Патент USA US3289359код для вставки
Dean 5, w E. P. KOLLAR 39%9»3M FILM RECORD CARDS AND METHOD FOR MAKING THE SAME Filed DecT 25, 1963 2 Sheets-Sheet 1 V///////////////////% “7 48 “mR\‘ '/ W/ m: as INVENTOH ERNEST P. KOLLAR > k45 BY /9WWAGENT Dec. 6, 1966 E. P. KOLLAR 3,289,344 FILM RECORD CARDS AND METHOD FOR MAKING THE SAME Filed Dec. 25, 1963 2 ‘Sheets-Sheet 2 ‘ 5g e / \ (55 m 51-/ 4/ A/ l ' /50 a; /// l] . l] D H 13 T _ #49 a o _ o ‘ b 0 I): o 13 T 52 I FIG. 12 / “xx” 57 55 52 FIG. 14 ' 51FIG. 13 41 54 FIG. 15 United States Patent 0 "ice 3,289,344 Patented Dec. 6, 1966 1 2 3,289,344 of at least 0.0025 inch without deforming or pushing out the reverse side of the card. This is because the density FILM RECORD CARDS AND METHOD FOR MAKING THE SAME Ernest P. Kollar, Vestal, N.Y., assignor to International Business Machines Corporation, New York, N.Y., a corporation of New York of the compressed portion would then exceed the density of solid cellulose. In view of this major problem relative to compressibility of cardstock, the prior art has been concerned with vari ous means for mounting the ?lm insert in a card provided Filed Dec. 23, 1963, Ser. No. 332,401 3 Claims. (Cl. 40-158) with a compressed shoulder having a depth of from; .001 to .002 inch. As disclosed in the Langan US. Patent No. This invention relates to ?lm record cards in which 10 2,512,106 mentioned above, use is made of an aper ture-d sheet of pressure sensitive adhesive material secured handling, ?ling, sorting, projection ‘and storage of the to a compressed shoulder surrounding the card aperture ?lm sections and to an improved and novel method for and having a depth of 0.0015 inch. A narrow section manufacturing novel aperture cards adapted for such uses. of the sheet extends into the aperture with exposed ad The present invention is particularly useful in the manu 15 hesive thereon for subsequent mounting of a transparency facture of ?lm cards which are capable of being sorted in the aperture which has a depth of 0.0055 inch. This mechanically or electrically as, for example, the well exposed adhesive is covered by a temporary sheet of known IBM card and system in which the cards are per glassine paper or similar material. Although this card individual micro?lm sections are mounted to facilitate the forated according to a code are sorted by electrically con could accommodate the relatively thick ?lm, it proved trolled apparatus responsive to the location of the per 20 to be objectionable in that the operations involved in pre forations in the individual cards. Aperture cards of this paring the blank cards, i.e., punching out the apertures type are in extensive use, particularly by the United and then applying the adhesive strips and the cover sheets, States Government, with the annual usage of such cards as well as the operations involved in ?nishing the cards running well up into the millions. including stripping off the cover sheets and disposing of One of the main problems attendant with the manu 25 them and then applying the transparencies to the exposed facture and use of aperture cards which are machine pro adhesive strips, both require objectionably elaborate and cessible is the requirement that the record card should expensive apparatus which many users of aperture cards cannot justify the expense of purchasing and maintaining. It was also found that the necessarily thin mounting sheets have the ?lm or the like mounted therein and secured thereto by suitable iadhesive material with no portion of the ?lm projecting beyond the card on either side so 30 provided a weak support and were suspectible to tearing. that the cards may pass through the machine without the Another mode advanced by the abovementioned Langan ?lm inserts getting caught and torn loose. It is also essential that cards be provided in which a ?lm or the U. S. Patents 2,587,022 and 2,859,550 suggests heat bond ing of thermoplastic materials to the card proposing to like may be mounted in a manner so as not to increase the cover the aperture with a sheet of cellulose acetate and thickness of any portion of the card. Any increase in 35 to bond its edges by heat and pressure to the edges of the thickness of such cards is very undesirable because even though the increase in thickness around the aperture area of each card maybe extremely small, say for example .001 card around the aperture. The material of this cover sheet was proposed to be the same as or similar to that of the base of the ?lm itself, with the though that sub sequently the ?lm section and the cover sheet could be in the feed hopper of a. record controlled machine there 40 united integrally by heat and pressure to form a unitary will be a substantial difference in the height of one side transparency across the aperture. Although this card also of the stack as compared with the other and improper accommodate the relatively thick ?lm and eliminated feeding of the cards will likely result. the problem of using pressure sensitive adhesive and cover of an inch, when a deck of hundreds of cards are stacked In attempting to solve the problem of mounting ?lm in serts so that they will be ?ush with the card surface, the prior art, as best exempli?ed by the Langan US. Patent Nos. 2,512,106; 2,587,022; 2,633,655 and 2,859,550, has made use of a depression or shoulder which is embossed in the cardstock surrounding the aperture. The ?lm. insert may be adhered directly to the shoulder or to a ?lm mount sheets, usually heat damage to the ?lm resulted, such as clouding and/ or buckling or warping of the ?lm. More over, the bond formed by heating the cellulose acetate mounting sheet and pressing it into contact with the card, or by doing the same thing to the edges of the cellulose acetate base of the ?lm itself, as suggested in the Langan US. Patent 2,633,655, was unsatisfactory. If the degree ing sheet which is adhered to the shoulder. Although cards provided with such a depression did advance the art, they were not without shortcomings due to the fact that simply embossing or compressing the cardstock does not of heat was only enough to soften the cellulose acetate it would not penetrate the ?bers of the card and the bond was weak and unsatisfactory. Attempts to increase result in a depression or shoulder of suf?cient depth to satisfactorily accommodate ‘a ?lm insert. or buckling of the card itself. It became apparent then that an aperture card had to The thickness of the cards commonly used in electrical card-handling machines is .007 inch and the thickness of the ?lm may vary from the thickness of diazo ?lm which is aproximately .003 inch to the silver halide ?lm: thick be produced which would not only accommodate the rela tively thick silver ?lm but which would also make it pos ness of .005 to .0055 inch. Additionally, allowance must be made to take care of the thickness of the adhesive substance use-d to secure the ?lm. It can be seen that for ?uidity by raising the temperature usually caused warping sible to mount the ?lm thereon Without the use of mount ing sheets, cover sheets, or undue heat and pressure. In meeting this problem, the present invention makes use of a special epoxy resin impregnated or coated cardstock. It is known that epoxy lresin impregnated card or paper straight-forward mounting of a silver halide ?lm insert possesses very good dimensional stability regardless of onto an adhesive coated shoulder, it becomes necessary to 65 humidity conditions and that it is tough enough to with compress the cardstock surrounding the aperture to a stand relatively hard handling and is more resistive to depth of .006 inch leaving a shoulder of .001 inch thick bending and folding. In experimenting with grinding ness. As a practical matter, it has been found that it is techniques, it was found that an epoxy impregnated card impossible to compress the present standard cardstock, having a thickness of 0.007 inch can successfully be which has a basis weight of 99 pounds per 30001 square 70 ground ‘to a depth of 0.006 inch such that a thin web or feet and a thickness of approximately 0.007 inch, to a shoulder of 0.001 inch thickness remains. It was also depth su?icient for the insertion of ?lm having a thickness found that the epoxy resin not only eased the grinding 3,289,344 4 3 operation but it also increased the strength of the remain ing web or shoulder to a considerable degree to provide a better support for the ?lm insert. FIG. 4 is a sectional view diagrammatically illustrating one way in which the adhesive material may be applied ‘to the ground shoulder of the card. In the preferred embodiment of the present invention, FIG. 5 is a sectional view diagrammatically illustrat ing one form of mechanism for securing the ?lm to the adhesive coated card shoulder. FIGS. 6—10 are sectional views taken along the longi vidual record cards. To form a ?lm record card, an epoxy card is provided with a ground trench-like depres tudinal center line of the record card of FIG. 1 showing sion surrounding the area of the card which is to be aper the card in various stages of completion. FIG. 11 is a diagrammatically vertical sectional view tured out. Then, the cardstock bordered by said ground 10 trench is removed by a suitable cutting die to provide an showing one form of apparatus for impregnating card ‘aperture bordered by a ground card shoulder and a coat stock and the like with an epoxy resin. FIG. 12 is a plan view of a second form of ?lm record ing of an adhesive substance, preferably a hot metal type card constructed in accordance with the principles of the of adhesive, is applied to the ground shoulder by suitable gnavure means or the like. A ?lm insert is positioned 15 present invention. over the aperture and bonded to the adhesive coated FIG. 13 is an enlarged sectional view taken along line shoulder by heat and pressure to complete the ?lm record 13-13 of FIG. 12. card, the card shoulder having a suf?cient depth such that FIG. 14 is a sectional view diagrammatically illustrat the opposite surfaces of the ?lm lie ‘between the planes ing one way in which the aperture may be formed in the of the opposite faces of the card. If desired, instead of 20 card and holes formed in the card shoulder surrounding the aperture. impregnating the entire cardstock, the epoxy resin may the cardstock in continuous web form is impregnated with an epoxy resin composition prior to being cut into indi be coated onto one or both sides of the card or it may be FIG. 15 is 'a sectional view of a preformed card as it applied locally to and in the neighborhood of the region would be supplied to the customer prior to ?lm mounting. Referring ?rst to FIG. 11, there is shown a preferred arrangement of impregnating paper and the like with to be formed as a shoulder. Also, the coating or impreg ri'ation operation may take place before or after the shoul der is prepared. Since in practice the ?lm to be mounted may be nearly a suitable epoxy resin. The paper used for the manu facture of ?lm record cards is preferably standard card stock which has a basic weight of 99 pounds per 3000 as thick as the card itself, it is important to produce not only a thin card shoulder in the order of 0.001 inch in square feet and a thickness of approximately 0.007 inch. thickness but also if an adhesive layer is used it must be 30 The resin system employed consists of an epoxy resin, extremely thin so that the combined thickness of the shoul one or more cross-linking agents and a silicone resin. der, adhesive and ?lm is equal to or less than the thickness The epoxy resin is a condensation product of bis~phenol-A of the card. A second embodiment of the present inven and epichlorohydrin and has an epoxy equivalent of 0.38 tion relates to an epoxy card provided with a ground to 0.48 mol per 100 grams and a viscosity of from 4500 shoulder surrounding the aperture and wherein a plurality 35 to 40000 centipoises. The cross linking agent or agents of holes of predetermined size, shape and number are lo— may be from the class of polyamides such as General cated in the remaining shoulder. Mills’ Versamids and/or amines such as methylenetri These holes can serve as adhesive pockets, that is, pockets ?lled with the bond amine, the dimethylaminomethyl phenols such as Rohm ing material that is used between the shoulder and ?lm. and Haas’ DMP-lO or DMP-30, and commercial pro This permits the adhesive to be incorporated within the 40 ducts such as Araldite DP-l21 of the Ciba Company. shoulder and hence either eliminates or reduces extended The silicone resin used is Dow Corning 936, a heat layers of adhesive which may in?uence the over-all thick catalyzed resin. Various known resin systems may be ness. The pockets may be formed by punching either be employed in the strengthening of paper and for the fore or after the shoulder is formed. purposes of the present invention, the following system Accordingly, a principal object of the present invention was found to produce excellent results: is to provide a novel and improved card of the type de Percent scribed wherein a ?lm insert is secured between the oppo~ Araldite 502 (an epoxy resin) _______________ __ 67.60 site plane surfaces of the card without the aid of an ad Araldite DP—121 (an amine curing agent) _____ __ 3.72 hesive coated mounting sheet. Versamid 115 (a polyamide curing agent) ______ __ 25.30 A further object of the present invention is to provide 50 Dow Corning 936 (a silicone resin) __________ __ 3.38 a novel and improved card of the type described wherein The several components of the resin system are dis~ an epoxy resin impregnated or coated cardstock is used. solved in toluene. With a given paper the percent im A still further object of the present invention is to pro pregnation will be determined by the solids concentration vide a novel and improved ?lm record card having a in the impregnating solution. The relationship is ap shouldered aperture and wherein adhesive pockets are proximately linear and is given by the expression percent provided within the shoulder for securing a ?lm insert to impregnation is equal to 0.21><percent total solids. The the shoulder. present system covers the range of 2 to 8 percent impreg A still further object of the present invention is to pro nation of the paper which corresponds to a solids con vide a novel and improved method for producing ?lm record cards of the type set forth above, which method 60 centration of from approximately 10 to 40 percent solids. Although toluene is preferably used, any solvent with involves the treating of the cardstock with an epoxy resin. which the resin system is compatible could be used. The foregoing and other objects, features and advan As shown in FIG. 11, the cardstock 10 in continuous tages of the invention will be apparent from the following web form is passed by means of feed rolls 11 and 12 more particular description of preferred embodiments of through a tank 13 containing the epoxy resin solution 14 the invention, as illustrated in the accompanying draw described above. The web is thus saturated after which ings: it is passed between a pair of scraper blades 15 and 16 In the drawings: the purpose of which is to remove the excess material FIG. 1 is a plan view of one form of ?lm record card from the surface of the web. The web is then passed constructed in accordance with the present invention. by feed rolls 17 through an oven 18 having suitable FIG. 2 is a sectional view diagrammatically illustrating 70 electrical coils 19, or the like, for maintaining a tempera a form of grinding mechanism for producing the trench ture of from 250° F. to 350° F. For a complete poly like depression in the card. merization 0f the particular resin system being used, it FIG. 3 ‘is a sectional view diagrammatically illustrating may be necessary to retain the web in the oven for from one way in which the aperture may be formed in the 1 to 5 minutes. When the web emerges from the oven card. 75 it is bone dry and consequently brittle. It is necessary 3,289,344 5 6 to remoisten the stock so that its ?nal moisture content ' around 0.0025 inch can be obtained and the mounting terial 41 is coated onto the card shoulder 32 surrounding of the thicker types of ?lms becomes a problem. After the aperture is formed, a suitable adhesive ma the aperture, as is illustrated in FIG. 9. It is preferred to use a hot melt type of adhesive which is normally is between 4.5% and 6.5%. This is accomplished by passing the web, by means of a feed roll 20, through a tank 21 containing water 22 after which the excess water is removed from the web by suitable scraper blades 23 and 24. The web is then passed by feed rolls 25 and 26 on between a pair of cutting rolls 27 and 28 which non-tacky but which becomes activated upon the applica sever the web into individual epoxy impregnated record tion of heat. The adhesive material may be applied by cards 29. The cards 29 may be deposited in a suitable any suitable means, such as by a spray or brush, or the stacker 30. 10 like. However, as shown in FIG. 4, it is preferred to Referring to FIG. 1, there is shown an epoxy impreg use a transfer mechanism which comprises a rotatable nated ?lm record card 29 constructed in accordance with backup roll 42 and a rotatable transfer roll 43. The the principles of the present invention. The card is pro roll 43 has a raised portion 44 having a con?guration vided in a predetermined location with an aperture 31 corresponding to the con?guration of the shoulder sur with the portions of the card surrounding and bordering 15 rounding the aperture and which is effective to transfer the aperture reduced in thickness to provide a recessed the adhesive material 41 from a suitable supply (not shoulder 32. A coating of suitable adhesive substance shown) to the shoulder. In the case of a hot melt ad is applied to the card shoulder 32 and a ?lm insert 33 hesive it may be desirable to have the transfer roll 43 is positioned over the aperture and bonded to the adhesive made of a release agent-like material or coated with same. coated shoulder. As shown in FIG. 10, the opposite 20 As illustrated in FIGS. 9 and 10, the hot melt adhesive surfaces of the ?lm insert 33 lie between the planes of 41 is preferably applied to an excess amount so that it the opposite faces of the card. may be su?iciently displaced during mounting of the ?lm In producing the ?lm record card, a blank epoxy im to provide a more solid bond. 1Upon application of heat pregnated record card 29, as illustrated in FIG. 6, and and pressure, adheisve ?ow will occur around the periph having a thickness of 0.007 inch, is preferably ?rst sub~ 25 eral edge of the ?lm as well as in between the marginal jected to grinding operations to form the recessed shoulder portions of the ?lm and the surface of the card shoulder. portion 32 using grinding apparatus of the type illustrated A further advantage is that in the case of some hot melt in FIG. 2. The grinding is carried out in two steps and adhesives, the excess adhesive around the edges of the ?lm in the ?rst step the trench-like groove or recess 32 border can help compensate for differences in expansion and con ing that portion of the card which is to be apertured out 30 traction of the ?lm and card due to temperature and hu is carried to a depth of 0.005 inch. In the second or midity eifects. ?nish grinding step, the depth of the groove is extended To bond the ?lm insert 33 securely to the card, the ?lm to 0.006 inch leaving a remaining thin web portion, in is positioned over the aperture and onto the adhesive dicated at 34 in FIG. 7, having a thickness of 0.001 inch. coated card shoulder and the assembly is positioned on a The type of grinding apparatus used for both steps would 35 suitable support 45 and subjected to the action of a recip preferably comprise, as shown in FIG. 2, of a rotatable rocating platen 46, as shown in FIG. >5. The platen 46 has grinding wheel 35 and a rotatable backup die roll 36. edge portions 47 of a size and con?guration conforming to The backup roll 36 includes a raised die portion 37 having the card shoulder and is heated by suitable electrical coils a con?guration corresponding to the con?guration of 4-8 to activate the adhesive coating 41. the trench-like groove to be formed. The apparatus The above‘described method has been applied to the would the adjustable with the one at the ?rst station set complete manufacture of epoxy ?lm record cards prior to for a grind of 0.005 inch in depth and the one at the second station set for a grind of 0.006 inch in depth. The grinding wheel 35 is preferably of aluminum oxide shipment to the customer. It may be desired to ship pre formed cards to the customer which are left unapertured so that the customer may machine process the cards ?rst with a grit size of 60 and a speed of 3450 revolutions per and then mount selected ?lm pieces. minute. It was found that by using two grinding steps, cards shipped would be provided with the epoxy impreg as set forth above, a much better control of tolerance could be maintained and the desired thickness of the ?nal ground shoulder could be held within i 0.0004 inch. nation, the trench-like groove surrounding the area of In this case, the the card to be apertured and an excess deposit of non tacky hot melt type adhesive around the bottom of the Very excellent results have been achieved using the 50 groove as shown in FIG. 15. The customer may use ap above-described grinding technique which has been en paratus of the type shown in FIGS. 3 and 5 to die out the hanced by the reduced frictional resistance of the resin aperture and mount the ?lm piece to produce the ?nished impregnated card and the increased strength of the card card shown in FIG. 10. material, particularly in the thin web area which remains Referring to FIGS. 12 and 13, a second embodiment of after grinding. However, if desired, the trench-like groove in the epoxy card may also be formed by com the present invention relates to a ?lm record card 49 which is similar to the card 29 of FIG. 1 in that it is preferably pression using suitable stamping dies and a pressure in the neighborhood of from 32000 p.s.i. to 48000 p.s.i. impregnated with an epoxy resin and it is provided with a ground shoulder 50 surrounding the aperture 51. How The next step, as indicated in FIG. 8, is to remove that ever, the shoulder 50, instead of being coated with an ad portion of the card which is enclosed by the trench-like 60 hesive material, is provided with a plurality of holes 52 of groove to form the aperture 31 and this may be accom predetermined size, shape and number. These holes plished by the punching apparatus shown in FIG. 3 serve as adhesive pockets, that is, pockets ?lled with an wherein an anvil 38 is provided with an opening 39 of adhesive material 53 which is used between the shoulder the exact size of the aperture 31 in the card. A punching and the ?lm 54. This permits the adhesive to be con?ned die 40 is adapted to be reciprocated toward and away 65 substantially between the planes of the opposite surfaces from the anvil 38 and it is of the same shape as the of the shoulder and hence either eliminates or reduces ex opening 39 and of a size such that it just will pass through tended layers of adhesive which may influence the over-all the opening 39 in the anvil. If it is desired to use com thickness. The adhesive 53 may be of the hot melt type pression to form the card shoulder 32 instead of grind which is caused to flow upon the application of heat and it ing, this may be done simultaneously with the punching 70 may be deposited in the holes or pockets 52 by gravure operation by providing the punching die 40 with suitable means or by a suitable arrangement of spray nozzles. compression shoulders of such width and shape as to The pockets 52 may be formed by punching either before form the shouldered portions 32 surrounding the aperture. However, as was previously pointed out, if compression is used a shoulder having only a maximum depth of or after the shoulder is formed and may, for example, be formed when the aperture is died out by apparatus of the type illustrated in FIG. 14. Such apparatus comprises an 3,289,844 8 2. A ?lm record card for use in card record systems anvil 55 and reciprocating punching die 56 of the type previously described except that in this case the aperture punching portion of the die is surrounded by individual punch elements 57 which overlie the shoulder portion of the card. comprising: a relatively thin card of ?brous material having a thick ness of approximately 0.007 inch and impregnated‘. with an epoxy resin composition for increasing the: Suitable recesses 58 are provided in the anvil strength of said card; to receive the punch elements 57 during punching of the pockets 52. Y As another approach to the problem of reducing to a minimum the combined thickness of the ?lm and adhesive, it is also possible to coat or impregnate the cardstock in 10 the manner described above with a resinous material hav— ing adhesive properties in addition to the strengthening properties. This will either eliminate the need for an additional layer of adhesive which forms the bond between the shoulder and ?lm or at least enhance the bonding a ?lm insert positioned over said aperture and bonded to said adhesive coated shoulder, the opposite sur faces of said ?lm insert lying between the planes of the opposite surfaces of said card. 3. A ?lm record card for use in card record systems power'while minimizing the thickness of the additional layer. It has been known that epoxy resin treated paper is comprising: greatly improved from the standpoint of toughness, dimen sional stability, absence of warp and high folding strength. a relatively thin card of ?brous material having a thick ness of approximately 0.007 inch and impregnated with an epoxy resin composition for increasing the The application of such treatment to the manufacture of ?lm record cards greatly contributes to a superior product strength of said card; in this special area wherein it is so necessary that the thin 0.001 inch thick web of cardstock which supports the ?lm possess the above-mentioned improved qualities. It has 25 been found that in the present resin treated ?lm record card, the ?lm is more positively retained between the planes of the opposite faces of the card by virtue of the strengthened card shoulder even when the card is sub jected to extensive rough handling. 30 While the invention has been particularly shown and described with reference to preferred embodiments there of, it will be understood by those skilled in the art that the foregoing and other changes in form and details may 35 be made therein without departing from the spirit and card surrounding the aperture being ground to a depth 45 portions; and a ?lm insert positioned over said aperture and bonded to the shoulder by said adhesive deposit, the opposite References Cited by the Examiner UNITED STATES PATENTS 40 strength of said card; to provide a recessed shoulder; a coating of adhesive material on said shouldered edge extending therethrough; an adhesive material deposited within each of said holes, said adhesive material being con?ned substan tially between the planes of the opposite surfaces of said shoulder; and of the opposite surfaces of said card. a relatively thin card of ?brous material impregnated with an epoxy resin composition for increasing the an aperture in said card with the edge portions of the an aperture in said card with the edge portions of the card surrounding the aperture being ground to a depth of approximately 0.006 inch to provide a recessed shoulder having a thickness of approximately 0.001; a plurality of holes disposed around said shoulder and surfaces of said ?lm insert lying between the planes scope of the invention. What is claimed is: 1. A ?lm record card for use in card record systems comprising: an aperture in said card with the edge portions of the card surrounding the aperture being ground to a. depth of approximately 0.006 inch to provide a re cessed shoulder having a thickness of approximately 0.001 inch; a coating of adhesive material on said recessed shoulder; and 2,012,288 8/1935 Roon 2,587,022 2/1952 Langan __________ __ 156—108 ____________ __ 2,612,711 2,977,017 2,984,921 3,159,612 3,210,238 3,212,206 10/1952 3/1961 Baker _____________ __ 40—1-58 Herzig ___________ __ 156—108 5/1961 Herzig ____________ __ 40-158 12/1964 10/1965 Tsou ____________ __ 117—l55 Gess _____________ __ 1l7—155 10/1965 Langan ___________ __ 40—l58 a ?lm insert positioned over said aperture and bonded 50 JEROME SCHNALL, Primary Examiner. to said adhesive coated shouldered portions, the op posite surfaces of said ?lm insert lying between the planes of the opposite surfaces of said card. 117—12 EUGENE R. CAPOZIO, Examiner. W. J. CONTRERAS, Assistant Examiner.