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Патент USA US2876560

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March 10, 1959
R. A. VISSING .
2,876,546
CANT-INDICATING MECHANISM
Filed April 13, 1953
3 Sheets-Sheet 1
l2
iii
“iii
FIGQ
FIGS
24
30
25'
29
INVENTOR. '
- z?oya/AV/ssing
March 10, 1959
R. A. VISSING '
2,876,546
CANT-INDICATING MECHANISM
Filed Apfil 1:5, 1953
3 Sheets-Sheet 2
76
77
BY
57 0'4 56 5a
INIZVjNTOR.
?ria
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d.
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March 10, 1959
R, A, v|ss|NG
2,876,545
CANT-INDICATING MECHANISM
' Filed April 13, 1953
s Sheets-Sheet s
MW
5: :5
-r
,l
I!
IN VEN TOR.
nited States
2,876,546
Patented Mar. .10, 1959
2
Figure 4 is an end view of Figure 1.
Figure 5 is an enlarged fragmentary view of the cant
indicating mechanism showing details of ‘construction.
2,876,546
'CANT-INDICATING MECHANISM
Royal A. 'Viss'ing, Idaho Falls, Idaho
vApplication April 13, 1953, Serial No. 348,544
24 Claims. (Cl. 33-50)
Figure 6 is an end view of the cant-indicating mecha
nism.
Figure 7 shows a modi?edform of the cant-indicating
mechanism in a conventional telescope.
Figures 8, 9, 10 and 11 are views showing details "of
construction of the ‘modi?ed form of the invention.
10
Figure 1-2 shows a further modi?cation of a cant-in
_ dicating mechanism disposed vin a conventional telescopic
sight.
Figures 13 and 14 'are ‘side'and‘front elevational views
of the indicator mechanism shown in Figure 12.
This invention relates to a mechanism for indicating 15
Figure 15 is a sectional view taken substantially along
the cant of a gun, or like device, utilizing a telescope for
the line 15—15 of Figure ‘7.
‘
sighting purposes.
The bore of modern ri?e and pistol barrels is inclined
Referring particularly to the drawings, the invention
is shown embodied in a conventional telescopic .sight.
For purposes of illustration the telescopic sight shown is
upwardly when a gun is in a normal ?ring position, to
compensate for the gravitational elfect on a bullet as it 20
of a conventional type comprising a tube 10, an inner
travels along its trajectory. Accordingly, if the gun is
sleeve 11, a yoke 12, attaching screw 14, an elevation
canted, or turned about its line of sight as an axis, the
adjusting screw 15, and a windage-adjusting screw 16,
accuracy of the gun will beseriously a?ected. An object
together with lock nuts 18 and '19 mounted respectively
of this invention, therefore, is to provide a cant-indicating
on the adjusting screws 15 and 16.
device that will indicate instantly to the gunner whether 25 The cant-indicating mechanism in this embodiment
his gun is canted, and also how to adjust the position of
of the invention includes a ?at spring 20 to hold a ret
the gun to correct for such canting.
icule cage 22 ?rmly against the inner ends of the ad
Another object of the invention is to provide a cant
justing screws 15 and 16. The spring 20 is secured to
indicator for telescopic sights for guns which may be
wholly disposed'in the telescope.
Another object of the invention is to provide a cant
the sleeve 11 by a screw 21. The reticule cage 22 is an
nular in shape and ‘of slightly smaller diameter than the
bore of the tube 10.
The cage encloses the magnetic pendulum 23 which
may ‘oscillate transversely of the axis of the cage. Braz
Another object of the invention is the provision of
ing or soldering 25 secures the reticule cage 22 to the
cant-indicator means that will in effect project a true 35 end of the spring 20. Essentially the reticule cage is a
level and vertical line through space for an inde?nite
pendulum support and to this end the cage has a circular
distance.
opening or slot 26 which is wider than the pendulum 23
Another object is to provide a cant indicator which
so that the latter may oscillate without contacting the
clearly indicates canting when shooting either uphill or
walls de?ning the ‘slot. At its top 24, where the slot
40
downhill.
does not extend, the cage has a pair of conical bearings,
Another object of the invention is to provide a cant in
one of which, designated 28, is formed in the end of a
dicator which may be installed as a unit in a telescopic
set screw 29 threadedv into the cage in alignment with the
sight by anyone reasonably skilled in working with his
bearing 27. These conical bearings are for the pivot 30
hands.
indicator which is nota?ected when making adjustments
for windage and elevation.
of the pendulum 23, which pivot is pointed at both ends
A further object of the invention is to provide a cant
to provide a small contact area at said ends with the
indicator which does not require an unslightly housing 45 bearing.
~
external to the telescope.
A pair of mutually perpendicular crosshairs 31 and 3.2
Another object ‘of the invention is to provide a cant
are secured in the conventional manner to one end of
indicator which does not interfere with the ?eld of vision
the reticule cage. .As shown, the crosshair 31 is a vertical
of the telescope with which it is used.
reference crosshair and the crosshair 32 is a horizontal
Another object of the invention is the provision of a 50 reference crosshair.
cant indicator having a swinging pendulum whose oscil~
The pendulum 23 is a permanent magnet With poles at
lation is quenched by the generation of eddy currents.
A and B as shown in Figure 2. The pendulum 23 is
Another object of the invention is the provision of a
generally ring or annular shaped, and is secured in any
novel cant indicator utilizing a weighted pendulum sup
conventional manner to the pivot 30 by which it is sup
ported by pivotal bearings, with novel means interposed 55 ported
so as to swing freely through a limited arc within
between the weight on the pendulum and the bearings
said slot or groove 26.
for absorbing shock to prevent damage to the bearings
Stops 33 and 34 (see Figure 3) rigid with the periphery
of the pendulum 23, adjacent the pivot and on either side
Another object of the invention is the provision of 1a
cant indicator utilizing a pendulum, having novel means 60 thereof, are adapted to strike the enclosing wall (see
Figure 4,) of the cage as the pendulum reaches either
for limiting the amplitude of the pendulum oscillation.
limit of swing.
Other'objects and advantages of the invention will be
due to the recoil of the gun when the latter is ?red.
come more apparent upon reference to the accompanying
drawings in which:
A cant hair 35 is secured at its lower end by cement 37
to the bottom portion of the pendulum 23 and projects
Figure 1 is a fragmentary longitudinal, sectional view 65 upwardly from the secured end in a true vertical line,
but preferably terminates short of the horizontalpplane
through a conventional telescopic sight utilizing a cant
of the crosshair 32. As shown the ?xed end of cant
indicator embodying the present invention.
hair 35 and the free end of the cant hair 35 and the pivotal
‘Figure 2 is a side elevation of the pendulum of the
cant indicator.
bearings are in alinement.
70
Figure 3 is an end view of the construction shown in
In Figure 4 the cant hair .35 does not coincide with
Figure 2.
the vertical crosshair 31. This indicates that the ri?e
.2,876,646
3
4
is canted to the left. The mass of the pendulum may
be increased by widening the lower end thereof as indi
cated at 36 in Figure 5.
The use of the device will be apparent from the fore
going description, but may be summarized briefly as
follows:
Assume that the indicating device is installed in a tele
in the end of a machine screw 57 extending through a
threaded opening formed at the top of the disc 40a.
The bearing 50 is supported in the end of a machine
screw 58 extending through a threaded opening in an
annular disc 59 spaced from the disc 40a and in parallel
relation therewith and with the pendulum 41. A locknut
scopic sight of a gun and that the crosshairs appear as
hearings in a desired adjusted relation. The screw 58
should preferably be ?rst secured in position as by cement
in Figure 6. The gunner knows, under these conditions,
55 on the machine screw 57 may be utilized to hold the
that his gun is canted to the left and that he must turn it) or solder.
or rotate the gun around the line of sight as an axis
An arcuate-shaped bridging portion 61 interconnects
the top half portions of the disc 40a and the annular
by visually coinciding with the vertical crosshair 31.
support disc 59. In effect, the discs 40a and 59 and the
bridging portion 61 de?ne a cage or enclosure for the
_ Because the construction of the pendulum and pivot
bearings is such that friction is reduced to a minimum in 15 pendulum, as best seen in Figure 8. A weight 62 is
mounted on the pendulum at the point of juncture between
order to make the pendulum sensitive, it is apparent that
the lower arms 52 and 53 as seen in Figure 9. This con
the pendulum will tend to oscillate for a considerable
period of time. Provision is made for dampening the
centrates the mass of the pendulum at the lower end
amplitude of the oscillation and quickly bringing the
thereof away from the bearings 50 and 50a and effects
pendulum to test. To this end the eddy currents set up 20 the proper operation of the pendulum. The weight 62
is preferably in the form of a permanent magnet; the
by the magnetic pendulum in the reticule cage which
purpose of this is to provide an oscillation dampening
closely surrounds the pendulum are in such a direction as
means to quickly bring the pendulum to its rest position
to oppose the motion producing them, in accordance with
Lenz’s law. Thus it will be seen that the pendulum can
as described herein.
It has been found that the weighted pendulum may
not swing freely inde?nitely, but must come to a rest
indicated herein as OA until the cant hair 35 disappears
very quickly.
'
.1 It is apparent, also, from the foregoing that the cant_
indicating mechanism may be installed as an integral unit
in the telescopic sight with a minimum of time and effort.
stress the bearings 50 and 50a so much that the latter are
damaged when the gun is ?red. To limit the shock and
to minimize the damage to the bearings, the upper arm
portions 47 and 48, and the straight portions 51 and 49
Referring now to Figures 7, 8, 9, l0, l1 and 15, there 30 are of a reduced cross sectional area to provide ?exibility
to the pendulum and in turn, means for absorbing the
is shown another embodiment of the invention. In this
embodiment of the invention the cant-indicating mecha
shock as a result of recoil of the gun. With this con
struction it has been found that damage to the bearings
nism includes a reticule support 40, a pendulum 41, and a
cant indicator 42 mounted in a conventional telescope
has been minimized, if not entirely eliminated.
having objective lenses 43, ocular lenses 44, and an 35 The cant indicator 42 per se in this embodiment of the
erecting lens 44a de?ning an optical system having a ?eld
invention comprises a glass ?lament approximately 1,4000
to 15/1000 inch in diameter. The ?lament in this instance
of vision, or view. The lenses may be of conventional
construction and should provide for magni?cation in a
has a ?xed end 64 and a free end 66. The ?xed end is
anchored to the pendulum as by securing it to the weight
conventional manner.
The reticule support 40 (see Figure 15) comprises a 40 62 and the free end is positioned to extend partially across
generally annular disc member 40a having mutually
the ?eld of vision, but preferably short of the optical axis,
perpendicular crosshairs 45 and 46. Each crosshair has
as seen in Figure 9. The free end is also positioned to
its opposite ends ?xedly'secured to the periphery of the
disc 40a at diametrically opposed positions. The cross
be in alinement with the ?xed end 64 and the pivotal bear
ings 50 and 50a. With this construction it will be seen
hair 45 is a vertical crosshair and the crosshair 46 is a 45 that the cant indicator 42 is visually associated with the
horizontal crosshair. As best seen in Figures 8 and 15
vertical crosshair‘ 45 so as to indicate cant as previously
the ends of the crosshair 46 are received in diametrically
described. It has been found that a glass ?lament is one
opposed V-shaped notches 46a opening on the outside
of the best materials for this purpose inasmuch as it is
face of the disc-shaped member 40a. Any suitable con
highly elastic and is not readily distorted upon assembly
of the cant indicating mechanism or sudden jarring of
ventional means may be used for securing the ends of the
a telescope.
crosshairs in position in said notches. As will be seen in
Figure 8, the depth of the notches is such that the inner
The cant indicating mechanism may be mounted in the
ends ofvthe notches 46a are adjacent the opposite inside
telescope tube 68 in any desired manner. As shown in
face of the disc-shaped member 40a. This construction
Figure 7 and 8 the disc 59 is attached to a semitubular
permits the crosshairs to be in relatively closely-spaced 55 member 69 having a tongue portion 71 extending out
wardly from the periphery of the semi-tubular member
relation with the cant indicator ‘42.
The pendulum 41 in this instance is formed by arcuate,
69 to de?ne a spring. The semi-tubular member 69 is
downwardly-curving upper arm portions 47 and 48, de
shaped to nest in a spring saddle 72 secured in the tele
scope tube 68. Conventional elevation-adjusting screw
pending straight portions 49 and 51, and arcuate, up
wardly-curving lower arm portions 52 and 53 integrally 60 73 and a windage-adjusting screw 74 at right angles to
interconnected together, as shown in Figure 9, to de?ne
each other and extending through the walls of the tube
a generally annular pendulum in substantially parallel
relation with the plane of the crosshairs. The pendulum
has a central opening 50b of such size and shape (herein
68 engage an upstanding arcuate rib 76a on the bridging
portion 61 of the pendulum cage. Covers, or caps, 73a
and 74a are provided for screws 73 and 74, respectively.
shield-shaped) that the arm portions 47 and 48, the de 65 During assembly the spring 71 is stressed so that the arcu
pending straight portions 49 and 51, and the arm portions
ate rib 76a is held with a substantial pressure against
52 and 53 are all out of the ?eld of vision or line of sight
the ends of elevation and windage screws 73 and 74; thus
through the telepscope. In this embodiment of the in
it will be seen that the spring 71 holds the reticule support
vention the pendulum 41 is of one-piece construction and
40 and crosshairs 45 and 46 is a predetermined ?xed posi
70 tion relative to the optical axis, and as a consequence the
may be formed from phosphor-bronze material.
The support for the pendulum includes a shaft 69
pendulum and its associated cant indicator are also in
having pointed ends 54 and 56, and spaced bearings 50
directly held in position by the spring 71. Any movement
of either the windage or elevation screws simultaneously
and 50a shaped to receive and supportthe ends of the
e?'ects movement of the reticule and cant indicator with
shaft 60. Preferably these hearings are jewel bearings
rigidly mounted. As shown, the bearing 50a is mounted 75 out disturbing their-£136‘! Iclationship. In effect since
2,876,346
"5
6
,
the target ‘image occuples ‘substantially "the same optical
plane as the reticule, adjusting 'screws 73 "and 74 provide
a means to produce a relative displacement between ‘the
target image and reticule, and spring 71 maintains ‘this
displacement in a ?xed position.
'It has been found that the thin walled telescope tube
68 acts as a diaphragm thereby amplifying the clicking
noise resulting from the oscillating pendulum contacting
his is a continuation -‘in part of my application Serial
‘No. 699,487, ?led September 26, 1946.
'I claim:
1. In an optical device for indicating canting of a gun
the combination of an elongated tube adapted to be
mounted ‘lengthwise of said gun, spaced lenses in said
tube including objective lenses and ocular lenses de?ning
an optical lens system having a ?eld of view, said objec
the pendulum cage. To absorb this noise and‘to limit'the
tive lens having a focal point and said ocular lens having
amplitude of the oscillative travel of pendulum 41, ?ex 10 a focal ‘point, mutually perpendicular crosshairs in said
ible ?ngers or pendulum stops 76 and 77 are provided.
tube, one of said crosshairs being a horizontal crosshair,
The ?ngers in this instance are ‘of rectangular shaped thin
means for mounting said crosshairs in said ?eld of view
material such as phosphor bronze or the'like material,
and are bent downward to form equal ‘angles with a
horizontal plane passing through shaft 60. One end ‘of
each of the ?exible ?ngers 76 and 77 is'sec'ured to the
pendulum and the opposite ‘free ends are arranged to
contact the inside wall of ‘the bridging portion 61. 'This
construction therefore assures the operator that there will
.to de?ne a 'reticule at the focal point ‘of one of said
lenses, ?xed bearing-support means mounted wholly ‘with
in said tube and ‘out of said ?eld-of view, 'a pendulum
mounted wholly within ‘said tube and having a central
opening permitting encirclement of said ?eld of view
said pendulum having spaced portions formed from resil
ient shock-absorbing material, said spaced portions being
be no clicking noises as would be ‘the case if thependulum 20
on opposite sides of said ?xed bearing 'support means,
stops were in?exible.
In Figure 11 there is shown another‘modi?cation of
the cant-indicating member. In this instance ‘a pendulum
said spaced portions being formed from light weight ma
terial of small cross-sectional area ,to permit ready ?exing
thereof, pivotal bearings acting between said bearing
80 has a weight 81 formed thereon in a ‘manner herein
support means and said spaced portions formed from
described. A transparent tab 82, which should be rela 25 resilient shock-absorbing material on said pendulum de
tively narrow, is secured to the~weightand the transparent
?ning a bearing support for said pendulum, a hairlike,
tab 82 is formed, marked'or etched with a line 83 which
elastic ?lament at said other focal point and having a free
may be utilized in the same manner as the glass ?lament
end and a ?xed end, and means for mounting said hair
42 described hereinbefore. ‘Since this tab, and conse
?lament to secure said ?xed end to said pendulum
quently its indicia, is placed in a focal point of the optical 30 like
and
to have said free end extend partially across said
system it is important that its area exposed to the light
opening, but short of said horizontal crosshair, to project
rays passing through the telescope be kept at a minimum;
into said ?eld of view and to be in alinement with vsaid
this is to insure minimum interference due to dust par
pivotal
bearings and said ?xed end whereby said indicat
ticles on the tab.
ing member is in visual association ‘with said reticule to
In Figures 13 and 14 there is shown another modi?ed 35 indicate
canting of the gun.
form of the indicating mechanism, wherein the pendulum
2. In an optical device for indicating canting of a gun
cage 85 is formed from non-magnetic material such as
the combination of an elongated tube adapted to be
synthetic resinous material. A U-shaped metal member
mounted .lengthwise of said gun, spaced lenses in said
84 is disposed between the walls 85 and 87 of the en
tube including objective lenses and ocular lenses de?ning
closure, as shown in Figure '14, and is formed with an 40
an optical lens system having a ?eld of view, a reference
outer lamination of magnetic steel and an inner layer'of
cross-hair in said lens system, a weight in said tube at
copper or the like material. With this construction the
one side of said ?eld of view, ‘means on the opposite side
permanent magnet on the pedulum reacts with 'the'copper
of said ‘?eld of view for pivotally mounting said weight
and magnetic steel structure so as to quench the oscilla
tions of the pendulum in a manner described hereinbe 4.5 for free-swinging movement thereof, a cant indicator on
the same side of said ?eld of view as said weight and
fore. It is to be understood that if the modi?cation shown
having
a ?xed end and a free end, means for mounting
in Figure 12 is used, the telescope will be secured ‘to ‘the
said indicator on said weight to have said ?xed end se
gun with conventional mounts for windage and elevation
cured ‘to said weight and to have said free end extend
across
said ?eld of view for association with said refer
In Figure 7 the crosshair 45 and the ?lament ‘42 are in 50
ence crosshair ‘to indicate ‘canting of said gun, and resil
closely-spaced relation and are disposed so as ‘to be'at'the
ient means acting between said weight and said pivotal
focal point or" the objective lens. It is readily apparent
mounting means to absorb shock due to recoil of said
that the closer the crosshair '45 and the ‘?lament 42, the
adjustments.
. greater the accuracy.
The Vashaped notch construction
gun'whereby to prevent damage to said'pivotal mounting
means.
described hereinbefore permits these elements ‘to be in 55
3. In an optical device for indicating canting of a gun
very closely-spaced relation. It is to 'be understood that
the combination of an elongated tube adapted to be
the reference crosshair or reticule assembly 88 could be
mounted lengthwise of. said gun, spaced lenses in said
at the focal point of the ocular lens (see Figure 12)‘ and
tube including objective lenses and ocular lenses de?ning
the indicator could be positioned at the focal point of the
objective lens, in lieu of being in closely-spaced relation 60 an optical lens system having a ?eld of view, a vertical
crosshair insaid tube, a weight in said tube at one side
as shown in Figure 7. With either of the described posi
tions of the reticule and ‘cant indicator or ‘the reverse
position of these assemblies ‘the magni?cation-of the lens
system visually indicates to ‘the gunner .even‘the very
slightest amount of cant.
From the foregoing it can be’seen-that ‘I have provided
a cant indicator which is simple to construct, easy to in
stall, that is'positive in its indicating action, and one that
insures the gunner absolute accuracy in so far as canting
of the gun is concerned.
' It is to be understood that this invention may be'used
in cameras, telescopes and other optical devices ‘as well
as ‘in ‘a telescopic ri?e sight, and that the-embodiments
shownin the ‘telescopic 'ri?esight are for‘purposes of‘
illustration only.
of said ?eld of view, a cant indicator on the same side of
said ?eld of view as said weight and having a ?xed end
and a free end, means for-‘mounting said indicator on said
weight to have said ?xed end secured to said weight and
to have said free end extend partially across said ?eld of
view, and weight support means on the opposite side of
said ?eld of view from said weight for pivotally mounting
said weight to permit said indicator to swing transversely
of said tube for visual association with said vertical cross
70 hair, said last mentioned means including at ,least one
arm portion formed from relatively thin material having
a small cross-sectional area to permit ?exing thereof and
operable to absorb shock due-‘to recoil of said gun. ‘
4. In an optical device for ‘indicating canting of a gun
the combination of an elongated-tube ‘adapted to ‘be
2,878,546
7
8
mounted lengthwise of said gun, spaced lenses in said
tube including objective lenses and ocular lenses de?ning
ductor interposed between the soft ferro-magnetic mate
rial and the permanent magnet for the generation of eddy
an optical lens system having a ?eld of view, a reticule
having a reference crosshair, means for ?xedly mounting
currents.
said reticule in said tube to permit magni?cation of said
crosshair, a weight in said tube at one sideof said ?eld of
view, means on the opposite side of said ?eld of view for
pivotally mounting said weight for free-swinging move
ment thereof, a cant indicator having a ?xed end and a
free end, means for mounting said indicator on said
pendulum above said weight to have said ?xed end se
9. In combination with a telescopic gun sight having a
tube, a cant indicator located wholly within the tube of
the gun sight, said cant indicator including means for
attaching it to the gunsight tube on the interior thereof
without affecting free vision through the gun sight, a
tubular reticule cage having sighting means attached
10 thereto and having a transverse slot, a pendulum oscillat
cured to the weight and said free end extend partially
able within the slot, a pivot supporting the pendulum at
its upper end within the cage, a radially extending cant
indicating member rigidly secured to the pendulum and
across said ?eld of view to be in alinement with said
extending across the line of sight through the gun sight
pivotal mounting means and said ?xed end of said cant
indicator for visual association with said reference cross~ 15 and thereby being visually associated with said sighting
means to permit correction of the cant of a gun carrying
hair, and at least one'relatively thin, ?exible, arcuate
said telescopic sight, said pendulum being shaped like a
arm extending between said pivotal mounting means and
ring and having a permanent magnet at its lower enlarged
said weight to support the latter, said arm having a
end, the cage being of such material and being so close
relatively thin cross section and passing at one side of
said ?eld of view and forming a shock-absorbing means to 20 to the magnetized pendulum that eddy currents will be
set up in the cage to quench oscillations of the pendulum.
prevent damage to the pivotal mounting means due to the
recoil of the gun.
'
'
- 10. In combination with a telescopic gun sight having
a tube, a cant indicator located wholly within the tube
S. In an optical device for indicating canting of a gun
of the gun sight, said cant indicator including means for
the combination of an elongated tube adapted to be
mounted lengthwise of said gun, spaced lenses in said 25 attaching it to the gun sight tube on the interior thereof
without aifecting free vision through the gun sight, a
tube including objective lenses and ocular lenses de?ning
tubular reticule cage having sighting means attached there—
an optical lens system having a ?eld of view, a vertical
to and having a transverse slot, a pendulum oscillatable
reference crosshair in said tube, a weighted pendulum in
within said slot, a pivot supporting the pendulum at its
opposite side of said ?eld of view for pivotally mounting 30 upper end within the cage, a radially extending cant
indicating member rigidly secured to the pendulum and
said weighted pendulum for free-swinging movement
extending across the line of sight through the gun sight
thereof, a cant indicator having a ?xed end and a free
and thereby being visually associated with said sighting
end, means for mounting said indicator on said pendulum
said tube at one side of said ?eld of view, means on the
means to permit correction of the cant of a gun carrying
to have said ?xed end secured to the pendulum and said
free end extend partially across said ?eld of view to be in 35. said telescopic sight, said cage being of material capable
of permitting eddy currents to flow, and said pendulum
alinement with said pivotal mounting means and said
including a permanent magnet with poles on opposite
?xed end of said cant indicator for association with said
sides to set up eddy currents when it oscillates within said
reference crosshair to indicate canting of said gun, means
cage.
out of said ?eld of view, for interconnecting said pivotal
ll. In an optical device for indicating canting of a
mounting means and said weighted pendulum, and resil 40
gun the combination of an elongated tube adapted to be
ient means integral with said pendulum co-acting with
mounted lengthwise of said gun, spaced lenses in said
said tube to limit the amplitude of the pendulum oscilla
tube including objective lenses and ocular lenses de?ning
tion and to minimize engagement of the pendulum with
an optical lens system having a ?eld of view, said objec
the tube and the attendant noise resulting therefrom.
tive lens having a focal point and said ocular lens having
6. In an optical device for indicating canting of a gun
a focal point, mutually perpendicular crosshairs in said
the combination of an elongated tube adapted to be
tube, means for mounting said crosshairs in said ?eld of
mounted lengthwise of a gun, spaced lenses in said
view to de?ne a reticule at the focal point of one of said
tube including objective lenses and ocular lenses de?ning
lenses, ?xed bearing-support means mounted Wholly with
an optical lens system having a ?eld of view, a reticule
in said tube and out of said ?eld of view, a pair of down
having a reference crosshair, means for ?xedly mounting
wardly curved arms mounted on said bearing means, said
said reticule in said tube, a weight in said tube at one
arms extending around one side of the ?eld of view and
side of said ?eld of view, means for pivotally mounting
said weight for free-swinging movement'thereof includ
ing magnetic circuit means adjacent said weight, a .cant
being formed from relatively thin, ?exible, light weight
material having a relatively small cross-sectional area to
indicator having a ?xed end and a free. end, means for 55 absorb shock, pivotal bearing means in said tube for
mounting said downwardly curving arms on said ?xed
bearing support, a pair of upwardly curving arms on the
opposite side of said ?eld of view and interconnected re
spectively with said downwardly curving arms, a cant
indicating member in said tube and mounted at said other
focalpoint and having a free end and a ?xed end, and
hair to indicate canting of said gun, means in said tube
means in said tube for securing said ?xed end to an inter
and outside the ?eld of view for interconnecting said
mediate portion of said upwardly curving arms to have
pivotal mounting means and said weight to provide a
said free end project into said ?eld of view and adapted
support for the latter, and magnetic means acting between
said weight and said magnetic circuit means to quench 65 to be in visual association with one of said crosshairs
as a reference line whereby to indicate canting of said
the oscillation of said pendulum whereby to permit the
gun.
detection of a minute amount of cant of said gun.
12. In an optical device for indicating canting of a gun
7. The combination recited in claim 6 wherein the
the combination of an elongated tube adapted to be
magnetic means include a permanent magnet attached to
mounting said indicator on said weight to have said ?xed
end secured to the weight and said free end extend partial
ly across said ?eld of view to be in alinement with said
pivotal mounting means and said fixed end of said cant
indicator for visual association with said reference cross 60
the weight and an electrical conductor intersecting the 70 mounted lengthwise of said gun, spaced lenses in said
tube including objective lenses and ocular lenses de?ning
?ux of said permanent magnet.
an optical lens system having a ?eld of view, said objec
8. The combination recited in claim 11 wherein the
tive lens having a focal point and said ocular lens having
magnetic means include a permanent magnet, a soft ferro
a
focal point, mutually perpendicular crosshairs in said.
magnetic material positioned in the magnetic ?eld of said
permanent magnet, and a low-resistancevelectrical con 75 tube de?ning predetermined reference lines, means for
2,376,646
mounting :said vcrosshairs in said ?eld of view to ‘de?ne a
reticule at'the focal point of .one of said’lenses, weight
means in said tube at one side of said‘?eld of view and
positioned at one of the focal points of said lens system,
?xed bearing means in said tube on the opposite side of
said ?eld of view, resilient shock-absorbing means in said
tube out of the ?eld of view interconnecting said weight
wise of said gun, spaced lenses-in said tube, including ob
jective lenses and ocular lenses de?ning an optical _lens
system having a ?eld of view, said objectivelenses'havin-g
a focallpoint and said ocular lenses having a focal point,
at least one reference hair in said tube,‘means for mount
ing said reference hair in said ?eld o‘fview to de?nea
reticule in the focal point of one of said lenses, ?xed hear
ing support means mounted wholly within said tube and
out of said ?eld of view, pivotal bearing means mounted
means and said bearing means, a cant-indicating member
in said tube at one of said focal points having a free end
and a ?xed end, and means in said tube for mounting said 10 on said ?xed bearing support means, 'at 'least one ‘arm
cant-indicating member to secure said ?xed end to said
mounted on and extending downwardly from said pivotal
weight means and to have saidfree end project into said
bearing means, ‘said arm being shaped to extend ‘around
?eld of view and adapted to be in visual‘association with
one side of the ?eld of view, a second arm on’the' opposite
one of said crosshairs to indicate canting of the tube and
side of said ?eld of view interconnected with said down-'
the gun from one of said predetermined reference lines. 15 wardly extending arm to de?ne-a pendulum, a cant indicat
13. The combination recited in claim 12 in which said
ing member in said tube and mounted 'at'thefocal point
cant-indicating member comprises a transparent member
of one of said lenses and having'a‘free'end and a'?xed
having a relatively thin, narrow section, ‘and having an
end, means in said tube for securing-said ?xed end'to
indicia thereon for visual association with one of said
said second arm to havesaid free end project into said
crosshairs to indicate tilting of the gun.
20 ?eld of view and adapted to be in visual ‘association with
14. The combination recited in‘claim '12 in which said
said referencehair asa reference line‘to indicateicanting
cant-indicating member comprises a hairlike ?lament
of said gun, and means independent of said pivotal bear
formedfrom glass.
ing means mounted on said downwardly extending arm
15. In an optical device for indicating canting of a
and coacting with said ?xed bearing support to limit the
gun, the combination of an elongated tubeadapted to be 25 amplitude of movement of said arms.
mounted lengthwise of said gun, spaced lenses in said tube
18. In an optical device for indicating cant of a gun
including objective lenses andvocular lenses de?ning an
the combination of a tube adapted to be mounted length
optical lens system having a ?eld of view, at least one
wise of said gun, spaced lenses in said tube, including
of said lenses being a magnifying'lens, a reticule having
objective lenses and ocular lenses de?ningoan optical lens
30
a reference crosshair, means for ?xedly mounting said
system‘having a ?eld of view, said objective lenses having
reticule in said tube to permit magni?cation of said cross
a focal point and said ocular‘lenses having a focallpoint,
hair, weight means, means for mounting said weight
a reference hair in said tube, means for mounting said
means permitting free swinging movement thereof trans
reference hair in said ?eld of view to de?ne ‘a reticule
versely of the longitudinal axis of said tube, said last
in the focal point of one of said lenses, ?xed‘bearing sup
mentioned means havingportions formed from relatively 35 port means mounted wholly Within said tube and out of
thin, light weight material having a relatively small cross
said ?eld of view, a pair of downwardly extending arms
sectional area to be resilient under shock, a cant indicator
extending around one side of the ?eld of view, pivotal
having a ?xed end and a free end, means for mounting
bearing means in said tube for mounting said downwardly
said indicator on said weight means to have said ?xed
curving ‘arms on said ?xed bearing support, a pair of up
end secured thereto and said free end extend across said 40 wardly extending arms on the opposite side of said ?eld
?eld of view in alinement with said weight-support means
of view and interconnected with said downwardly extend
and said ?xed end of the cant indicator for magni?cation
ing arms, a cant indicating member inisaid tube mounted
and visual association with said reticule whereby canting
at one of the focal points and having a free end and a
of said gun is visually observed by the relative positions
?xed end, means in said tube for securing said ?xed end
45 to an intermeditae portion of said upwardly extending
of said reference‘crosshair and said cant indicator.
16. In an optical device for indicating cant of a gun
arms to have said freeend project into said ?eld of view
the combination of a tube adapted to be mounted length
and adapted ‘to be in visual association with said reference
wise of said gun, spaced lenses in said tube, including
hair as a reference line to indicate canting of said ‘gun,
objective lenses and ocular lenses de?ning an optical lens
a‘weight formed from magnetic material mounted on said
system having'a ?eld of view, said objective lenses having 50 upwardly extending arms to de?ne a pendulum, and
a focal point and said ocular lenses having a focal point,
means adjacent said weight and .operative in response to
at least one reference hair in said ‘tube, means for mount
movement thereof to dampen the oscillatory motion of
ing said reference hair in said ?eld of view ‘to de?ne a
the pendulum and said cant indicating member. '
reticule in the focal point of one of said lenses, ?xed
vl9. In an optical device for indicating cant of a gun
bearing support means mounted wholly within said‘tube 55 the combination of a ‘tube adapted to be mounted "length
and out of said ?eld of view, a pair of downwardly ex
wise of said gun, spaced lenses in said tube, including ob
tending arms extending ‘around-one side of the ?eld of
jective lenses and ocular lenses de?ning an optical'lens
view, pivotal bearing means in said tube and intermediate
system having a ?eld of view, said objective lenses hav
said arms for mounting said arms on said ?xed bearing
ing a focal point and said ocular ‘lenses vhaving a focal
support, a pair of upwardly vextending arms on the op 60 point, a reference ‘hair in said tube, means for mounting
posite side of said ?eld of view and interconnected with
said reference'hair in said‘?eld of v'iew'to de?ne a‘ret'icule
said downwardly extending arms, a cant indicating mem
in the focal point of one of said lenses, ?xed bearing
ber in said tube mounted in the focal point of one of said
support means mounted wholly within said tube and
lenses and having a free end and a ?xed end, means in
out of said ?eld of view, at least one arm mounted on
said tube for securing said ?xed end to an intermediate 65 and extending downwardly from said bearing support
portion of said upwardly extending arms to have said free
means, said arm being shaped to extend around one side
end project into said ?eld of view and adapted to be in
of the ?eld of view, pivotal bearing means for mounting
visual association with one of said reference hairs as a
said downwardly extending arm on said ?xed bearing sup
reference line to indicate canting of said gun, and means
port, a second arm on the opposite side of said ?eld of
independent of said pivotal mounting means mounted on 70 view interconnected with said downwardly extending arm
one of said pair of arms and coacting with said ?xed
to de?ne a pendulum, a Weight attached to said second
bearing support means for limiting the amplitude of
arm formed from magnetic material, a cant indicating
movement of said arms.
member in said tube and mounted at one of said focal
17. In an optical device for indicating cant of a gun
points and having a free end and a ?xed end, means in
the combination of a tube adapted to be mounted length 75 said tube for securing said ?xed end to said second arm
2,876,546
12
11
supported by said housing in predetermined relation there
to have said free end project into said ?eld of view
adapted to be in visual association with said reference hair
with, a pivotally mounted pendulum out of said ?eld of
view and supported by said housing for oscillative move
ment transversely to the optical axis of said lens, a cant
as a reference line to indicate canting of said gun, means
independent of said pivotal mounting means mounted on
indicating member mounted on said pendulum to be mov
said downwardly extending arm coacting with said ?xed
able therewith and extending into said ?eld of view for
bearing support to limit the amplitude of movement of
visual association with said reference point means, said
said arms, and means adjacent said weight and operative
cant-indicating member and reference point means align
in response to movement thereof to dampen the oscillatory
ing in the normal position of the parts and when not in
motion of the pendulum and said cant indicating member.
20. In an optical device for indicating canting of a gun 10 alinement indicating the cant of the housing when rotated
clockwise or anti-clockwise in a plane transverse to said
the combination of an elongated tube adapted to be
optical axis of said lens whereby the operator may adjust
mounted lengthwise of a gun, spaced lenses in said tube
the tilt of the housing to bring the reference point means
including objective lenses and ocular lenses de?ning an
and the cant indicator into alinement, and magnetic
optical lens system having a ?eld of view, a substantially
circular reticule support mounted within said tube, a 15 means including means to effect the generation of electrical
eddy currents associated with said pendulum to quench
reticule positioned at the focal point of said optical lens
the oscillation of said pendulum, thereby permitting the
system and held in place by said reticule support, a weight,
operator to adjust the housing to correct for minute
means for ?exibly and pivotally mounting said weight
amounts of cant of said housing in a short period of time.
wholly within said tube for free transverse swinging move
24. In a mechanism to indicate canting of an optical
ment relative to said tube, said weight and its ?exible 20
device the combination of at least one optical lens having
mounting means being entirely out of the ?eld of view,
a ?eld of view, a housing for said lens, means providing
a reference point projecting into said ?eld of view and
a cant indicator per se mounted wholly within said tube
and positioned for visual association with said reticule,
said cant indicator per so being oscillatable transverse to
said tube in response to said swinging weight and posi~
tioned in the focal point of said optical lens system there
by in effect projecting the relative position of the cant
supported by said housing in predetermined relation
25 therewith, a pendulum out of said ?eld of view, means for
mounting said pendulum within said housing including
a shaft having pointed ends and substantially parallel
with the optical axis of said lens whereby to permit oscil
lative movement of the pendulum transversely to the op
distance; and spring means in said tube to hold the reti
cule support, the reticule and cant indicator per se in a 30 tical axis of said lens, conical bearings supporting the
ends of said shaft, means for mounting said bearings in
predetermined ?xed position relative to the optical axis
said housing on opposite sides of said pendulum, includ
when the weight is at rest.
ing magnetic circuit means adjacent said pendulum, a
21. The combination recited in claim 20 with adjustable
cant-indicating member mounted on said pendulum to
means mounted on said tube for selectively moving said
reticule support bodily in directions substantially at right 35 be movable therewith and extending into said ?eld of
, view for visual association with said reference point
angles to each other.
means, said cant-indicating member and reference point
22. In an optical device to indicate canting of a gun,
means alining in the normal position of the parts and
the ,combinaton of a tube adapted to be mounted length
when not in alinement indicating the cant of the housing
wise of the gun, an optical lens system having an optical
axis and mounted in said tube, said system comprising 40 whereby the operator may adjust the tilt of the housing
to bring the reference point means and the cant indicator
an objective lens, an erecting lens and an ocular lens
into alinement, and magnetic means acting between said
mounted in said tube; a reticule mounted within said tube
pendulum and said magnetic circuit means to quench
and rigidly held thereby; a pendulum fully enclosed in
the oscillation of said pendulum.
said tube and out of the ?eld of view of said optical sys
tem, said pendulum having at least one portion formed 45
References Cited in the ?le of this patent
from thin, light weight material of reduced cross-sectional
UNITED STATES PATENTS
area and adapted to be ?exible When subjected to shock
means for mounting said pendulum in said tube for oscil
126,372
Barnum ______________ __ May 7, 1872
lative travel transversely to the optical axis of said optical
476,874
Cummins ____________ __ June 14, 1892
indicator per se and reticule into space for an in?nite
lens system; and a cant indicating member attached to 5 O
said pendulum and extending radially into said ?eld of
view for visual association with said reticule; said cant
indicating member and said reticule being positioned in
the optical system for optical magni?cation and being
simultaneously in focus when viewed through said ocular
lens of said optical lens system thereby permitting the de
tection of a minute amount of cant of said gun.
23. In a mechanism to indicate canting of an optical
device the combination of at least one optical lens having
a ?eld of view, a housing for said lens, means providing 60
a reference point projecting into said ?eld of view and
499,160
Cummins‘ _____________ __ June 6, 1893
502,433
Gibboney ____________ _._ Aug. 1, 1893
1,009,148
Hoffman ____________ __ Nov. 21, l9l1
1,135,787
1,533,723
2,243,793
Grauheding _________ __ Apr. 13,
Brown ______________ _._. Apr. 14,
Cummins ____________ _._ May 27,
Johnson _____________ __ Mar. 10,
Meyer _______________ _._ Nov. 2,
2,275,631
2,452,592
-
847,490
1915
1925
1941
1942
1948
FOREIGN PATENTS
France _______________ _._ July 3, 1939
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