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Патент USA US3062510

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Nov. 6, 1962
P. T. ANGELL ETAL
3,062,498
TURBINE NOZZLE AND ROTOR ARRANGEMENT
Original Filed May 4, 1954
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Ezra IZZQTE
Pierce T A1296! /
Faberz? d’ljborn
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Nov. 6, 1962
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P. T. ANGELL ETAL
3,062,498
TURBINE NOZZLE AND ROTOR ARRANGEMENT
Original Filed May 4, 1954
3 Sheets-Sheet 2
ETLFEWZQITE
B'erce T Anya/l
Faber! U/jborn
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Nov. 6, 1962
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P. 1'. ANGELL ETAL
3,062,498
TURBINE NOZZLE AND ROTOR ARRANGEMENT
Original Filed May 4, 1954
3 Sheets-Sheet 3
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EYE TZZ‘E TE
Pierce T Ange/l
Robert C/Zborzz
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3,052,498
Patented Nov. 6, 1962
2
1
FIGURE 7 is a developed view of the blading of the
turbine nozzles of the present invention and constructed
in accordance with the embodiment thereof shown in
FIGURES 4 and 5; and
3,062,498
TURBINE NOZZLE AND ROTOR ARRANGEMENT
Pierce T. Angeli, Pepper Pike Village, and Robert Cli
born, South Euclid, Ohio, assignors to Thompson Ramo
Wooldridge Inc., Cleveland, Ohio, a corporation of
FIGURE 8 is a cross-sectional view of the turbine
rotor drive transmitting key and locking device taken
along the lines VIII-VIII of FIGURE 1.
Ohio
Original application May 4, 1954, Ser. No. 427,599, new
Patent No. 2,910,005, dated Oct. 27, 1959. Divided
As shown on the drawings:
and this application Dec. 11, 1958, Ser. No. 779,592
The combined turbine drive and ?uid pump of the
3 Claims. (Cl. 253-78)
10 present invention is shown in somewhat greater than full
size dimensions in FIGURE 1. There, the right hand
The present invention relates to apparatus for pump
portion of the apparatus operates as a turbine While the
ing liquids or the like by power developed from a source
left hand end of the device transforms the work energy
of expandable ?uid. More particularly, the invention
supplied by the turbine into a centrifugal pumping action
relates to the provision in such apparatus of a new and
15 for pressurizing a liquid or gaseous medium such as, for
improved turbine nozzle and vane construction.
example, gasoline or similar fuel for aircraft.
This application is a division of our co-pending applica
As shown in the ?gures and as was originally disclosed
tion, Serial No. 427,599, which was ?led May 4, 1954
in our patent application identi?ed above, the assembly
and issued into Patent No. 2,910,005 on October 27,
comprises a three part housing 10 composed of a central
1959.
The problem of providing simple turbine constructions 20 pump housing 11, a pump inlet housing 12 and an air
circulating housing 13 provided with an axial air ?ow
controlling housing 14. The central housing 11 is pro
vided with an axially extending bore 15 in which a drive
for use in such modern ?elds as aviation and like arts
has been a serious one. In such uses, the turbine must
be extremely strong with a minimum of weight and a
shaft 16 is mounted by means of conventional ball bear
-maximum of ?uid ?ow per inch of diameter of the tur
.bine rotor. These requirements are extremely important 25 ings 17 and 18. Axial movement of the shaft 16 is pre
to utilize the compressed gases available for a power
vented by the shoulders 19 in the bore 15, the metal spac
ing sleeve 20, the spring retainer 21 and the abutment
wall 22 secured to the housing 11 by means countersunk
source on modern jet aircraft, for example.
screws 23.
in the eflicient design of modern light weight equipment
and have been considered absolutely necessary in order
By the present invention, a simpli?ed and substantially 30
improved turbine rotor structure has been provided while
retaining an extremely small turbine rotor diameter and
The drive shaft 16 carries a turbine rotor R at its right
hand, or turbine end. The rotor hub 25 is abutted
against the thrust abutment 26, and is maintained axially
while maintaining the cost of manufacture at a minimum.
positioned thereagainst by means of a radial key 27 posi
In reducing the cost of the present turbine apparatus, ap
tioned in a diametrical slot 28 in the shaft 16 and main
.tained in position by means of a threaded nut 29.
As may be seen from a consideration of FIGURES 1
plicants have simultaneously achieved substantially
greater strength thereby permitting high operating speeds
and 2, air entering the housing 13 by means of the air
inlet 13a passes around the circumference of the air cir
provide a simpli?ed turbine nozzle and rotor construction. 40 culation housing 13 and is directed axially therefrom
through the nozzle plate 30 by the nozzle vanes 30a as in
Another object is to provide a method of manufactur
dicated by the arrows 31. As is shown in FIGURE 1,
ing turbine nozzle passages in a simpli?ed manner.
the nozzle plate 30, which will be more fully described
Another object of the present invention is to provide
below, is secured by screws 32 to an intermediate support
a turbine having a large ratio of ?ow area per inch of
member or vane support portion 33 which is in turn
turbine rotor diameter.
45 secured to the central housing 11 by means of the screws
A further object of the present invention is to provide
23. The intermediate support 33 may be integral with
a nozzle and rotor combination in which an inlet nozzle
or otherwise permanently secured to the innermost por
plate extends axially within a housing and is provided
tion 131) of the housing 13 or, as an alternative method
with vanes extending radially from a hub into substantial
of manufacture, the support 33 may instead bear a sliding
contact with the housing, and in which a turbine rotor is
with a minimum of operational break downs.
It is, therefore, an object of the present invention to
mounted in the housing adjacent the nozzle plate and is
provided with vanes extending radially into substantial
contact with the housing whereby there is provided a con_
50
'?t relationship with the portion 13b at 33a to thereby
provide a ?uid tight seal.
In the general arrangement above set forth, compressed
air introduced in the direction of the arrow shown in
tinuous ?ow controlling path'through said housing.
Still other and further objects and features of the 55 FIGURE 2 through the inlet 13a passes through the
nozzle passages 30]) and impinges vanes 25a of the tur
present invention will become apparent to those skilled
bine rotor R, thereby rotating the shaft 16 through the
in the art from the consideration of the attached sheets
key 27. The shaft 16 is of course drivingly connected to
of drawings wherein:
the centrifugal pump rotor 35.
The pump rotor 35 draws low pressure fuel or the like
60
from an inlet 36 and delivers the fuel through centri
FIGURE 2 is an end elevational view of the structure
fugal action to rotor outlet 37. From thence it travels
shown in FIGURE 1;
axially through diffuser passages 38 to a collecting ring
FIGURE 3 is a cross-sectional view taken along the
39 from which the fuel is delivered through exit 40.
line III-III of FIGURE 1;
As earlier described in application Serial No. 427,599,
FIGURE 4 is a partial elevatio-nal view in cross-section 65
the rotor 35 is maintained in axial and radial alignment
showing a modi?ed form of turbine nozzle and taken
by means of bearing and wear surfaces 41 and 42, as
along the line similar to IV-IV of FIGURE 2;
well as by the bearings 17 and 18. Although the rotor
FIGURE 5 is a partial end elevational view of the
35 may be secured to the shaft 16 in a number of ways,
modi?ed form of nozzle shown in FIGURE 4;
FIGURE 6 is a developed view of the blading of the 70 one satisfactory coupling is shown in the drawings.
There, the‘rotor 35 is splined to a drive member 43 which
turbine nozzle constructed according to the embodiment
is in turn keyed axially at ‘44 to the shaft 16. The rotor
shown in FIGURES 1 and 2;
FIGURE 1 is an elevational view in cross section of
a preferred form of turbine and pump construction;
3,062,498
3
35 is maintained in its axial position relative to the shaft
16 by means of a spacer sleeve 45 which cooperates with
a combined abutment and seal 46 to maintain the rotor
35 a ?xed distance from abutment 47 on the left hand
end of the shaft 16.
Pressure from the pump rotor outlet 37 may leak into
4
As may be seen from FIGURE 1, the housing 14 pro
vides a continuous and generally conically convergent
shaped peripheral con?ning surface 14a for the air
throughout its convergent ?ow through the nozzle open
lugs 30 as well as its diffusion or divergency in the turbine
cavity 48, and this leakage is prevented from passing
blading 25a. Through this arrangement, a simple, a
single, outer shroud element 14 is permitted. It is to be
through the bore 15 by means of the seal plate 46 which
cooperates with the spring biased wipers 4-9 and 50.
seen in this connection that the rotor vanes 25a and noz
zle plate vanes Stla are in substantial contact with the
While this arrangement has proven very effective in pre
venting leakage of the pressurized ?uid medium, it is to
be understood that other types of seals may be utilized
if desired without departing from the scope of the pres
10 inner surface 14a of the housing 14, and that the rotor
R and nozzle plate 3'0 are immediately adjacent one an
other. Further, the hub portion 25 of the rotor R termi
nates radially at essentially the outer radial extremity of
ent invention.
the nozzle plate hub portion.
As may be seen from a consideration of FIGURE 1, 15
The elimination of the need of any outer shroud for
the pressurized ?uid entering the collecting ring 39 from
either the rotor R or the nozzle structure 30 additionally
the pump rotor 35 may circulate past the radial reenforc
ing ribs 51 into the portion of the collecting ring 39 im
mediately within the inner wall 13]) of the housing 13.
Thus, the compressed ?uid circulates in heat transfer re
lationship with the incoming compressed air within the
turbine inlet housing 13. Likewise, the ?uid from the
pump rotor 35 is also in heat transfer relationship with
the bearings 17 and 18 which are ?xedly mounted within
the bore 15. It will be apparent, therefore, that when
the bearings 17 and 18 develop excessive heat, heat will
be dissipated to the compressed ?uid in the collecting ring
39 of the housing 11, as well as to the compressed gas
permits the manufacture of both the rotor and the nozzle
by means of conventional milling cutters. Thus, the
blading 30a of the nozzle blade 30 may be manufactured
by indexing the blade 3%) on a conventional milling ma
chine and moving the milling cutter in a direction of the
arrow 55 shown in FIGURES l and 6 relative to the
blade 39. Movement of the milling cutter along the line
indicated by the arrow 55 automatically causes a converg
ing nozzle passage 30b to be cut into the plate 30‘.
The above method of manufacture is extremely simple
and, further, may be utilized with only a slight modi?ca
tion to provide a nozzle capable of supersonic operation.
within the chamber 13. The spring force urging the key
Thus, as may be seen particularly from a consideration of
27 in the axial direction is provided by means of the spring 30 FIGURES 4 and 7, a nozzle plate 60 may be provided
?anges 29a on the nut 29. As may be seen from FIG
with converging-diverging nozzle passageways 60a by set
URE l, the ?ange 29a provides an overhanging lip which
ting up the milling machine as above described and passing
combines with the recess 2% to permit a de?ection of the
the milling cutter along a helical path shown by the ar
?ange 29a upon the application of a high rotative torque 35 row 66 in FIGURES 4 and 7, and then tilting the nozzle
to the nut 29. Thus, when the nut 29 is tightened down
plate 60 in the opposite direction about its central axis
against the key 27, the ?ange 29a is de?ected and a
relative to the longitudinal axis 16 and passing the milling
resilient set is provided therein. When during operation
cutter along a helical path indicated by the arrows 67 in
the rotor R contracts axially, the ?ange ‘29a moves axially
FIGURES 4 and 7.
with the key 27 to maintain the key in tight engagement 40
This two step milling operation provides a converging
with the rotor R, and the rotor itself in tight engagement
nozzle passageway in the direction of the arrow 66 until
with the abutment plate 26 thereby providing a constant,
the minimum area neck 68 is reached, at which time the
extremely tight, connection.
passage begins to diverge. Since, as is well known in
In the second place, an extremely e?icient coupling is
the art, a continuous ?ow passage which is to excelerate
provided through the use of the radial key 27 since the as U! the. velocity of a gas from an initial sub-sonic value to
strength of the hub 25 of the rotor R is increased through
a supersonic value must comprise a convergent nozzle
the elimination of axially extending spline grooves of the
passage followed by a diverging section, it will be apparent
conventional type. It should be remembered that the
that the nozzle passageways manufactured as above de
scribed, operate suitably to provide supersonic ?ow en
axially extending splines of a conventional connection
not only detract from the strength of the hub through 50 tering the turbine wheel R, thus providing extremely high
speed, as well as e?icient operation. Likewise, as is well
a reduction in the metal, and hence the e?ective thickness
known, the provision of a continuously converging nozzle
of the hub, but also provide a “notch effect” causing a
passageway as shown in FIGURE 1 provides in increas
localization of the stresses at the minimum radial thick
ing velocity of the gas reaching a maximum of the speed
ness of the hub. This concentration of stress causes a
serious weakening of the hub, which is substantially in
excess of the weakening elfect of the removal of material
of sound as it leaves the nozzle passages 60a and enters
the rotor R.
From the above discussion, it will be apparent that the
nozzle plates constructed according to the present invention
The apparatus of the present invention includes an
may very simply be manufactured through the use of
extremely simple turbine nozzle and vane construction,
this being the invention to which the instant application O; O conventional milling machines rather than extremely com
plex machinery ordinarily used for the manufacture of
is principally directed. Through the use of a small di
nozzle passageways. This permits extremely inexpensive
ameter hub 25, as above described, short rotor vanes 25a,
construction and in many cases even more important, per
which vanes extend axially relatively a great distance,
mits manufacture of such pump and turbine structures by
may be provided. By means of this construction, a mini
manufacturing concerns not having the complex machin
mum number of turbine buckets may be utilized, thereby
ery ordinarily associated with manufacture of turbine noz
providing a large ?ow area. This permits the develop
zles and other complex turbine blade forms. This sim
only.
ment of a considerable amount of power compared to
pli?ed blading, when taken with the remainder of the
larger diameter turbines in which a greater percentage
of the air passageway must of necessity comprise vane
very compact structure provides an unusually simple and
structure.
capable of ef?cient use where compactness, e?icient cool
Simpli?ed manufacture of the nozzle and rotor of the
turbine and improved operation are provided through
thermodynamically superior pump and turbine structure
ing and simplicity are required.
It is to be understood that various modi?cations may be
effected in the structures herein disclosed without depart
shroud for the IotOr and shroud for the nozzle blades. 75 ing from the novel concepts of the present invention.
the provision of the exhaust housing 14 as a combined
8,062,498
6
5
We claim as our invention:
3. A nozzle and rotor combination, comprising a con
tinuous annular housing open at opposite ends and having
tinuous annular housing open at opposite ends and having
a generally conical inner periphery providing a continu
a continuous conical inner surface diverging from a dis
ous converging wall from an inlet open end to an outlet
1. A nozzle and rotor combination, comprising a con
open end, an inlet nozzle plate extending axially within
said housing at said inlet end and having a plurality of
vanes extending radially therefrom into substantial con
tact with said surface of said housing, said nozzle plate
said housing at said inlet end thereof having a plurality
and said surface of said housing radially outwardly of
of vanes extending radially therefrom into substantial con
said nozzle plate vanes providing a convergent ?uid ?ow
tact with said surface of said housing, and a turbine rotor
path through said nozzle plate, and a turbine rotor
mounted within said housing between said nozzle plate and
mounted within said housing and extending axially from
said discharge end of the housing and having vanes there
said discharge end thereof to said nozzle plate and having
on extending radially into substantial contact with said
a hub portion with vanes thereon extending radially into
surface of said housing, whereby said housing surface pro
vides a one piece continuous ?ow controlling path through 15 substantial contact with said surface of said housing, said
rotor hub portion and said surface of said housing radially
said nozzle plate and through said rotor.
outwardly of the rotor vanes providing a diffusing di
2.. A nozzle and rotor combination, comprising a con
vergent ?uid ?ow path through said rotor.
tinuous annular housing open at opposite ends and provid
ing a continuous conical converging ?uid ?ow directing
References Cited in the ?le of this patent
surface from the inlet end to the discharge end thereof, 20
shaft means supported concentrically within said housing,
UNITED STATES PATENTS
an inlet nozzle plate. extending axially within said housing
1,427,179
Waller ______________ __ Aug. 29, 1922
at said inlet end and having a plurality of vanes extending
charge end to an inlet end providing an axially outwardly
convergent ?uid ?ow directing surface at the discharge
end thereof, an inlet nozzle plate extending axially within
radially therefrom into substantial contact with said sur
1,894,393
face of said housing, and a turbine rotor supported by said 25
2,252,817
Van Rijswijk __________ __ Aug. 19, 1941
shaft means at one end thereof and located within said
2,391,786
2,646,209
2,701,528
2,715,367
2,750,892
2,839,005
Kenney ______________ __ Dec. 25,
Galliot ______________ __ July 21,
Angell _______________ __ Feb. 8,
Kodet et al ___________ __ Aug. 16,
Johnson ______________ __ June 19,
Means _______________ __ June 17,
housing between the discharge end thereof and said noz_
zle plate, said rotor having vanes thereon extending radially
into substantial contact with said surface of said housing,
whereby said housing surface provides a one piece continu 30
ous ?ow controlling path through said nozzle plate and
through said rotor.
Bigelow ______________ __ Jan. 17, 1933
1945
1953
1955
1955
1956‘
1958
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