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A critical evaluation of the business guidance program in Los Angeles

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A CRITICAL EVALUATION OF THE BUSINESS GUIDANCE
PROGRAM IN LOS ANGELES
A T h e s is
P re s e n te d to
th e F a c u lty o f th e School o f M u c a tio n
U n iv e rs ity o f S o u th e rn C a lif o r n ia
In P a r tia l F u lfillm e n t
o f t h e R e q u ire m e n ts f o r t h e D eg ree
M a ste r o f S c ie n c e i n E d u c a tio n
by
V e lm a J e w e t t O l s o n
F e b r u a r y 1942
UMI Number: EP54277
All rights reserved
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UMI EP54277
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789 East Eisenhower Parkway
P.O. Box 1346
Ann Arbor, Ml 48106-1346
Th is thesis, w rit te n under the direction of the
Chair man of the candidate’s Guida nce C o m m i t t e e
an d a p p r o v e d by all mem be rs of the C om m it te e ,
has been p r es e n te d to and a c ce p te d by the F ac u lty
of the S c h o o l of Ed ucati on of T h e Univ ers ity of
Southern California in p a r tia l fu lfillme nt of the
requirements f o r the degree of M a s t e r of Science
in Education.
Dean
Guidance C om m ittee
S. &. Blackstone
Chairman
D. Welty Lefever
Loui s F . Thorpe
TABLE OF CONTENTS
CHAPTER
I.
PAGE
THE PROBLEM AND DEFINITIONS OF TERMS USED .
T h e p r o b l e m ..................................... ' ..
. .
1
..................................
2
S t a t e m e n t o f t h e p r o b l e m ........................................ * •
2
Im p o rta n c e o f t h e stu d y
3
. . . . . . . . . .
D e f i n i t i o n s o f t e r m s u s e d .........................
G u i d a n c e ..............................................................................
4
4
V o c a t i o n a l g u i d a n c e ........................................................
5
B u s i n e s s E d u c a t i o n .............................................
6
B u s i n e s s G u i d a n c e c o u r s e .................................... ..... .
7
S o u r c e s o f d a t a a n d m e th o d o f p r o c e d u r e . . .
L ib ra ry stu d y
. .
P e rso n a l in te rv ie w s
7
...................................
7
. . . .
7
..............................
C h e ck s h e e t s ....................................................................
8
O r g a n iz a tio n of t h e re m a in d e r o f th e
t h e s i s . ............................................................................
8
C h a p t e r t w o .........................
8
C h a p te r t h r e e
. . . . . . . . .
C h a p t e r f o u r ..............................
..........................
. . .
C h a p t e r f i v e .........................
C h a p te r s i x
II.
M n a M. B o y d ..............................
9
9
...................................
LITERATURE OF THE FIELD
8
...................................
10
11
11
iii
CHAPTER
III.
IV .
PAGE
HIS TORI OF THE BUSINESS GUIDANCE PROGRAM . . .
O r i g i n o f t h e c o u r s e .........................
13
T e c h n i q u e s u s e d .......................................................................
14
P resen t sta tu s
16
OBJECTIVES AND CONTENT OF BUSINESS
GUIDANCE.......................................................................................
IT
O b j e c t i v e s o f B u s i n e s s G u i d a n c e ...............................
17
C o n t e n t o f B u s i n e s s G u i d a n c e c o u r s e .....................
20
P la c e in
th e c u rric u la
.
..............................
E x te n t o f t h e p ro g ram .
V.
15
...............................
DATA BWEALED BY THE CHECK SHEETS. . . . . . .
P u p i l and t e a c h e r p e r s o n n e l.
S tu d e n ts1 p e rso n a l re a c tio n s
...............................
21
25
26
26
to th e
c o u r s e .......................................................................................
U n i t s c o n s i d e r e d , by t e a c h e r s ,
30
o f m ost
v a l u e a n d l e a s t v a l u e t o s t u d e n t s .....................
30
S tu d e n ts 1 p re fe re n c e s of u n its of th e
c o u r s e .........................
S tu d e n ts*
30
c r i t i c i s m s o f tim e a llo tm e n t
o f u n i t s o f c o u r s e .......................................................
47
T each ers* p r e f e r e n c e s f o r tim e a llo tm e n t
in v a rio u s u n its of th e co u rse. . . . . . .
47
T each ers’ p refe ren c es fo r a llo c a tio n of
o r d e r o f u n i t s o f t h e c o u r s e ...............................
50
iv
CHAPTER
PAGE
Types o f c l a s s
a c tiv ity
used
.
50
. .
57
O v e rla p p in g o f s u b j e c t m a tte r w ith
o th e r co u rses*
S tu d e n ts *
* * ........................................ .
and te a c h e rs *
.
reco m m en d atio n s
f o r i m p r o v i n g t h e c o u r s e ..............................
64
T e x tb o o k s and b i b l i o g r a p h i c a l m a t e r i a l ,
p referred
F le x ib ility
to
VI *
o r n e e d e d ..............................
70
o f c o u rs e in a d a p tin g r e a d ily
t h e s c h o o l o r c o m m u n i t y ....................................
70
FINDINGS , CONCLUSIONS, AND . RECOMMENDATIONS
FOR FUTURE S T U D Y ..............................
79
F i n d i n g s .............................................................
79
C o n c l u s i o n s ..................................................................................
86
R e c o m m e n d a tio n s f o r f u r t h e r s t u d y ..........................
91
B IBL IO G R A PH Y ..................................................
93
APPENDIX
96
...................................
L IS T OF TABLES
TABLE
I.
II.
PAGE
S e x , Age,
G r a d e , M a rk s o f S t u d e n t s
S t u d e n t s ’ P e r s o n a l R e a c t i o n s Tow ard
th e C o u rse
III.
................................ . . . . . . .
............................................................
T each ers’ C ritic is m
A c t i v i t y U sed. '.
X.
52
o f T ypes o f C la s s
........................................................
54
C o m p ariso n o f T e a c h e r s ’ and S t u d e n t s ’
C ritic ism
o f Types o f C l a s s A c t i v i t y
U s e d ..............................
X I.
51
S t u d e n t s ’ C r i t i c i s m s o f Types o f C l a s s
A c t i v i t y U s e d ..............................
IX .
49
T ea ch e rs’ P re fe re n c e s fo r A llo c a tio n of
O rd er o f U n its o f th e C o u rse . . . . . . .
V III.
48
T e a c h e r s ’ P r e f e r e n c e s f o r Tim e A l l o t m e n t
i n V a r i o u s U n i t s o f t h e C o u r s e ..........................
V II.
33
S t u d e n t s ’ C r i t i c i s m s o f T im e A l l o t m e n t
o f U n i t s o f C o u r s e .............................................
V I.
32
S tu d e n ts ’ P re fe re n c e s o f U n its o f th e
C o u rse
V.
31
U n i t s C o n s i d e r e d , by T e a c h e r s , o f M o s t
V a l u e a n d L e a s t V a l u e t o S t u d e n t s .....................
IV .
29
S tu d e n ts*
R e p o r t, by S c h o o l, on S i m i l a r i t y
o f B u s in e s s G u id a n ce w i t h O th e r C o u rse s
55
vl
TABLE
PAGE
T a k e n ...................................
X II.
T each ers*
58
F in d in g s C o n c ern in g O v e rla p p in g
o f U n its o f t h e C o u rse w i t h O th er
C o u r s e s ............................................................................• •
X III.
61
S t u d e n t s 1 R e p o r t , by U n i t s , , o n D e s i r a b i l i t y
o f O v e r la p p in g o f B u s i n e s s G u id a n ce w i t h
O t h e r C o u r s e s ........................................................ .....
XIV.
S tu d e n ts*
T each ers*
. . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
65
R e c o m m e n d a tio n s f o r I m p r o v i n g
th e C ourse.
XVI.
63
R e c o m m e n d a tio n s f o r I m p r o v i n g
th e C ourse.
XV.
•
T eachers*
•
.........................
68
S u g g e s t i o n s f o r A d d in g New
M a t e r i a l t o C o u r s e ........................................
T each ers*
P a rts
S u g g e stio n s f o r D e le tin g
o f t h e C o u rse
T eachers*
X V III.
..............................................
S u g g e stio n s f o r
P a r t s o f t h e C o urse .
X V II.
72
E la b o ra tin g
.........................................
T e x t b o o k s P r e f e r r e d by T e a c h e r s .................
T eachers*
71
73
7^
N eeds f o r A d d i t i o n a l
B ib lio g r a p h ic a l M a te ria l f o r U n its
o f t h e C o u r s e ..............................
X IX .
T each ers*
75
F in d in g s as to F l e x i b i l i t y o f
C o u rse i n A d a p tin g R e a d ily to t h e
S c h o o l o r C o m m u n ity . . . . . . . . . . .
76
v ii
VAGE
TABLE
XX.
T e a c h e rs 1 E x p e rie n c e i n th e c o u rs e . . . . .
78
CHAPTER I
THE PROBLEM AND DEFINITIONS OF TERMS USED
F o r fo u r y e a rs s e v e r a l seco n d ary sc h o o ls I n th e C ity
©f L os A n g e l e s h a v e b e e n e x p e r i m e n t i n g w i t h a new g u i d a n c e
p l a n f o r s t u d e n t s i n c o m m erc ial e d u c a tio n .
T he p l a n
em b o d ies ( 1 ) p o s t p o n i n g t h e c h o ic e o f a m a jo r c o m m e rc ia l
i n t e r e s t u n t i l t h e e l e v e n t h g r a d e , i n o r d e r t h a t m o re
a d e q u a t e a c q u a i n t a n c e w i t h t h e b u s i n e s s w o r l d may b e
e x p e rie n c e d i n th e t e n t h g ra d e ;
co m m erc ial s u b j e c t s ,
(2 ) try in g out se v e ra l b a sic
su c h a s s h o rth a n d , s a le s m a n s h ip , and
b o o k k e ep in g , b e f o r e a c t u a l l y
la u n c h in g in to
th e se c o u rses;
( 3 ) a n a l y z i n g and e v a l u a t i n g a b i l i t i e s and te m p e ra m e n ts i n
re la tio n
to b u s in e s s o c c u p a tio n s;
and
(4 ) s t u d y i n g t h e
r e q u ir e m e n ts o f s p e c i f i c o c c u p a tio n s i n t h e co m m erc ial w o rld .
T he f r a m e - w o r k o f t h i s g u i d a n c e p l a n r e s t s u p o n a
t e n t h g r a d e c o u r s e c a l l e d B u s in e s s G u id a n ce , w h ic h a tt e m p t s
to a s s i s t
th e s tu d e n t I n c h o o sin g w is e ly h is f u t u r e
o c c u p a t i o n t h a t h e may b e g i n v o c a t i o n a l t r a i n i n g i n t h e
e l e v e n t h g r a d e w i t h a f e e l i n g o f s e c u r i t y and s a t i s f a c t i o n .
The j u n i o r h i g h s c h o o l f u r n i s h e s e x p e r i e n c e s w h i c h
a s s i s t th e s tu d e n t I n d e c id in g upon h i s m ajo r f i e l d
in te re s t,
of
o f w h i c h t h e r e a r e s i x comm only r e c o g n i z e d
c la ss ific a tio n s :
t h e A e s t h e t i c , C o m m e rc ia l, M e c h a n ic a l,
2
N a tu ra l, S c i e n t i f i c ,
s tu d e n t,
su ite d
and S o c i a l - ^
A J u n io r h ig h sch o o l
h a v in g c h o s e n t h e co m m erc ial f i e l d
to h is i n t e r e s t s
and a b i l i t i e s ,
a s t h e o n e m ost
e n te rs th e s e n io r
h ig h sc h o o l n e e d in g g u id a n c e i n th e s p e c i f i c o c c u p a tio n s
o f th e chosen f i e l d -
A c c o rd in g to g o v ern m en t d a t a ,
a re over te n
t h o u s a n d s e p a r a t e o c c u p a t i o n s - Of t h i s
tw o t h o u s a n d
may b e c l a s s i f i e d
n a tu re .
It
is
num ber,
a s b e in g o f a c o m m e rc ia l
i m p o r ta n t t h a t t h e c o m m erc ial s t u d e n t
r e c o g n iz e t h e a lm o st u n lim ite d o p p o r t u n it i e s o f f e r e d
b u sin e ss-
th e re
in
. T h e r e h a s b e e n a b e l i e f o n t h e p a r t o f many
s tu d e n ts t h a t th e o n ly f i e l d s o f b u s in e s s a c t i v i t y a r e i n
th e a re a s of ty p e w ritin g ,
b o o k k e ep in g -
sh o rth a n d ,
s a le s m a n s h ip , and
A f a r b e t t e r v o c a t i o n a l e h o i c e c a n b e m ade
when t h e s t u d e n t b e co m es c o g n i z a n t o f t h e w id e s c o p e o f
b u sin e ss a c t iv i t y .
I.
THE PROBLEM
S ta te m e n t o f th e p ro b lem stu d y
(1) t o
I t was t h e p u r p o s e
e v a l u a t e t h e c o n t e n t o f t h e Los A n g e le s
of th is
co u rse
1 P l o t t i n g Y o u r C o u r s e , L os A n g e l e s C i t y S c h o o l s
P u b l i c a t i o n , N o. 3 2 9 , 1 9 4 0 , p . 15 2
„
J o h n N. G i v e n ,
An E x p e r i m e n t a l P r o g r a m i n B u s i n e s s
E d u c a t i o n , n T he J o u r n a l o f B u s i n e s s E d u c a t i o n , No- 1 0 ,
1 5 s15, J u n e , 1 9 ^ 0 , q u o te d from s t a t i s t i c s o f t h e U n ite d
S t a t e s E m p lo y m e n t O f f i c e -
I n B u s in e s s G u id a n ce a s r e v e a l e d
te a c h e rs*
o p in io n ;
e x p e rim e n ta tio n ;
(c)
th ro u g h (a) r e s u l t s of
(b ) e x p r e s s io n s o f t e a c h e r
e x p re s s io n s of s tu d e n t o p in io n ;
(2 ) to
stu d y
th e a l l o c a t i o n o f s u b j e c t m a tte r and th e tim e a llo tm e n t a s
p ra c tic e d
i n th e n in e e x p e rim e n tin g s c h o o ls ;
(3 ) to d e t e r ­
m in e w h e t h e r o r n o t t e a c h e r s a n d s t u d e n t s reco m m en d
a d d itio n s ,
(4 )
e la b o ra tio n s,
o r d e le tio n s in th e c o u rs e o f stu d y
to le a r n w hat ty p e s o f c la s s a c t i v i t y
th e stu d e n ts
p r e f e r , and t h e t e a c h e r s h av e found m ost e f f e c t i v e ;
to stu d y th e f i t n e s s
and ( 5 )
o f th e te x tb o o k s i n r e l a t i o n to th e
c o u r s e , and t h e ad eq u acy of th e s e l e c t e d b ib lio g r a p h y t o
serv e as re fe re n c e m a te ria l.
Im p o rta n c e o f t h e s tu d y .
a t i o n h ave se e m in g ly v e r i f i e d
Four y e a rs o f e x p e rim e n t­
th e soundness o f th e th e o ry
upon w h ic h t h e c o u r s e was fo u n d ed b u t t o d a t e s u c h v e r i ­
f i c a ti o n has been e n tir e ly
su b je c tiv e .
An o b j e c t i v e
e v a l u a t i o n i s i m p e r a t i v e f o r t r u e v e r i f i c a t i o n o f t h e w o rk
of th e se fo u r y e a rs.
m e n ta tio n ,
th is
To s t u d y t h e r e s u l t s o f t h e e x p e r i ­
s t u d y w as c o n d u c te d a t t h e r e q u e s t o f
M r. J o h n New G i v e n , S u p e r v i s o r o f C o m m e r c ia l E d u c a t i o n o f
t h e Los A n g e le s C i ty S c h o o ls .
C o n s i d e r a t i o n o f r e v i s i o n o f t h e c o u r s e se e m e d p r o p e r
if
th e g r e a te s t v a lu e i s
R e v is io n o f th e c o u r s e ,
to a c c r u e from t h e e x p e r im e n t.
th e n , i s one o f th e im p o rta n t
4
re su lts
t o com e o u t o f t h e s t u d y *
T he s t u d y i s
a ls o to b e used as one b a s i s f o r
a d o p t i o n o f t h e p r o g r a m a s a p e r m a n e n t f e a t u r e o f a l l com ­
m e r c ia l d e p a rtm e n ts i n th e secon dary sc h o o ls o f th e C ity o f
Los A n g e l e s , i f
t h e s tu d y r e v e a l s t h a t t h e p rogram i s re a d y
f o r su ch a d o p tio n .
N in e s c h o o l s ,
w ere in v o lv e d i n
made*
and a l l
e i g h t e e n t e a c h e r s , and 1 ,0 8 3 s t u d e n t s
t h e e x p e r i m e n t a t t h e t i m e t h e s t u d y w as
N one o f t h e o r i g i n a l s c h o o l s h a d d r o p p e d t h e p l a n
e x p re s s e d e n th u s ia sm f o r i t s
X I.
G u id a n c e .
c o n tin u a n c e .
DEFINITIONS OF TERMS USED
G u i d a n c e w as i n t e r p r e t e d a s m e a n i n g a
p r o g r e s s i v e s e l f - d i r e c t i o n h a v in g a s i t s
d e v elo p m e n t o f t h e a b i l i t y
of h im se lf,
to
p u rp o se th e
o f each in d iv id u a l to ta k e c a re
s t a n d o n h i s own f e e t a n d n o t b e d e p e n d e n t
upon o t h e r s - - s t l m u l a t l n g
t h e i n d i v i d u a l to s e e h i s p ro b lem
c l e a r l y a n d h a v e t h e c o u r a g e t o a c t u p o n h i s own J u d g m e n t
and r e s p o n s i b i l i t y .
I n t h e w ords o f J o n e s :
3
G u id an ce i n v o l v e s p e r s o n a l h e lp t h a t I s d e s ig n e d to
a s s i s t a p e r s o n t o d e c id e w h ere he w a n ts to g o , w hat he
w a n t s t o d o , o r how h e c a n b e s t a c c o m p l i s h h i s p u r p o s e ;
^ A. J . J o n e s , P r i n c i p l e s o f G u l d a n c e (New Y o r k :
M c G r a w - H i l l Book C o m p an y , I n c . , 1 9 3 4 } , pp» 3 3 - 4 3 ,
5
i t a s s i s t s h im t o s o l v e p r o b l e m s t h a t a r i s e i n h i s
life . . .
G u i d a n c e , t h e n , m u s t b e c o n c e r n e d i n som e
way w i t h t h e w h o l e r e a l m o f e d u c a t i o n a n d i s i n h e r e n t
i n e v e r y p h a s e o f t h e w o rk o f t h e s c h o o l .
T h is v ie w p o in t i s a l s o b o rn e o u t by L e fe v e r, T u r r e l l
4
and W e itz e l
i n t h e i r c h a p t e r on " P r i n c i p l e s o f G u id a n c e ."
V o c a tio n a l g u id a n c e .
V o c a t i o n a l g u id a n c e was i n t e r ­
p r e t e d t o m ean t h e c o n t i n u o u s p r o c e s s o f a s s i s t i n g a n
i n d iv i d u a l i n d is c o v e r in g and e v a lu a tin g h is a b i l i t i e s ,
In te re sts,
and e x p e r ie n c e s ,
w h i c h a i d h im i n e f f i c i e n t l y
e n te rin g in to ,
a n d i n p r o v i d i n g new e x p e r i e n c e s
s e le c tin g , p re p a rin g f o r ,
and p r o g r e s s in g i n a n o c c u p a tio n ;
th u s he
w i l l b e h e l p e d t o u t i l i z e h i s f u l l c a p a c i t i e s i n s u c h a way
t h a t he w i l l b e s u c c e s s f u l and happy and b e o f s e r v i c e to
so c ie ty .
V o c a tio n a l g u id a n c e i s
one p h a se o f th e t o t a l
g u id a n c e p ro b le m .
A n o th e r u s e f u l d e f i n i t i o n
is:
V o c a tio n a l g u id a n c e has been d e fin e d a s th e a s s i s t ­
an ce t h a t i s g iv e n i n c o n n e c tio n w ith "c h o o sin g ,
p r e p a r i n g f o r , e n t e r i n g u p o n and m ak in g p r o g r e s s i n a n
o c c u p a tio n ."
I t w o u ld b e w e l l t o s t r e s s a g a i n t h e
p o i n t a l r e a d y m ad e many t i m e s , t h a t i t i s i m p o s s i b l e t o
s e p a r a t e s h a r p l y t h e v o c a t i o n a l a s p e c t o f g u id a n c e fro m
t h e e d u c a t i o n a l , m o r a l , and c u l t u r a l a s p e c t s .
In
c h o o sin g a s c h o o l o r a c o u rs e , th e f u t u r e o c c u p a tio n
o f t e n b e a r s a l a r g e p a r t , b u t n o t a lw a y s.
O c c u p a tio n a l
4
B. W e l t y L e f e v e r , A r c h i e M. T u r r e l l , a n d H e n ry I .
W e i t z e l , P r i n c i p l e s a n d T e c h n i q u e s o f G u i d a n c e (New Y o r k s
T he B o n a ld P r e s s C o m pany, 1 9 ^ 1 ) , C h a p t e r I I I *
6
c h o ic e s depend f r e q u e n tly upon e d u c a tio n a l backg rou nd ,
and t h e y a r e o f t e n c o n c e rn e d w i t h h e a l t h , s o c i a l , and
c u l t u r a l p ro b lem s . . .
I n s p i t e o f t h i s u n ity and
th e i m p o s s i b i l i t y and u n d e s i r a b i l i t y o f s e p a r a tin g
v o c a t i o n a l g u i d a n c e from o t h e r f o r m s , i t i s h e l p f u l t o
c o n s id e r c e r t a i n p a r t s o f v o c a tio n a l g u id a n c e s e p a r a te ­
l y f r o m o t h e r f o r m s . S o m e tim e s t h e v o c a t i o n a l a s p e c t
s ta n d s o u t so c l e a r l y t h a t i t d o m in a te s e v e r y th in g
e l s e — c iv i c , m o ra l, c u l t u r a l a s p e c ts s h rin k in to
c o m p a ra tiv e i n s i g n lf i c a n e e . 5
A lle n ^ d e f i n e s
“v o c a t io n a l ” a s c o m p risin g a l l g a in ­
f u l o c c u p a tio n s, a s l i s t e d
o c c u p a tio n s,
i n th e U n ite d S t a t e s
census o f
a n d h o m e m a k ln g ; v o c a t i o n a l g u i d a n c e a s t h e
g iv in g o f in fo rm a tio n ,
e x p e r ie n c e , and a d v ic e i n re g a rd
c h o o sin g an o c c u p a tio n , p r e p a r in g f o r i t ,
p ro g re ssin g in i t ;
e n te rin g i t ,
to
and
and e d u c a tio n a l g u id a n c e a s th e a id
f u r n i s h e d i n d i v i d u a l s i n m ak in g s u c h d e c i s i o n s a s c h o ic e
of stu d ie s,
c h o ic e o f c u r r i c u l a , and t h e c h o ic e o f s c h o o ls .
B u sin e ss E d u c a tio n .
In th is
s tu d y t h e term s
“b u s i n e s s ” a n d “ c o m m ercial* * a r e u s e d s y n o n y m o u s l y .
The
i n t e r p r e t a t i o n o f e i t h e r te rm was u se d i n t h e s e n s e d e f i n e d
by Tonne.
7
B u s in e s s e d u c a tio n m ust b e th o u g h t o f a s th e
^ Jo n es, op. c i t . . p. 316*
&
F . J . A l l e n , P r i n c i p l e s and P ro b le m s i n V o c a tio n a l
G u i d a n c e (New Y o r k :
M c G r a w - H i l l Book C om pany, I n c . , 1 9 2 7 ) ,
p . l4 .
^ H e r b e r t A. T o n n e , B u s i n e s s E d u c a t i o n . B a s i c
P r i n c i p l e s a n d T r e n d s (New Y o r k :
The G re g g P u b l i s h i n g
C om pany, 19395 9 pp* 1 3 “ 1^*
7
a d ju s tm e n t o f th e i n d i v i d u a l t o h is b u s in e s s e n v iro n m e n t,
th e e d u c a tio n o f p e rs o n s to be I n t e l l i g e n t
se rv ic e s of b u sin e ss,
n a ti o n 's
consum ers o f t h e
to have a c le a r u n d e rsta n d in g o f th e
econom y, an d t o p r o v i d e t e c h n i c a l ,
or sp e c ific
v o c a tio n a l tr a in in g .
B u s in e s s G u id a n ce c o u r s e .
c o u r s e was i n t e r p r e t e d
The t e r m B u s i n e s s G u i d a n c e
t o m e a n t h e c o u r s e o f t h a t nam e
t a u g h t i n t h e tw o s e m e s t e r s o f t h e t e n t h g r a d e i n t h e C i t y
o f Los A n g e le s , c o m b in in g t h e o b j e c t i v e s o f b u s i n e s s e d u ­
c a tio n w ith th e o b je c tiv e s o f g u id a n c e , e s p e c ia lly v o c a tio n ­
a l g u id a n c e , a s d e f in e d a b o v e , and h a v in g th e s p e c i f i c
o b je c tiv e s as o u tlin e d
III.
SOURCES OF DATA AHD METHOD OF PROCEDURE
L ib ra ry s tu d y .
d e te rm in e
c rite ria
(l)
i n C h a p t e r IV .
A l i b r a r y s t u d y was c o n d u c te d t o
th e c r i t e r i a
f o r g u id a n c e ;
f o r b u s in e s s e d u c a tio n ;
(2 )
th e
and ( 3 ) w hat o th e r i n v e s t i g a t i o n s
h a d b e e n m ade I n s i m i l a r t o p i c s .
P erso n al in te rv ie w s .
P e r s o n a l in te r v ie w s w ere had
w i t h som e o f t h e o r i g i n a t o r s o f t h e c o u r s e t o l e a r n f u r t h e r
f a c t s c o n c e rn in g t h e h i s t o r y o f th e c o u rs e and th e f in d in g s
o f u n p u b lish e d r e p o r t s ,
s u r v e y s , and s t u d i e s .
A co n feren ce
w as h a d w i t h t h e t e a c h e r s a n d s u p e r v i s o r s o f B u s i n e s s
G u id an ce to r e p o r t r e s u l t s
o f th e s tu d y and s e c u r e
a d d itio n a l o p in io n s .
C heck s h e e t s .
Two c h e c k s h e e t s w e r e p r e p a r e d
to
p r o v i d e a n o b j e c t i v e m eans o f e v a l u a t i n g t h e B u s in e s s
G u id a n ce c o u r s e .
One o f t h e s e w as f i l l e d
C r l t i c a l E v a lu a tio n o f B u s in e s s G u id a n ce .
fille d
o u t by t e a e h e r s - T he o t h e r w a s
o u t by s t u d e n t s “ - B u s in e s s G u id a n ce I n q u i r y .
c h e e k s h e e t f o r t e a c h e r s w as f i l l e d
T he
o u t by fo u rte e n r e g u la r
t e a c h e r s o f t h e s u b j e c t a n d tw o s t u d e n t t e a c h e r s f r o m t h e
U n i v e r s i t y o f C a l i f o r n i a a t L os A n g e l e s a s s i s t i n g
B u s in e s s G u id a n c e c l a s s e s .
w as f i l l e d
in
T he c h e c k s h e e t f o r s t u d e n t s
o u t b y 512 s t u d e n t s u n d e r i n s t r u c t i o n i n B u s i n e s s
G u id a n ce I I d u r i n g t h e s p r i n g s e m e s t e r ,
1941.
The s t u d e n t
check s h e e ts w ere u n sig n e d to e n co u rag e t r u e e x p re s s io n s o f
o p in io n .
IV .
ORGANIZATION OF THE REMAINDER OF THE THESIS
C h a p te r tw o .
in g s o f th e l i b r a r y
C h a p t e r tw o I s a n a c c o u n t o f t h e f i n d ­
research .
O th e r w r i t i n g s on t h i s
p ro b lem w e re s o u g h t a n d c r i t e r i a
f o r e v a l u a t i o n w ere
lo c a te d .
C h a p te r t h r e e .
C h a p te r t h r e e i s d e v o te d to a c o n ­
s i d e r a t i o n o f t h e h i s t o r y o f t h e B u s in e s s G u id a n ce c o u r s e .
T he n a m e s o f I t s
th e co u rse,
sta tu s
o rig in a to rs ,
t h e i r re a s o n s f o r d e v e lo p in g
t h e p r o g r e s s o f t h e c o u r s e , and i t s
p resen t
a re in c lu d e d .
C h a p te r f o u r .
The f o u r t h c h a p t e r d e a l s w i t h t h e
o b j e c t i v e s a n d a im s o f t h e b u s i n e s s g u id a n c e c o u r s e a s
r e v e a l e d b y ( 1 ) i n t e r v i e w s w i t h e d u c a t o r s and ( 2 ) a s s t a t e d
in
th e c o u rse o f stu d y .
T h is c h a p t e r a l s o
c o n ta in s an o u tlin e o f th e c o u rse
a s c o n d u c t e d a t t h e t i m e t h e s t u d y w a s made*
i n w h ic h th e s u b j e c t i s
o ffered ,
ta u g h t,
th e e x t e n t to w h ic h i t
th e le n g th o f th e c o u rse , i t s
a d a p ta tio n to
T he s c h o o l s
is
g r a d e p l a c e m e n t , and
t h e c o m m u n ity n e e d s a r e some o f t h e d e t a i l s
of o rg a n iz a tio n d isc u sse d in th is c h a p te r.
C h a p te r f i v e .
c h a p te r fiv e .
te a c h e rs*
The r e s u l t s o f t h e s t u d y a p p e a r i n
I t re v e a ls
check s h e e t.
t h e su m m aries o b t a i n e d from t h e
T h e i r rec o m m e n d ed c h a n g e s c o n c e r n ­
in g tim e a l l o t m e n t , a l l o c a t i o n o f s u b j e c t m a t t e r , a d d it i o n s
t o t h e c o u r s e , d e l e t i o n s re c o m m e n d e d , e l a b o r a t i o n s a d v i s e d ,
re c o m m e n d atio n s c o n c e r n in g o v e r la p p in g w i t h o t h e r s u b j e c t s ,
te x tb o o k and b i b l i o g r a p h y rec o m m e n d a tio n s, and p r e f e r e n c e s
c o n ce rn in g ty p e s o f c la s s a c t i v i t y ,
a re in c lu d e d .
T a b u la tio n s o f th e answ ers to th e s e check s h e e ts ,
p re ta tio n s,
in te r­
re c o m m e n d a tio n s, and c o n c lu s io n s a r e i n d i c a t e d .
10
C h a p te r f i v e a l s o
s tu d ie s th e stu d e n ts *
i n t h e sam e m a n n e r t h a t t h e t e a c h e r s *
stu d ie d *
A ges, g r a d e s ,
t a b u l a t e d by sc h o o l*
to w a rd t h e c o u r s e ,
th e c o u rse ,
check s h e e t
c h e c k s h e e t w as
s e x , and m arks o f s t u d e n t s a r e
The s t u d e n ts *
p e rso n al re a c tio n s
t h e i r p re fe re n c e s f o r v a rio u s p a r ts o f
t h e i r e s tim a te o f th e ty p e s o f s tu d e n t a c t i v i t y
u s e d , a s ta te m e n t c o n c e rn in g s i m i l a r c o u rs e s ta k e n , and
t h e i r reco m m e n d atio n s f o r im p ro v in g t h e c o u r s e a r e I n c lu d e d
in th is
c h a p te r*
I n t e r p r e t a t i o n s , rec o m m e n d atio n s and
c o n c lu s io n s a r e re v e a le d *
C h a p te r s i x *
The f i n a l c h a p t e r o f t h e t h e s i s d e a l s
w ith a rev ie w o f t h e f i n d i n g s ,
a sta te m e n t o f c o n c lu s io n s ,
and re c o m m e n d a tio n s f o r f u r t h e r stu d y *
At t h e end o f t h e t h e s i s w i l l b e fo u n d a c o m p le te
b i b l i o g r a p h y a n d c o p i e s o f t h e tw o c h e c k s h e e t s u s e d , a n d
t h e e x p l a n a t o r y l e t t e r w h i c h a c c o m p a n i e d them*
CHAPTER I I
I
LITERATURE OF THE FIELD
T h e c o u r s e i n B u s i n e s s G u i d a n c e i s s o new t h a t o t h e r
o r ie n ta tio n co u rses in b u sin e ss
e d u c a tio n on th e
g rad e le v e l a re a p p a re n tly n o t i n e x is te n c e .
te n th
C o n su lta tio n s
w ith th e o r ig in a to r s o f th e c o u rse re v e a le d t h a t in p la n n in g
t h e c o u r s e t h e y f o u n d no r e c o r d o f c o u r s e s w h i c h m i g h t s e r v e
a s p a t t e r n s o r n u c l e i f o r B u s in e s s G u id an ce.
C h a p te r I I I ,
" H i s t o r i c a l B a c k g r o u n d , 11 p r e s e n t s a
s t o r y o f how t h e m a t e r i a l f o r t h e o r i g i n a l c o u r s e o f s t u d y
w as a c c u m u l a t e d ,
a s to r y t h a t need n o t be in c lu d e d h e re .
C h a p te r V c o n ta in s an a c c o u n t o f th e c r i t e r i a
in e v a lu a tin g th e r e s u lts
w ere s e l e c te d
o f th e stu d y .
used
T hese c r i t e r i a
from t h e l i t e r a t u r e o f t h e f i e l d
o f g u id a n c e
and b u s i n e s s e d u c a t i o n i n t h e c o u r s e o f c o n d u c t in g l i b r a r y
research fo r th is
stu d y .
These c r i t e r i a
p e r t i n e n t to C h a p te r V and a r e ,
a r e m uch m o re
th e re fo re ,
not d u p lic a te d
h ere.
E dna M. B o y d .
A n o th e r r e s e a r c h s tu d y o f th e B u s in e s s
G u id a n c e c o u r s e h a s b e e n c o n te m p la te d .
T h is i s a s tu d y i n
p r o c e s s b y E dna M. B oyd w h i c h w i l l a t t e m p t t o J u s t i f y
th e
need f o r B u s in e s s G u id a n ce ; r e v e a l th e p ro b le m s e n c o u n te re d
i n c u rric u lu m b u i ld i n g ;
In tro d u c tio n of th e co u rse in to
th e
12
s c h o o l sy ste m ;
and th e p u p il f a i l u r e s
i n upper grad e
c o u rs e s b e fo re and a f t e r in tro d u c in g th e c o u rse i n th e
c o m m e r c i a l c u r r i c u l a a t J o h n H* F r a n c i s P o l y t e c h n i c
S c h o o l i n Los A n g e l e s .
fo m
o f a m a s te r 's
H ig h
M is s B o y d ’ s s t u d y w i l l h e i n t h e
th e s is .
A fte r a re c e n t co n feren ce w ith
M is s B oyd i t w a s p l a n n e d t o d i f f e r e n t i a t e
t h e tw o s t u d i e s
s o t h a t o n e w o u ld s u p p l e m e n t h u t n o t d u p l i c a t e t h e o t h e r .
CHAPTER I I I
HISTORY OP THE BUSINESS GUIDANCE PROGRAM
O rig in of th e c o u rs e *
s ta n d in g o f th e stu d y i t
F o r a m ore t h o r o u g h u n d e r ­
se em s w i s e t o r e v i e w b r i e f l y
h i s t o r y o f th e c o u r s e and s t a t e
of its
th e
som e o f t h e p u r p o s e s b a c k
o rg a n iz a tio n .
I n 1937 a g ro u p o f co m m erc ial t e a c h e r s , u n d e r t h e
s u p e r v i s i o n o f J o h n New G i v e n , d e c i d e d t o e x p e r i m e n t . w i t h
a new c u r r i c u l u m w h i c h t h e y b e g a n c a r e f u l l y t o w o r k o u t .
Some o f t h e o t h e r o r i g i n a l m em b ers o f t h e c o m m i t t e e c o n ­
c e r n e d w i t h d e s i g n i n g t h e c o u r s e w e r e R a l p h E* B a u e r , R o g e r
W i l l i a m s , M e l v i n I s e n b e r g e r , B e r n i c e Lamb, Edna M. B o y d ,
R o b e r t M. R i c h a r d s o n , M i n n i e J a n e v a s ,
H en ry 0 . B a c k e r ,
J a m e s A d d i s o n , a n d J e s s i e G raham .
1
A c c o r d i n g t o M r. G i v e n ,
i t w as t h e b e l i e f o f t h i s
gro u p t h a t th e e x i s t i n g
c u r r i c u l u m w as n o t m e e t i n g t h e
n e e d s o f a l a r g e num ber o f b o y s and g i r l s
d e m a n d s o f t h e i m m e d i a t e c o m m u n ity .
i n te rm s o f th e
T h e re was c o n c e r n a l s o
f o r t h e l a r g e n u m b e r o f s t u d e n t s who c h a n g e d f r o m o n e
co m m erc ial c u r r ic u lu m
to a n o th e r p r i o r to g ra d u a tio n .
For
* J o h n N. G i v e n , "An E x p e r i m e n t a l P r o g r a m i n B u s i n e s s
E d u c a t i o n , 11 T he J o u r n a l o f B u s i n e s s E d u c a t i o n . N o. 1 0 ,
15*14-15, J u n e , 1940.
14
e x a m p l e , a t g r a d e t e n , a s c o m p a re d w i t h g r a d e t w e l v e ,
th e
m a j o r I n t e r e s t s o f t h e c o m m e r c i a l s t u d e n t s w o u ld f a l l
ro u g h ly in to
th e fo llo w in g fo u r v o c a tio n a l m a jo rs:
g r a d e , 65 p e r c e n t s e c r e t a r i a l ;
se c re ta ria l;
g rad e,
15 p e r c e n t
t e n t h g r a d e , 20 p e r c e n t b o o k k e e p in g ; t w e l f t h
15 p e r c e n t b o o k k e e p i n g ;
c le ric a l;
tw e lfth g rad e,
te n th
te n th g rad e,
10 p e r c e n t
t w e l f t h g r a d e , 65 p e r c e n t c l e r i c a l ;
5 p e r c e n t m e rc h a n d isin g ; tw e lf th g ra d e ,
te n th grade,
5 p e r cent
m e rc h a n d isin g .
T e c h n iq u e s u s e d .
sta te d
I n c o n f e r e n c e , M i s s S d n a M. Boyd
t h a t t h e t e c h n i q u e e m p lo y e d I n d e v e l o p i n g t h i s
p ro g ra m was s i m i l a r t o a jo b a n a l y s i s i n t h a t q u e s t i o n s
w ere p u t to w o r k e r s ,
e m p lo y e rs, p la c e m e n t a g e n c ie s ,
e d u c a t o r s i n s o c i a l a n d e c o n o m ic f i e l d s ,
fie ld
under c o n sid e ra tio n , p rin c ip a ls ,
d e p a rtm e n ts.
te a c h e rs in th e
and c h a irm e n o f
P e rso n s a c tin g in an a d v is o ry c a p a c ity f o r
t h e s t u d y w e r e c o m p r i s e d o f tw o g r o u p s — b u s i n e s s men a n d
e d u c a to rs.
S e v e ra l o f th e la r g e s t b u sin e ss o rg a n iz a tio n s of
L os A n g e l e s w e r e m o s t c o o p e r a t i v e i n g i v i n g t h e s e r v i c e s
of o ffic ia ls
and p e r s o n n e l m an ag ers.
T h e s e m en w e r e
a v a i l a b l e f o r p e r s o n a l i n t e r v i e w s , a s m em b ers o f p a n e l
d i s c u s s i o n s , and a s s p e a k e rs f o r m e e tin g s.
E d u c a to r s d e v o ti n g tim e t o i n d i v i d u a l and group
c o n fe ren c es re p re se n te d
d e p a rtm e n t-
s e v e ra l b ran ch es of th e sch o o l
M em bers i n c l u d e d t h e S u p e r v i s o r o f C o m m e r c ia l
E d u c a t i o n , who i n i t i a t e d
th e c o u rs e d e v e lo p e d ;
t h e s tu d y and u n d e r w hose g u id a n c e
A l f r e d S . L e w e r e n z , a m em ber o f t h e
R e s e a r c h and G u id a n c e S e c t i o n o f t h e B oard o f E d u c a tio n ,
who w a s a s p e c i a l i s t i n
t e s t s , m e a su re m e n ts, and g u id a n c e ;
s e v e r a l te a c h e r s of S e n io r P ro b le m s; s e v e r a l te a c h e r s o f
S o c ia l S tu d ie s;
te a c h e rs
c o m m erc ial e d u c a ti o n ;
p rin c ip a ls,
e x p e rie n c e d i n each b ra n c h o f
c h a irm e n o f co m m erc ial d e p a r tm e n ts ;
c o u n se lo rs;
a n d e m p lo y m e n t c o o r d i n a t o r s .
T he
V is u a l E d u c a tio n S e c tio n a ls o c o o p e ra te d i n p r o v id in g
te a c h in g a id sT he c o m m i t t e e ,
h a v i n g d e v e l o p e d a w h o l e new p a t t e r n
f o r co m m erc ial e d u c a t i o n ,
f ro m g r a d e s t e n t o
tw e lv e , founded
t h i s new p a t t e r n o n a t e n t h g r a d e b u s i n e s s o r i e n t a t i o n
co u rse,
th e o n ly s t r i c t l y
new s u b j e c t i n t h e p r o g r a m .
The
new p a t t e r n w as a c c e p t e d f o r e x p e r i m e n t a t i o n a n d r e s e a r c h
by f i v e s c h o o l s ,
at its
I n c e p t io n , and l a t e r f o u r o t h e r
sc h o o ls fo llo w e d s u i t .
I n t h e f o u r y e a r s o f t h e e x p e rim e n t t h e c o m m itte e
h as m et r e g u l a r l y f o r a n e x ch an g e o f id e a s and f o r t h e
pu rp o se of e ff e c tin g
im p ro v e m e n ts i n t h e p l a n ,
n o t th e
l e a s t s i g n i f i c a n t o f w h i c h w a s t h e G h an ge o f nam e o f t h e
b e g i n n i n g c o u r s e f r o m “ B u s i n e s s O r i e n t a t i o n 11 t o " B u s i n e s s
16
G u i d a n c e . 11
P resen t s ta tu s .
At t h e t i m e t h i s s t u d y w a s m ade
t h e r e w ere f o u r t e e n t e a c h e r s ,
sc h o o ls,
e m p lo y e d i n n i n e s e n i o r h i g h
e n g a g e d -in th e e x p e rim e n t.
b een a d o p te d a s a b a s i c
E d u c a tio n .
I t was s t i l l
T he c o u r s e h a d n o t y e t
c o m m e rc ia l c o u r s e by t h e B oard o f
in th e e x p e rim e n ta l s ta g e .
In
c o n fe re n c e ," a l l o f th e te a c h e r s In v o lv e d e x p re ss e d
e n th u s ia sm
fo r i t .
c o u rs e and i t
N one o f t h e s c h o o l s h a d d r o p p e d t h e
seem s l i k e l y
t h a t i t may b e c o m e p e r m a n e n t -
CHAPTER IV
OBJECTIVES AND CONTENT OF BUSINESS GUIDANCE
In d isc u ssin g
th e o b je c tiv e s and c o n te n t o f th e
B u s in e s s G u id a n c e c o u r s e i t
s t a t e m e n t s m ad e i n
se e m s w e l l t o r e v i e w a fe w
e a r l i e r c h a p te rs*
se m e s te rs i n le n g th ,
c o m m erc ial s t u d e n t s
it
in
is
The c o u r s e i s
tw o
o ffe re d a s a re q u ire m e n t f o r a l l
th e t e n t h g r a d e , and - i t p r e c e d e s
s p e c i a l i z a t i o n i n s h o r th a n d , b o o k k e e p in g ,
sa le sm a n sh ip ,
a d v e r t i s i n g , m e rc h a n d isin g and o t h e r m a jo r b u s in e s s su b ­
je c ts .
T he p u r p o s e o f t h e B u s i n e s s G u i d a n c e P r o g r a m i s t o
g iv e th e s t u d e n t, f i r s t , an in tr o d u c ti o n to th e e n t i r e
f i e l d o f b u s in e s s a c t i v i t y and, second, an u n d e rsta n d ­
i n g o f t h e b u s i n e s s w o rk o f t h e w o r l d . 1
O b je c tiv e s o f B u s in e s s G u id a n c e .
R eferen ce to th e
2
u n p u b lish e d c o u rs e o f stu d y
re v e a ls th a t th e o b je c tiv e s of
t h e B u s in e s s G u id a n ce c o u r s e a r e s t a t e d
" in te n d e d o u tc o m e s .”
in
th e te rn s o f
T h ese i n te n d e d o u tco m es a r e s t a t e d
b e lo w ;
J o h n N. G i v e n , ”An E x p e r i m e n t a l P r o g r a m i n B u s i n e s s
E d u c a t i o n , ” The J o u r n a l o f B u s i n e s s E d u c a t i o n , No. 1 0 ,
15*15, J u n e , 1940.
2
B u s in e s s G u id a n c e , A T e n th G rade E x p e r im e n ta l
P ro g ra m ,” (an u n p u b lis h e d c o u rs e o f s tu d y p a m p h le t, f o r
c o m m itte e u s e o n l y , Los A n g e le s B oard o f E d u c a ti o n , 1 9 4 0 ) ,
p . 4*
„
18
1.
To a c q u a i n t t h e s t u d e n t w i t h t h e g e n e r a l a r e a s
o f b u s i n e s s l i f e a n d t h e r e b y g i v e him a b r o a d
f o u n d a tio n upon w h ic h t o b u i ld h i s v o c a t i o n a l
p ro g ram .
2.
To c r e a t e i n t h e m in d o f t h e s t u d e n t t h e d e s i r e
and i n c e n t i v e to e s t a b l i s h and m a in ta in th e
r i g h t r e l a t i o n s h i p s b e tw e e n h i m s e l f , h i s f e l l o w
w o rk e rs , and s o c i e t y .
3.
To a c q u a i n t t h e s t u d e n t w i t h a l l t h e p o s s l ' b i l l t i e s f o r v o c a tio n a l tr a in in g w ith in th e
sc h o o l.
4.
To e n a b l e t h e s t u d e n t t o s e e t h e c o n n e c t i o n
w h ic h e x i s t s b e tw e e n t h e w o rld o f e d u c a ti o n and
t h e w o r l d o f w o r k , a n d t o m ake u s e o f t h e o p p o r ­
t u n i t i e s a f f o r d e d by t h e s c h o o l .
5-
To e x p l a i n t h e h i s t o r i c a l d e v e l o p m e n t a n d show
g e o g ra p h ic in f lu e n c e upon v a rio u s p h a se s o f
b u sin e ss.
6.
To s t i m u l a t e
th e s tu d e n t to p la n d e f i n i t e l y
h is fu tu re .
To e n c o u r a g e h im i n t h e d e s i r e
occupy a u s e f u l p la c e i n th e w o rld .
7*
To e n a b l e t h e s t u d e n t t o a n a l y z e h i s own
i n c l i n a t i o n s and a b i l i t i e s and m e a su re t h e i r
p r o b a b l e d e s i r a b i l i t y i n t h e w o rld o f w ork.
8.
To g i v e g u i d a n c e t o t h e s t u d e n t who may n o t b e
a b le to p r o f i t to th e f u l l e s t d e g re e by m a jo r­
in g i n o n e o f t h e c o m m erc ial c u r r i c u l a , and
t h e r e b y e n a b l i n g him t o u n d e r t a k e w o rk i n o t h e r
areas.
9.
To s t r e s s t h e i m p o r t a n c e o f a t h o r o u g h k n o w l e d g e
o f E n g l i s h , s p e l l i n g , a n d a r i t h m e t i c , a n d t o m ake
a v a i l a b l e o p p o r t u n i t i e s f o r th e re v ie w o f t h e s e
fu n d a m e n ta ls.
10.
To s o d i r e c t t h e i n t e r e s t s
o f t h e s t u d e n t t h a t h e may
maximum s e r v i c e i n w o rk i n
t h e g r e a t e s t c h a l l e n g e and
fo r
to
and n a t u r a l a b i l i t i e s
be e n ab led to r e n d e r
w h ic h h e w i l l f i n d
p le a su re
By r e w o r d i n g e a c h o f t h e a b o v e l e a r n i n g o u t c o m e s s o
19
t h a t i t b e g i n s w i t h t h e w o rd s " to becom e a c q u a i n t e d w i t h ,
to a c q u ir e ,
to r e c o g n iz e , .o r to l e a r n , ” i t
co n v ert th e s e s ta te m e n ts in to
te rm in o lo g y o f o b j e c t i v e s ,
is
p o s s ib le to
t h e com m only a c c e p t e d
a s sh o w n b e l o w :
1*
To b e c o m e a c q u a i n t e d w i t h t h e g e n e r a l a r e a s o f
b u s in e s s l i f e and th e re b y g a in a b ro a d f o u n d a tio n
upon w h ic h t o b u i ld a v o c a t i o n a l p ro g ram .
2.
To a c q u i r e a d e s i r e a n d i n c e n t i v e t o e s t a b l i s h
and m a in ta in th e r i g h t r e l a t i o n s h i p s w ith fe llo w
w o rk ers and s o c ie ty .
3*
To b e c o m e a c q u a i n t e d w i t h a l l t h e p o s s i b i l i t i e s
f o r v o c a tio n a l t r a i n in g w ith in th e sc h o o l.
4.
To r e c o g n i z e t h e c o n n e c t i o n w h i c h e x i s t s b e t w e e n
t h e w o rld o f e d u c a ti o n and t h e w o rld o f w o rk , and
t o m ake u s e o f t h e o p p o r t u n i t i e s a f f o r d e d b y t h e
sc h o o l.
5*
To l e a r n t h e h i s t o r i c a l d e v e l o p m e n t o f b u s i n e s s
and t h e i n f l u e n c e o f g eo g rap h y upon th e v a r io u s
phases of b u sin e ss.
6.
To a c q u i r e a n i n c e n t i v e t o p l a n d e f i n i t e l y f o r
th e f u t u r e , and t o occupy a u s e f u l p l a c e i n th e
w o rld .
7*
To l e a r n t o a n a l y z e p e r s o n a l i n c l i n a t i o n s a n d
a b i l i t i e s and m ea su re t h e i r p r o b a b le d e s i r a b i l i t y
i n th e w o rld o f w ork.
8.
To r e c o g n i z e i n a b i l i t y , i f s u c h e x i s t s , t o p r o f i t
b y t h e c o m m e r c i a l c u r r i c u l a , a n d r e c o g n i z e w o rk
i n o t h e r a r e a s w h i c h c o u l d b e p u r s u e d m o re
p ro fita b ly .
9.
To r e c o g n i z e t h e i m p o r t a n c e o f a t h o r o u g h
k n o w led g e o f E n g lis h , s p e l l i n g , and a r i t h m e t i c ,
and to re v ie w th e s e fu n d a m e n ta ls .
10.
To l e a r n t o d i r e c t p e r s o n a l i n t e r e s t s a n d n a t u r a l
a b i l i t i e s i n o r d e r t o r e n d e r maximum s e r v i c e i n
w o rk i n w h i c h t h e g r e a t e s t c h a l l e n g e a n d p l e a s u r e
w i l l be found.
20
C o n te n t o f B u s in e s s G uidance c o u r s e *
the c o u rse ,
as o rg a n iz e d a t th e tim e of t h i s
The c o n t e n t o f
s tu d y was a s
fo llo w s:
1.
In tro d u ctio n
H igh S c h o o l O r i e n t a t i o n
2.
The W orld o f B u s i n e s s
N e c e s s i t y f o r W orld T ra d e
D e v e lo p m e n t o f W orld T ra d e
I m p o r t a n t R e g io n s and C o m m o d itie s o f W orld
Trade
P la c e o f U nited S ta te s
3-
i n W orld T r a d e
The O r g a n i z a t i o n o f t h e B u s i n e s s W o r l d
Types o f B u s i n e s s O w nership
F i n a n c i a l Background o f B u s in e s s
A m erican B anking System
Use o f C r e d i t
P l a c e o f M a rk e tin g i n A m erican B u s in e s s L i f e
4.
R equirem ents f o r S uccess i n B u sin e ss
P e r s o n a l D evelopm ent
E tiq u ette
S k ills
5*
T ryouts i n B u sin e ss T ra in in g C ourses
S horthand
B ookkeeping
S alesm anship
21
6.
Study of an I n d u s t r i a l O ccup atio n
Summary o f R e q u i r e m e n t s f o r S u c c e s s i n B u s i n e s s
A n a ly s is of th e O ccupation
A rith m etic
7*
R e v ie w
P r e s e n t S ta tu s o f S outhern C a lif o r n ia
H i s t o r i c a l D evelopm ent o f B u s i n e s s
M aking o f a H arb o r
Im p o rts and E xports
M a n u fa c tu rin g and I n d u s t r y
N a tu ra l R esources
T o u r is t Trade
O p p o r tu n itie s i n B u sin ess O ccupations
P lace in th e c u r r ic u la .
cu rric u la offered in
Under th e r e g u l a r com m ercial
t h e Los A n g e les h i g h s c h o o l s ,
s tu d e n t has one
of fo u r ch o ices:
acco u n tin g ,
th e
m erch an d isin g , o r
cu rricu la.
The
c h o i c e i s m ad e a t t h e b e g i n n i n g o f
e le v e n th grade.
the s e c r e t a r i a l ,
the
th e
general c le r ic a l
A ll s tu d e n ts p r i o r to t h i s
c o m p le te d a y e a r ’ s w ork i n j u n i o r b u s i n e s s
th e
the
tim e have
train in g in
g ra d e n i n e , and t y p e w r i t i n g and b o o k k eep in g i n g ra d e t e n .
U n d e r t h e new p r o g r a m d e v e l o p e d i n t h e e x p e r i m e n t a l
sch o o ls,
th e fo llo w in g c u rric u la o b ta in .
^ G i v e n , 0£ .
c l t . . p.
15*
22
Grade 2
1.
H e a lth and P h y s ic a l E d u ca tio n
2.
S o c ia l L iv in g
3*
S cien ce o r P r a c t i c a l A rt
4.
E lectiv e
5*
E lectiv e
G r a d e 10
1*
H e a lth and P h y s i c a l E d u ca tio n
2.
E h g llsh o r S o c ia l L iving
3*
B io lo g y L ab o ra to ry
4.
B u s in e s s G uidance
5*
a.
E lectiv e
b ‘. T y p e w r i t i n g
G r a d e 11
S te n o g r a p h ic M ajor
1*
H e a lth and P h y s i c a l E d u c a tio n
2♦
(S o c ia l L iv in g or
3*
(E n g lish -
(
(S o cial S tu d ies)
4.
S alesm anship
5*
B ookkeeping
6.
E lectiv e
G r a d e J12
S te n o g r a p h ic M ajor
23
1.
H e a lth and P h y s i c a l E d u ca tio n
2.
a.
B u sin e ss C orrespondence
b* B u s i n e s s Law
3.
S h o rth an d .an d T ra n s c rip tio n
4.
O ffice P ra c tic e
5•
a.
E le ctiv e
b . B ookkeeping
6.
(se cre ta rial)
E lectiv e
B u s i n e s s Management M a jo r
1.
H e a lth and P h y s i c a l E d ucation
2.
a.
B u sin ess C orrespondence
b . B u s i n e s s Law
3*
a* M e r c h a n d i s i n g
b. A d v e rtisin g
4,
C lerical P ra ctice
5-
E lectiv e
6.
E lectiv e
A c c o r d i n g t o Mr* G i v e n ,
th e fo llo w in g p ro p o sa ls.
4
t h e new p r o g r a m i n c o r p o r a t e s
In grade n in e,
in p lace of the
r e q u i r e d woxk i n j u n i o r b u s i n e s s t r a i n i n g ,
su b ject is
su b stitu ted .
no l o n g e r t o f i n d
4
Loc.
c it.
an e l e c t i v e
How t h a t t h e j u n i o r w o r k e r I s a b l e
em ploym ent,
the ju n io r b u sin ess te x ts
24
c o n t a i n s u c h u n i t s o f w ork a s t r a v e l ,
com m unication.
Do s u c h u n i t s ,
in tro d u c tio n to th e f i e l d
d o u b tfu l i f
such i s
t r a n s p o r t a t i o n , and
i n th em se lv e s, o f f e r an
of b u sin e ss ed u catio n ?
the case.
It
is
In th e experim ental sch o o ls,
th e su b je c t of ju n io r b u sin ess tra in in g is o ffe re d , but as
an e l e c t i v e on ly.
In grade te n ,
about th e b u sin ess
t h e n e e d s o f y o u n g p e o p l e t o know m o r e
life
o f t h e com m unity o f f e r s a r e a s o n
f o r i n c l u s i o n o f t h e B u s in e s s G uidance c o u r s e .
Y o un g p e o p l e
need m ore o r i e n t a t i o n and g u id a n c e b e f o r e th e y c a n b e
e x p ected to fo llo w p r o f i t a b l y any c o u rs e i n b u s in e s s edu­
catio n .
S tu d e n ts have been o b lig ed to e n te r one of th e
m a jo r s u b j e c t f i e l d s w i t h o u t h a v in g had a t h o r o u g h b a c k ­
ground o f know ledge and i n f o r m a t i o n w h ic h he sh o u ld have i f
he i s
t o m ak e a s o u n d c h o i c e .
T he a v e r a g e s t u d e n t i n
b u s in e s s e d u c a tio n tod ay b e lie v e s
fo r success is
in
th a t h is only o p p o rtu n ity
q u a lify in g as a t y p i s t ,
a bookkeeper,
or
a stenographer.
In grade e le v e n ,
t h e s t u d e n t makes h i s c h o i c e b e tw e e n
t h e s t e n o g r a p h i c m a j o r and t h e m a jo r i n b u s i n e s s m anagem ent.
The b u s i n e s s m a n a g e m e n t m a j o r i s ,
in re a lity ,
a com bination
o f t h r e e m a j o r s — c l e r i c a l , m e r c h a n d i s i n g , and a c c o u n t i n g - w hich have b e en e s t a b l i s h e d
o th e r schools.
and a r e i n o p e r a t i o n i n t h e
25
In g rad e tw elv e,
th e s tu d e n t w i l l be r e q u i r e d - t o
ta k e m e rc h a n d is in g and a d v e r t i s i n g ,
p rac tic e.
and a y e a r o f c l e r i c a l
In th e s u b je c t of c l e r i c a l p r a c tic e th e stu d e n t
w i l l become f a m i l i a r w i t h g e n e r a l o f f i c e r o u t i n e by h i s
experiences in th e stu d e n t s to re .
E x ten t o f th e program .
in th e experim ent a t
The s c h o o l s w h i c h c o o p e r a t e d
th e tim e t h i s stu d y of B usiness
G u id a n c e was made a r e a s f o l l o w s :
F airfax
High S c h o o l
G a rd e n a High S c h o o l
A l e x a n d e r H a m il t o n High S c h o o l
H ollywood High S c h o o l
N a t h a n i e l N a rb o n n e High S c h o o l
N o r t h Hollywood H igh S c h o o l
J o h n H. F r a n c i s P o l y t e c h n i c
High S c h o o l
San F e rn an d o High S c h o o l
T o r r a n c e H igh S c h o o l
T his l i s t
of sch o o ls re p re se n ts n in e of th e t h i r t y -
s e v e n r e g u l a r s e n i o r h i g h s c h o o l s o f Los A n g e l e s , a b o u t
tw en ty -fo u r p e r c en t.
CHAPTER V
DATA REVEALED BY THE CHEEK SHEETS
As h a s b e e n s t a t e d
p articip ated
ance.
e arlie r,
n in e sc h o o ls have
i n t h e e x p e r i m e n t a l program o f B u s in e s s G uid­
Cheek s h e e t s w e re s e n t t o a l l t e a c h e r s i n t h e n i n e
schools b u t stu d en ts*
o f the sch o o ls,
check s h e e ts w ere s e n t to only e ig h t
t h e n i n t h s c h o o l h a v i n g no s t u d e n t s i n t h e
second se m este r o f th e c o u rs e .
T h e L os A n g e l e s c i t y
sc h o o ls t h a t have adopted th e
B u s in e s s G uidance program a r e :
F airfax
High S c h o o l ,
G a rd en a H igh S c h o o l , A l e x a n d e r H a m ilto n High S c h o o l ,
Hollywood High S c h o o l ,
N a t h a n i e l N arbonne High S c h o o l,
N o r t h H o l l y w o o d H i g h S c h o o l , J o h n H. F r a n c i s P o l y t e c h n i c
H igh S c h o o l , San F e r n a n d o H igh S c h o o l , and T o r r a n c e High
S chool.
Each s c h o o l h a s b e e n g i v e n a number i n t h i s
and r e s u l t s
study
a r e s h o w n b y t h a t n u m b e r r a t h e r t h a n b y name
of th e schoo l.
P u p i l and t e a c h e r p e r s o n n e l .
tw e lv e q u e s t i o n n a i r e s w ere f i l l e d
o u t by s t u d e n t s e n r o l l e d
i n th e second se m e ste r of th e c o u rse .
s t u d e n ts w ere n o t sam p led,
obviously be lim ite d .
to encourage tr u e
F i v e h u n d re d and
F i r s t sem ester
s i n c e t h e i r a n s w e rs w ould
The q u e s t i o n n a i r e s w e r e u n s i g n e d
e x p re s s io n s of o p in io n .
27
It
is
recognized th a t th e r e l i a b i l i t y
of q u e stio n ­
n aires is
o f t e n l e s s e n e d by a d v e r s e c o n d i t i o n s w h ic h m ig h t
o b tain a t
t h e tim e th e y w ere p r e s e n t e d .
made t o s e c u r e o b j e c t i v e ,
to th e q u e s tio n s .
stu d en ts attack ed
s i n c e r e , , and t h o u g h t f u l a n s w e rs
T h e r e w e r e no e v i d e n c e s t h a t
the
t h e problem i n a s p i r i t o f l e v i t y , o r
b i a s , b u t i t m ust be re c o g n iz e d t h a t
relia b ility ,
E very e f f o r t was
th e p ercen tag e of
tho u g h b e lie v e d to be h ig h ,
cannot be
a c c u ra te ly determ in ed .
The d a t a r e v e a l e d
th a t 70,
51 2 s t u d e n t s w e r e b o y s .
o r 14 p e r c e n t , o f t h e
S i n c e t h e c e n t r a l employment
o f f i c e o f t h e Board o f E d u c a tio n has f o r t h r e e o r f o u r
y ears been u n ab le to f i l l
t h e demand f o r men s t e n o g r a p h e r s
i n t h e Los A n g e l e s a r e a i t
th a t th is p ercen tag e,
years,
i s too
low.
seems r e a s o n a b l e t o c o n c l u d e
p rac tic ally
I t also
sta tic
fo r th e p ast fiv e
seems r e a s o n a b l e t o c o n c l u d e
t h a t th e com m ercial program i s n o t y e t m eetin g th e n eeds
o f m ale s t u d e n t s , and t h a t s p e c i a l a t t e n t i o n should be
g iven to th e r e s u l t s
of th is
study w ith r e s p e c t to t h e i r
o p in io n s and s u g g e s t i o n s , w i t h a view to m aking th e o f f e r ­
i n g s more a t t r a c t i v e
to
them-
F o rty -six per cen t,
o r 22 6 o f t h e s t u d e n t s w e r e
s i x t e e n y e a r s o f a g e , and 44 p e r c e n t , o r 216 s t u d e n t s w e re
f i f te e n years of age.
The m e d i a n , h o w e v e r ,
falls
in th e
28
o l d e r group*
The m e d i a n g r a d e ,
B u s i n e s s G u i d a n c e IX i s
a s was t o b e e x p e c t e d ,
sin ce
o f f e r e d i n A10, f e l l i n t h e se c o n d
s e m e s te r o f t h e t e n t h grade*
N in ety -fiv e p er cent of th e
s t u d e n t s w ere r e p r e s e n t e d i n t h i s g ra d e .
S t u d y o f t h e m a r k s r e c e i v e d by s t u d e n t s i n t h e
v a rio u s schools in d ic a te d
t h a t th e norm al curve i s n o t used
by t h e t e a c h e r s a s a b a s i s f o r m a rk in g .
T w enty-five p e r
c e n t r e c e i v e d A ' s a n d 36 p e r c e n t r e c e i v e d B ' s a s a f i n a l
mark i n B u s i n e s s G u id a n c e I , w h i l e 21 p e r c e n t r e c e i v e d
A f s a n d 37 p e r c e n t r e c e i v e d B*s a t m i d - t e r m i n B u s i n e s s
G uidance I I .
F i n a l m arks f o r t h e se c o n d s e m e s t e r had n o t
y e t b e e n r e c o r d e d w hen t h e s t u d y was made.
to be a s l i g h t
T h e re seems
t e n d e n c y t o award h i g h e r m arks a t
t h e end
of th e se m e s te r th a n a t m id -term .
The m e d i a n m a r k f o r b o t h s e m e s t e r s o f t h e c o u r s e i n
B u s in e s s G uidance o c c u r r e d i n t h e B gro u p .
T able I c o n ta in s a l l of th e f i g u r e s co n c e rn in g
p u p il perso n n el,
i n c l u d i n g th o s e m entioned ab ove.
S ix teen teachers*
th is
study.
in
S i x o f t h i s number have t a u g h t B u s in e s s
G uidance I o n ly ;
of th e course.
stu d ied
q u e s tio n n a ir e s w ere r e p o r te d
th e o t h e r te n have ta u g h t b o th sem esters
A ll,
h o w e v er, h av e had a c c e s s t o and h av e
th e com plete c o u rs e o f stu d y .
T his in f o r m a ti o n
TABLE I
SEX, AGE, GRADE, MARKS OF STUDENTS
a
o*
CD
►
1
Age
Marks
Marks
Business Guidance II
B usiness Guidance
(F in al)______
(Mid-Term)______
a
a
a
o
0
o
p
p
(3
ts
CO
Grade
a
o
8>
CO
«+
1
§d“
Sex
© M
r
School
Number 1
38
7
31
Number 2
35
3
32
Number 3
Teacher A 48 6
Teacher B 59 12
42
47
Number 4
Number 5
30
2
©
4
14
15
18
16 17 18
16 1
B10 A10 B ll A ll
1
38
17
15
2
1
32
1
1 1 11
17
28
24
21
2
4
2
5
42
53
1
3
11
16
3
3
44
57
9
8
4
2
2
28
119 13 106
Number 6
Teacher A 44
Teacher B 33
6
9
38
24
1
I
21
10
12
16
Number 7
11
1
10
1
5
4
Number 8
95 11
84
3
45
45
T o ta ls
Percentage
512 70 442
14$ 86$
1
1
1
5
2
2
1
2
13 216 226 35
3 19
3$ 44$ 46$ 6$ 1$
5
0
8
DF
4
A B
6 3 10
13
7
1
3
8
9
6
1
3 2 4
3 3
8
21
20
17
10
3
6
15
4
9
2
9
1
11
30
5
15
2
3
4
11
3
118
1 19
8
47
39
4
10 30
44
36
4
6
8
13
8
15
11
2
10
4
10
12
12
15
2
1
1
2
1
49
24
11
44
19
9
11
93
2
5 480
16
1$ 95$
3$
A B
4 16
4 7 HO 160 144
1$
25$ 36$ 33$
5
4
C
16
D F
2
2
11
1
9
1
4
15
1
7
4
14
56
11
7 23
40
23
1
8
28 0 70 80 140 129
25
4 134
6$
23$ 37$ 34$
7$ 1$
rv)
vo
30
la
tab u lated
I n T a b l e XX, p a g e 7 3 , a t
t h e end o f t h e
d isc u ssio n of d ata.
S t u d e n ts 1 p e r s o n a l r e a c t i o n s to th e c o u r s e .
T able
IX d i s c l o s e s t h a t 8 3 p e r c e n t o f t h e s t u d e n t s w e r e
fa v o ra b le to
t h e c o u r s e , w h i l e 17 p e r c e n t w e r e e i t h e r
n eg ativ e to i t ,
d islik e d
it,
o r d id n o t answ er.
e ig h t p e r c en t of th e stu d e n ts considered
v alu e
w h i l e 12 p e r
th e course of
c e n t did n o t c o n sid e r i t of v a lu e .
More m i n u t e s t u d y o f t h e d i f f e r e n c e
stu d en ts in s p e c ific
E ighty -
i n answ ers of
s c h o o l s shows t h a t s t u d e n t s I n a l l
sc h o o ls w ere f a v o r a b le to th e c o u rs e b u t t h a t th e h ig h e s t
p e r c e n t a g e o f e n jo y m e n t was r e g i s t e r e d
in schools 1 , 2 , 5 ,
6 , 7 , and 8 , and t h e m a j o r i t y o f s t u d e n t s i n s c h o o ls 3 and
4 reg iste red
th a t th ey lik e d
t h e c o u r s e s,s o m e w h a t * ”
S tu d e n ts in every sc h o o l co n sid ered th e co u rse o f v a lu e .
U n i t s c o n s i d e r e d . by t e a c h e r s ,
l e a s t v a lu e to s tu d e n ts .
T able I I I ,
o f m ost v a lu e and
p a g e 32 , i n d i c a t e s
th e te a c h e r s ’ o p in io n s o f th e v alu e of u n its of th e course.
T heir o rd e r of p re fe re n c e i s :
I,
U n i t s V, I V , V I ,
III,
V II,
II.
S tu d e n ts ’ p re fe re n c e s of u n its of th e co u rse.
study of th e fig u r e s
i n T a b le IV, p a g e 3 3 , i n d i c a t e s
A
th at
TABLE I I
STUDENTS1 PERSONAL REACTIONS TOWARD THE COURSE
In g en era l, do you
consider the
course o f value?
a
Do you enjoy the course?
§c+
a
o
No answer
t
ft
1 Yes
School
a
35
2
1
a
o
No answer
e+
I n d if fe r e n t
tt
Somewhat
Yes
o'
©
4
O
1
1
1
3
31
7
5
3
2
27
45
21
10
24
6
110
6
3
39
33
1
4
&
09
Number 1
38
23
8
’ 35
27
4
48
59
7
8
28
3
5
7
8
Number 4
30
9
10
2
9
Number 5
119
65
42
2
9
Number 6
Teacher A
Teacher B
44
33
28
21
12
11
2
1
Number 7
11
8
1
1
Number 8
95
52
24
7
3
2
7
73
14
8
512
248
162
19
45
20
18
428
60
24
50$
33$
4$
9$
4$
88$
12$
Number 2
Number 3
Teacher A
Teacher B
T o ta ls
Percentage
21
5
1
2
4
4
11
32
TABLE I I I
UNITS CONSIDERED, BY TEACHERS, OP MOST VALUE
AND LEAST VALUE TO STUDENTS
U nits
Most v a l u a b l e
L east v alu ab le
-
I
2
II
6
III
1
IV
3
V
14
VI
2
1
VII
3
No a n s w e r
3
T o tal
19*
* T h r e e t e a c h e r s e a c h g a v e tw o a n s w e r s .
16
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to
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to
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to
CP
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CP
H
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to
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to
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34
(1)
stu d en ts p re fe r u n it
IV ( R e q u i r e m e n t s f o r S u c c e s s i n
B u s i n e s s ) and u n i t V ( T ry o u ts i n B u s in e s s T r a i n i n g C o u r s e s ) ,
and (2)
th at u n its
II
(T h e W orld o f B u s i n e s s ) ,
O r g a n iz a t i o n o f t h e B u s in e s s W o rld ), and V II
S ta tu s
of S outhern C a lif o r n ia )
stu d en ts.
a re lik ed
T h i s w o u ld seem t o i n d i c a t e
sh o u ld be e m p h a siz e d , and u n i t s
II,
III
(Present
l e a s t by th e
th at u n its
III,
(The
IV a n d V
and V II s h o u ld b e
m inim ized w ere t h e i n t e r p r e t e r n o t c a r e f u l i n k e e p in g i n
m in d t h e o b j e c t i v e s o f t h e c o u r s e :
to th e e n ti r e f i e l d
first,
an in tr o d u c tio n
o f b u sin e ss a c t i v i t y and,
second, an
u n d e r s t a n d i n g o f t h e b u s i n e s s work o f t h e w o r l d .
If
c h a n g e s a r e t o b e made i n a c o u r s e o n t h e b a s i s
of stu d en ts*
l i k e s and d i s l i k e s
r a t h e r th a n on t h e b a s i s
o f t h e o b j e c t i v e s o f t h e c o u rs e th e w hole p u rp o s e o f ed u ­
c a t i o n I s d e f e a t e d and t h e s u b j e c t m ight a s w e l l n o t be
tau g h t.
first
T his i s a t e n t h g rad e c o u rs e ;
in tro d u ctio n s
to
one o f t h e s tu d e n ts *
t h e work o f t h e w o r l d .
B e f o r e a n y p r o v i s i o n i s made f o r v o c a t i o n a l b u s i n e s s
ed u ca tio n , i t i s e s s e n t ia l to p ro v id e th a t b u sin e ss
e d u c a t i o n w h ic h i s needed by a l l se c o n d a ry s c h o o l
p u p ils.1
F i r s t o f a l l we m u s t c o n c e r n o u r s e l v e s w i t h t h e
o rg a n iz a tio n of s u ita b le in tro d u cto ry courses in
^ S a r i G-. B l a e k s t o n e , " R e m o d e l i n g Y o u r C o m m e r c i a l
D e p a r t m e n t , 11 S c h o o l R e v i e w , J a n u a r y , 1939* PP* 1 7 - 2 3 .
35
b u s in e s s e d u c a tio n i n o rd e r to p ro v id e th e p ro p e r b a s i s
fo r g en eral in fo rm atio n :
( l ) f o r t h o s e s t u d e n t s who
w i l l l a t e r t a k e m ore s p e c i a l i z e d , t h a t i s , more
d i r e c t l y v o c a t i o n a l c o u r s e s , a n d ( 2 ) f o r t h o s e who
d e s i r e o n ly a g e n e r a l know ledge o f b u s i n e s s a s a p a r t
of t h e i r g e n e ra l ed u catio n .
A fter th ese in tro d u c to ry
c o u r s e s h a v e b e e n w e l l p l a n n e d we m u s t c o n c e r n o u r ­
s e l v e s , i t s e e m s t o me, w i t h t h e p r o p e r b a l a n c e o f
s p e c i a l i z e d and u n s p e c i a l i z e d work w i t h i n e a c h m a jo r
type o f b u sin e ss t r a in in g su ch as th e ste n o g rap h ic
c u rric u lu m , th e salesm anship c u rric u lu m , th e g e n e ra l
c l e r i c a l cu rric u lu m , th e g e n e ra l b u sin e ss cu rricu lu m ,
th e acco u n tin g c u rricu lu m , e t c . 2
W eersing f u r t h e r o u t l i n e s su c h a c o u rs e as f o llo w s :
I n t r o d u c t i o n t o B u sin e ss ( v o c a t io n a l ) one y e a r i n
th e t e n t h o r e l e v e n t h g r a d e , one u n i t c r e d i t .
T his
c o u rs e I s p ro p o se d i n o r d e r to g iv e th e com m ercial
m a j o r a g e n e r a l s u r v e y o f t h e f i e l d o f c om m erce a n d
some u n d e r s t a n d i n g o f t h e b r o a d e c o n o m i c , s o c i a l , a n d
p o l i t i c a l problem s Involved.
Some o f t h e m a j o r t o p i c s
of t h i s c o u rse a re th e t i t l e s of c o lle g ia te courses
i n comm erce, o u t l i n i n g t h e w hole f i e l d , n o t i n a n
e f f o r t to te a c h a sm atterin g of each of th e s e , but
to p o i n t o u t t h e i r p l a c e and s i g n i f i c a n c e i n a s tu d y
of b u s in e s s a s a group o f v o c a tio n s .
T his c o u rs e
s h o u l d p r o v e v a l u a b l e , a l s o , f o r s t u d e n t s who a r e
p l a n n i n g t o e n t e r a c o l l e g i a t e s c h o o l o f commerce, a
g r o u p f o r whom t h e p r e s e n t s e c o n d a r y c o m m e r c i a l
c u rric u lu m has l i t t l e to o f f e r .
I t s g e n e ra l purpose
i s e x p l o r a t o r y and p r e - v o c a t i o n a l , w i t h t h e e m p h a sis
on b ro a d e d u c a t i o n a l c o n t e n t , r a t h e r th a n on s p e c i f i c
sk ills.
S u c h a c o u r s e m ig h t w e l l b e r e q u i r e d from a l l
com m ercial m a j o r s .^
F r e d e r i c k J . W e e r s i n g , "What S h o u l d b e t h e
R e l a t i v e E n p h a s is o n V o c a t i o n a l and N o n - V o c a tio n a l S u b j e c t s
i n t h e B u s i n e s s C u r r i c u l u m ? 11 — A b s t r a c t , N a t i o n a l
E d u c a t i o n A s s o c i a t i o n , A d d r e s s e s and P r o c e e d i n g s , 1931 >
pp. 346-9.
■3
F r e d e r i c k J . W e e rs in g , R e o r g a n i z a t i o n o f Com m ercial
E d u c a t i o n i n t h e P u b l i c H igh S c h o o l ( C i n c i n n a t i :
South­
w e s t e r n P u b l i s h i n g Co m pany , 1 9 2 9 )> p* 165*
36
The n e e d f o r b r o a d p l a n n i n g i s
f u r t h e r em phasized
b y Dewey w h e n h e s a y s :
A ll th e e a r l i e r p r e p a r a t i o n f o r v o c a tio n s should be
i n d i r e c t r a t h e r t h a n d i r e c t ; n am ely, th ro u g h en g ag in g
i n t h o s e a c t i v e o c c u p a ti o n s w hich a r e i n d i c a t e d by th e
n eed s and i n t e r e s t s of th e p u p i l s a t th e tim e .
Only
i n t h i s way c a n t h e r e b e o n t h e p a r t o f t h e e d u c a t o r
and o f t h e o n e e d u c a te d a g e n u in e d i s c o v e r y o f
p e r s o n a l a p t i t u d e s so t h a t t h e p r o p e r c h o i c e o f a
r
s p e c i a l i z e d p u r s u i t i n l a t e r l i f e may b e i n d i c a t e d .
Tonne a l s o w ould h av e o u r c o m m e rc ia l t r a i n i n g
s p e c i a l i z e d and more a l o n g t h e l i n e s o f r e a l i s t i c ,
less
general
ed u catio n :
The f i r s t m a j o r p u r p o s e o f b u s i n e s s e d u c a t i o n i s
n o n - t e c h n i c a l and i n v o lv e s :
(1) th e e d u c a tio n of
p e rs o n s to be i n t e l l i g e n t consum ers o f th e s e r v i c e s of
b u s in e s s * and (2) a c l e a r u n d e rs ta n d in g o f t h e n a t i o n 's
econom y.5
“S e v e r a l n a t i o n a l com m issions and a d v i s o r y b o a rd s
have r e c e n t l y d e c la re d
t h a t t h e r e c a n b e no s e p a r a t i o n
betw een g e n e r a l and v o c a t i o n a l e d u c a tio n .
B u s i n e s s men,
should
h a v in g been asked what t h e h ig h s c h o o ls
t e a c h com m ercial s tu d e n ts ,
have answ ered:
May I s u g g e s t t h a t t h e f i r s t o b j e c t i v e d e s i r e d b y
b u s in e s s i s th e developm ent o f b u s in e s s a b i l i t y r a t h e r
^ J o h n Dewey, D e m o c r a c y a n d M u c a t l o n (New Y o r k :
The M a c m i l l a n Company"] 1938 5, p • 363 5
H e r b e r t A. T o n n e , B u s i n e s s E d u c a t i o n ; B a s i c
P r i n c i p l e s a n d T r e n d s (New Y o r k :
The G r e g g P u b l i s h i n g
C o m p an y , 1 9 3 9 ) # p . l 4 .
6
Ib id .,
p.
16.
37
th a n m ere ly t h e d ev elo p m en t o f a know ledge o f b ook­
k e e p i n g , t y p i n g , s t e n o g r a p h y , and so on.
M o d e r n b u s i n e s s d e a l s w i t h hum an r e l a t i o n s p r i m a r i l y ,
and o n ly s e c o n d a r i l y w i t h t h i n g s .
F o r exam ple, i f t h e
c r e d i t man i n a b u s i n e s s h a s b e e n t r a i n e d t o i n t e r e s t
h im s e lf o n ly i n in a n im a te o b j e c t s , he i s l i k e l y to
d r i v e m u c h b u s i n e s s away f r o m h i s h o u s e , i f i n d e e d h e
does not ru in i t e n tir e ly .
I f you c a n t e a c h y o u r s c h o l a r s a lw a y s t o t h i n k i n
sym pathy w i t h t h e o t h e r f e l l o w i n a b u s i n e s s d e a l , you
h a v e s t a r t e d them i n t h e r i g h t d i r e c t i o n f o r d e v e l o p ­
i n g s u c c e s s f u l hum an r e l a t i o n s . '
N eedless to sa y , i t i s a f a r sim p le r m a tte r to
develop s p e c i f i c s k i l l s such as th e a b i l i t y to r e p o r t
and t r a n s c r i b e d i c t a t i o n o r t o t y p e w r i t e t h a n to d e ­
v elop th e a b i l i t y to succeed in - b u s in e s s .
Nobody h a s
e v e r d e v e lo p e d a m ethod o f s o l v i n g t h a t l a r g e p ro b le m .
A t t h e s a m e t i m e , we know t h a t a g r e a t d e a l m o r e i s
i n v o l v e d i n ~ b u s i n e s s s u c c e s s t h a n t h e a b i l i t y t o do
s p e c i f i c ty p e s o f w o rk .°
From t h e
stu d e n ts'
stan d p o in t:
A n u m b e r o f o b j e c t i v e i n v e s t i g a t i o n s h a v e show n
t h a t l a r g e n u m b e r s o f s t u d e n t s , i n some s u b j e c t s a
m a j o r i t y of th o s e e n r o l l e d , e l e c t com m ercial s t u d i e s
f o r g e n e r a l p r a c t i c a l re a s o n s , w ith o u t any p la n o r
e x p e c ta tio n of using th is tra in in g in a v o c a tio n a l
way. 9
^ Jo h n B e a ty , " O b je c tiv e s of B u sin e ss E d ucation a s
Viewed by B u s i n e s s , " N a t i o n a l B u s i n e s s E d u c a t i o n Q u a r t e r l y ,
No. 1 , 2 : 3 , O c t o b e r , 1933*
o
J o h n A . S t e v e n s o n , " B u s i n e s s E d u c a t i o n and
C o m m u n ity L i f e a s S e e n b y t h e B u s i n e s s M a n , " N a t i o n a l
B u s i n e s s E d u c a t i o n Q u a r t e r l y , No. 1 , 3 * 2 0 , O c t o b e r , 1 9 3 ^ .
9 F r e d e r i c k J . W e e r s i n g , " O b j e c t i v e s Come F i r s t i n
M odern B u s i n e s s C u r r i c u l u m , ” J o u r n a l o f B u s i n e s s
E d u c a t i o n , F e b r u a r y , 1 9 3 0 , PP* 2 0 - 1 .
38
I n c o m m e r c i a l e d u c a t i o n t h e r e h a v e b e e n made a
c o n s i d e r a b l e number o f s u r v e y s and j o b - a n a l y s i s w h ic h
a g r e e t o a s u r p r i s i n g e x t e n t i n show ing t h a t s e c o n d ­
a r y com m ercial e d u c a tio n i s n o t m ee tin g a s i t sh o u ld
e i t h e r th e v o c a tio n a l o r th e n o n -v o c a tio n a l needs of
t h e boys and g i r l s i n o u r h i g h s c h o o ls .
To b e g i n w i t h , m o s t o f t h e s o - c a l l e d c o m m e r c i a l
e d u c a t i o n h a s b e e n sh o w n n o t t o b e c o m m e r c i a l a t a l l ,
but ra th e r c le r ic a l in n atu re.
We h a v e p r o v i d e d
r a t h e r w e l l , so t h e s e s t u d i e s show, f o r t h e n e e d s o f
ty p ists"an d stenographers, ra th e r less w ell fo r
s e c r e t a r i a l w o rk e rs and c l e r i c a l w o rk e rs i n c l u d i n g
b o o k k e e p e r s , and a lm o s t n o t a t a l l f o r s a l e s p e o p l e
and t h o s e en g ag e d i n a th o u s a n d fo rm s o f " g e n e r a l
b u s i n e s s . 1110
The j o b a n a l y s i s l e n d s e m p h a s i s t o t h e c o n c l u s i o n s
t h a t a l a r g e p r o p o r t i o n o f t h e w o r k e r s do n o t u s e t h e
narrow ly t e c h n ic a l t r a i n i n g p ro v id ed i n h ig h sch o o l
b u t w ould p r o f i t from b r o a d l y fu n d a m e n ta l b u s i n e s s
p r e p a r a t i o n , t h a t i s a g e n e r a l know ledge o f b u s i n e s s
p r i n c i p l e s and p r o c e d u r e s . H
The n e e d f o r l e s s
s p e c i a l i z a t i o n and more g e n e r a l
e d u c a tio n i n v o c a tio n a l ed u catio n i s
still
f u r th e r borne
o u t by a s tu d y o f o u r c h an g in g o c c u p a ti o n a l l i f e .
There
was a t i m e when o n l y o n e p e r s o n i n f o r t y was en g ag e d i n
b u sin e ss endeavors,
th e g re a t m a jo rity of w orkers bein g
em ployed i n a g r i c u l t u r a l p u r s u i t s .
S ince th e n ,
the
o c c u p a t i o n a l p i c t u r e h a s u n d e rg o n e am azing c h an g e s.
A g r i c u l t u r a l em ploym ent h a s s t e a d i l y d e c r e a s e d ,
in d u stria l
^ Loc* c i t .
11
F r e d e r ic k J . W eersing, R e o rg a n iz a tio n of
C o m m e rc ia l E d u c a t i o n i n t h e P u b l i c High S c h o o l , o p . c i t .
p. 1 6 5 .
39
employment i n c r e a s e d ,
and b u s i n e s s em ploym ent s t e a d i l y
i n c r e a s e d u n t i l m ore t h a n 40 p e r c e n t o f o u r p o p u l a t i o n
is
engaged i n b u s i n e s s to d a y .
fro m 1920 t o
1929,
Even d u r i n g t h e p e r i o d
o v e r 5 ,2 0 0 ,0 0 0 w orkers s h i f t e d
from
o c c u p a t i o n s t h a t o f f e r e d f e w e r employm ent o p p o r t u n i t i e s
to
those w ith b e t t e r p ro sp e c ts.
By 1 9 2 9 ,
over h a lf a
m i l l i o n w o r k e r s c o u l d n o t m ake t h i s c h a n g e b e c a u s e t h e i r
t r a i n i n g had b e e n l i m i t e d
U nits
II,
III,
to to o narrow a f i e l d .
and V II,
lik ed
l e a s t by t h e s t u d e n t s ,
a re th e v e ry ones w hich broaden th e scope o f i n tr o d u c to r y
bu sin ess tr a in in g .
In ste ad of sh o rten in g ,
the teach in g of th e s e u n its ,
lo g ic al,
it
o r n eg lectin g
a s would a t f i r s t
seem
w ould b e w e l l t o g i v e i n t e n s i v e s t u d y t o t h e
p ro b le m o f m ak in g them more r e a l i s t i c ,
more a p a r t o f t h e
s tu d e n t's p re se n t ex p erien ces.
t r o u b l e may l i e w i t h t h e c o n t e n t ,
experiences o ffe re d ,
due to d i s i n t e r e s t
more v i t a l ,
and
The
t h e m e th o d s used', t h e
th e lack of c o n tin u ity ,
o r i t may b e
of c e rta in teach ers.
Too m uch a t t e n t i o n c a n n o t b e p a i d t o t h e s e l e c t i o n
of a teach in g s t a f f
in o b jec tiv e s,
i n a c o u r s e w h ic h so n e a r l y r e s e m b l e s ,
a core course.
B lackstone says:
L e t t h e h i g h s c h o o l p r i n c i p a l s e l e c t a n a l e r t and
c a p a b l e y o u n g t e a c h e r a n d t e l l him t h a t n e x t y e a r h e
w i l l be asked to s t a r t te a c h in g one o f th e s e v i t a l l y
needed s u b j e c t s .
G i v e him a y e a r t o b r u s h up o n i t ,
40
e n c o u r a g e s Mm t o g o t o summer s c h o o l t o l e a r n w h a t h e
c a n a b o u t i t , a n d t h e n s t a r t him o f f .
He may n o t d o
a n o u t s t a n d i n g jo b t h e f i r s t y e a r , b u t he w i l l l e a r n
a n enorm ous amount a b o u t t h e s u b j e c t .
The s e c o n d y e a r
M s t e a c h i n g w i l l b e b e t t e r , and b e f o r e lo n g t h e
s u b j e c t w i l l be g o in g forw ard w ith v ig o r and e f f e c t i v e ­
n e s s . 12
” There i s
e n te r the l i s t
a tendency f o r b u s in e s s e d u c a tio n to
of co re or co n stan t su b je c ts of the
c u r r i c u l u m - ” 1^
T r a i n i n g i n econom ic c i t i z e n s M p i s e q u a l l y a s
Im p o rta n t as academ ic t r a i n i n g . . .
I t i s som etim es
s u g g e s t e d t h a t econom ic c i t i z e n s M p b e t a u g h t i n t h e
s o c ia l sc ie n c e departm ent.
I f th e s o c ia l scien ce
te a c h e r i s q u a l i f i e d to handle th e s u b je c t e f f e c t i v e l y
o r can le a r n to h an d le i t e f f e c t i v e l y , th a t s o lu tio n
may b e a c c e p t e d .
I t i s , h o w e v e r, a moot q u e s t i o n
w h e th er t h e com m ercial te a c h e r o r th e s o c i a l s c ie n c e
t e a c h e r i s t h e b e t t e r eq uipped f o r su c h t e a c h i n g .
I f th e tr a in in g o f th e s o c ia l scien ce tea ch e r is
c h i e f l y a l o n g t h e l i n e s o f h i s t o r y , c i v i c s , and
p o l i t i c s , w i t h a s m a t t e r i n g o f econom ics ( a s i s o f t e n
t h e c a s e ) , he i s p e rh a p s l e s s w e l l t r a i n e d f o r t h e jo b
t h a n i s t h e c o m m e r c i a l t e a c h e r who h a s b e e n r e q u i r e d
t o t a k e c o u r s e s i n f i n a n c e s , e co n o m ics, and b u s i n e s s
o rg an izatio n .
W hich d e p a r t m e n t t e a c h e s econom ic
c itiz e n s M p does n o t m atter; th e im p ortant th in g i s
t h a t i t b e t a u g h t , and w e ll t a u g h t * ^
Tonne p o i n t s o u t :
The s o c i a l - b u s i n e s s s u b j e c t s m u s t b e j u s t i f i e d ,
because of th e i r d o u b tfu l a llia n c e w ith te c h n ic a l
12
B lackstone,
op.
c i t . « pp.
not
18-19*
^ E a r l G-. B l a c k s t o n e , “ T o d a y ’ s P r o b l e m s i n B u s i n e s s
E d u c a t i o n , " The N a t i o n ’ s S c h o o l s . A u g u s t, 1940, p p . 34-5*
I b i d . . pp. 21-2.
41
b u s in e s s s u b j e c t s b u t r a t h e r b ecau se they can c o n t r i ­
b u te to th e seco n d ary school s tu d e n t a g r e a t e r
u n d e r s t a n d i n g o f t h e econom ic s t r u c t u r e o f s o c i e t y .
U n le s s t h e y do t h i s , t h e s e s u b j e c t s s h o u l d b e
e l i m i n a t e d from t h e c u r r i c u lu m , f o r i t i s unw ise to
r e ta in courses under f a ls e purposes. ^
"B usiness e d u c a tio n i s r e la te d
catio n *
T his c h a r a c t e r i s t i c
ju stifie s
to every type of edu­
its
h ig h p lac e in
16
th e se c o n d a ry s c h o o l and even i n th e c o l l e g e s .
U n i t IV s e e m s w e l l l i k e d b y t h e s t u d e n t s ,
c e n t o f them b e i n g i n f a v o r o f i t .
88 p e r
T his u n i t co n ce rn s
i t s e l f w i t h R e q u i r e m e n t s f o r S u c c e s s i n B u s in e s s * 1 and
d e a l s w ith su c h t h i n g s as p e r s o n a l i t y developm ent and
e tiq u ette.
S t u d i e s made by W e e r s i n g
17
show t h a t b y f a r t h e
g r e a t e r number o f c o m m e rc ia l jo b s r e q u i r e a h i g h s t a n d a r d
of perso n al q u a litie s ,
is
r a th e r th an s p e c if ic
sk ills.
T his
c o r r o b o r a t e d a s f o l lo w s by B la c k s to n e :
B u s in e s s e d u c a t i o n h as d one a good jo b o f t r a i n i n g
in i t s tech n iq u es.
I t i s seldom c r i t i c i z e d on t h e
grounds t h a t p u p i l s cannot ty p e , ta k e sh o rth a n d o r
keep re c o rd s .
T he c r i t i c i s m s , a r e , i n s t e a d , t h a t
p u p i l s l a c k g e n e r a l k n o w l e d g e o f how b u s i n e s s o p e r a t e s
(o c c u p a tio n a l i n t e l l i g e n c e ) , th a t p u p ils a re lack in g
i n c e r t a i n im p o r ta n t b u s in e s s q u a l i t i e s and t r a i t s ,
t h a t th e y a r e u n t r a i n e d i n b u s i n e s s b e h a v i o r , m anners
a n d e t i q u e t t e , a n d t h a t t h e y a r e w e ak i n t h e
T o n n e, oj). c i t * . p p . 2 3 - 4 .
I b i a . , p . 24.
17
F r e d e r ic k J . W eersing, R e o rg a n iz a tio n o f
C om m ercial E d u c a t i o n i n t h e P u b l i c High S c h o o l , o p . c i t
p . 1& 5'
42
fu n d am en tals of
a rith m etic.
E n g lish ,
sp ellin g ,
p e n m a n s h ip , and
E v e n a f t e r y e a r s o f c o m p l a i n t s b y b u s i n e s s m en,
e d u c a t o r s s t i l l seem t o t h i n k t h a t t r a i t s c a n be
d e v e l o p e d i n d i r e c t l y by p r o v i d i n g a t e a c h e r o f
e x c e l l e n t p e r s o n a l i t y f o r t h e p u p i l s t o i m i t a t e and
t h a t b e h a v i o r p a t t e r n s c a n b e b u i l t by p r e c e p t a n d
p reach m en t.
I n d i r e c t m ethods o f t h a t k in d w o u ld n 't
g e t f a r in th e teach in g of ty p e w ritin g ; n e ith e r w ill
th ey succeed i n d e v elo p in g t r a i t s .
W h at b u s i n e s s w a n t s i s o c c u p a t i o n a l i n t e l l i g e n c e ,
d e s i r a b l e t r a i t s , know ledge o f b u s i n e s s m anners and
a d e q u a te t e c h n i q u e s , p l u s sound f u n d a m e n ta ls .
P rovid e
t h e s e a n d b u s i n e s s w i l l s n a p up t h e g r a d u a t e s .
Many b u s i n e s s men s a y , " G i v e me a b r i g h t , a l e r t ,
i n t e l l i g e n t and p e r s o n a b l e y o u n g s t e r and I d o n ' t c a r e
i f he has had sa le s m a n s h ip o r n o t.
I ' l l te a c h i t to
h im ."
W hat t h e y m e a n , e v e n i f t h e y d o n o t know i t ,
i s th a t such a y o u n g ster w i l l e a s ily le a rn s e llin g o r
an y th in g e ls e .
Ask t h e n i f t h e y p r e f e r s u c h a
y o u n g s te r, w ith o u t t r a i n i n g i n s e l l i n g , to a b r ig h t,
a l e r t , i n t e l l i g e n t , and p e r s o n a b l e y o u n g s t e r w i t h
t r a i n i n g i n s e l l i n g a n d s e e w h i c h t h e y c h o o s e . 18
If
credence i s
to be given sta te m e n ts such as th e s e ,
i t w o u l d se em t h a t U n i t I V s h o u l d b e o f g r e a t i m p o r t a n c e
i n t h e c o u r s e , and m ig h t w e l l b e em p h asized t h r o u g h o u t.
The s t u d e n t s d e s i r e i t ,
teachers
th at
sta te
th at i t
b u s in e s s sa y s th e y need i t ,
i s v a l u a b l e , and i t
the
i s a su b ject
can e a s ily be v i t a l i z e d .
S in c e p e r s o n a l i t y developm ent form s a l a r g e p a r t
of th is u n it,
it
i s w e l l t o i n c l u d e h e r e o n e o r two
E a r l G. B l a c k s t o n e , " T o d a y ' s P r o b l e m i n B u s i n e s s
M u c a t i o n , " o p . c i t . , pp* 3 4 - 5 .
4-3
references
u n it,
t h a t f u r t h e r em phasize th e im p o rta n c e o f t h i s
a s w e l l a s f u r n i s h some i m p o r t a n t d e f i n i t i o n s o f
p e r s o n a l i t y and c h a r a c t e r .
Thorpe s t a t e s
th at:
As a r u l e , p s y c h o l o g i s t s who r e g a r d p e r s o n a l i t y a s
a sum t o t a l o f a l l p e r s o n a l a t t r i b u t e s t e n d t o s p e a k
o f “C h a r a c t e r " a s o n e p h a s e o r c o m p o n e n t o f t h a t
co m p osite.
I n s h o r t , p e r s o n a l i t y i s th e b r o a d e r term
in c lu d in g c h a r a c t e r as one o f i t s a s p e c ts .
I t w i l l be
n o ticed in p sy c h o lo g ic a l l i t e r a t u r e th a t c h a ra c te r is
m ost o f t e n re g a rd e d a s hav in g r e f e r e n c e to an
i n d i v i d u a l 's b e h a v io r as r e la te d to law s, s o c ia l
c o n v e n t i o n s , a n d m o r a l c o n s i d e r a t i o n s - 3-9
I n a n o t h e r r e f e r e n c e Thorpe s t a t e s :
E d u c a t o r s a n d s t u d e n t s o f hum an n a t u r e a r e c o m i n g
to r e a l i z e t h a t c h a r a c t e r and p e r s o n a l i t y a r e d e te rm in e d
p r i m a r i l y by an i n d i v i d u a l ' s a t t i t u d e s , c o n v i c t i o n s ,
d i s p o s i t i o n s t o b e h a v e , and o t h e r s u c h d r i v e s .
T hey a r e
becom ing a w a re t h a t c h i l d t r a i n i n g and e d u c a t i o n i n
g e n e r a l m ust be concerned w i t h t h e developm ent o f th e
r i g h t k in d o f b e l i e f s and a t t i t u d e s .
T hey s e e t h e
f a l l a c y of a tte m p tin g to edu cate th e i n t e l l e c t as such
w i t h o u t f o u n d i n g i t upon d e s i r a b l e m o r a l and s o c i a l
co n v ictio n s.
L i k e w i s e , i n t e l l i g e n t a d u l t s who d e s i r e
a w holesom e p e r s o n a l i t y m ust
s e e k t o m ak e s u c h
c o n v i c t i o n s t h e i r way o f l i f e . 20
U nit V (T ry o u ts i n B u sin e ss T ra in in g C ourses) has
a v e r y h i g h r a t i n g * w i t h t h e s t u d e n t s and t e a c h e r s .
is
a danger,
h o w e v e r , t h a t t h e m e t h o d s o f t e a c h i n g may
make t h e s u b j e c t s t o o s p e c i a l i z e d
IQ
There
and d e f e a t t h e e x p l o r a t o r y
L ouis P. T horpe, P s y c h o lo g ic a l F o u n d a tio n s of
P e r s o n a l i t y (New Y o r k :
M c G r a w - H i l l Book C o m p an y , I n c . ,
1936), pp. 8 -9 .
20
/
L o u is P . T h o r p e , P e r s o n a l i t y and L i f e (London:
L o n g m a n s , G r e e n a n d C om p an y , 1 9 ^ 1 ) , p . 2 9 .
44
and i n f o r m a t i o n a l p u r p o s e f o r w h ic h th e y w ere i n te n d e d .
Two r e f e r e n c e s
bookkeeping,
from W e e rs in g c o n c e r n in g t h e t e a c h i n g o f
se em t o i l l u s t r a t e
t h e p r o p e r way t o k e e p
t h e s e s u b j e c t s from b e in g ta u g h t a s s k i l l s
r a t h e r th an
as g e n e ra l ed u catio n :
I t seem s c l e a r t h a t i f e l e m e n t a r y b o o k k e e p in g i s
t a u g h t i n s u c h a way a s t o g i v e t h e s t u d e n t a w i d e
k n o w le d g e o f b u s i n e s s o r g a n i z a t i o n and o f t h e
f u n d a m e n ta l p r i n c i p l e s o f b u s i n e s s m ethods as a p p l i e d
to any b u s in e s s w h a ts o e v e r, th e n e le m e n tary book­
k e e p in g has l a r g e and im p o rta n t v a lu e s f o r alm o st
every s tu d e n t in every cu rricu lu m .
On t h e o t h e r h a n d ,
i f e le m e n ta ry bookkeeping i s l a r g e l y a m a tte r of d r i l l
i n " s e t s and e x e r c i s e s , " th e n I t i s d o u b t f u l w h eth er
i t h a s a n y l a r g e v a l u e s e x c e p t f o r t h o s e s t u d e n t s who
e x p e c t t o become b o o k k e e p e r s . 2 1
H ig h ly s p e c i a l i z e d b o o k k e e p i n g seems t o b e r e q u i r e d
by o n l y a s m a l l g ro u p of w o r k e r s , and t h e s e a r e o l d e r
and more e x p e r i e n c e d t h a n a n y o t h e r g ro u p o f c o m m e r c ia l
w o r k e r s f o u n d , s o t h a t h i g h s c h o o l g r a d u a t e s would
r a r e l y b e s e l e c t e d f o r t h e s e p o s i t i o n s w i t h o u t som e
p re lim in a ry experience.
T his s u g g e s ts t h a t th e
bookkeeping c o u rs e as c o n v e n tio n a lly ta u g h t should
c o n t a i n m ore m a t e r i a l s r e l a t i n g t o o r d i n a r y b u s i n e s s
p r o c e d u r e s and p r o b a b l y l e s s p r a c t i c e i n d o u b l e - e n t r y
bookkeeping.
T h is c o u rs e should have a r i c h s u b j e c t
m a tte r c o n te n t, b u ild in g a fo u n d atio n fo r f u tu r e study
and p r o m o tio n r a t h e r t h a n p r e p a r a t i o n f o r im m e d ia te
e m p l o y m e n t i n b o o k k e e p i n g p o s i t i o n s . 22
S ix ty -fo u r p er cent of th e stu d en ts
expressed a
1 F r e d e r i c k J . W e e r a i n g , "W ha t S h o u l d h e t h e
R e l a t i v e Ita p h a s is on V o c a t i o n a l and N o n - V o c a tio n a l S u b j e c t s
i n t h e B u s i n e s s C u r r i c u l u m ? " ojd. c i t e « p* 3^9*
22
F r e d e r ic k J . W eersing, R e o rg a n lz a tio n o f
C o m m e r c i a l E d u c a t i o n JLn t h e P u b l i c H i g h S c h o o l , o p . c i t .
45
l i k i n g f o r U n i t VI ( S t u d y o f a n I n d u s t r i a l O c c u p a t i o n ) ,
and i t
rates
preference.
a b o u t h a l f - w a y down t h e l i s t o f u n i t s i n
A num ber o f y e a r s ago when i n t r o d u c t i o n t o
b u sin e ss s u b je c ts began to appear i n th e cu rricu lu m ,
was c u s t o m a r y t o
a ll
study th e s o -c a lle d
t h e m o r e common o f f i c e j o b s ,
else.
The e a r l y
it
q u a lific a tio n s of
and p r a c t i c a l l y n o t h i n g
t e x t s d evo ted one c h a p te r ,
more o r l e s s ,
to a m in u te d e s c r i p t i o n o f each of th e s e o c c u p a tio n s .
G radually th e tendency has s h if te d ,
shown,
as has been
to p l a c e em phasis on th e o r g a n i z a t i o n o f th e
b u sin e ss w o rld ,
and t h e b ackground o f b u s i n e s s .
long s i n c e been r e a l i z e d
of b u sin ess d ic ta te s
a d ap t th em selv es to
It
has
t h a t th e r a p i d l y changing n a tu r e
t h a t young p e o p l e be t r a i n e d
to
t h e changing n a t u r e of b u s i n e s s ;
th at
t h e r e b e a " f r e e i n g o f a c t i v i t y .*1
A v o c a t i o n m eans n o th in g b u t su c h a d i r e c t i o n of
l i f e a c t i v i t i e s a s r e n d e r s them p e r c e p t i b l y s i g n i ­
f i c a n t to a p e rs o n , because o f th e consequences they
a c c o m p lish , and a l s o u s e f u l to h is a s s o c i a t e s . .
We m u s t a v o i d n o t o n l y l i m i t a t i o n o f c o n c e p t i o n t o
t h e o c c u p a tio n s w here Im m e d ia te ly t a n g i b l e com m odities
a re produced, b u t a ls o th e n o tio n th a t v o c atio n s a re
d i s t r i b u t e d i n an e x c l u s i v e way, one and o n ly one to
each person . . .
No o n e i s j u s t a n a r t i s t a n d
n othing e ls e . . .
He m u s t , a t some p e r i o d o f h i s
l i f e , b e a m em b er o f a f a m i l y ; h e m u s t h a v e f r i e n d s
2*5
D ew ey , 0£». c i t . , p . 3 5 8 .
46
and c o m p a n io n s ; h e m ust e i t h e r s u p p o r t h i m s e l f o r b e
s u p p o r te d by o t h e r s , and t h u s he h a s a b u s i n e s s
career . . .
E d u c a tio n t h r o u g h o c c u p a tio n s c o n s e q u e n tly com bines
w i t h i n i t s e l f m ore o f t h e f a c t o r s c o n d u c iv e to l e a r n ­
i n g t h a n a n y o t h e r m ethod . . .
In s h o r t, an
o c c u p a tio n , p u rsu e d under c o n d itio n s w here th e
r e a l i z a t i o n o f th e a c t i v i t y r a t h e r th a n m erely th e
e x t e r n a l p r o d u c t i s t h e aim , f u l f i l l s t h e r e q u ir e m e n ts
w h i c h w e r e l a i d d own i n c o n n e c t i o n w i t h t h e d i s c u s s i o n
of aim s, i n t e r e s t s , and t h in k i n g . . .
No c l a s s i f i c a t i o n , no s e l e c t i o n a n d a r r a n g e m e n t o f
f a c t s , w h ic h i s c o n s c i o u s l y worked o u t f o r p u r e l y
a b s t r a c t e n d s , can e v e r com pare i n s o l i d i t y o r
e f f e c tiv e n e s s w ith th a t k n it under th e s t r e s s of an
o c c u p a tio n ; i n com parison t h e form er s o r t i s fo rm a l,
s u p e r f i c i a l , and c o ld . . .
The o n l y t r a i n i n g f o r
o ccu p atio n s i s tr a in in g th ro u g h o ccu p a tio n s. ^
U n f o r t u n a t e l y c o m m e r c i a l e d u c a t i o n h a s come t o b e
c l a s s i f i e d as p rim a rily v o c a tio n a l ed u catio n .
It is
s t i l l th o u g h t o f as e x is tin g c h ie f ly f o r th e purpose
of t r a i n i n g boys and g i r l s f o r i n i t i a l b u s in e s s
p o s i t i o n s and p o s s i b l e job s e r i e s o f a p r o m o tio n a l
n atu re .
L i t t l e c o n s i d e r a ti o n has been g iv e n to th e
p o s s i b i l i t y t h a t a l l seco n d ary s c h o o l p u p i l s need
e d u c a t i o n f o r common b u s i n e s s a c t i v i t i e s m e t i n hom e,
s c h o o l , and s o c i a l s i t u a t i o n s , o r t o t h e p o s s i b i l i t y
t h a t a l l p u p i l s n e e d a t l e a s t a minimum d e g r e e o f
I n t e l l i g e n c e a b o u t t h e m a j o r econom ic p r o b l e m s w h ic h
f a c e A m erica to d a y and w h ic h w i l l b e f a c i n g o u r
g r a d u a t e s w h e n t h e y l§ § v e s c h o o l t o t a k e t h e i r p l a c e s
i n modern a d u l t l i f e . 5
K e e p in g i n m ind t h e o p i n i o n s o f t h e s e a u t h o r i t i e s ,
it
seems w e l l t o c a u t i o n a g a i n s t t h e d a n g e r o f t o o much
24
25
I b i d . . p p . 3 5 9 -6 .1 .
E a r l G-. B l a c k s t o n e , ^ R e m o d e l i n g Y o u r C o m m e r c i a l
D e p a r t m e n t , tf 0£ . c l t . , p . 17*
47
s p e c i a l i z a t i o n by d e a l i n g s p e c i f i c a l l y w i t h o c c u p a t i o n s ,
per se.
S ince stu d e n ts
after life
ra r e ly fo llo w
th e o ccu p atio n in
t h a t th e y have s tu d ie d i n sc h o o l,
and s i n c e
o c c u p a tio n s change so r a p i d l y i n th e w orld o f.w o rk ,
seems w e l l t o i n s i s t
it
t h a t t h e s t u d y o f o c c u p a t i o n s b e made
on th e b a s i s o f l a r g e f a m i li e s o f v o c a tio n s having s i m i l a r
ch aracteristics
o ccu p atio n s,
r a t h e r th a n on t h e b a s i s o f i n d i v i d u a l
s u c h a s tf o f f i c e b o y ? ”
Such d e ta il e d
study i s
th e ta s k of s p e c ia liz e d v o c a tio n a l c o u rse s.
S t u d e n t s 1 c r i t i c i s m s of tim e a llo tm e n t o f u n i t s of
course.
S tu d en ts*
p r e f e r e n c e s f o r h aving u n i t s of th e
course sh o rten ed o r lengthened c o r r e la te s
u n its
they d i s l i k e d
and l ik e d .
h ig h ly w ith th e
The s a m e h a s t y c o n c l u s i o n s
m i g h t w r o n g l y b e d r a w n f r o m a s t u d y o f T a b l e V, a s m i g h t
b e d ra w n fro m T a b l e IV, p a g e 33 > i f
th e o b je c tiv e s of th e
c o u rs e w ere n o t s t u d i e d .
S t u d e n t s a r e n o t to o good
judges of th e s e f a c t o r s .
However,
arg u m en ts and c o n c l u s i o n s
sh o u ld r e s u l t from a s tu d y o f
t h e same t h o u g h t f u l
T a b l e V a s f r o m T a b l e I V , p a g e 33» I n t h e l i g h t o f t h e
above r e f e r e n c e s
to
e x p e r t judgm ent.
Teachers * p re fe re n c e s f o r
u n its of th e c o u rse .
tim e a llo tm e n t i n v a r io u s
T a b l e VI, p a g e 4 9 ,
rev eals
tim e a l l o t m e n t f o r each u n i t o f th e c o u rs e as i t
th a t the
i s now
48
TABLE Iv
STUDENTS* CRITICISMS OF TIME ALLOTMENT OF UNITS OF COURSE
i
-
*-<
O TO
U
*8
<D <D
Too
long
Unit I
Too
About
short rig h t
Too
long
Unit I I
About
Too
short rig h t
School
3 +»
TO
Number 1
38
8
3
27
8
Number 2
35
2
3
30
5
Number 3
Teacher A
48
18
3
27
20
Teacher B
59
15
1
43
not y et covered
Number 4
30
not y et covered
Number 5
119
Number 6
Teacher A
44
Teacher B
33
7
3
4
3
Too
long
26
10
30
8
25
17
Unit I I I
Too
About
short righ t
1
Too
long
Unit 17
Too
About
short rig h t
27
5
9
24
27
1
8
26
3
28
7
18
23
20
7
32
3
21
35
9
2
19
5
5
20
3
9
18
Too
long
4
Unit 7
Too
About
short righ t
Too
long
Unit 71
Too
About
short rig h t
Too
long
Unit 711
Too
About
short rig h t
21
13
3
10
25
5
7
28
4
1
30
8
3
27
18
15
8
25
16
7
25
2
25
32
8
20
31
12
10
37
22
8
6
3
21
not y et covered
6
27
27
13
99
25
8
86
24
8
87
5
21
93
10
50
59
9
21
89
14
23
82
1
43
6
3
35
6
5
33
1
11
32
1
23
20
3
5
36
6
3
35
3
27
2
5
26
6
3
24
2
10
21
1
13
19
4
4
25
4
7
22
3
8
1
3
7
1
10
1
\
Number 7
11
2
Number 8
* 95
11
T otals
512
66
Percentage
14$
9
2
7
77
12
34
382
89
7$
79$
20$
9
2
1
8
5
78
24
3
68
2
22
71
5
36
54
30
334
122
36
354
29
132
351
27
227
258
7$
73$
23$
7$
70$
6$
26$
68$
5$
44$
51$
10
not yet covered
19
10
66
53
72
85
66
331
13$
17$
17$
14$
292
70$
69$
TABLE V I
TEACHERS* PREFERENCES FOR TIME ALLOTMENT IN VARIOUS UNITS
OF THE COURSE
Number of weeks
U n its
Present
course
o f study
I
1
II
3-4
III
7-8
IV
4
V
7
VI
8
VII
6
Recommended change
1
2
13
2
3
2
1
3
7
4
3
9
3
5
6
7
8
9
10
2
3
2
3
1
8
2
No
answer
Consensus
1
1
1
3
7
1
1
4
8
3
4
1
7-8
6
1
2
8
2
3
2
2
9
1
6
vo
50
o rg a n iz e d i s
sa tis fa c to ry
Two s e m e s t e r s a r e ,
to th e m a jo r ity o f t e a c h e r s .
th e r e f o r e , p re fe rre d f o r th e c o u rse.
T each ers * p r e f e r e n c e s f o r a l l o c a t i o n o f o r d e r o f
u n its of th e c o u rs e *
u n its
T he p r e s e n t o r d e r f o r a l l o c a t i o n o f
o f th e c o u r s e i s p r e f e r r e d by a m a j o r i t y o f th e
- te a c h e rs,
a c c o rd in g t o T a b le V II.
H o w ev er, i t m u s t b e
p o in te d o u t t h a t a re v ie w o f th e c o n te n t o f e a c h u n i t m ig h t
w e l l b e m ade t o b e s u r e o f a c o n t i n u i t y o f e x p e r i e n c e ,
w ith o u t w h ic h l e a r n i n g i s
d iffic u lt.
To ’’l e a r n f r o m e x p e r i e n c e ” i s t o m ak e a b a c k w a r d
a n d f o r w a r d c o n n e c t i o n b e t w e e n w h a t we d o t o t h i n g s
a n d w h a t we e n j o y o r s u f f e r f r o m t h i n g s i n c o n s e q u e n c e .
U nder s u c h c o n d i t i o n s , d o in g becom es a t r y i n g ; a n
e x p e rim e n t w i t h t h e w o rld t o f i n d o u t w hat i t i s l i k e ;
.t h e . u n d e r g o i n g b e c o m e s i n s t r u c t i o n — d i s c o v e r y o f t h e
c o n n e c tio n o f th in g s • • .
Two c o n c l u s i o n s i m p o r t a n t f o r e d u c a t i o n f o l l o w .
(1) E x p e rie n c e i s p r im a r ily an a c t iv e - p a s s i v e a f f a i r ;
i t i s n o t p rim a rily c o g n itiv e .
But (2 ) th e m ea su re of
th e v a lu e o f an e x p e rie n c e l i e s i n th e p e rc e p tio n of
r e l a t i o n s h i p s o r c o n t i n u i t i e s to w h ic h i t le a d s u p .2°
Types o f c l a s s a c t i v i t y
X, p a g e s 52 t o
a c tiv ity
used.
T a b le s V I I I ,
55 i n c l u s i v e , d e a l w i t h t h e t y p e s o f c l a s s
( b e t t e r c a l l e d m eth o d ) u s e d i n t h e c o u r s e .
T ab le V III i n d i c a t e s
th e s tu d e n ts ’ p re fe re n c e s ,
T a b l e IX
t h e t e a c h e r s ’ p r e f e r e n c e s , and T a b le X co m p ares t h e
c r itic is m s o f th e
26
IX , a n d
D ew ey,
tw o g r o u p s .
o jd .
c i t . .
p.
164.
TABLE V II
TEACHERS’ PREFERENCES FOR ALLOCATION OF ORDER OF UNITS
OF THE COURSE
U n its
Present
order
I
Recommended order
I
II
III
IV
V
VI
VII
15
Consensus
1
1
1
1
2 or 3
1
1
3
1
4 or 5
1
5 or 6
II
7
1
3
III
6
6
1
1
IV
5
3
5
2
V
1
2
5
6
1
2
3
9
1
6
1
13
7
VI
VII
1
1
1
3
No
answer
Ui
H
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O
V
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©
P
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an sw er
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4
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U1
ro
TABLE V I I I (c o n tin u e d )
STUDENTS' CRITICISMS O f TYPES O f CLASS ACTIVITY USED
Talks by
o u tsid ers
Good
Average
Poor
Good
Average
Good
Average
Poor
Good
Average
Poor
Teacher
ta lk s
Number o f
stu d e n ts
Studying
Newspapers
Magazines
Number 1
38
16
17
5
10
19
7
16
16
5
12
16
6
Number 2
Number 3
Teacher A
Teacher B
35
21
4
5
8
10
3
18
15
2
15
12
2
48
59
20
25
16
21
12
9
9
20
23
23
16
13
23
27
13
27
12
3
30
42
11
13
6
1
Number 4
30
5
18
7
3
14
13
5
11
13
7
14
8
Number 5
119
62
41
2
68
29
18
80
14
6
59
44
5
Number 6
Teacher A
Teacher B
44
33
23
15
17
15
3
23
21
15
6
4
5
39
26
5
7
9
12
11
Number 7
11
2
6
3
3
6
1
8
1
1
7
3
1
Number 8
95
62
26
7
23
33
39
67
23
4
62
21
10
T o ta ls
Percentage
27
27
No answer
512
Poor
School
O utlining
21
73
251
181
53
188
178
119
309
132
46
243
146
50
52 $
37$
11$
39$
37$
24$
63$
27$
10$
55$
34$
11$
TABLE IX
TEACHERS' CRITICISM OF TYPES OF CLASS ACTIVITY USED
Type o f a c t i v it y
Good
Number Per
cent
C lass d isc u ssio n
S o c ia liz e d a c t iv it y u t i l i z i n g
student committees
Q uestionable
Number
Per
cent
Poor
Number
Per
cent
No
answer
15
94
1
6
4
8
6
10
10
38
25
50
43
77
63
9
9 .
7
7
2
5
56
56
1
3
6
19
44
50
15
31
1
1
1
1
6
7
8
6
2
3
1°
67
2
14
3
19
1
94
86
73
1
1
4
6
7
27
1
7
1
1
O utlining
15
13
11
10
63
4
25
2
12
Motion p ic tu r e s
13
87
2
13
Making a notebook
12
75
3
19
Studying p u b lic a tio n s, magazines
14
88
2
12
Panel groups
In d iv id u a l rep orts
Group conferences
Problem method
Talks by the teach er
Q uestion and answer method
Talks by o u tsid e r s, or persons
from other c la s s e s
Dem onstrations, p la y s, s k i t s , etc*
Textbook study
Others:
T ests
F ie ld t r ip s
1
1
.
6
1
1
6
TABLE X
COMPARISON OF TEACHERS’ AND STUDENTS’ CRITICISM OF TYPES OF CLASS ACTIVITY USED
A c tiv ity
Per cent
considered
good
Teachers Students ,
Per cent
considered
average or
questionable
Teachers Students
C la ss d isc u ssio n
Student committees and group
conferences
*Panel groups
Ind ivid u al rep o rts
^Problem method
Talks by the teach er
^Question and answer
94
60
6
31
38
25
50
77
63
67
32
56
56
44
15
31
14
40
Talks by o u tsid ers
Dem onstrations, p la y s, s k it s
94
86
55
50
6
7
34
31
Textbook study
O utlining
Motion p ic tu r e s
Making a notebook
Studying m agazines, newspapers
**Library Research
73
63
87
75
88
33
39
74
68
52
40
48
27
25
13
19
12
55
37
21
25
37
44
41
**Tests
% ot l i s t e d on S tud en ts’ Check Sheet.
**Not l i s t e d on Teachers* Check Sheet.
36
63
46
27
Per cent
considered
poor
Teachers Students
9
6
19
6
8
6
19
7
12
6
28
18
10
11
19
12
24
5
7
11
16
11
ui
VJl
56
The t h r e e a c t i v i t i e s
( 1 ) m o tio n p i c t u r e s ,
ta lk s .
p r e f e r r e d by s t u d e n ts w ere
( 2 ) m a k in g a n o t e b o o k , a n d ( 3 ) t e a c h e r
The t h r e e a c t i v i t i e s
w o rk in g on c o m m itte e s ,
l e a s t p r e f e r r e d w e re (12)
( 1 3 ) s t u d y of. t h e t e x t b o o k , a n d
(14) h e a r in g c o m m itte e s.
The t h r e e a c t i v i t i e s
(l)
c la s s d isc u ssio n ,
p r e f e r r e d by t e a c h e r s w ere
( 2 ) t a l k s by o u t s i d e r s , and ( 3 )
s tu d y in g n e w s p a p e rs , m a g a z in e s , and p u b l i c a t i o n s .
th re e a c tiv itie s
le a st
h e a r in g c o m m itte e s,
T he
l ik e d w ere (13) p a n e l g ro u p s ,
(14)
( 1 5 ) m ak in g r e p o r t s t o c l a s s .
S tu d e n ts and te a c h e r s
on th e k in d s o f a c t i v i t i e s
seem t o a g r e e p r e t t y
t h a t a r e g o o d , b u t th e y do n o t
a g re e on th e o r d e r o f p r e f e r e n c e .
w as c o n s i d e r e d p o o r b y t h e m a j o r i t y
In c o n c lu sio n ,
la rg e ly
No o n e o f t h e a c t i v i t i e s
of e i t h e r g ro u p .
h e r e a g a in th e i n t e r p r e t e r m ust be
w arned n o t t o
le a n to o h e a v ily on c o ld , f a c t u a l f i g u r e s .
27
R e f e r e n c e t o Dewey
show s t h e s h o r t - s i g h t e d n e s s i n s u c h
p ro ced u re.
T he t r i n i t y o f s c h o o l t o p i c s i s s u b j e c t m a t t e r ,
m e th o d s , and a d m i n i s t r a t i o n o r g o v e rn m e n t.
M e th o d m e a n s t h a t a r r a n g e m e n t o f s u b j e c t m a t t e r
w h ic h m akes i t m o st e f f e c t i v e i n u s e .
N e v e r i s m e th o d
so m e th in g o u t s i d e o f t h e m a t e r i a l .
27 I b i d . , p p .
1 9 3-8
57
M e th o d i s n o t a n t i t h e t i c a l t o s u b j e c t m a t t e r ; i t
i s th e e f f e c t iv e d ir e c tio n o f s u b je c t m a tte r to
d e sire d r e s u lts .
M e th o d i n a n y c a s e i s b u t a n e f f e c t i v e
way o f e m p l o y i n g som e m a t e r i a l f o r som e e n d .
W h e re f l e x i b l e p e r s o n a l e x p e r i e n c e s a r e p r o m o t e d
by p r o v i d i n g a n e n v ir o n m e n t w h ic h c a l l s o u t d i r e c t e d
o c c u p a t i o n s i n w o rk a n d p l a y , t h e m e t h o d s a s c e r t a i n e d
w ill v ary w ith in d iv id u a ls - - f o r i t i s c e r ta in th a t each
i n d i v i d u a l h a s s o m e t h i n g c h a r a c t e r i s t i c i n h i s way o f
g o in g a t t h in g s .
The t e a c h e r ,
th e n , m ust b e v e ry c a r e f u l i n h is c h o ic e
and e f f e c t i v e a p p l i c a t i o n o f m eth o d .
h e lp fu l,
how ever,
in
T hese t a b l e s m ig h t b e
c h o o s i n g a b e t t e r l i k e d m e th o d w h e r e
m ore t h a n o n e c a n b e e a s i l y a d a p te d t o t h e s u b j e c t m a t t e r .
It is
p o ss ib le ,
to o ,
t h a t m eth o d s l i k e d b y s t u d e n t s i n o n e
s c h o o l may n o t b e l i k e d
be s u c c e s s fu l in
in a n o th e r sc h o o l.
One t e a c h e r may
t h e u s e o f c e r t a i n m e th o d s and n o t so
su c c e ss fu l in th e use o f o th e rs .
O v e rla p p in g o f s u b j e c t m a tte r w ith o t h e r c o u r s e s .
T a b l e XI a n d T a b l e X I I , p a g e s 58 t o 6 1 i n c l u s i v e , r e p o r t
th e s t u d e n t s 1 and t e a c h e r s '
la p p in g of u n its
f in d in g s c o n c e rn in g th e o v e r­
o f th e c o u rse w ith o th e r c o u rse s.
E v ery ­
d a y B u s in e s s was m e n tio n e d n i n e t y - s e v e n tim e s b y s t u d e n t s
and t e n
tim e s by t e a c h e r s .
E i g h t h and n i n t h g r a d e s o c i a l
s t u d i e s w ere m e n tio n e d e ig h te e n tim e s by s t u d e n t s and n o t
a t a l l by t e a c h e r s .
W h erein t h i s
o v e rla p p in g s p e c i f i c a ll y
r e v e a le d by th e d a ta b u t th e e v id e n c e i s
o ccu rs i s
so s t r o n g t h a t
not
TABLE X I
STUDENTS' REPORT, BY SCHOOL, ON SIM ILARITY OF BUSINESS GUIDANCE
WITH OTHER COURSES TACT
School
Number 1
U nit
overlapped
II
IV
S im ilar work taken in
Subject
S o c ia l L iving
E&glish
Grade
B9-A9
B10-A10
Worthwhile to
repeat?
Yes
No
1
9
2
Number 2
III
IV
VI
VI
Everyday B u siness
Everyday B usiness
Everyday B usiness
S o c ia l L iving
B9-A9
B9-A9
B9-A9
A9
1
1
1
1
Number 3
I
II
II
III
III
IV
IV
IV
IV
VI
VI
VII
E nglish
Everyday B usiness
S o c ia l Living
Everyday B usiness
E nglish
Everyday B usiness
C iv ics
E nglish
Science
Everyday B usin ess
Mathematics
S o c ia l L iving
BIO
B9
B9
A9
BIO
B9-A9
9
BIO
A9 & A10
B9-A9
9
A8
2
2
II
III
IV
IV
VI
VI
Everyday B usiness
Everyday B usiness
Everyday B usiness
Emergency Program
Everyday B usiness
Emergency Program
A9
B9-A9
B9-A9
A10
A9
A10
Number 4
3
1
1
1
13
2
2
4
2
2
1
2
1
1
1
2
2
2
1
4
ui
00
TABLE X I (c o n tin u e d )
STUDENTS’ BEPCET, BY SCHOOL, CM SIM ILARITY OP BUSINESS GUIDANCE
WITH OTHER COURSES TAKEN
School
Number 5
Number 6
U nit
overlapped
II
II
III
I?
jy
VI
VI
VI
VI
VII
VII
II
II
III
IV
VI
VI
VII
Number 7
None
Number 8
I
I
II
III
III
Sim ilar work taken in
Worthwhile to
repeat?
Yes
No
6
1
1
S3
5
4
10
1
1
13
1
15
6
1
3
3
1
Subject
Everyday B usiness
S o c ia l Living
Everyday B usiness
Everyday B usiness
E nglish
Everyday B usiness
General Mathematics
E nglish
S o c ia l Studies
S o c ia l S tudies
E nglish
Grade
B9-A9
A9
B9-A9
B9-A9
B10-A10
B9-A9
9
B10-A10
A8
B8-A8
BIO
Everyday B usiness
S o c ia l L iving
Everyday B usin ess
Everyday B usiness
Everyday B usiness
Mathematics
S o c ia l Living
B9-A9
8
B9-A9
B9-A9
B9-A9
9
8
1
1
3
3
7
3
1
High School O rientation
E nglish
Geography
Everyday B usiness
S o c ia l L iving
A9
BIO
B8
B9-A9
B9-A9
1
11
1
16
1
1
2
3
6
TABLE X I (c o n tin u e d )
STUDENTS1 REPOST, BY SCHOOL, ON SIM ILARITY OF BUSINESS GUIDANCE
WITH OTHER COURSES TAKEN
School
Number 8
Unit
overlapped
IV
IV
IV
VI
VI
VI
- VI
VII
VII
Sim ilar work taken in
Subject
Grade
Everyday B usiness
High School O rientation
E nglish
Everyday Business
High School O rientation
E nglish
Mathematics
High School O rientation
S o c ia l Living
B9-A9
A9
BIO
B9-A9
A9
BIO
A9
A9
B9-A9
Worthwhile to
repeat?
Yes
No
4
1
7
1
1
12
1
1
1
1
1
1
ON
o
TABLE X II
TEACHERS* FINDINGS CONCERNING OVERLAPPING OF UNITS
OF THE COURSE WITH OTHER COURSES
Unit
overlapped
I
Overlaps
Subject
O rientation E nglish
II
Everyday B u sin ess
II
Economic Geography
m
Everyday B usiness
Grade
An
advantage
10
1
9
1
10
9
4
IV
O rientation E n glish
10
3
71'
O rientation E nglish
10
3
9
1
VII
B usiness C iv ics
A
disadvantage
Suggestions for
overcoming
disadvantages
2
Omit where O rientation
E nglish taught
1
E lim inate one
1
Plan w ith E nglish
Department
G\
H
62
E v e r y d a y B u s i n e s s h a s so m e e l e m e n t s s i m i l a r t o B u s i n e s s
G u i d a n c e t h a t t e a c h e r s w o u ld d o w e l l t o f a m i l i a r i z e t h e m ­
s e l v e s w i t h t h e c o n t e n t o f th e E veryday B u s in e s s c o u r s e
a n d t h e S o c i a l S t u d i e s c o u r s e s b e f o r e m a k i n g up l e s s o n
p la n s;
and sh o u ld f u r t h e r c o n s u lt s t u d e n t s i n i n d i v i d u a l
c l a s s e s b e f o r e p r o c e e d i n g w i t h th en *
m e n t may i n d i c a t e t h a t i t
The t e a c h e r s *
i s w o rth w h ile to p e rm it th e
o v e r l a p i n som e c a s e s a n d u n w i s e i n o t h e r s .
fu l,
f o r in sta n c e ,
e x p o su re to
if
ju d g ­
th e stu d e n ts
I t i s d o u b t­
c a n h a v e t o o m u ch
E n g l i s h - - o v e r l a p p i n g t h e r e m ig h t b e b e n e f i c i a l ,
r a th e r th a n w a ste fu l*
F u r th e r stu d y o f th e s tu d e n ts '
is
r e p o r t o f o v e rla p p in g
sh o w n i n T a b l e X I I I w h e r e t h e s e p a r a t e u n i t s a r e
ta b u la te d .
re p e a tin g ,
S tu d e n ts '
o p in io n s as to th e d e s i r a b i l i t y o f
i n B u s i n e s s G u i d a n c e , w o rk a l r e a d y
stu d ie d i n
o t h e r c o u r s e s sh o w s t h a t o f t h e 2 5 7 who r e p o r t e d ^ o v e r l a p p i n g ,
80 p e r c e n t c o n s i d e r e d i t
d e s i r a b l e to r e p e a t th e w ork,
w h ile 20 p e r c e n t c o n s id e re d i t
u n d e sira b le .
The g r e a t e s t a m o u n t o f o v e r l a p p i n g w a s r e p o r t e d
u n i t V I b y 3 ° p e r c e n t o f t h e 2 5 7 who r e p o r t e d
N ext i n o r d e r w ere u n i t
c e n t;
u n it I ,
5 p e r c en t*
I V , 26 p e r c e n t ;
8 p e r c e n t;
u n it I I ,
o v e rla p p in g .
u n i t 1 1 1 ,2 4 p e r
7 p e r c e n t;
and u n i t V II,
No s t u d e n t r e p o r t e d u n i t V a s o v e r l a p p i n g ,
b e in g th e tr y o u t u n i t .
in
th is
TABUS X II I
STUDENTS' REPORT, BY UNITS, ON DESIRABILITY OF OVERLAPPING OF
BUSINESS GUIDANCE WITH OTHER COURSES
Overlapping
d e sira b le
I
II
III
U nits
IV
14
. 5$
12
5$
50
20$
No
7
3$
4
2$
T otal
81
8$
17
7$
Yes
V
VI
VII
58
23$
0
62
24$
9
3$
205
80$
13
5$
8
3$
0
16
6$
3
1$
52
20$
63
24$
66
26$
0
78
30$
12
5$
257
T otal
ON
\j 4
64
T he s t u d e n t s
o v e rw h e lm in g ly fa v o r e d
th e c a se o f ev ery u n i t .
re p e a tin g in
T w en ty -fo u r p e r c e n t fa v o re d r e ­
p e a t i n g t h e o v e r l a p p e d w o rk i n u n i t V I ; 2 3 p e r c e n t ,
IV ; 2 0 p e r c e n t ,
3 p e r c e n t,
u n it
III;
5 p e r c e n t,
u n it
u n i t s I and I I ;
and
u n it V II.
T h o s e who o p p o s e d r e p e a t i n g w o rk r e p o r t e d a s
fo llo w s :
6 p e r c e n t,
c e n t, u n its
u n i t V I;
5 p er c e n t,
I a n d IV ; 2 p e r c e n t ,
u n it I I ;
u n it I I I ,
3 per
and 1 p e r c e n t ,
u n it V II.
S t u d e n t s 1 and t e a c h e r s 1 re c o m m e n d atio n s f o r im p ro v in g
th e c o u rse .
to s t r e s s
The s t u d e n t s *
rec o m m e n d atio n s,
ite m s s u g g e s te d by o th e r p a r t s
T a b l e X IV , t e n d
o f th e check s h e e t.
A fe w new r e c o m m e n d a t i o n s a r e m a d e , h o w e v e r , som e o f th e m
n o t f e a s i b l e b u t on t h e w h o le w o r th c o n s i d e r a t i o n .
T he
fo llo w in g ite m s m e r it a t t e n t i o n :
22.
D e v o te m ore tim e to f i e l d
trip s
23-
A s s i g n m o r e hom ew ork
24.
P e r m i t m ore s t u d e n t p a r t i c i p a t i o n
25.
A s s i g n m o r e a c t u a l o f f i c e w o rk
33-
M ake t h e c o u r s e m o re i n t e r e s t i n g
36.
T each er sh o u ld
37.
F o llo w a m o re d e f i n i t e p l a n — to o m uch c o n f u s i o n
39-
G ra n t m ore p e r s o n a l i n t e r v i e w s f o r g u id a n c e
42.
N ot s o m uch h i s t o r y —m o re u p - t o - d a t e
e x p l a i n m ore f u l l y
65
TABLE X IV
STUDENTS' RECOMMENDATIONS FOR IMPROVING- THE COURSE
R ecom m ended i m p r o v e m e n t
8.
U n its
U n it I - I n tr o d u c tio n
U n i t I I - W o rld o f B u s i n e s s
U n it I I I - O r g a n iz a tio n o f B u sin e ss
W o r ld
U n i t IV - R e q u i r e m e n t s f o r S u c c e s s
i n B u sin e ss
U n it V - T ry o u ts i n B u sin e ss T r a in ­
in g C o u rses
U n it VI - S tu d y o f a n I n d u s t r i a l
O c c u p a tio n
A r i t h m e t i c R e v ie w
U n it V II - P r e s e n t S t a tu s o f
S o u th e rn C a li f o r n ia
E n tir e co u rse
9XO.
11.
12.
13*
14.
15.
16.
17.
18.
19.
20.
A c t i v i t i e s l i s t e d on check sh e e t
S tu d y o f th e te x tb o o k
G en eral c la s s d is c u s s io n
H u n tin g up m a t e r i a l i n t h e l i b r a r y
T e s ts
M a k in g a n o t e b o o k
M a k in g r e p o r t s t o t h e c l a s s
M o tio n p i c t u r e s
D e m o n stra tio n s , p la y s , s k i t s , e tc .
S tu d y in g n e w s p a p e rs , m ag a zin es
O u tlin in g
H e a rin g t a l k s by th e te a c h e r
H e a rin g t a l k s by o u t s i d e r s
21.
22.
23.
24.
25.
26.
27.
28.
29.
A c t i v i t i e s o r s u b .le c ts n o t l i s t e d
I n d i v i d u a l w ork
F ie ld t r i p s
Hom ework
S tu d e n t p a r t i c i p a t i o n
A c t u a l o f f i c e w ork
C la ss d i s c i p l i n e
W r i t t e n w ork
D e b a te s
Fane1 d isc u ssio n s
1.
2.
34.
5.
6.
7.
D e v o te
m ore t i m e
D e v o te
l e s s tim e
2
5
8
1
24
65
29
25
1
2
18
11
3
8
3
22
4
8
14
12
22
9
2
1
2
14
1
16
2
25
2
on check sh e e t
8
5
18
1
7
8
13
1
1
2
2
66
TABLE XIV ( c o n t i n u e d )
STUDENTS1 RECOMMENDATIONS FOR IMPROVING THE COURSE
D e v o te
m o re t i m e
Recom m ended i m p r o v e m e n t
3 0 . S p e llin g and v o c
3 1 . P e n m a n sh ip
3 2 . C o m m e rcia l E n g l i s h
33*
3^♦
35*
36.
37*
38.
39*
40.
41.
42.
43.
44.
45*
46.
47.
48*
49.
50.
51*
52.
53*
54.
55*
56.
57.
a
b
u
l
a
r
y
D ev o te
l e s s tim e
5
1
1
O th e r g e n e r a l re c o m m e n d a tio n s
Number
Make t h e c o u r s e m o re i n t e r e s t i n g
PE
Make t h e c o u r s e h a r d e r
3
Make t h e c o u r s e e a s i e r
1
T e a c h e r e x p l a i n m o re f u l l y
5
Few er s t a t i s t i c s
4
F o l l o w a m o re d e f i n i t e p l a n - t o o much
c o n fu sio n
3
M ore p e r s o n a l i n t e r v i e w s
3
G i v e m o re c h o i c e i n t o p i c s t o b e s t u d i e d
3
B e tte r w ith o u t a stu d e n t te a c h e r
2
N o t s o m uch h i s t o r y - m o re u p - t o - d a t e
2
R ead t h e te x tb o o k o u t lo u d and d i s c u s s
2
M ore m a t e r i a l s t o w o rk w i t h - S o u t h e r n
C a l i f o r n i a and O c c u p a tio n s u n i t s
2
U se w o rk o f f o r m e r s t u d e n t s a s r e f e r e n c e s
2
A d e f i n i t e a ssig n m e n t e v e ry day
1
G iv e a s s i g n m e n t s a h e a d
1
Have c o m m e rc ia l s t u d e n t s o n ly i n th e c o u r s e o t h e r s a r e n o t i n t e r e s t e d and h in d e r p r o g r e s s
1
T e a c h e r r e a d s t o o m uch o u t o f b o o k
1
M ore w o rk i n c l a s s
1
Have c l a s s o f f i c e r s
1
Make b o o k k e e p i n g m o re i n t e r e s t i n g
1
G i v e m o re a d v i c e o n c o l l e g e c o u r s e s
1
H ave t r y o u t u n i t f i r s t so t h a t r e s t o f
c o u rs e c a n be d e v o te d by s tu d e n t to h i s
sp e c ific In te r e s t
1
C l i p p i n g s a r e o f no v a lu e
1
P i c t u r e s i n n o te b o o k s a r e o f no v a l u e
1
U se w o r k b o o k s
1
T
67
44.
Make a v a i l a b l e m o r e m a t e r i a l s
t o w o rk w i t h - -
S o u th e rn C a l i f o r n i a and O c c u p a tio n s u n i t s
T e a c h e r s ' r e c o m m e n d a t i o n s , T a b l e XV, t e n d t o s t r e s s
fu n d a m e n ta ls a lr e a d y b e in g ta u g h t i n o th e r d e p a rtm e n ts .
T h i s may b e d u e t o i n e f f e c t i v e n e s s o f t h e o t h e r d e p a r t m e n t s ,
o r p r e f e r e n c e o f c o m m erc ial t e a c h e r s f o r te a c h in g s k i l l
su b je c ts,
is
o r o t h e r r e a s o n s n o t r e v e a le d by th e s tu d y .
e x c e e d in g ly d o u b tf u l th a t d r i l l ,
It
u n re la te d to th e
s u b j e c t m a t t e r c o n t e n t , w i l l m ak e s t u d e n t s a n y m o r e p r o ­
f i c i e n t i n th e fu n d a m e n ta ls th a n th e y a r e a t p r e s e n t .
In
t h e w ords o f B l a c k s t o n e :
E d u c a to rs h av e t r i e d b u s in e s s E n g lis h , b u s in e s s
a r i t h m e t i c , b u s i n e s s s p e l l i n g , and b u s i n e s s p e n m a n sh ip
f o r y e a r s b u t b u s i n e s s men c o m p l a i n a s l o u d l y a s t h e y
ever d id .
S o m e th in g b e t t e r h a s t o be p r o v id e d i f
p u p ils a r e to l e a r n t h e i r fu n d a m e n ta ls w e ll enough to
s a t i s f y f u t u r e e m p lo y e rs .2®
Some o f t h e i t e m s o n t h e t e a c h e r s ’ r e c o m m e n d a t i o n s ,
T a b l e XV, t h a t m i g h t b e g i v e n a t t e n t i o n a r e :
1.
T each ers
sh o u ld im p ro v e t h e i r
te c h n iq u e a s th e y
r e p e a t t h e co u rse*
3*
T ea ch e rs sh o u ld b u ild
up a f i l e
o f a d e q u a te
s u p p le m e n ta ry m a t e r i a l .
11.
po
M a r k e t i n g s h o u l d b e m oved t o t h e s e l l i n g
E a r l G-. B l a c k s t o n e ,
E d u c a t i o n , 11 o p . c l t . , p . 3 5 .
try o u t
" T o d a y 's F r o b l e m s i n B u s i n e s s
68
TABLE XV
TEACHERS* RECOMMENDATIONS FOR IMPROVING- THE COURSE
R ecom m ended i m p r o v e m e n t
Number
1 . T e a c h e rs s h o u ld Im p ro v e t h e i r te c h n iq u e s a s th e y
r e p e a t th e c o u rse
3
2 . M ore t i m e d e v o t e d t o m a t h e m a t i c s
3
3 . T e a c h e r s s h o u l d b u i l d up a f i l e o f a d e q u a t e
s u p p le m e n ta ry m a t e r i a l
2
4 . F i r s t s e m e s t e r i s t o o c ro w d e d i n c o n t e n t a n d
second se m e s te r to o t h i n
2
5* M ore t i m e d e v o t e d t o p e n m a n s h i p
2
6 . M ore t i m e d e v o t e d t o s p e l l i n g
2
7* M o re t i m e d e v o t e d t o g ram m ar
2
8 * P e n m a n s h i p , o n e o r tw o w e e k s , s h o u l d b e g i v e n a s a
p refa ce to try o u t u n its
1
9* A r i t h m e t i c r e v i e w s h o u l d b e t i e d i n w i t h t h e s k i l l s
In R e q u ire m e n ts f o r S u c c e ss
1
10. I n d i v i d u a l g u id a n c e c o n f e r e n c e s s h o u ld be e m p h a size d
i n O c c u p a tio n s u n i t
1
1 1 . M a r k e t i n g s h o u l d b e m oved t o t h e s e l l i n g t r y o u t a s
an in tro d u c tio n
1
12. A l t e r n a t e th e s tu d y o f O r g a n iz a tio n o f th e B u s in e s s
W o rld w i t h t h e t r y o u t u n i t s t o b r e a k m o n o to n y o f
fo rm er and f u r n is h I n tr o d u c tio n s to th e l a t t e r
1
1 3 . S p r e a d R e q u i r e m e n t s f o r S u c c e s s o u t among o t h e r u n i t s
1
14. B u s in e s s p e r s o n a l i t y sh o u ld be p lu g g e d I n c e s s a n t l y
1
15* O m it h i g h s c h o o l o r i e n t a t i o n i n s c h o o l s t e a c h i n g
o r i e n t a t i o n E n g l i s h an d s t r e s s c o m m erc ial d e p a r tm e n t
o rie n ta tio n in ste a d
1
1 6 . G iv e t h e S o u t h e r n C a l i f o r n i a u n i t b e f o r e B i l l
p r o g r a m s a r e m ade o u t
1
17* A n a l y z e B u s i n e s s o c c u p a t i o n s o n l y , b e c a u s e s t u d e n t s
have a n o p p o r tu n ity to a n a ly z e i n d u s t r i a l o c c u p a tio n s
in o r ie n ta tio n E n g lish .
T h is w i l l e l i m i n a t e
re p e titio n
1
1 8 . H ave e a c h s t u d e n t a n a l y z e a d i f f e r e n t b u s i n e s s
o c c u p a ti o n and r e p o r t o r a l l y t o c l a s s so t h a t a l l
have th e b e n e f i t o f 35 o r 40 a n a ly s e s
1
19* P o s t p o n e R e q u i r e m e n t s f o r S u c c e s s t o s e c o n d s e m e s t e r
and te a c h i n c o n n e c tio n w ith o c c u p a tio n a la n a ly s is
1
2 0 . C o m b in e s t u d y o f o c c u p a t i o n w i t h s t u d y o f S o u t h e r n
C a l i f o r n i a , c o n fin in g a n a ly s e s to S o u th e rn C a lif o r n ia
m ajo r i n d u s t r i e s
1
69
TABLE XV ( c o n t i n u e d )
TEACHERS1 RECOMMENDATIONS FOR IMPROVING- THE COURSE
Recom m ended i m p r o v e m e n t
Number
2 1 . Move t r y o u t u n i t t o s e c o n d s e m e s t e r
2 2 . Make u s e o f m o re E v e r y d a y B u s i n e s s b o o k s
2 3 . Do n o t s t r e s s v o c a t i o n a l v a l u e s (T h e y g e t e n o u g h
la te r)
2 4 . Do n o t o v e r e m p h a s i z e s t a t i s t i c a l k n o w l e d g e i n
u n i t s 2 and 7
2 5 . M ore e m p h a s i s o n e c o n o m ic c o n d i t i o n s a n d
p rin c ip le s
2 6 . S t u d e n t s who d o n o t l i k e m a k in g n o t e b o o k s o r
p r o j e c t s sh o u ld be a llo w e d to fo llo w d a i l y c l a s s
le sso n s
2 7 . G i v e c o n s i d e r a t i o n t o m a k in g t h e c o u r s e o n e s e m e s t e r
in le n g th
2 8 . Have a t e x t b o o k f o r e a c h s t u d e n t
2 9 . M a in ta in a b u s i n e s s and o f f i c e r o u t i n e a tm o s p h e re
i n th e c la ssro o m
3 0 . T e a c h e r s h o u l d n o t h a v e t o o m any p r e p a r a t i o n s I f a
good jo b i s t o be d o n e o n B u s in e s s G u id a n c e w h ere
p re p a ra tio n is heavy
3 1 . M o tio n p i c t u r e s a v a i l a b l e a r e n o t t h e b e s t and a r e
r e s e r v e d so f a r ah ead t h a t th e y o f t e n a r e n o t w o rth
th e tro u b le
32 . D e v e lo p a t e x t e s p e c i a l l y f o r B u s in e s s G u id a n ce
1
1
1
1
1
1
1
1
1
1
1
1
70
as an in tr o d u c tio n u n it.
13.
S p read
r e q u i r e m e n t s f o r s u c c e s s u n i t o u t among
o th e r u n its .
20.
C o m b in e s t u d y o f o c c u p a t i o n s w i t h s t u d y o f
S o u th e rn C a lif o r n ia .
T a b l e XVI i s
s e l f - e x p l a n a t o r y and r e v e a ls n o th in g
n ot a lre a d y d isc u sse d
i n r e l a t i o n t o o t h e r t a b l e s and
c rite ria .
T ex tb o o k s an d b i b l i o g r a p h i c a l m a t e r i a l , p r e f e r r e d
or needed.
are f a ir ly
T a b le X V II, p a g e 7 ^ ,
In d ic a te s
th a t
te a c h e rs
w e l l s a t i s f i e d w i t h t h e t e x t b o o k s now p r o v i d e d .
One t e a c h e r s u g g e s t s
t h a t a w o rk b o o k b e a d o p t e d
su p p le m e n t t h e t e x t .
te x tb o o k be w r i t t e n
to
A n o th e r s u g g e s ts t h a t a s p e c i a l
f o r th e co u rse.
In a d e q u a c ie s i n th e m a tte r of b ib lio g r a p h ic a l
m a t e r i a l a r e n o te d by te a c h e r s ,
fo r u n its
II
i n T a b le X V III, p ag e 7 5 ,
( T h e W o r l d o f B u s i n e s s ) , VI ( S t u d y o f a n
I n d u s t r i a l O c c u p a tio n ),
and V II ( P r e s e n t S t a t u s o f
S o u th e rn C a l i f o r n i a ) .
F le x ib ility
of
c o u rse in a d a p tin g r e a d ily
s c h o o l o r c o m m u n ity *
T a b l e XIX, p a g e 7 6 ,
e x p la n a to ry .
t e a c h e r s fo u n d t h e c o u rs e s u f f i c i e n t ­
ly f l e x i b l e ,
F ifte e n
Is
to th e
se lf-
w h ile one t e a c h e r found th e c o u rs e g e a re d to o
71
TABLE X V I
TEACHERS1 SUGGESTIONS FOR ADDING
NEW MATERIAL TO COURSE
A d d itio n s su g g e ste d
R easons needed
1 . S k i l l s a n d e v e n t s o f e c o n o m ic
im p o rta n c e
2 . O rg a n iz a tio n w ith in a b u sin e ss
Number
I
To a i d i n c h o o s i n g
v o c a tio n
1
3*
E n g lis h and C u rre n t E v e n ts
1
4.
S tu d y o f c o m m e rc ia lo c c u p a tio n s
1
5« R e a d i n g a n d c o n s t r u c t i n g c h a r t s
and g ra p h s
6 . A d v e r t i s i n g a n d B u s i n e s s Law
7.
S p e l l i n g a n d G ram m ar
1
A d d itio n a l
c o m m e rc ia l t r y o u t s
1
1
TABLE XVI ( c o n t i n u e d )
TEACHERS1 SUGGESTIONS FOE DELETING
PARTS OF THE COURSE
D e le tio n s
su g g e ste d
R easons fo r
d e le tin g
1 . H ig h s c h o o l o r i e n t a t i o n
R e p e titio n of
O rie n ta tio n E n g lish
2
Too d i f f i c u l t
1
R e p e titio n of S o c ia l
S tu d ie s
1
U n re la te d to o th e r
to p ic s in th e u n it
1
R e p e t i t i o n o f U n i t IV
1
2.
O rg a n iz a tio n o f th e
B u s i n e s s W o rld
3. E a rly h is to ry
o f c o m m e rc e
4 . M a rk e tin g
5• Summary o f S u c c e s s R e q u i r e
m en ts i n U n it V I
Number
73
TABLE XVI ( c o n t i n u e d )
TEACHERS’ SUGGESTIONS FOR ELABORATING PARTS OF THE COURSE
E la b o ra tio n s
1.
2.
3.
4.
su g g e ste d
S h o rth a n d
B o o k k e ep in g
T ry o u t u n i t
P e n m a n sh ip
5* A r i t h m e t i c
6 . W o rld o f B u s i n e s s
O rg a n iz a tio n o f B u sin e ss
W o rld
8 . R e q u ire m e n ts f o r S u c c e ss
in B u sin e ss
9. S tu d y o f I x x l u s t r i a l
O c c u p a tio n
How t o e l a b o r a t e
Humber
G iv e m ore tim e
G iv e m o re t i m e
G iv e m o re t i m e
G i v e m o re t i m e
10 m i n u t e s a d a y f o r
10 w e e k s
G iv e t h r o u g h o u t c o u r s e
Two w e e k s b e f o r e t r y o u t s
10 m i n u t e s a d a y e v e r y
day
B a sic o p e r a t io n s ,
d e c im a ls, f r a c tio n s ,
a liq u o t p a rts , p e r­
c e n ta g e , i n t e r e s t
10 m i n u t e s e v e r y d a y
P o s s ib ilitie s of tra d e
w i t h S o u th A m erica s e lf-s u ffic ie n c y , e tc .
2
2
8
1
1
1
1
1
1
7-
1 0 . How t o S t u d y
11. S o u th e rn C a l i f o r n i a u n i t
12. C o m m ercial D e p a r tm e n t
O rie n ta tio n
13* P e r s o n a l g r o o m i n g
1 4 . R e v ie w a t e n d o f y e a r o f
m ost l i k e d u n i t
1
By ” c a s e m e t h o d ” m a k in g
co u rse fu n c tio n a l
A n a ly sis of th re e
o c c u p a tio n s
By Mc a s e m e t h o d ” m a k in g
c o u rse fu n c tio n a l
Two d a y s
S t r e s s i n s t e a d o f H ig h
School O rie n ta tio n
M ore s t r e s s
1
1
2
1
1
1
1
74
TABLE X V II
TEXTBOOKS PREFERRED BY TEACHERS
S e m e s te r
T ex tb o o k
F irst
O d e ll*
O th e r
Ho a n s w e r
14
0
2
Second
B rew er**
O th e r
Ho a n s w e r
9
0
7
Humber
One t e a c h e r s u g g e s t s a w o r k b o o k t o s u p p l e m e n t t e x t .
One t e a c h e r s u g g e s t s h a v i n g a s p e c i a l t e x t b o o k w r i t t e n
fo r th e c o u rse .
•W illia m R. O d e ll, e t a l , B u s in e s s , I t s O r g a n iz a tio n and
O p e r a t i o n (New Y o r k : G i n n a n d C om pany, 1 9 3 7 ) •
• • J o h n M. B r e w e r , O c c u p a t i o n s
1936)•
(New Y o r k :
G i n n a n d C om pany,
75
TABLE X V I I I
TEACHERS1 NEEDS FOR ADDITIONAL BIBLIOGRAPHICAL
MATERIAL FOR UNITS OF THE COURSE
U n its
In a d e q u a te
B ib lio g ra p h y
II
3
VI
2
V II
7
76
TABLE XIX
TEACHERS * FINDINGS AS TO FLEXIBILITY OF COURSE
IN ADAPTING READILY TO THE SCHOOL OR COIMJNITY
Number
S u ffic ie n tly
fle x ib le
In su fficie n tly
15
flex ib le
1*
T o tal
^Geared to o
16
low f o r s t u d e n t s
- School
T e a c h e r B.
lo w f o r t h e s t u d e n t s
i n t h a t p a r t i c u l a r school*
so m e e v i d e n c e i n
th e
la te references th at a d a p ta b ility
t h e com m unity i s
not as necessary as p rev io u sly
M o b ility of th e p o p u la tio n ,
There i s
to
th o u g h t.
e a s e o f t r a n s p o r t a t i o n and
com m unication have m inim ized th e im p o rta n c e o f t h i s f a c t o r .
A d ap tab ility
sonnel is
to th e c h a ra c te r of th e stu d e n t p e r ­
im p erativ e,
h o w ev er, and e v e ry e f f o r t s h o u ld b e
m ade t o m e e t t h e
needs o fth e group.
i n th e course i s
s h o w n i n T a b l e XX.
T eachers’
ex perience
78
TABLE XX
TEACHERS * EXPERIENCE IN THE COURSE
S ubject
B u s in e s s G uidance
Number
I only
B u s in e s s G uidance I I o n ly
B u s in e s s G uidance
T o ta l
I and I I
6
0
10
16
CHAPTER V I
FINDINGS, CONCLUSIONS, AND RECOMMENDATIONS FOR
FUTURE STUDY
I .
1*
FINDINGS
A c c o rd in g to governm ent d a t a ,
te n thousand s e p a r a t e o c c u p a tio n s .
t h o u s a n d may b e c l a s s i f i e d
2.
th ere are over
Of t h i s n u m b e r two
a s b e in g o f a com m ercial n a t u r e .
N ine s c h o o l s ,
eig h teen te a c h e rs ,
and 1,083
s t u d e n ts w ere in v o lv e d i n th e ex p erim en t a t th e tim e th e
s t u d y w a s made*
None o f t h e o r i g i n a l s c h o o l s d ro p p e d t h e
p l a n and a l l e x p re s s e d
enthusiasm
for its
co n tin u an ce.
There a r e t h i r t y - s e v e n r e g u l a r s e n i o r h ig h sc h o o ls i n
Los A n g e l e s ;
t h e s e n i n e r e p r e s e n t a b o u t 24 p e r c e n t o f t h e
to ta l.
3*
The c o u r s e i n B u s i n e s s G u i d a n c e i s
o th e r o r ie n ta tio n co u rses in bu sin ess
s o new t h a t
e d u c a tio n on th e
te n th grade le v e l a re ap p aren tly not in e x is te n c e .
4.
It
is
ap p aren t th a t the e x is tin g
cu rricu lu m
is
n o t m e e t i n g t h e n e e d s o f a l a r g e number o f b o y s and g i r l s
i n te r m s o f t h e dem ands o f t h e i m m e d ia te com m unity.
5-
T he m a j o r i n t e r e s t s
Los A n g e l e s v a r y , b e t w e e n g r a d e s
of com m ercial s t u d e n ts In
t e n and tw e lv e ,
as
80
fo llo w s:
grade,
te n th grade,
15 p e r c e n t
bookkeeping;
grade,
se cretarial;
tw e lfth grade,
te n th grade,
t e n t h g ra d e , 20 p e r c e n t
ten th
t w e l f t h g r a d e , 65 p e r c e n t
5 p e r cen t m erchandising;
tw e lfth
5 p e r cent m erchandising.
6.
The p u r p o s e o f t h e B u s i n e s s G u i d a n c e p r o g r a m i s
to g iv e th e s tu d e n t f i r s t ,
field
tw e lfth
14 p e r c e n t b o o k k e e p i n g ;
10 p e r c e n t c l e r i c a l ;
cle ric a l;
grade,
65 p e r c e n t s e c r e t a r i a l ;
of busin ess
an in tro d u c tio n to th e e n ti r e
a c t i v i t y and,
second, an und erstan d in g of
t h e b u s i n e s s work o f t h e w o r ld .
7*
In th e ex p erim en tal sc h o o ls,
ju n io r b u siness
8.
train in g is
The d a t a r e v e a l e d
th e su b je ct of
o ffe re d as an e le c tiv e only .
th a t sev en ty ,
o r 14 p e r c e n t ,
o f t h e 512 s t u d e n t s w e r e b o y s .
9*
F o r t y - s i x p e r c e n t , o r 226 o f t h e s t u d e n t s w e re
s i x t e e n y e a r s o f a g e , and 44 p e r c e n t ,
w ere f i f t e e n y e a rs o f a g e.
o r 216 s t u d e n t s
The m e d i a n , h o w e v e r , f a l l s
in
th e o ld e r group.
10.
T he m e d i a n g r a d e , a s w a s t o b e e x p e c t e d ,
B u s in e s s G uidance I I
is
offered
sem ester of th e t e n t h g rade.
s t u d e n t s were r e p r e s e n t e d
11.
sin ce
i n A10, f e l l i n t h e s e c o n d
N in ety -fiv e p er cent of th e
in th is grade.
S tu d y o f t h e m ark s r e c e i v e d by s t u d e n t s i n t h e
v a rio u s schools in d ic a te d
t h a t th e norm al cu rv e I s n o t used
81
by t h e t e a c h e r s a s a b a s i s f o r m a rk in g .
T w enty-five p e r
c e n t r e c e i v e d A ’ s a n d 36 p e r c e n t B ' s a s a f i n a l m a r k i n
B u s in e s s G uidance I ,
w h i l e 21 p e r c e n t r e c e i v e d A 's and
37 p e r c e n t r e c e i v e d B ’ s a t m i d - t e r m i n B u s i n e s s G u i d a n c e
II.
T h ere seem s to b e a s l i g h t te n d e n c y to aw ard h i g h e r
m ark s a t t h e end o f t h e
12.
sem ester th a n a t m id -term .
S i x te e n t e a c h e r s 1 q u e s tio n n a ir e s w ere r e p o r te d .
S i x o f t h i s number had t a u g h t B u s in e s s G uidance X o n ly ;
t h e o t h e r t e n had t a u g h t b o t h s e m e s t e r s o f t h e c o u r s e .
had s t u d i e d
13*
A ll
th e com plete c o u rse of stu d y .
E i g h t y - t h r e e p e r c e n t o f th e s t u d e n t s w ere
f a v o r a b l e t o t h e c o u r s e , w h i l e 17 p e r c e n t w e r e e i t h e r
n eg ativ e to i t ,
d islik e d
eig h t per cent of
th e
it,
or d id n o t answ er.
stu d e n ts considered
th e course of
v a l u e w h i l e 12 p e r c e n t d i d n o t c o n s i d e r i t
14.
E ig h ty -
of v alu e.
S tu d e n ts i n a l l s c h o o ls w ere f a v o r a b le to t h e
c o u r s e b u t t h e h i g h e s t p e r c e n t a g e o f e n jo y m e n t was
reg iste red
in schools
m ajo rity of stu d en ts
they lik e d
15*
1 , 2 , 5 , 6 , 7 » and 8 , and t h e
in
s c h o o ls 3 and 4 r e g i s t e r e d
th at
t h e c o u r s e Ms o m e w h a t . H
S tu d en ts in
every sc h o o l co n sid ered
the course
of v alu e.
16.
T he u n i t s
c o n s i d e r e d by t e a c h e r s o f m ost v a l u e ,
i n o r d e r o f p r e f e r e n c e , w e r e u n i t s V,
IV, V I,
III,
V II,
I,
82
and I I .
17*
S tu d en ts p re fe rre d
and l i k e d u n i t s I I ,
18.
III,
u n its
IV a n d V t o a l l o t h e r s ,
and V II th e l e a s t .
B u s i n e s s men a r e o f t h e o p i n i o n t h a t t h e
d e v e l o p m e n t of- b u s i n e s s a b i l i t y i n hum an r e l a t i o n s i s
first
o b jec tiv e of
19*
th e
com m ercial e d u c a tio n .
L arg e num bers o f s t u d e n ts
e l e c t com m ercial
s t u d i e s f o r g e n e r a l p r a c t i c a l re a s o n s w ith o u t any p la n o r
e x p e c t a t i o n o f u ' s i n g t h e t r a i n i n g i n a v o c a t i o n a l way*
20.
T here i s
e n te r th e l i s t
a tendency f o r b u s in e s s e d u c a tio n to
of co re o r co n stan t su b je c ts of th e
cu rricu lu m .
21.
U n i t IV seem s w e l l l i k e d by t h e s t u d e n t s ,
p e r c e n t o f th e m b e i n g i n f a v o r o f i t .
88
(R equirem ents f o r
Success in B usiness)
22.
B l a c k s t o n e 1 and W e e rs in g ^ found t h a t by f a r
t h e g r e a t e s t number o f c o m m ercial jo b s
stan d ard of p e rso n al q u a litie s ,
23.
re q u ire a high
r a t h e r th an s p e c if ic
sk ills.
U n i t V, T r y o u t s i n B u s i n e s s T r a i n i n g C o u r s e s ,
1 E a r l G-. B l a c k s t o n e , “' T o d a y ' s P r o b l e m s i n B u s i n e s s
E d u c a t i o n , The N a t i o n ' s S c h o o l s . A u g u s t , 1 9 ^ 0 , pp* 34—5*
1 2
F re d e ric k J . W eersing, R e o rg a n iz a tio n of
C o m m ercial E d u c a ti o n i n t h e P u b l i c High S c h o o l ( C i n c i n n a t i :
S o u t h w e s t e r n P u b l i s h i n g C om pany , 1 9 2 9 7 7 p* 1&5*
83
h as a v e ry h i g h r a t i n g w i t h th e s t u d e n t s and t e a c h e r s .
24.
S ix ty -fo u r p e r cent of th e stu d en ts
a l i k i n g f o r u n i t VI a n d i t
list
of u n its
25.
rates
expressed
a b o u t h a l f - w a y down t h e
in preference.
The r a p i d l y
changing n a tu r e of b u s in e s s d i c t a t e s
t h a t young p e o p le be t r a i n e d
to a d ap t th em selv es
to th e
changing n a tu r e o f b u s in e s s .
26.
S t u d e n t s f p r e f e r e n c e s f o r having u n i t s o f th e
course sh o rten ed o r lengthened c o r r e l a t e h ig h ly w ith th e
u n its
th ey d is lik e d
27.
as i t
is
and l i k e d .
The t i m e a l l o t m e n t f o r e a c h u n i t o f t h e c o u r s e
now o r g a n i z e d
teach ers.
is
sa tisfac to ry
Two s e m e s t e r s ,
th erefo re,
to th e m a jo rity o f
a re p r e f e r r e d f o r th e
course.
28.
The p r e s e n t o r d e r f o r a l l o c a t i o n o f u n i t s o f
th e course is p r e f e r r e d
29.
by a m a j o r i t y o f t h e t e a c h e r s .
S tu d e n ts and te a c h e r s
on th e k in d s of a c t i v i t i e s
se em t o a g r e e l a r g e l y
t h a t a r e g o o d , b u t do n o t r a t e
them i n t h e same o r d e r o f p r e f e r e n c e .
30.
T hree a c t i v i t i e s p r e f e r r e d by s t u d e n ts w ere:
( l ) m o tio n p i c t u r e s ,
talk s.
( 2 ) m aking a n o te b o o k , and
Three a c t i v i t i e s
on c o m m itte e s ,
co m m ittees.
(13)
l e a s t p r e f e r r e d w ere
stu d y of th e tex tb o o k ,
and
(3 ) te a c h e r
(12) w o rk in g
(14) h e a r i n g
84
31*
(l)
T hree a c t i v i t i e s
c lass d iscu ssio n ,
p r e f e r r e d by t e a c h e r s w e r e
( 2 ) t a l k s by o u t s i d e r s ,
stu d y in g n ew sp ap ers, m agazines,
a c tiv itie s
lea st
com m ittees,
32.
and p u b l i c a t i o n s .
l i k e d w e re (13) p a n e l g r o u p s ,
( 1 5 ) m aking r e p o r t s
and ( 3 )
T hree
(14) h e a r i n g
to c la s s .
E v e r y d a y B u s i n e s s was m e n t i o n e d n i n e t y - s e v e n
tim e s by s t u d e n t s and t e n tim e s by t e a c h e r s
as overlap p in g
B u sin e ss G uidance.
33-
E i g h t h a n d n i n t h g r a d e s o c i a l s t u d i e s wa s
m e n t i o n e d e i g h t e e n t i m e s by s t u d e n t s and n o t a t a l l by
tea ch e rs as o v erlap p in g th e course.
34.
per cen t,
Two h u n d r e d a n d f i f t y - s e v e n s t u d e n t s ,
co nsidered i t
d e s i r a b l e to re p e a t
o r 80
t h e work o v e r ­
la p p e d by B u s in e s s G u id a n c e , w h i l e 20 p e r c e n t c o n s i d e r e d
it
u n d esirab le.
35*
The g r e a t e s t a m o u n t o f o v e r l a p p i n g w a s r e p o r t e d
i n u n i t V I, S t u d y o f a n I n d u s t r i a l O c c u p a t i o n , by 30 p e r
c e n t o f t h e 2 5 7 who r e p o r t e d
w e r e u n i t IV , 26 p e r c e n t ;
8 per cen t;
u n it I I ,
o v erlap p in g .
u n it I I I ,
7 p er cent;
24 p e r
Next i n o r d e r
cent;
and u n i t V II,
u n it I,
5 per cent.
No s t u d e n t r e p o r t e d u n i t V a s o v e r l a p p i n g .
36.
S tu d e n ts overw helm ingly fa v o re d
th e ca se o f every u n it o v erlap p ed .
favored
rep eatin g in
T w enty-four p e r c e n t
r e p e a t i n g t h e o v e r l a p p e d work i n u n i t V I; 23 p e r
85
cen t,
u n it
and I I ;
IV ; 2 0 p e r c e n t ,
and 3 p e r c e n t ,
37*
fo llo w s:
cen t,
u n it
III;
5 p e r cent., u n i t s
I
u n i t VII*
T h o s e who o p p o s e d r e p e a t i n g w o r k r e p o r t e d a s
6 per cen t,
u n its
u n i t VI;
5 per cen t,
I a n d IV; 2 p e r c e n t ,
u n it
II;
u n it II I ;
3 per
and 1 p e r c e n t ,
u n i t VII*
38*
S t u d e n t s 1 recom m endations f o r im p ro ving t h e
c o u rse tend to s t r e s s
th e check s h e e t.
how ever,
item s
s u g g e s t e d by o t h e r p a r t s o f
A f e w new r e c o m m e n d a t i o n s a r e m a d e ,
some o f t h e m n o t f e a s i b l e b u t o n t h e w h o l e w o r t h
c o n sid era tio n .
39*
See page 6 4 ..
Teachers*
c o u rs e tend to
stre ss
recom m endations f o r im proving th e
fu n d am en tals a lre a d y b e in g ta u g h t
i n o th e r departm ents*
40.
Teachers a re f a i r l y w e ll s a t i s f i e d w ith th e
t e x t b o o k s now p r o v i d e d *
book be a d o p ted
One t e a c h e r s u g g e s t s t h a t a w o r k ­
to supplem ent th e te x t-
A nother s u g g e s ts
th a t a s p e c ia l tex tb o o k be w r itte n f o r th e co u rse.
4l*
In ad eq u acies in th e m a tte r of b ib lio g r a p h ic a l
m a t e r i a l a r e n o t e d by t e a c h e r s f o r u n i t s
42.
fle x ib le
II,
V I, and V I I .
F i f t e e n t e a c h e r s found th e c o u rse s u f f i c i e n t l y
to adapt r e a d ily
t o t h e s c h o o l o r com m unity,
w h i l e o n e t e a c h e r f o u n d t h e c o u r s e g e a r e d t o o low f o r t h e
stu d en ts in th a t school.
86
II.
1.
It
is
CONCLUSIONS
im p o rtan t th a t th e stu d e n t rec o g n ize the
alm o st u n lim ite d o p p o r t u n i t i e s o f f e r e d
in b u sin ess.
h a s b e e n a b e l i e f o n t h e p a r t o f many s t u d e n t s
only f i e l d s of b u s in e s s a c t i v i t y
w ritin g ,
sh orthand,
There
th a t th e
are in the areas of type­
s a le s m a n s h ip , and b o o k k eep in g .
A far
b e t t e r v o c a t i o n a l c h o i c e c a n b e made when t h e s t u d e n t
becomes c o g n iz a n t o f t h e w ide scope o f b u s i n e s s a c t i v i t y .
2.
T here i s
too g re a t a p e rc en ta g e o f stu d e n ts
c h a n g in g from o n e c o m m e rc ia l m a jo r t o a n o t h e r b e tw e e n
g ra d e s t e n and tw e lv e .
3.
Now t h a V t h e J u n i o r w o r k e r i s a b l e n o l o n g e r t o
f i n d em ploym ent,
the
Ju n io r b u sin ess
u n its
o f work a s t r a v e l ,
It
d oubtful i f
is
tran sp o rtatio n ,
such u n its ,
in tr o d u c tio n to th e f i e l d
4.
In grade te n ,
more a b o u t t h e b u s i n e s s
te x ts c o n ta in such
and com m unication.
in th em selv es,
o f f e r an
of b u sin e ss e d u catio n .
t h e n e e d s o f y o u n g p e o p l e t o know
life
o f t h e com m unity o f f e r s a
r e a s o n f o r i n c l u s i o n o f t h e B u sin e ss G uidance e o u rs e .
Y oung p e o p l e n e e d m o r e o r i e n t a t i o n a n d g u i d a n c e b e f o r e t h e y
can be e x p ec te d to f o llo w p r o f i t a b l y any c o u rs e i n b u s in e s s
ed u catio n .
3-
S i n c e t h e c e n t r a l em ploym ent o f f i c e o f t h e B oard
of E ducation has f o r th r e e o r f o u r y e a rs been u n ab le to
87
fill
t h e d e m a n d f o r men s t e n o g r a p h e r s i n t h e L o s A n g e l e s
area i t
seems r e a s o n a b l e t o c o n c l u d e t h a t t h e p e r c e n t a g e o f
boys i n b u s in e s s
6.
It
ed u catio n is
low.
s e e m s r e a s o n a b l e t o c o n c l u d e t h a t t h e com­
m e r c ia l program i s
stu d en ts,
too
n o t y e t m e e tin g t h e n e ed s o f m ale
and t h a t ' s p e c i a l a t t e n t i o n sh o u ld be g iv e n t o
m aking t h e o f f e r i n g s m ore a t t r a c t i v e
t o th em b y m e a n s o f
b u sin e ss g uidance.
7-
S tudy o f stu d e n ts*
preferen ces of u n its of th e
c o u r s e w o u l d se em t o i n d i c a t e t h a t u n i t s I V a n d V s h o u l d b e
em phasized,
and u n i t s
II,
III,
and V II sh o u ld b e m inim ized
w e r e t h e i n t e r p r e t e r n o t c a r e f u l i n k e e p i n g i n m ind t h e
o b je c tiv e s of th e course:
e n tire fie ld
first,
of b u sin ess a c tiv ity
an in tro d u c tio n to th e
and,
second,
an u n d er­
s t a n d i n g o f t h e b u s i n e s s work o f t h e w o r ld .
8.
b u sin ess
B e f o r e a n y p r o v i s i o n i s made f o r v o c a t i o n a l
ed u catio n ,
e d u c a tio n w hich i s
We m u s t f i r s t
it
is
e s s e n tia l to p ro v id e th a t b u sin e ss
n e e d e d by a l l
secondary sc h o o l p u p i l s .
co n cern o u rse lv e s w ith th e o r g a n iz a tio n of
s u ita b le in tro d u c to ry courses in b u sin ess
9*
ed u catio n .
Such a c o u rs e m ight w e ll be r e q u ir e d o f a l l
com m ercial m a jo r s .
10.
U nits I I ,
III,
V II,
lik ed
l e a s t by t h e s t u d e n t s ,
a r e th e ones w hich b ro ad e n th e scope of in tr o d u c to r y
88
b u sin ess tra in in g .
In ste a d of sh o rten in g ,
th e teach in g of th ese u n its ,
lo g ic al,
or n eg lectin g
a s w ould a t f i r s t
seem
i t w ould b e w e l l t o g i v e i n t e n s i v e s tu d y t o t h e
p r o b l e m o f m a k i n g th e m m o r e r e a l i s t i c , m o r e v i t a l ,
and
m ore a p a r t o f t h e
T he
s t u d e n t’s p re s e n t e x p erien c es.
t r o u b l e may l i e w i t h t h e c o n t e n t ,
experiences o ffe re d ,
t h e m ethods u se d ,
th e lack of c o n tin u ity ,
the
o r i t may b e
due to d i s i n t e r e s t o f c e r t a i n te a c h e rs .
11.
Too m uch a t t e n t i o n c a n n o t b e p a i d
tio n of a teach in g s t a f f
resem bles,
i n a c o u rs e w hich so n e a r l y
in o b je c tiv e s,
12.
a c o re course*
I t w o u ld seem t h a t u n i t
Success in B u sin ess,
to th e s e l e c ­
IV, R e q u ir e m e n ts f o r
should be of g r e a t im p o rtan ce i n th e
c o u r s e and m ig h t w e l l b e em p h asized t h r o u g h o u t .
13*
There i s
danger th a t
t h e m ethod o f t e a c h i n g
u n i t V, T r y o u t s i n B u s i n e s s T r a i n i n g C o u r s e s , may m a k e t h e
su b jects
too s p e c i a li z e d
and d e f e a t t h e e x p l o r a t o r y and
i n f o r m a t i o n a l p u r p o s e f o r w h ich th e y w ere i n te n d e d .
14.
It
seems w e l l to c a u t i o n a g a i n s t t h e d a n g e r o f
to o much s p e c i a l i z a t i o n by d e a l i n g s p e c i f i c a l l y w i t h
o ccu p atio n s*
U n it V I,
b asis of larg e fam ilies
ch aracteristics
o ccu p atio n s,
th erefo re,
sh ou ld be s tu d ie d on th e
o f v o c a tio n s having s i m i l a r
r a t h e r th a n on t h e b a s i s o f i n d i v i d u a l
s u c h a s " o f f i c e b o y . 11
Such d e ta ile d
study i s
89
th e task of s p e c ia liz e d v o c a tio n a l courses in h ig h er
grades.
15*
S t u d e n t s a r e n o t to o good fu d g e s o f t h e tim e
allo tm en t f o r p a r ts
of th e c o u rse i s
o f a course.
Study o f th e o b j e c ti v e s
necessary in a llo ttin g
tim e to i t s
u n its.
T here i s d a n g e r o f o v e r-e m p h a siz in g o r w rongly em phasizing
u n i t V and u n i t VI i f
stu d en ts*
used as th e o n ly c r i t e r i a
l i k e s and d i s l i k e s a r e
in ap p o rtio n in g
tim e to p a r t s
of th e course.
16.
S t u d e n t s a n d t e a c h e r s se e m t o a g r e e p r e t t y
l a r g e l y on th e k in d s o f a c t i v i t i e s
t h a t a r e good, b u t they
do n o t a g r e e o n t h e o r d e r o f p r e f e r e n c e .
No o n e o f t h e
a c t i v i t i e s was c o n s i d e r e d p o o r by t h e m a j o r i t y o f e i t h e r
group.
T he t e a c h e r m u s t b e v e r y c a r e f u l i n h i s
e f f e c t i v e a p p l i c a t i o n o f m ethod.
c h o ic e and
R e fere n c e to th e t a b l e s
m ig h t b e h e l p f u l i n c h o o s i n g a b e t t e r l i k e d m ethod w h e re
m ore t h a n o n e c a n b e e a s i l y a d a p te d t o t h e s u b j e c t m a t t e r .
17*
m atter.
M ethod s h o u l d n e v e r b e s e p a r a t e d
from s u b j e c t
P r e f e r e n c e s f o r p a r t i c u l a r m ethods sh o u ld n o t be
heeded u n le s s
18.
th ey
the su b je ct m atter.
The e v i d e n c e i s
and S o c i a l S t u d i e s
G uidance.
su it
s t r o n g t h a t E veryday B u s in e s s
h a v e some e l e m e n t s s i m i l a r t o B u s i n e s s
T e a c h e r s w ould do w e l l t o f a m i l i a r i z e th em ­
s e l v e s w i t h t h e c o n te n t o f t h e Everyday B u s in e s s c o u rs e
90
a n d t h e S o c i a l S t u d i e s c o u r s e b e f o r e m a k i n g up l e s s o n
p lan s;
and sh o u ld f u r t h e r
consult stu d en ts in In d iv id u a l
c l a s s e s b e f o r e p r o c e e d i n g w i t h them*
j u d g m e n t may i n d i c a t e t h a t i t
The t e a c h e r s *
i s w e ll to p erm it th e o v er­
l a p i n so m e c a s e s a n d u n w i s e i n o t h e r s .
if
th e stu d e n ts
It
is d o u b tfu l
c a n h a v e t o o much e x p o s u r e t o
E n g lish —
o v e rla p p in g t h e r e m ight b e b e n e f i c i a l r a t h e r th a n w a ste fu l*
19*
T e a c h e rs 1 te n d e n c ie s to
s t r e s s fund am entals in
. t h e i r r e c o m m e n d a t i o n s f o r i m p r o v e m e n t o f t h e c o u r s e may b e
due to i n e f f e c t i v e n e s s o f th e o th e r d epartm ents re s p o n s ib le
f o r t e a c h i n g them , o r p r e f e r e n c e o f com m ercial t e a c h e r s f o r
teach in g s k i l l s u b je c ts ,
th e study-
It
is
ex ceed in g ly d o u b tfu l th a t d r i l l ,
to t h e s u b j e c t m a t t e r
p ro ficien t
o r o t h e r r e a s o n s n o t r e v e a l e d by^
u n rela te d
c o n t e n t , w i l l make s t u d e n t s a n y m o re
in th e fu nd am en tals than th ey a re a t p r e s e n t.
20.
com m unity i s
There i s
som e e v i d e n c e t h a t a d a p t a b i l i t y
to th e
n o t as n e c e ssa ry as p re v io u s ly th o u g h t.
M o b ility of th e p o p u la tio n ,
ease of tra n s p o rta tio n ,
c o m m u n i c a t i o n seem t o h a v e d e c r e a s e d
and
th e Im p o rtan ce o f t h i s
facto r21.
personnel is
A d ap tab ility
to th e c h a ra c te r of th e stu d en t
i m p e r a t i v e a n d e v e r y e f f o r t s h o u l d b e m ade t o
meet th e needs o f t h e g ro u p .
22.
The c o u r s e i s
r ip e f o r ad o p tio n a s a b a sic
91
t e n t h g r a d e p ro g ram f o r "business e d u c a t i o n s t u d e n t s
Los A n g e l e s c i t y
23.
schools*
A nother c o n c lu s io n ,
th e q u e stio n n a ire s,
and a p p r o p r i a t e ,
fa c t th at
of,
in the
n o t r e v e a l e d by i t e m s on
b u t w h ic h seems e x t r e m e l y i m p o r t a n t
co n cern s th e m a tte r of g u idance.
th is is
The
a g u id a n c e c o u rs e must n o t be l o s t s i g h t
b u t sh o u ld be em phasized th ro u g h o u t t h e c o u r s e , b o t h
from t h e g ro u p and i n d i v i d u a l s t a n d p o i n t s .
G uidance s h o u ld b e a d v is o r y r a t h e r t h a n d e t e r ­
m in istic .
Human l i f e i n v o l v e s , a s a r u l e , t h e n e e d
f o r m aking s u c c e s s i v e c h a n g e s; t h e r e f o r e , g u id a n c e i n
sc h o o l should be a c o n tin u o u s p r o c e s s . ^
III.
1.
RECOMMENDATIONS FOR FURTHER STUDY
Make a s t u d y o f p u p i l f a i l u r e s
c o u rs e s b e f o r e and a f t e r i n tr o d u c in g
2.
in upper grade
the course.
Make a s t u d y o f p u p i l c h o i c e s a n d c h a n g e s o f
m a jo rs b etw een g r a d e s
t e n and tw e lv e a f t e r i n t r o d u c i n g
t h e c o u r s e a n d co m p are r e s u l t s w i t h s u c h c h o i c e s and c h a n g e s
b efo re in tro d u cin g
3th ere is
th e course.
Review t h e c o n t e n t o f e a c h u n i t t o d e t e r m i n e i f
c o n tin u ity
of ex p erien ce,
and i f
th ere i s no t,
v H e r b e r t A. T o n n e , B u s i n e s s E d u c a t i o n ; B a s i c
P r i n c i p l e s a n d T r e n d s (New Y o r k :
The G r e g g P u b l i s h i n g
Co m p an y , 1 9 3 9 ) > p* 9 1 •
92
rev ise
th e c o n te n t to g a in such c o n tin u ity .
4-.
Study th e
r e c o m m e n d a t i o n s made by s t u d e n t s and
t e a c h e r s f o r im provem ent o f t h e c o u r s e and d e te r m in e w h ic h
ones,
if
any,
sh o u ld be a d o p te d and f i t
them i n t o
th e
course' of s tu d y .
5-
T e a c h e r s ’ rec o m m e n d atio n s f o r im provem ent o f t h e
c o u rse tend
to
doubt as to
th e a p p ro p ria te n ess of u n related d r i l l in
course,
s t r e s s fu n d am en tals.
S ince th e re i s
some
th is
f u r t h e r stu d y o f th e reaso n s f o r th e se o p in io n s,
i s r e comm e n d e d .
6-
F u r t h e r s t u d y o f m ethods i n u se and t h e i r
relatio n sh ip
to su b je c t m atter i s
recommended.
B I B L I OG-R&P
94
BIBLIOGRAPHY
A l l e n , F . J . , P r i n c i p l e s and P ro b le m s i n V o c a t i o n a l
G uidance.
New Y o r k :
M c G r a w - H i l l Book C o m pany , I n c . ,
1927.
B e a t y , J o h n , " O b j e c t i v e s o f B u s i n e s s E d u c a t i o n a s V ie w s
by B u s i n e s s ,
N a tio n a l B usiness E d ucation Q u a r te r l y .
2 : 3 , O c t o b e r , 1933*
B l a c k s t o n e , E a r l G . , "R em odeling Y our C om m ercial D e p a r t­
m e n t," S c h o o l R eview , J a n u a r y , 1939, p p . 1 7 -2 3 .
_________, " T o d a y ' s P r o b l e m s i n B u s i n e s s E d u c a t i o n , " The
N a t i o n 1s S c h o o l s . A u g u s t , 1 9 4 0 , p p . 3 4 - 5 .
B u sin e ss G uidance, A T en th G rade, E x p erim en tal P ro g ram .
an u n p u b lis h e d c o u r s e o f stu d y p a m p h le t, f o r com m ittee
u s e o n l y , Los A n g e le s Board o f E d u c a t i o n , 1940.
156 p p .
Dewey, J o h n , D e m o c r a c y a n d E d u c a t i o n .
M a c m i l l a n C o m p a n y , 1938^
418 p p .
New Y o r k :
The
G i v e n , J o h n N . , "An E x p e r i m e n t a l P r o g r a m i n B u s i n e s s
E d u c a t i o n , " The J o u r n a l o f B u s i n e s s E d u c a t i o n .
1 5:14-16, Ju n e , 1940.
J o n e s , A. J . , P r i n c i p l e s o f G u i d a n c e .
H i l l Book C o m p a n y , I n c . , 1934*
New Y o r k :
McGraw-
L e f e v e r , D. W . , A. M. T u r r e l l , a n d H. I . W e i t z e l ,
P r i n c i p l e s and T ec h n iq u e s o f G u id an ce.
New Y o r k :
The R o n a l d P r e s s C om pany , 1 9 4 1 .
522 p p .
P l o t t i n g Y our C o u r s e . Los A n g e le s C i ty S c h o o ls p u b l i c a t i o n ,
N o. 3 2 9 , 1940T
218 p p .
S t e v e n s o n , J o h n A *, " B u s i n e s s E d u c a t i o n a n d C o m m u n ity L i f e
a s S e e n by t h e B u s i n e s s M an," N a t i o n a l B u s i n e s s
E d u ca tio n Q u a r t e r l y . O cto b er, 1934, I I I , p . 20.
Thorpe, L ouis P . , P s y c h o lo g ic a l F o u n d a tio n s o f P e r s o n a l i t y .
New Y o r k :
M c G r a w - H i l l Book Company, I n c . , 1 9 3 8 .
6 0 2
p p .
Tonne, H e r b e r t A ., B u s in e s s E d u c a tio n ; B a s ic P r i n c i p l e s and
T rends.
New Y o r k :
T h e G r e g g P u b l i s h i n g Com pany, -1939*
333 PP-
95
W e e r s i n g , F r e d e r i c k J . , " O b j e c t i v e s Gome F i r s t i n M o d e r n
B usiness C u rricu lu m ," J o u rn a l o f B usiness E d u catio n .
F e b r u a r y , 1 9 3 ° > PP* 2 0 - 1 .
, R e o r g a n i z a t i o n o f C om m ercial E d u c a tio n i n t h e
P u b l i c H igh S c h o o l * C i n c i n n a t i :
Southw estern
P u b l i s h i n g C o m p a n y , 1929*
16 5 p p .
.______ , "W ha t S h o u l d b e t h e R e l a t i v e E t o p h a s i s o n V o c a t i o n ­
a l and N o n -V o c a tio n a l S u b j e c t s i n th e B u s in e s s
C urriculum ?"
A b s tr a c t, N a tio n a l E d u catio n A s s o c ia tio n .
A d d r e s s e s and P r o c e e d i n g s . 1931, p p . 348-9*
APPENDIX
INTER-OFFICE CORRESPONDENCE
L os A n g e l e s C i t y B o a r d o f E d u c a t i o n
T O : Teachers of Business Guidance
F R O M : John N. Given
Date
May 16, 1941
SUBJ EC T: Business Guidance Evaluation
Enclosed is the check sheet for evaluating the Business
Guidance course, which was explained in our postal card of
May 5, 1941* We believe this check sheet will simplify your
preparation of the report, and it will also greatly simplify
tabulation of the results, and lend more statistical relia­
bility to the study.
In addition to the teacher evaluation, it appears that
a student evaluation would prove interesting, revealing, and
of some value in future revision of the course and for that
reason we are enclosing check sheets for students in Business
Guidance II classes. Business Guidance I students will not
have had enough of the course to answer fully so the sheet
need not be given to them.
These are being distributed
according to figures on your latest program on file in our
office. If you need more please notify us.
Students should be given as much help as is necessary
to understand the meaning of the questions but since their
answers should be absolutely frank to be of value in revis­
ing the course, they are being requested not to sign the
blanks, and all possibility of other means of identification
should be eliminated, for their satisfaction,
I should like to have these two studies completed and
mailed to my office by June 3. If this is not feasible
please telephone or write for a later deadline.
It is out* desire that this concrete, objective list of
questions make your work in preparing the report easier and
more specific for us to interpret. Thank you for your always
willing cooperation.
CRITICAL EVALUATION OF BUSINESS GUIDANCE
98
___________________________________
HighSchoolDate____________
Teacher________________________________________
taught:
I.
Business Guidance I
Check the subjects you have
Business Guidance II _______ Both_____________
TILE ALLOTMENT AND ALLOCATION OF SUBJECT MATTER
Below are listed the units of the Business Guidance Course.
according to your personal teaching preferences.
UNITS (Revised list of 11-27-40)
1.
2.
3.
4.
5.
6.
7.
Fill in the columns
A. TIME ALLOTMENT B. ALLOCATION
(Number of Weeks)
OF SUBJECT
MATTER
Sourse
Renumber in
of ilecommended
Change
Study
Preferred Order
INTRODUCTION
High School Orientation
Commercial Department Orientation
1
Penmanship
THE WORLD OF BUSINESS
Necessity for World Trade
Development of World Trade
Important Regions and Commodities of World Trade
Place of United States in Vforld Trade
3-4
THE ORGANIZATION OF THE BUSINESS WORLD
Types of Business Ownership
Financial Background of Business
American Banking System
Use of Credit
Place of Marketing in American Business Life
REQUIREMENTS FOR SUCCESS IN BUSINESS
Personal development
Etiquette
Skills
4
TRYOUTS IN BUSINESS TRAINING COURSES
Shorthand
Bookkeeping
Salesmanship
7
STUDY OF AN INDUSTRIAL OCCUPATION
Summary of Requirements for Success in Business
Analysis of the Occupation
8
Arithmetic Review
PRESENT STATUS OF SOUTHERN CALIFORNIA
Historical Development of Business
Making of a Harbor
Imports and Exports
Manufacturing and Industry
Natural Resources
Tourist Trade
6
Opportunities in Business Occupations
II.
A,
CONTENT OF BUSINESS GUIDANCE
What topics not already covered should be
added to the course?
Reasons
B.
What topics, if any, would you delete?
Reasons
C,
'What topics would you elaborate?
D.
Do you find that the course has enough flexibility to adapt readily to your
school and your community? Yes
No
If the answer is No, what diffi­
99
How would you elaborate them?
culties have you encountered?
E.
What unit do you consider of most value to the student?
1.
F.
2.
2.
5.
6.
7 .____
3.
4.
5.
6.
7 .____
What units, if any, overlap other subjects the students have studied?
UNIT NUMBER
III.
4.
What unit do you consider of least value to the student?
1.
G.
3.
(Use above revised
order of Nov. 27 s 1940)
OVERLAPS
SUBJECT GRADE
AN. ADVANTAGE?
Check below
A DISADVANTAGE?
Check Below
SUGGESTIONS FOR OVER­
COMING DISADVANTAGES
TEXTBOOKS AND BIBLIOGRAPHY
A.
Give the author and title of textbook you prefer for each semester of the
course.:
BIO - Odell, Business. Its Organization and Operation.
Other
A10 - Brewer, Occupations.
Other
______
xoo
B.
Check the number of the unit where there is a weakness, if any, im biblio­
graphical material listed in the course of study:
1.___ _ 2.____
3.___ 4.___ 5.____
6*____ 7.___
TYPES OF CLASS ACTIVITY
IV.
A*
Check your rating of the types of class activity listed below:
GOOD
1.
2*
3.
4*
5.
6*
7*
8*
9,
10 .
.
11
12*
13.
14.
15.
16*
V.
QUESTIONABLE
POOR
Class discussion,•«»»*»*»»♦»»••*•«•«»»••*»*»»».«
Socialized activity utilizing student committees
Panel groups..
Individual reports * •
Group conferences.*.
Problem, method.....
Talks by the teacher
i • • 4 ft ft
Question and answer method
Talks by outsiders, or persons from other classes
i ft. #
Demonstrations, plays, skits, etc.
t ft i • •
Textbook study*..
• * •
Outlining
Motion, pictures..
Making a notebook
%« « ft ft
Studying publications, magazines
» » • • •
Other « « * * . . « » * « « « . . . . . . . . . . . . a . .
PERSONAL EVALUATION
A.
State below any criticisms of phases, or units of the course which may not
be covered above, but seem important to you:
BUSINESS GUIDANCE INQUIRY
Grade
Boy_
G ir l
This blank i s not t o be sig n e d .
I.
■ Age
101
Mark r e c e iv e d in B u sin ess Guidance 1__
You should be p e r f e c t ly frank in your answ ers.
PERSONAL REACTIONS TOWARD BUSINESS GUIDANCE
A.
Do you en joy th e course? (Check your answer)
I n d iffe r e n t
Not Much ____ No____
Yes
Somewhat __
B.
In g e n e r a l, do you co n sid er the stud y o f B u sin ess Guidance i s o f valu e to
. ■
you?
Yes_____ No
C.
Check below , in th e column th a t most n e a r ly r e p r e se n ts your f e e l i n g , th e
u n it s th a t you have, stu d ie d in c l a s s , L means you Liked th e u n it , I means
you were I n d iffe r e n t toward i t , and D means you D is lik e d i t .
A lso check, in th e l a s t two columns, th e u n its you th in k are too lo n g or too
short* TL means Too Long, TS nieans Too S h ort. I f th e le n g th o f th e u n it
was about r ig h t do n ot check th e u n it .
L
1.
2.
3.
4.
5.
6.
7.
D,
E.
I
INTRODUCTION
High School O r ien ta tio n
THE WORLD OF BUSINESS
N e c e s s ity fo r World Trade
Development o f World Trade
Important Regions and Commodities o f World Trade
P lace o f U nited S ta te s in World Trade
THE ORGANIZATION OF THE BUSINESS WORLD
Types o f B u sin ess Ownership
F in a n c ia l Background o f B u sin e ss
American Banking System
Use o f C red it
P la ce o f M arketing in American B u sin ess L ife
REQUIREMENTS FOR SUCCESS IN BUSINESS
P erson al development
E tiq u e tte
S k ills
TRYOUTS IN BUSINESS TRAINING COURSES
Shorthand
Bookkeeping
Salesm anship
STUDY OF AN INDUSTRIAL OCCUPATION
Summary o f Requirements fo r S u ccess in B u sin ess
A n a ly sis o f th e Occupation
A rith m etic Review
PRESENT STATUS OF SOUTHERN CALIFORNIA
H is t o r ic a l development o f B u sin ess
Making o f a Harbor
Imports and E xports
. M anufacturing and In d u stry
N atural R esources
T o u rist Trade
O p p o rtu n ities in B u sin ess O ccupations
Which u n it d id you l i k e most? 1 . 2 . 3* A* 5 . 6 . 7*_
Which u n it did you l i k e le a s t ? 1 . 2 . 3» A. 5# 6 . 7..
D
1 TL
TS
XI.
102
ACTIVITIES OF HJSIHESS fflJIDAECE
A*
In th e proper column, check your op in ion o f th e a c t i v i t i e s u sed in your
c la s s .
GOOD
ACTIVITIES
1,
2.
3,
4.
3.
6
7.
8.
9.
10.
11.
12.
13.
14.
18*
0
III.
POOR
Study o f th e tex tb o o k . *
...........................*.
General c l a s s d i s c u s s i o n . . . . . . . . . . .
Hunting up m a teria l in th e lib r a r y . • • • •
Working on c o m m itte e s................... ..
♦ • •*
Tests.. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
• • ••
Makxng a notebooki. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
0 • •*
H earing com mittee r e p o r t s ................ ..
Making r e p o r ts to th e c l a s s ................
*•
Motion P ic t u r e s ......................................... ..
D em on stration s, p la y s , s k i t s , e t c . .
*•
Studying new spapers, m a g a z in e s .....
• • •
Outl i ni ng. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
H earing t a lk s by th e te a c h e r ..............
* • •.
H earing t a lk s by o u ts id e r s * ................
Ot hers*. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
*
•
•
*
I .
SIMILAR COURSES TAKEN
A*
L is t below any cou rses you have taken th a t in clu d ed any p art o f th e work
g iv e n in th e B u sin ess Guidance Course. F i l l in a l l columns.
NAME OF THE COURSE
IV.
AVERAGE
GRADE
WHAT PART OF BUSINESS
GUIDANCE WAS INCLUDED
IN IT? USE SUBJECTS
LISTED ON PAGE I
WAS IT WORTH WHILE TO REPEAT
THIS SUBJECT?
YES
NO-
RECOMMENDATIONS
A.
How cou ld B u sin ess Guidance be improved so th a t i t would be more v a lu a b le
t o fu tu re stu d en ts?____________________________________________________________
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