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Патент USA US2876552

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March 10, 1959
Filed July 15, 1953
grates ‘ment
C. Richard Spencer and Michael J. Nagy, Inglewood,
‘Calif, assignors to Northrop Aircraft, Inc., Hawthorne,
Calif., a corporation of California
arcuate slots 13 and 14, these slots are identically located
in the upper corners of the board and are equally spaced
on each side of the vertical center line 15 thereof. The
edges 16 and 17 of slot 13 and edges 18 and 19 of slot 14
constitute cylindrical surfaces having common axes 20
and 21, respectively. The axes (20 and 21‘) are lo
cated on a common horizontal line 22 and spaced at.
equal distances on each side of center line 15, the line 22.
constituting the horizon of a perspective drawing 23
Application July 13, 1953, Serial No. 367,494
Patented Mar. 10, 1959
10 executed on the drawing surface 12. Surfaces 16 to 19,
inclusive, are normal to the drawing surface of the board,
this is also true of the surfaces de?ning the end portions
of the arcuate slots. Axes 20 and 21, ‘which in the pres
ent instance lie beyond the right and left side of the draw
3 Claims. (or. 33-77)
This invention relates to mechanical drawing- devices 15 ing board, respectively, also represent the right and left
hand vanishing points of the drawing 23 and would be
and more particularly to- a device which. facilitates the
execution of angular perspective drawings.
used in its execution if it was to be drawn by conventional
Perspective views are used for various purposes, such
methods. The slots 13 and 14 preferably extend through
views provide non-technical personnel with at; least a
the entire thickness of the board thus eliminating the
fair understanding. of a. complex device or apparatus. 20 possibility of foreign material collecting therein which
Frequently engineers and draftsmen use a perspective
may aiiect the accuracy of the device. The extent of slots
view as an aid in visualizing a complex device which is
13 and 14, that is the relative location of their end por
shown in accompanying orthographic drawings.
tions with respect to the drawing surface, will be described
spectives are also extensively used for illustrative pur
further as the disclosure progresses.
poses in maintenance and repair manuals, in fact any 25
A pair of spaced vertical scales 24 are provided’ at
place where a pictorial view of a device is required.v
equal distances on each side of the vertical line '15 and
Although perspective views are extremely useful and‘
extend downwardly from line 22 toward the lower por~
are used to a certain extent, their. execution by conven
7 tion of the drawing surface 12, substantially as shown in
tionalmeans requires an extensive drawing surface andv
Figure 1. These scales are identical and the spaces be
may prove bothersome to many draftsmen, accordingly 30 tween their graduations equal, the graduations are used
they are not used as extensively as they should be. Brie?y
to determine vertical distances which lie in the picture
the instant invention discloses a drawing device which
plane of drawing 23 and also to determine the con?gura
comprises an especially constructed drawing board and
tion of circular areas in perspective located in a hori
T-square, the drawing board having apair of arcuate
zontal plane. Accordingly each of these scales have two.
slots formed to accommodate the‘ head of the Tasquare: 35 sets of markings, one for linear measurements indicated
and automatically position the blade thereof so that.
at 25, the other for determining the elliptical con?gura
horizontal lines of a device or structure may be located
tion of circular areas indicated by numeral 26. The mark.
and drawn in perspective on the drawing surface of the.
ings 25 begin with zero, at the intersection of scales 24
board. The drawing board and T-square are also pro~ >
with line 22, and increases in numerical value from
vided with scales whereby correct perspective measurethis point to the lower ends of the scales, these mark
ments may be applied directly to the drawing.
ings may be in inches or any linear unit desired. Mark-'
Accordingly it is an object of the present» invention
ings 26 begin with ?fteen degrees (15°) at the ?fth
to provide adrawing device whereby. the execution‘ of"
graduation below the intersection of scales 24 with line 22,
perspective drawings is materially facilitated.
thereafter each graduation represents one degree, how
Another object is to provide a drawing device utilized‘;
ever the degree markings are indicated at ?ve degree
in executing perspective-drawing which eliminates the:
intervals only. The method of using scales 24 for the
necessity of extensive construction lines.
two purposes mentioned above will be further described
Another object is to provide a drawing. device utilized‘.
in connection with the operation of the device.
in executing perspective‘drawings which requires mateAn especially constructed T-square 27, shown in de
rially less drawing surface than if conventionalmethods .50 tail in Figure 2, is adapted for usewith the drawing
were used.
Another object is to‘ provide a‘ drawing device utilized.
board described above. The T-square comprises a head.
portion 28, generally of triangular. con?guration, and a
in executing perspective drawings which provides gradblade portion 29. The relationship of the head 28 and
uated scales whereby measurements may be applied
blade 29 is such that a longitudinal edge 30 of the blade
directly to the drawing.
and the plane surface of an edge 31 of the head are nor
These and other objects will become mo‘reapparent:
mal to each other, the end portions of edge 31 constitute
fromrthe following descriptionand drawing in which like
reference characters denote‘ like parts: ItIis- to be expressly
understood, however, that the drawing isrforthepurpose:
of illustration only and not" a de?nition‘ of‘ the limitsofi
the invention, reference beingihad ifor-‘this' purpose-'to-the:
appended claims.
In the drawing:
Figure 1 is a perspective viewv of 'a preferred embodi
ment of a drawing board and T-square-constructed as.’
‘ disclosed herein.
Figure 2 is an enlarged perspective view ofthe T-square.
as shown in Figure 1.
Referring to the v accompanying drawing, Figure I.
cylindrical surfaces 32 and 33 having the same curva
ture as edges 16 and 18 of arcuate slots 13 and 14, re
spectively. The axes of surfaces 32 and 33 are normal
to the triangular surfaces of the T-square head and in
tersect a line coinciding with edge ,30 at a point beyond
the head of the T-square. The other longitudinal edge
34 of the blade 29 is positioned slightly oblique with re
spects to the plane portion of edge 31 and coincides with
a radial line originating at the coincident axes of surfaces
32 and 33. The blade portion of the T-square is located
midway between the triangular faces of the head portion,‘
this construction allows the T-square head to be used in,
either arcuate slot. Accordingly with the head 28 posi-.
shows a rectangular drawing board 11 either side of ‘which. 70 tioned in ?rst one and then the other of the arcuate slots
may be used as a drawing surface 12 for the. execution of?
the blade portion 29 extends across the drawing surface;
perspective drawings.‘ Formed in the board'a're a pair of
from the right’ or left to locate horizontally extending
lines of the drawing 23. A graduated scale 35 is pro- _
vided on each side of the T-square blade adjacent edge
30, the spaces between the scale graduations diminish
ing from the outer end of the blade toward head 28 in
accordance with the rule of perspectives. These scales
35 are only applicable when edge 30 is inclined at an
angle of twenty-?ve degrees (25°) below the horizon
(line 22), that is when a base line distance of drawing
square so it coincides with the intersection of two diame
ters of the area located at an angle with respect to each
other. The con?guration of the area is then determined
by the intersection of edge 30 of the T-square with scales
24 as indicated by the elliptical marking 26. Such an area
is represented at 46, all circular areas located above the
?fteen degree (15") elliptical marking are shown as ?f
teen degree,(15°) ellipses, all those between ?fteen de
grees (15°) and twenty degrees (20°) as twenty degree
With the T-square head in position in either arcuate 10 (20°) ellipses, etc. Circular areas such as 47, located in
a vertical plane, are shown as a forty-?ve degree (45 °)
slot, for example right hand slot 13 as shown by solid
construction in Figure 1, surfaces 32 and 33 contact edge
ellipsis which is customary practice in perspective draw
16 of the slot which provides a guiding surface for the
T-square head. Edge portions 36 and 37 of the head 28
While in order to comply with the statute, the inven
are inclined at different angles with respect to the plane 15 tion has been described in language more or less speci?c
23 is being measured.
portion of edge 31, these portions (36 and 37) contact
as to structural features, it is to be understood that the
the end portions of slots 13 and 14 to limit the travel
invention is not limited to the speci?c features shown, but
of the T-square head and accordingly the travel of blade
that the means and construction herein disclosed com
29. The edge portions 36 and 37 also aid in eliminat
prise a preferred form of putting the invention into ef
ing the possibility of placing the head 28 in either of the 20 fect, and the invention is therefore claimed in any of its
arcuate slots in an upside-down position. The slots 13
forms or modi?cations within the legitimate and valid
and 14 are positioned with respect to the drawing sur
scope of the appended‘claims.
face and extend so that the T-square may be moved be
What is claimed is:
tween a ?rst position in which edge 30 coincides with the
1. A device for executing a perspective drawing com
horizontal line 22 and a second position in which edge 25 prising: a drawing board portions of which de?ne a pair
30 is positioned at an angle of twenty-?ve (25 °) below
of arcuate slots which de?ne guiding edges which con
line 22. The T-square may be moved between the afore
stitute identical cylindrical surfaces and in which said
mentioned ?rst and second positions regardless of which
slots terminate in end edges having di?erent angular re
arcuate slot the head is positioned in.
lations with respect to said guiding edges; said slots being
Thus it is seen a drawing device is provided in which 30 located with respect to each other with their guiding edges
distant vanishing points are not required in executing a
in'spaced opposed relation and the axes of said guiding
perspective drawing on the drawing surface of the de
edges intersecting a common line at positions on opposite
vice. Also measurements may be applied directly to the
sides of said drawing board; and a T-square including a
drawings in accordance with the rules of perspectives.
head, having top and bottom faces, and an elongated
The function of the various'parts of the device will be 35 blade having a ruling edge; said head having a ?rst edge
come more apparent from the following description in
including a plane surface which terminates at each end
which ‘the procedure for executing a simple perspective
in cylindrical surfaces having coincident axes and radii
drawing is outlined.
equal to the radii of said guiding edges; said blade being
In executing a perspective drawing on the drawing sur
attached to said head midway between said top and
face 12, e. g. the drawing 23 as seen in Figure 1, the 40 bottom faces with said rulingv edge extending normal to
need for locating vanishing points for the drawing is not
necessary as horizontal lines are automatically located
the plane surface of said ?rst edge and said ruling edge
if extended intersects the coincident axes of the cylindrical
by edge 30 of the T-square at such times as its head por
surfaces of said ?rst edge; said head being generally of
tion is properly positioned in the arcuate slots 13 and 14.
The base lines 38 and 39 of the drawing are ?rst located 45 triangular con?guration in plan view de?ned by said ?rst
edge and second and third edges, the latter edges having
by moving the T-square head to its lowest position
different angular relations with respect to the plane sur
in slots 13 and 14, respectively. The length of these lines
face of said ?rst edge; said head being positionable in
are measured directly with scales 35. Vertical lines 40,
either of said slots with the cylindrical surfaces of said
41 and 42 are then drawn at the intersection of lines 38
and 39 and at the ends of these lines, respectively. The 50 ?rst edge in contact with said guiding edges and when
length of vertical line 40, in the drawing, may now be
moved to one end of a respective slot said second edge
determined by the linear markings on scales 24 in co
contacts the end edge thereof in ?ush relationship to pc
operation with the T-square. To determine the length ‘ I sition said ruling edge in a position locating the horizon
of line 40, head 28 is moved upwardly in the slot in
of a drawing to be executed on said drawing ‘board and
which it is positioned until the edge 30 has passed over 55 when moved to the other end of said respective slot said
a number of spaces‘ on scale 24 equal to the actual height
third edge contacts the other end edge ‘of said respective
of the line, the intersection of edge 30 with line 40 now
_ slot in ?ush relationship to position said ruling edge in a
gives us the length of this line in perspective. It is now
position to locate base lines of said drawing.
apparent how the remainder of the base portion of the
2. Apparatus as set forth in claim 1 further charac
structure of drawing 23 is executed. The length of base 60
terized by including a pair of spaced graduated scales on
lines 43 and 44 of the superstructure may also be deter
said drawing board each of which extend in a direction
mined or measured by scale 35, such measurements being
normal to said common line and in which said graduations
made on base lines 38 and 39 and then projected to their
cooperate with said ruling edge to determine vertical
proper location in a conventional manner. The length
of vertical line 45 may also be measured in a manner 65 distances which lie in the ‘picture plane of said drawing
and the elliptical con?guration of circular areas which
similar to vertical line 40 however this line (45) must be
measured in the plane in which lines 38 and 40 or 39
constitute part of said drawing.
and 40 lie. The remainer of the superstructure may then
3. Apparatus asset forth in claim 2 further charac
be completed. All vertical lines may be drawn by using
terized by including a graduated scale on said ruling edge
the T-square and a triangle in a conventional manner or 70 and in which the spaces between the graduations consti
by using the T-square alone in conjunction with the top
or bottom edge of the drawing board providing they are
parallel with the horizon (line 22). The elliptical con
?guration of circular areas appearing in a horizontal
plane are determined by placing the edge 30 of the T 75
tuting the scale on said ruling edge diminish from the
outer end of said ruling edge toward said head in ac—
cordance with the rule of perspectives.
' (References) on following page)
References Cited in the ?le of this patent
Hansell STATES
__ Aug. 31, 1858
Speir _______________ __ Feb. 10, 1885 5
Johnson _____________ __ Sept. 6, 1892
Harmer ______________ __ July 6, 1926
McCoy _____________ __ Aug. 14, 1934
Fry _________________ __ Nov. 6, 1945
Andersen et a1. _______ __ Dec. 10, 1946
Great Britain ________ __ Dec. 11, 1923
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