotally attached to an adjusting screw k. :By
adjustment of the position of the arm 1', the position at
q closed. But if, during acceleration of the jet engine
the balance of pressures is disturbed in such a way that
which the force exerted on the lever by the diaphragm
can be varied to suit ditierent conditions.
the pressure rise in the blower is greater than the pressure
drop in the turbine, the said valve is caused to open
in order to maintain as nearly as possible the desired
ratio of fuel and air supplied to the combustion chamber.
When‘ the desired increased speed is attained and ‘the
balance of pressures is restored the valve is ,reclosed.
In the modi?cation shown in Figure 2, the body parta
i The other diaphragm e is connected by a stem m to
theadjacent eudgof the lever 1‘. Also the lever is adapted
as shown to actuate another lever 11 pivoted in a parti
tion wall which separates ,the chamber 0 from a third
chamber .9. In the latter chamber is provided a valve
seating‘ p with which cooperates a closure member q on
the lever 11, the ‘latter being lightly spring-loaded it re
quired for normally holding the saidclosure member on
the seating. The chamber _0 is provided with a drain
outlet at r, and the seating p is connected by a pipe s to
the liquid<operated servo-mechanism.
The servo-mechanism may be .of any convenient form,
and serves to control the rate of ‘fuel supply to the com
bustion chamber of the turbine. In the ‘form shown, the
is shaped to provide two compartments b, _c which are
separated from a common compartment containing one
60
part of the valve actuating lever f by diaphragms d, _e
(or pistons). The diaphragm d vis connected by a stem
g'to the adjacent end of the lever f, and the diaphragm
e is adapted to exert a force on an intermediate part of
the lever by a stem m. The lever extends through a wall
oi the body part (where it is pivoted) into a chamber 0
containing the servo control‘ valve q, the latter cooperat
said mechanism comprises a piston t loaded by a spring u
ing with a seating p;
and slidable in a cylinder 11. The two ends of the cylinder
In this arrangement, air at blower in at pressure is ad
are in communication with each other through a restricted 65
mitted to the compartment b at 5‘, and air at blower
ori?ce w, and one‘end of the cylinder is connected by the
tioned. The other end of the cylinder is supplied with
motive liquid (which may be the liquid fuel) at x. A
rod 9* extending from ‘the piston serves to actuate the
delivery pressure is admitted to the compartment 0
at Ell. Gas at turbine outlet pressureis admitted to the
said common compartment at 13. The servo-mechanism
is connected to the chamber 0 at s. Drainage from the
output csntrollingmsans 9f thezfuel Puma ‘or any other
chamber 0 is s?ested at r
pipe s to the valve seating p in the chamber 0 above men
means to seasonings-he ‘rate of fuel ‘ Supply to the .cpmf
.In the example‘ shown in figure .2 the diaphragm id
2,872,784
r
‘
"
“
‘
3
is subject to the difference of atmospheric air pressure
and turbine outlet pressure, and the diaphragm e is sub
ject to the difference of turbine outlet pressure and blower
delivery pressure. The mode of action of the arrange
ment shown in Figure 2 is essentially similar to that Ur
of Figure 1.
In the further modi?cation shown in Fig. 3, the body
part a is divided into three compartments by two ?exible
ciated with the air- blower and turbine, and arranged to
co-operate with each other. for controlling movement of
the lever, at least one of the said members being arranged
to act on and impart movement to the lever, means for sub
jecting one of the said members at one side to the blower
inlet pressure, and .at the opposite side to the blower
outlet pressure, and means for subjecting the other of
the said members at one side to the turbine inlet pres
sure, and at the opposite side to the turbine outlet pres
diaphragms (or pistons) d, e. In the compartment be
tween the diaphragms is arranged a duct 15 terminating 1O
at its inner end in an annular valve seating 16. With this
3. For use with a jet engine to which air is supplied
seating co-operates a closure member 17 which is attached
by a turbine-driven blower, and fuel is supplied by a
by a yoke 18 to the diaphragm d. This compartment is
pump, apparatus for preventing a temporary excess sup
provided with an outlet 19 containing a restricted orifice
ply of fuel to the engine during acceleration thereof,
20. In the compartment 0 is contained a lever f which
comprising in combination with a liquid-operated servo
extends into a chamber 0 and carries the closure member
mechanism for controlling the rate of fuel supply to the
q which co-operates with the vent seating p, the latter
engine, a valve for controlling the servo-mechanism, a
being connected at s to the servo-mechanism as above de
lever for actuating the valve, a pair of differentially mov
scribed. The lever f is pivoted in the partition between
able members operable by ?uid pressure differences associ
the regions c, 0 and the chamber 0 is provided with a 20 ated with the air blower and turbine, and arranged to co~
drain outlet r.
operate with each other for controlling movement of the
In this example gas at turbine outlet pressure is ad—
lever, at least one of the said members being arranged to
sure.
-
-
-
mitted to the compartment 0 at 13. Air at atmospheric
act on and impart movement to the lever, means for
subjecting one of‘ the said members at one side to the
at blower air outlet pressure is admitted to the duct 15
blower inlet pressure, means for subjecting the other of
at 10. Air from the duct 15 is admitted to the com
the said members at one side' to the blower outlet pres
partment between the diaphragms past the closure mem
sure, and means for subjecting the opposite sides of the
ber 17, ‘and the latter is moved by the difference of pres
said members to the turbine outlet pressure.
sures acting on the diaphragm d for maintaining in the
‘4. For use with a jet engine to which air is supplied
intermediate chamber a pressure which is at all times 30 by a turbine-driven blower, and fuel is supplied by a
proportional to the blower outlet pressure. vThe dia
pump, apparatus for preventing a temporary excess sup
phragm d is thus subjected to a pressure corresponding
ply of fuel to the engine during acceleration thereof, com
to the difference at atmospheric pressure and a pressure
‘ prising in combination with a liquid-operated servo-mech
proportional to blower outlet pressure, and the diaphragm
anism for controlling the rate of fuel supply to the engine,
e isrsubject to the difference of a pressure proportional
a valve for controlling the servo-mechanism, a lever for
to blower outlet pressure and the pressure of the gas
actuating the valve, a pair of differentially movable mem
at the discharge side of the turbine.
bers operable by ?uid pressure differences associated with
From the foregoing examples it will be seen that the
the air blower and turbine, and arranged to cooperate
control of the vent valve of the servo-mechanism can be
with each other for controlling movement of the lever,
effected by‘ a variety of pairs of pressure di?erences 40 at least one of the said members being arranged to act
associated with inlet and outlet sides of the blower and
on and impart movement to the lever, means for sub
turbine.
jecting one of the said members at one side to the blower
By this invention temporary disturbance of the de
inlet pressure, means for subjecting the other of the said
sired ratio of fuel and air supplied to the engine during
members at one side to the turbine outlet pressure, and
acceleration of the speed of the engine can be mini
means for subjecting the opposite sides of the said mem
mized or obviated in a simple and reliable manner.
bers to a pressure proportional to the blower outlet pres
Having thus described my invention what I claim as
sure.
new and desire to secure by Letters Patent is:
5. For use with a jet engine to which air is supplied
1. For use with a jet engine to which air is supplied
by a turbine-driven blower and fuel is supplied by a
by a turbine-driven blower, and fuel is supplied by a 50 pump, apparatus for preventing a temporary excess sup
pump, apparatus for preventing a temporary excess sup
ply of fuel to the engine during acceleration thereof,
‘ pressure is admitted to the compartment b at 9.
Air
ply of fuel to the engine during acceleration thereof,
comprising in combination with a liquid-operated servo
comprising in combination with a liquid-operated servo
mechanism for controlling the rate of fuel supply to
mechanism for controlling the rate of fuel supply to the
the
engine, a valve for controlling the servo-mechanism,
engine, a valve for controlling the servo-mechanism, a
a lever for actuating the valve, a pair of differentially
lever for actuating the valve, a pair of differentially mov
movable members operable by ?uid pressure differences
able members operable by ?uid pressure differences asso
associated with the air blower and turbine and arranged
ciated with the air blower and turbine, means operable
to co-operate with each other for controlling movement
by the said members for controlling movement of the
of
the lever, a hollow body part divided by the said
lever whilst enabling at least one of the said members 60 members into four compartments having inlets through
to act on and impart movement to the lever, and means
which ?uids at blower inlet and outlet pressures are ad
divided by the said members into compartments for en
missible to the compartments at opposite sides respec~
abling each of the said members to be subjected at oppo
tively of one of the said members, and ?uids at turbine
site sides respectively to opposed ?uid pressures derived
from two of the ?uid pressures created at the blower
inlet and outlet and the turbine inlet and outlet.
2. For use with _a jet engine to which air is supplied
by a turbine-driven blower, and fuel is supplied by a
pump, apparatus for preventing a temporary excess supply
of fuel to the engine during acceleration thereof, com
prising in combination with a liquid-operated servo~
mechanism for controlling the rate of fuel supply to the
engine, a valve for controlling the servo-mechanism, a
lever for actuating the valve, a pair'of differentially mov
inlet and outlet pressures are admissible to the compart
ments at opposite sides respectively of the other of. the
said'members, both of the said members being arranged
to act on the valve-actuating lever.
6. For use with a jet engine to which air is supplied
by a turbine-driven blower, and fuel is supplied by a
pump, apparatus for preventing a temporary excess sup
ply of fuel to the engine during acceleration thereof, com
prising in combination with a liquid-operated servo- mech
anism for controlling‘ the rate of fuel supply to the
able members operable by ?uid pressure differences asso 75 engine, va valve for controlling the servo-mechanism, a
2,872,784
lever for actuating the valve, a pair of differentially
movable members operable by ?uid pressure differences
associated with the air blower and turbine, and ar
ranged to co-operate with each other for controlling
movement of the lever, a hollow body part divided by
the said members into three compartments having inlets
through which ?uids at blower inlet and outlet pressures
are admissible to two of the compartments respectively,
6
bers into three compartments one of which is situated
between the said members, and is provided with a re
stricted outlet, a second valve in the last mentioned com~
partment, the second valve and the lever for actuating
the ?rst mentioned valve being operatively connected to
the said members respectively, inlets through which ?uids
at blower inlet pressure and turbine outlet pressure are
admissible respectively to the two compartments at the
and ?uid at turbine outlet pressure is admissible to the
outer sides of the said members, and another inlet through
other compartment, both of the said members being ar~ 10 which ?uid at a pressure proportionately related to the
ranged to act on the valve-actuating lever.
blower outlet pressure by the second valve is admissible
7. For use with a jet engine to which air is supplied
to the intermediate compartment.
by a turbine-driven blower, and fuel is supplied by a
pump, apparatus for preventing a temporary excess
References Cited in the tile of this patent
supply of fuel to the engine during acceleration thereof, 15
UNITED STATES PATENTS
comprising in combination with a liquid-operated servo
2,503,048
I?eld ______________ __ Apr. 4, 1950
mechanism for controlling the rate of fuel supply to the
2,570,591
Price _______________ __ Oct. 9, 1951
engine, a valve for controlling the servo~mechanism, a
2,622,393
Edwards et a1. ________ __ Dec. 23, 1952
lever for actuating the valve, 21 pair of diiferentially mov
Carey ______________ __ May 19, 1953
able members operable by ?uid pressure differences asso 20 2,638,742
2,643,513
Lee ________________ __ June 30, 1953
ciated with the air blower and turbine, and arranged to
2,652,813
Reuter et a1. ________ __ Sept. 22, 1953
co-operate with each other for controlling movement of
2,683,349
Lawrence ____________ __ July 13, 1954
the lever, a hollow body part divided by the said mem
2,778,191
' Thompson ____________ __ Jan. 22. 1957
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