close

Вход

Забыли?

вход по аккаунту

?

A survey of teacher participation in the determination of administrative policies

код для вставкиСкачать
A SURVEY OF TEACHER PARTICIPATION IN THE
DETERMINATION OF ADMINISTRATIVE
POLICIES
A T h e sis
P r e s e n te d to
th e F a c u lty o f th e School of E d u c a tio n
U n iv e r s ity o f S o u th e rn C a li f o r n ia
In P a r t i a l F u lfillm e n t
o f t h e R e q u ir e m e n t s f o r t h e D e g re e
M a ste r o f S c ie n c e i n E d u c a tio n
fey
A lla n ¥ . F in k
J u n e 19
UMI Number: EP54204
All rights reserved
INFORMATION TO ALL USERS
The quality of this reproduction is dependent upon the quality of the copy submitted.
In the unlikely event that the author did not send a complete manuscript
and there are missing pages, these will be noted. Also, if material had to be removed,
a note will indicate the deletion.
Dissertation Rubi sbmg
UMI EP54204
Published by ProQuest LLC (2014). Copyright in the Dissertation held by the Author.
Microform Edition © ProQuest LLC.
All rights reserved. This work is protected against
unauthorized copying under Title 17, United States Code
ProQuest LLC.
789 East Eisenhower Parkway
P.O. Box 1346
Ann Arbor, Ml 48106- 1346
This thesis, written under the direction of the
Chairman of the candidate’s Guidance C o mm itt ee
and a p p r o v e d by all members of the C om m it t e e ,
has been presented to and acce pted by the Faculty
of the Sch oo l of Education of Th e University of
Southern California in pa rtial fulfillment of the
requirements f o r the degree of M a s t e r of Science
in Education.
D ate
. ^ n e ..6 i
......................
D ean
G uidance C om m ittee
D. Welty Lefever
Chairman
Irving R. Melbo
0. R. Hull
TABLE Of CONTENTS
CHAPTER
I.
PAGE
THE PROBLEM AND DEFINITION OF TERMS . . . . . .
The p r o b le m
.......................................
S t a t e m e n t o f t h e p r o b le m
.
1
.
1
.............................
1
....................
2
Im p o rta n ce o f th e s tu d y
D e f i n i t i o n o f t e r m s ......................... . . . . . . .
D em ocracy
........................
5
School a d m in is tr a tio n . . . . . .
A d m in istra tiv e p o lic y . . .
....................
6
..................................
7
D em o cratic s c h o o l a d m i n i s t r a t i o n
II.
5
. . . . .
7
O rg a n iz a tio n o f th e stu d y . . . . . . . . . .
9
REVIEW OF RELATED STUDIES
..........................
10
S tu d ie s on th e s t a t u s of t e a c h e r
p a r tic ip a tio n in school a d m in istra tiv e
p o lic y f o m a tio n
. . . . . . . . . . . . .
12
A r t i c l e s a n d r e f e r e n c e s on t e a c h e r
p a rtic ip a tio n
....................................................................
14
I m p o r t a n t i n v e s t i g a t i o n s on t e a c h e r
p a rtic ip a tio n
C o n c lu sio n s . .
III.
...........................................
16
................................................................
28
METHODS OF PR O CED U RE.......................................
M ethod o f
d e f i n i n g term s
.............................................
P ro ced u re
fo r a n a ly sin g r e la te d s tu d ie s . . .
30
30
30
M ethod o f c o n s t r u c t i o n o f t h e
q u e s t i o n n a i r e ......................................................... * • •
31
IT
CHAPTER
-PAGE
M ethod o f d i s t r i b u t i n g q u e s t i o n n a i r e s # . . »
30
A n a l y s i s o f r e t u r n s ..........................................................
38
-Summary o f i n f o r m a t i o n c o n c e r n i n g
resp o n d en ts . .
...............................................................
44
P ro ced u res fo r a n a ly s is of
q u e s t i o n n a i r e d a t a ...........................................
46
P ro c e d u re s used i n t a b u l a t i n g
q u e stio n n a ire r e p l i e s
. . .
46
S t a t i s t i c a l tre a tm e n t o f th e
t a b u l a t e d r e p l i e s .................................................... ..
.
48
P r o c e d u r e s f o r c o m p a r is o n o f
administrators’ and teachers’ aTerage
opinions on existing and ideal methods
for determining the policies of the
f i f t y a d m in istra tiv e a c t i v i t i e s
.........................
48
M etho ds f o r c o m p a r is o n o f a d m i n i s t r a t o r s ’
and t e a c h e r s ’ t o t a l - r e s p o n s e a v e r a g e s
o n e x i s t i n g a n d i d e a l p r o c e d u r e s T or
d e t e r m i n i n g s c h o o l p o l i c i e s ..................................
4.9
P r o c e d u r e s f o r c o m p a r is o n o f t h e a v e r a g e
o p in io n s o f th e g rad e l e v e l,
e x p e rie n c e ,
and p r o f e s s i o n a l t r a i n i n g g ro u p s w ith
t h o s e o f t h e t e a c h e r s a s a w h o le
. . . . *
50
V
CHAPTER
PAGE
M e th o d s f o r d e t e r m i n i n g d i f f e r e n c e s
i n t o t a l - r e s p o n s e a v e r a g e s ............................ . *
51
A d d i t i o n a l p r o c e d u r e s em p loy ed i n
a n a ly sin g q u e stio n n a ire
C o n c lu s io n s
TV.
re s u lts . . . . . .
............................
51
52
TYPES OF PROCEDURES EMPLOYED FOR
DETERMINING ADMINISTRATIYE POLICIES
. . . . .
53
T e a c h e r s ’ r e p l i e s on e x i s t i n g and
Id e a l p ro ced u res fo r p o lic y
d e t e r m i n a t i o n ............................
54
S u p e r i n te n d e n t s ’ r e p l i e s on e x i s t i n g
and s u g g e s t e d p r o c e d u r e s f o r
p o lic y d e te rm in a tio n
.................................................
65
T e a c h e r s ’ and s u p e r i n t e n d e n t s ’ r e p l i e s
com pared
. . . . . .
.................................................
71
C o m p a riso n o f J u n i o r h i g h s c h o o l a n d
c o n v e n tio n a l e ig h t y e a r e le m e n tary
school te a c h e r r e p lie s
C o m p ariso n o f t e a c h e r s *
............................................
79
re p lie s
a rra n g e d a c c o rd in g to s iz e o f
school d i s t r i c t s
............................................
82
D i f f e r e n c e s i n e x i s t i n g and i d e a l
t o t a l response a v erag e s o f e ig h t
i n d i c a t e d g r o u p s ............................
90
vi
CHAPTER
PACE
C o m p ariso n o f t o t a l - r e s p o n s e
a v e r a g e s o f t h e i n d i c a t e d g r o u p s ....................
95
C o m p a riso n o f t o t a l - r e s p o n s e
a v e ra g e s o f grade l e v e l,
e x p e rien c e,
an d f o r m a l t r a i n i n g g r o u p s w i t h
s i m i l a r a v e r a g e s o f co m bined
Y.
t e a c h e r r e s p o n s e s ..........................................................
103
S u m m a r y .......................................................................................
106
TEACHER INITIATION OF MOVEMENTS FOR
POLICY CHANGE.........................................................................
110
T e a c h e r s 1 and s u p e r i n t e n d e n t s 1 r e p l i e s
on t e a c h e r i n i t i a t i o n o f m ovem ents
f o r p o l ic y change
......................................................
110
C o m p ariso n o f p e r c e n t a g e s o f t e a c h e r s *
and s u p e r in te n d e n ts * r e p l i e s
..............................
114
E x tre m e v a r i a t i o n s i n p e r c e n t a g e s o f
r e p l i e s ...................................................................................
117
C o m p ariso n o f s i z e - g r o u p s * p e r c e n t a g e s
o f r e p l i e s on t e a c h e r i n i t i a t i o n o f
m ovem ents f o r p o l i c y f o r m a t i o n
...........................
C o m p ariso n o f t h e k i n d e r g a r t e n t o
e ig h th g ra d e , and j u n i o r h ig h sc h o o l
t e a c h e r g ro u p s* p e r c e n t a g e s o f r e p l i e s
on t e a e h e r i n i t i a t i o n o f m ovem ents f o r
119
T li
CHAPTER
PAGE
p o l ic y fo rm at io n
Summary . . . .
V I.
. ......................................................
119
* ...............................................................
120
DISTRIBUTION AND COMPARISONOF* REPLIES
TO SIX QUESTIONS DEALING WITH TEACHER
PARTICIPATION IN SCHOOL POLICY
DETERMINATION.........................................................................
122
I n t r o d u c t i o n .........................................................................
122
G o m p a riso n s o f r e p l i e s t o Q u e s t i o n I
.
123
C o m p a riso n s o f r e p l i e s t o Q u e s t i o n I I
. . .
C o m p a riso n o f r e p l i e s t o Q u e s t i o n I I I
. . . .
C o m p ariso n o f r e p l i e s t o Q u e s t i o n IV
. . .
C o m p ariso n o f r e p l i e s t o Q u e s t i o n
.
125
127
.
V .....................
C o m p a riso n o f r e p l i e s t o Q u e s t i o n VI
V II.
• • .
* . . .
129
130
154
S u m m a r y .......................................................................................
136
SUMMARY, CONCLUSIONS, AND RECOMMENDATIONS . . .
141
Summary o f t h e f i n d i n g s .................................
141
C o n c l u s i o n s ..............................................................................
148
R e c o m m e n d a t i o n s ...................................................................
151
B IBLIO G RA PH Y ......................................................................................
153
LIST, OF TABLES
TABLE
PAGE
I.
C l a s s i f i c a t i o n o f 144 S i g n i f i c a n t A r t i c l e s
on T e a c h e r - P a r t i c i p a t i o n L i s t e d by T i t l e
‘
H .
C o n ten t,
1 9 1 6 -1 9 4 0 ..........................................................
D is t r i b u ti o n of Q u e stio n n a ire s to T eachers
by S c h o o l - S i z e G r o u p s ......................................
III.
39
Numbers and P e r c e n t a g e s o f T e a c h e r R e p l i e s
fro m S c h o o l - S i z e G rou ps
V.
37
D i s t r i b u ti o n o f Q u e s tio n n a ire s to T each ers,
by S c h o o l D e p a r t m e n t s .................................................
IV .
15
........................
41
Numbers a n d P e r c e n t a g e s o f T e a c h e r s 1 R e p l i e s
fro m V a r i o u s E l e m e n t a r y and J u n i o r H igh
S c h o o l D e p a r t m e n t s ...........................................* . . .
V I.
Number a n d P e r c e n t a g e s o f S u p e r i n t e n d e n t s *
R e p l i e s f r o m S c h o o l - S i z e G roups
V II.
42
.........................
43
Summary o f I n f o r m a t i o n C o n c e r n i n g One
H u n d re d F o u r t e e n T e a c h e r s A n s w e rin g
t h e Q u e s t i o n n a i r e ..........................................................
V III.
45
Summary o f I n f o r m a t i o n C o n c e r n i n g T w enty
F o u r S u p e r i n t e n d e n t s and A d m i n i s t r a t i v e ,
O f f i c e r s A n s w e rin g t h e Q u e s t i o n n a i r e . . . .
IX .
47
S i g n i f i c a n t D i f f e r e n c e s i n E x i s t i n g and
I d e a l P ro c e d u re T o ta l-R e sp o n s e A verages
o f I n d i c a t e d G r o u p s .....................................................
91
ix
TABLE
X.
PAGE
In d ic a tio n s o f S ig n ific a n t D iffe re n c e s in
T o t a l R e s p o n s e A v e r a g e s on E x i s t i n g
C o n d i t i o n s , o f T e a c h e r an d A d m i n i s t r a t o r
G r o u p s ........................
X I.
. . . . . • . . .
. . . .
9 6 -9 7
In d ic a tio n s of S ig n ific a n t D iffe re n c e s in
T o ta 1 - R e s p o n s e A v e r a g e s o n S u g g e s t e d
I d e a l C o n d i t i o n s o f T e a c h e r and
A d m i n i s t r a t i v e G ro u p s
X II.
............................................
1 0 0 -1 0 1
S i g n i f i c a n t D i f f e r e n c e s i n th e T eachers*
and I n d i c a te d G ro u ps' T o ta l-R e sp o n s e
A verages . . . . . .
X III.
.................................................
1 0 4 -1 0 5
D i s t r i b u t i o n o f S u p e r i n te n d e n t s ' and
T e a c h e rs ’ R esponses I n d i c a ti n g
E x i s t i n g im o u n ts o f T ea ch e r I n i t i a t i o n
o f Movements f o r P o l i c y C hang es
XIV.
. . . . . .
Ill
G roup R e p l i e s I n d i c a t i n g T e a e h e r s Do
I n i t i a t e o r S h o u ld I n i t i a t e M ovem ents
f o r t h e Change o f S c h o o l P o l i c i e s
XV.
. . . . .
1 13
D i s t r i b u t i o n o f S u p e r i n te n d e n t s ' and
T e a c h e r s ’ R esp o n ses I n d i c a t i n g im o u n ts
o f T e a c h e r I n i t i a t i o n o f M ovem ents f o r
P o l i c y C h a n g es w h ic h S h o u ld E x i s t
XVI.
. . . . .
F requency D i s t r i b u ti o n o f R e p lie s to
Q u e stio n I :
Do T e a c h e r s Have t h e N e c e s s a r y
115
PAGE
TABLE
T r a i n i n g , E x p e r i e n c e and A b i l i t y t o
P a r t i c i p a t e i n t h e E O rm a tio n o f
A d m in istra tiv e P o lic ie s ?
XVTI.
124
............................................
F req uency D i s t r i b u t i o n o f R e p lie s to
Q u e stio n I I :
Do You T h in k T h a t P r e s e n t
T e a c h e r Load Makes i t M ost D i f f i c u l t f o r
T eachers to P a r t i c i p a t e E x te n siv e ly in
t h e F o r m a ti o n o f A d m i n i s t r a t i v e P o l i c i e s ?
126
*
X V I II . F r e q u e n c y D i s t r i b u t i o n o f R e p l i e s t o
Q u e stio n I I I :
I f y o u h a d y o u r C h o ic e Would
You P r e f e r t o Work i n a S c h o o l S y ste m Where
T eachers P a r t i c i p a t e d E x te n s iv e ly in th e
128
D e te rm in a tio n o f A d m in is tra tiv e P o l i c i e s ?
XIX.
F requency D i s t r i b u ti o n o f R e p lie s to
Q u e stio n IT :
C o n c ern in g T each er
P a r t i c i p a t i o n In th e D e te rm in a tio n o f
A d m i n i s t r a t i v e P o l i c y , Do you T h in k i t
Would be P r e f e r a b l e t o Have a n E s t a b l i s h e d
P r o c e d u r e , R e c o g n i z e d by Y our B o a rd o f
E d u c a t i o n ? ..............................................................
XX.
F requency D i s t r i b u ti o n o f R e p lie s to
Q u e stio n T:
H as t h e A d m i n i s t r a t i o n a n d
t h e B o a rd o f E d u c a t i o n i n Y o u r S c h o o l
D i s t r i c t R e c o g n i z e d and E s t a b l i s h e d a
. , .
.
131
xi
TABLE
‘
PAGE
P o l i c y C o n c ern in g T e a c h e r P a r t i c i p a t i o n
in th e D e te rm in a tio n of A d m in is tra tiv e
P o lic y ?
XXI.
....................
. . . . .
..................................
133
F requen cy D i s t r i b u t i o n o f R e p lie s to
Q u e s t i o n Y I:
Do You T h in k S c h o o l
A d m i n i s t r a t i o n can h e D e m o c r a t i c W ith o u t
T eacher P a r t i c i p a t i o n in th e D e te rm in a tio n
o f A d m i n i s t r a t i v e P o l i c y ? ......................................
X X II.
135
Summary o f T e a c h e r s * and S u p e r i n t e n d e n t s *
R e p lie s to S ix R e la te d Q u e stio n s . . . . . .
13?
LIST OF FIGURES
FIGURE
-I.
PAGE
Im p o rta n t S tu d ie s and F requency D i s t r i b u t i o n
o f A r t i c l e s o n T e a c h e r P a r t i c i p a t i o n .......................
2.
17
D i s t r i b u t i o n o f 1 1 4 T e a c h e r s * R e p l i e s on
E x i s t i n g and I d e a l P r o c e d u r e s f o r P o l i c y
D e te rm in a tio n
3.
. .
..........................................................
56
D i s t r i b u t i o n o f T w enty F o u r S u p e r i n t e n d e n t s *
R e p l i e s on E x i s t i n g a n d I d e a l P r o c e d u r e s
f o r P o l i c y D e t e r m i n a t i o n ................................................
4.
66
C o m p a riso n o f 1 1 4 T e a c h e r s * and Tw enty F o u r
S u p e r i n t e n d e n t s * R e p l i e s on E x i s t i n g
P ro c e d u re s f o r P o lic y D e te rm in a tio n
5.
C o m p ariso n o f 114 T e a c h e r s *
. . . .
.
73
and T w enty F o u r
S u p e rin te n d e n ts * R e p lie s on I d e a l
P ro c e d u re s f o r P o lic y D e te rm in a tio n
6.
. . . . .
77
D i s t r i b u t i o n of K in e ty K in d e rg a rte n -E ig h th
G rad e T e a c h e r s * R e p l i e s on E x i s t i n g a n d
I d e a l P r o c e d u r e s f o r P a r t i c i p a t i o n ................... .....
7.
80
D i s t r i b u t i o n o f T w enty F o u r J u n i o r H ig h
S c h o o l T e a c h e r s * R e p l i e s on E x i s t i n g and
I d e a l P r o c e d u r e s f o r P a r t i c i p a t i o n ........
8.
81
D i s t r i b u ti o n s o f E ig h te e n R e p lie s o f T each ers
fro m I — 20 T e a c h e r D i s t r i c t s on E x i s t i n g
and I d e a l P r o c e d u r e s ..........................................................
84
x iii
FIGURE
9*
PAGE
D i s t r i b u t i o n s o f T h ir ty E ig h t R e p lie s o f
T e a c h e r s f r o m E l — 60 T e a c h e r D i s t r i c t s on
E x i s t i n g and I d e a l P r o c e d u r e s ........................* * •
10.
D is tr ib u tio n s o f T h irty Four R e p lie s o f
T e a c h e r s fro m 61 — 150 T e a c h e r D i s t r i c t s on
E x i s t i n g a n d I d e a l P r o c e d u r e s ..................................
11.
86
D i s t r i b u t i o n s o f T w enty F o u r R e p l i e s o f
T e a c h e r s fro m More t h a n 150 T e a c h e r D i s t r i c t s
on E x i s t i n g a n d I d e a l P r o c e d u r e s
87
CHAPTER I
THE PROBLEM AND DEFINITION Of TERMS
One o f t h e g r o w i n g c o n c e r n s o f m odern e d u c a t o r s h a s
i
b e e n t h e p ro b le m o f d e m o c r a t i c s c h o o l c o n t r o l *
Many f a c t o r s
h a v e made t h e r e a l i z a t i o n o f s u c h c o n t r o l d i f f i c u l t ,
y et in ­
t e r e s t i n th e s u b je c t has i n d ic a te d an in c r e a s in g aw areness
of its
i m p o r t a n c e i n p r o m o t i n g a g e n u in e d e m o c r a t i c o r d e r . 2
The p r e s e n t s t u d y was a n o u t g r o w t h o f t h i s movement
f o r a m ore e x t e n s i v e a p p l i c a t i o n o f d e m o c r a t i c p r o c e d u r e s i n
th e o p e r a tio n o f th e s c h o o ls ,
. I.
THE PROBLEM
S t a t e m e n t o f th e p r o b l e m .
The p u r p o s e o f t h i s s t u d y
was t o i n v e s t i g a t e t h e m e th o d s u s e d f o r d e t e r m i n i n g a d m i n i s ­
t r a t i v e p o l i c i e s i n v a r i o u s Los A n g e le s C ounty s c h o o l s .
A
q u e s t i o n n a i r e s t u d y was c o n d u c t e d , t h e p u r p o s e o f w h ic h was
to s e c u re in fo rm a tio n on:
e d an d s u g g e s t e d ,
( 1 ) t h e t y p e s o f p r o c e d u r e s e m p lo y ­
a s r e p o r t e d by t e a c h e r s and s u p e r i n te n d e n t s ,
H. A. B u rk e , "Demands o f D em ocracy on S c h o o l Admin­
i s t r a t i o n , " E d u c a tio n a l A d m in is tr a tio n and S u p e r v is io n ,
1 7 : 8 8 , F e b r u a r y , 19 3 1 .
2 J o h n Dewey, "D em ocracy and E d u c a t i o n a l A d m i n i s t r a t i o n , " N a t i o n a l E d u c a t i o n A s s o c i a t i o n D e p a r tm e n t o f S u p e r i n ­
t e n d e n c e , O f f i c i a l R e p o r t , 52, 1 9 3 7 .
( 2 ) t h e e x i s t i n g a n d d e s i r a b l e am o u n ts o f t e a c h e r i n i t i a t i o n
o f m ovem ents f o r p o l i c y f o r m a t i o n a s r e p o r t e d b y t e a c h e r s a n d
a d m in istra to rs,
and (5) th e a w are n e ss of t e a c h e r s and a d m in i­
s t r a t o r s t o th e p r o b le m s o f d e m o c r a t i c a d m i n i s t r a t i o n a s r e ­
v e a l e d b y t h e i r r e p l i e s t o s i x q u e s t i o n s e a c h o f w h ic h was
r e l a t e d t o some p h a s e o f t h e p r o b l e m ,
F u rth erm o re,
co m p a ri­
s o n s w e re made o f t h e t e a c h e r s ’ and s u p e r i n t e n d e n t s ’ r e p l i e s
when t h e y w ere a r r a n g e d i n t o v a r i o u s g r o u p s f o r i n d i c a t i o n s
o f s p e c i a l c o n d i t i o n s w h ic h m i g h t h a v e b e e n d u e t o t h e n a t u r e
o f th e g ro u p in g s.
A l l L os A n g e le s C o u n ty e l e m e n t a r y a n d
j u n i o r h i g h s c h o o l s w h ic h o p e r a t e d u n d e r d i s t r i c t s u p e r i n ­
t e n d e n t s w e re i n c l u d e d .
I m p o r ta n c e o f t h e s t u d y .
D u r i n g t h e p a s t few y e a r s a
r a t h e r l a r g e num ber o f w r i t e r s h a v e r e p o r t e d t h e w i d e s p r e a d
u s e o f a u t o c r a t i c m e th o d s i n t h e a d m i n i s t r a t i o n o f s c h o o l s .
g
These a u th o r s have r e f e r e d to t e a c h e r p a r t i c i p a t i o n in th e
® T . W. G o s l i n g , "A cadem ic F re ed o m — f ro m t h e View­
p o in t o f S u p e r i n te n d e n t ," n a t i o n a l E d u c a tio n A s s o c ia tio n
A d d re ss e s and P r o c e e d in g s , 7 2 :8 2 , 1934.
S, A. C o u r t i s , " G e t t i n g C o o p e r a t i o n , " n a t i o n ’ s
S c h o o l s , 2 1 : 3 5 , -M a rch , 1 9 3 8 .
H a r l a n U p d e g r a f f , "The P a r t i c i p a t i o n o f T e a c h e r s i n
S c h o o l M a n a g e m e n t," E d u c a t i o n a l R e v ie w , 6 0 : 5 2 , J u n e , 1 9 2 0 .
d e t e r m i n a t i o n o f s c h o o l p o l i c i e s a s an i n h e r e n t d e m o c r a t i c
rig h t of s e lf d ire c tio n .4
I t was p o i n t e d o u t t h a t d e m o c r a t i c
p r o c e d u r e s a l o n e p e r m i t t h e s a t i s f a c t i o n o f h a s i c human u r g e s
a n d i n t u r n p r o m o te d e s i r a b l e p s y c h o l o g i c a l r e a c t i o n s . ^
Some
h a r e c o n t e n d e d t h e r e w ere p r a c t i c a l r e a s o n s f o r c o o p e r a t i o n
i n m a k in g s c h o o l p o l i c i e s .
The c o m p l e x i t y a n d e x t e n t o f t h e
s i t u a t i o n w as shown t o demand t h e u s e o f t h e i n f o r m a t i o n
p o sse sse d by te a c h e rs .
The n e e d f o r t e a c h e r s t o know t h e
p o l i c i e s I n o r d e r t o c a r r y them o u t e f f i c i e n t l y was a l s o i n ­
d ic a te d . ®
On t h e o t h e r h an d t h e a u t o c r a t i c m e th o d o f d e t e r ­
m in in g and e x e c u tin g p o l i c i e s h a s been q u e s tio n e d b e c a u s e o f
4 L o t u s B. C offm an, "The R eed f o r t h e S u b s t i t u t i o n o f
a C o o p e r a t i v e Type o f S c h o o l O r g a n i z a t i o n f o r t h e P r e s e n t
S y s t e m , " A m e ric an S c h o o l B o ard J o u r n a l , 5 9 : 3 0 , S e p te m b e r ,
1919.
5 Bewey, L o c. c i t .
N. L . E n g e l h a r d t , " T e a c h e r P a r t i c i p a t i o n I n S c h o o l
A d m i n i s t r a t i o n , " E d u c a t i o n a l P r o g ra m s f o r T od ay and Tomorrow,
2 3 :2 1 2 , ( U n i v e r s it y o f P e n n s y lv a n ia B u l l e t i n , Ju n e, 1 9 3 6 ).
C.
H. Kumpf, and C. La F . Rumpf, " V a lu e s o f C o o p e r­
a t i v e A d m i n i s t r a t i o n , " Y e a rb o o k o f t h e B e p a r t m e n t o f E le m e n ­
t a r y S c h o o l P r i n c i p a l s , 1 6 : 2 9 6 , " [ N a ti o n a l E d u c a t i o n A s s o c i a ­
t i o n , "T 937 T .
J . C. Alm ack, and A. B. Lang, P r o b l e m s o f t h e T e a c h ­
i n g P r o f e s s i o n ( B o s t o n : H o u g h to n M i f f l i n C o ., 1 9 2 5 ) ,
p p . 121-32.
6 E n g elh ard t,
0]3. c i t . , p . 2 1 6.
W. W. C a r p e n t e r , " S u g g e s t i o n S y s t e m , " P e a b o d y J o u m a l o f E d u c a tio n , 8 :1 3 , J u ly , 1930.
th e c o n c o m ita n t p s y c h o lo g ic a l i l l e f f e c t s i n h e r e n t i n th e
p ro c e d u re .7
T h i s s t u d y was u n d e r t a k e n i n o r d e r t o i n v e s t i g a t e t h e
n a tu r e o f d e m o c ra tic a d m i n i s t r a t i o n and th e v a l i d i t y o f th e
c l a i m s t h a t t h e s c h o o l s w e re a u t o c r a t i c a l l y a d m i n i s t e r e d .
Few s i g n i f i c a n t s t u d i e s w e re f o u n d a v a i l a b l e *
( 1 9 2 0 ) , 8 S e a r s ( 1 9 2 1 ) , 9 Almaek (1 9 2 5 )
,
U p d eg raff
Cooke a n d S c h m it z
( 1 9 3 2 ) , C a r p e n t e r ( 1 9 3 2 ) , 12 a n d M o ser ( 1 9 3 8 ) ^ 3 h a v e made
th e m ost w o rth w ile s t u d i e s t o d a te and t h e s e ,
w i t h one e x c e p -
^ J . H* B l a c k h u r s t , “ S c h o o l A d m i n i s t r a t i o n Tomorrow,**
A m e ric an S c h o o l B o a rd J o u r n a l , 9 5 : 5 6 , Novem ber, 1 9 3 7 .
Dewey, l o c . c i t .
8 H a r l a n U p d e g r a f f , “'R e p o rt o f t h e C o m m ittee o n P a r t i c i ­
p a t i o n o f T e a c h e r s i n S c h o o l M a n a g e m e n t,“ E l e m e n t a r y S c h o o l
J o u r n a l, 2 2 :7 8 3 -8 8 , June, 1922.
9 j . e . S e a r s , “T e a c h e r P a r t i c i p a t i o n i n P u b l i c S c h o o l
A d m i n i s t r a t i o n , “ A m e ric an S c h o o l B o a rd J o u r n a l , 6 3 : 2 9 - 3 2 ,
113-14, O c to b er, 1921.
Almack a n d L ang,
op. c i t *, p p ; 114 -3 2 .
D.
H. Cooke, and B. A. S c h m itz , “P a r t i c i p a t i o n o f
T e a c h e r s i n t h e A d m i n i s t r a t i o n o f S n a i l H ig h S c h o o l s , M
S c h o o l R eview , 4 0 : 4 4 - 5 0 , J a n u a r y , 1 9 3 2 .
1% W, W, C a r p e n t e r , “P a r t i c i p a t i o n o f T e a c h e r s i n t h e
D e te rm in a tio n o f School P o l i c i e s , “ Peabody J o u rn a l o f E duca­
t i o n , 9 :2 3 4 -3 8 , J a n u a ry , 1932.
13 W il b u r E . M o se r, “D e g r e e o f S a t i s f a c t i o n i n F u n c ­
t i o n s o f A d m i n i s t r a t i o n , “ (U n p u b lish e d D o c t o r 's d i s s e r t a t i o n ,
P a l o A l t o , C a l i f o r n i a : L e l a n d S t a n f o r d U n i v e r s i t y , 1 9 3 8 ),
p . 12.
tio n ,
d e a l t w ith r e l a t i v e l y n arro w p h a s e s o f t h e p ro b lem .
None h a d t o do w i t h t h e l o c a l s i t u a t i o n .
II.
D e m o c ra c y .
DEFINITION OF TERMS
D em ocracy a s u s e d I n t h i s s t u d y r e f e r e d t o
th e a p p l i c a t i o n o f th e a b s t r a c t id e a lo g i c a l c o n c e p tio n o f th e
word t o a way o f l i v i n g — a t y p e o f s o c i a l a n d e c o n o m ic o r d e r .
F o u r e x p r e s s i o n s o f q u a l i f i e d w r i t e r s w e re l i s t e d b e lo w , p r e ­
c e d i n g t h e summary s t a t e m e n t r e p r e s e n t i n g t h e d e f i n i t i o n u s e d
th ro u g h o u t th e i n v e s tig a tio n .
The q u o t a t i o n s f o l l o w : (1 )
d e m o c rac y I s a " . . . g u a r a n t e e d e q u a l i t y o f o p p o r t u n i t y t o
a c h i e v e maximum h a p p i n e s s ,
se lf-e x p re ssio n ,
J u s tic e ,
fre e d o m o f r e a s o n a b l e
and a v o id a n c e o f d i c t a t i o n ,
d o m in a tio n o r
e x p l o i t a t i o n e x c e p t I n r a r e e m e rg e n c y eases";**-4 (2 ) " d e m o c ra c y
m eans t h a t a l l c o n c e r n e d i n a n e n t e r p r i s e m u s t t a k e some p a r t
i n d e t e r m i n i n g t h e p o l i c i e s a n d p ro g ra m s a s w e l l a s i n e x e 15
c u t i n g th e m " ;
(3 ) " d e m o c ra c y p r e a c h e s t h e i n a l i e n a b l e r i g h t
o f every In d iv id u a l to p a r t i c i p a t e in d e c isio n s th a t a f f e c t h is
1
l i f e and l i b e r t y " ;
and (4 ) d e m o c ra c y i s e x p r e s s e d I n t h e
D, P . E g i n t o n , " I s D e m o c r a t i c A d m i n i s t r a t i o n o f
S c h o o l s P r a c t i c a b l e ? " A m e ric a n S c h o o l B o a rd J o u r n a l , 8 6 : 1 5 ,
June, 1933.
S t e l l a H e r r o n , "The p a r t t h e T e a c h e r S h o u ld P l a y i n
t h e A d m i n i s t r a t i o n o f t h e S c h o o l S y s t e m , " A m e ric a n S c h o o l
B o a rd J o u r n a l , 6 1 : 4 0 , A u g u s t, 1920.
^
C o u rtis ,
o p . c i t . , p . 35.
" s o c i a l o r g a n i z a t i o n t h a t a im s t o p ro m o te c o o p e r a t i o n among
i t s m em bers and w i t h o t h e r g r o u p s on t h e b a s i s o f m u t u a l
17
re c o g n itio n o f i n t e r e s t , "
From t h e s e f o u r f u n d a m e n t a l s t a t e m e n t s t h e f o l l o w i n g
d e f i n i t i o n was t a k e n and u s e d t h r o u g h o u t t h e s t u d y : d e m o c ra c y
i s a p h i l o s o p h y and a m e th o d o f p r o c e d u r e w h ic h r e c o g n i z e s
and m a i n t a i n s t h e s i n g u l a r i m p o r t a n c e o f a n d r e s p e c t f o r p e r ­
s o n a l i t y , human v a l u e s ,
and t h e m e th o d s o f p r e s e r v i n g and
p r o m o t i n g them , when human v a l u e s a r e d e f i n e d a s h a p p i n e s s ,
f re e d o m o f r e a s o n a b l e s e l f e x p r e s s i o n ,
o f o p p o rtu n ity ,
j u s t i c e an d e q u a l i t y
and when t h e m eans o f s e c u r i n g them a r e p r o ­
t e c t e d by th e p a r t i c i p a t i o n o f e v e ry i n d i v i d u a l in d e c is io n s
w hich a f f e c t h i s l i f e a n d l i b e r t y .
S c h o o l Admini s t r a t i o n .
A d m i n i s t r a t i o n was d e f i n e d a s
t h e m anagem ent an d d i r e c t i o n o f s c h o o l a f f a i r s and p e r s o n n e l .
F o u r p h a s e s w ere i n v o l v e d , n a m e ly ,
w hat t o do and how t o do i t ,
(1 ) k n o w in g o r f i n d i n g o u t
(2 ) p r e p a r i n g t h e n e c e s s a r y p l a n s
and p ro c e d u re s f o r c a r r y i n g o u t th e f i n d in g s ,
(3 ) e x e c u t i n g
o r d i r e c t i n g t h e e x e c u t i o n o f t h e p l a n s , and (4 ) c h e c k i n g
IS
re s u lts .
P o i n t s one and two w ere l e g i s l a t i v e o r c r e a t i v e
^ Boyd H. B ode, M odern E d u c a t i o n a l T h e o r i e s (Hew Y o rk :
M a c m illa n Company, 1 9 2 7 ) , p p . 3 - 2 1 .
18 J , B. S e a r s , " A n a l y s i s o f S c h o o l A d m i n i s t r a t i v e
C o n t r o l , " E d u c a t i o n a l A d m i n i s t r a t i o n and S u p e r v i s i o n , 2 0 : 4 0 9 ,
S e p te m b e r, 1 9 3 4 .
7
in n a tu r e ; p o in t th r e e was th e e x e c u t iv e p h a se ; and p o in t fo u r
in v o lv e d e v a lu a t io n .
A d m in istra tiv e p o lic y .
A d m i n i s t r a t i v e p o l i c y was d e ­
f i n e d a s t h e r u l e s and r e g u l a t i o n s g o v e r n i n g a d m i n i s t r a t i v e
a c tio n .
T h is i n v o l v e d t h e l e g i s l a t i v e p h a s e o f a d m i n i s t r a t i o n .
D e m o c r a tic s c h o o l a d m i n i s t r a t i o n .
The d e f i n i t i o n o f
d e m o c r a t i c s c h o o l a d m i n i s t r a t i o n u s e d i n t h i s s t u d y was c r e ­
a t e d by s u m m a riz in g t h e s t a t e m e n t s o f s e v e r a l e d u c a t i o n a l
a u t h o r i t i e s who h a d w r i t t e n on t h e s u b j e c t .
The a u t h o r s whose
s t a t e m e n t s w e re su m m arized w ere G o u r t i s , T ea d ,
th e N a tio n a l
E d u c a t i o n A s s o c i a t i o n P o l i c i e s C om m ission, B a k e r , a n d Dewey.
E s s e n tia lly t h e i r sta te m e n ts,
i n tu rn , w ere:
(1) d e m o c ra tic
a d m i n i s t r a t i o n was r e p r e s e n t e d a s a p r o c e s s i n w h ich t h e
l e g i s l a t i v e p h a s e was c o n d u c t e d on an e q u a l i t a r i a n b a s i s a s
f a r a s t h e s t a f f and a d m i n i s t r a t i v e o f f i c e r s w e re c o n c e r n e d ,
an d i n w h ic h t h e e x e c u t i v e p h a s e was c a r r i e d o u t by t h e
19
d e le g a te d o f f i c e r s a c t i n g a s a g e n ts o f th e g ro u p ;
(2 ) democ­
ra c y i n a d m in is tr a tio n n e c e s s a r i l y in v o lv e d th e r e c o g n itio n
20
o f th e p r i n c i p le o f r e p r e s e n ta tio n of i n t e r e s t s ;
(3 ) by
d e fin itio n ,
d e m o c rac y i n a d m i n i s t r a t i o n i m p l i e d t h a t t h e i n ­
C o u rtis ,
o p . c i t . , p . 36.
20 Ordway T ead , "D em ocracy in A d m i n i s t r a t i o n , tr S o c i a l
E r o n t i e r , 3 :1 0 5 , J a n u a ry , 1937.
t e l l e c t u a l r e s o u r c e s o f t h e e n t i r e s t a f f w ere a c c e s s i b l e and
em p lo y ed f o r d e t e r m i n i n g p o l i c i e s a n d p r o c e d u r e s w h ic h
a f f e c t e d th e e n t i r e g r o u p ;2^ (4) f o r a d m i n i s t r a t i o n to he
d e m o c r a t i c no f u n d a m e n t a l e d u c a t i o n a l , p o l i c y c o u l d h e made o r
e n a c t e d t h a t h a d n o t b e e n commonly a g r e e d upon o r e v o lv e d b y
c o o p e r a t i v e a c t i o n ; 22 an d ( 5 ) d e m o c r a t i c a d m i n i s t r a t i o n was
f o u n d w here e v e r y t e a c h e r h a d some r e g u l a r c o n s t i t u t i o n a l way,
d i r e c t l y o r th ro u g h d e m o c r a tic a lly chosen r e p r e s e n t a t i v e s ,
to
e x p r e s s a c o n s e q u e n t i a l ju d g m e n t on i m p o r t a n t e d u c a t i o n a l m a t ­
t e r s and to p a r t i c i p a t e i n th e fo rm a tio n o f th e c o n t r o l l i n g
a im s , m e th o d s a n d m a t e r i a l s i n t h e s c h o o l o f w h ic h h e w as a
p a r t . 23
D e m o c ratic a d m i n i s t r a t i o n ,
t h e n , was d e l i n e a t e d a s
t h a t t y p e o f a d m i n i s t r a t i o n i n w h ic h a l l v i t a l e d u c a t i o n a l ,
p o l i c i e s r e p r e s e n t e d t h e c o n s e q u e n t i a l ju d g m e n ts o f t h e e n ­
tire
school p e rso n n e l,
and i n w h ich t h e e x e c u t i o n o f t h e p o l -
21 N a t i o n a l E d u c a t i o n A s s o c i a t i o n and A m e ric an A s s o c i ­
a t i o n o f S c h o o l A d m i n i s t r a t o r s , E d u c a t i o n a l P o l i c i e s Commis­
s i o n , The S t r u c t u r e a n d A dm inis t r a t i o n o f E d u c a t i o n i n
A m e ric a n democ r a c y (W a s h in g to n , D. C . : t h e c o m m issio n , 1 9 3 8 ),
p* 1 2 8 .
22 F , E . B a k e r , " E x t e n d i n g D em ocracy t o S c h o o l Admin­
i s t r a t i o n , n A m e ric a n T e a c h e r , 2 2 : 2 6 , S e p te m b e r, 1 9 3 7 .
23 J o h n Dewey, "D em ocracy f o r t h e T e a c h e r , " P r o g r e s s ­
i v e E d u c a t i o n , 8 : 2 1 6 - 1 8 , M arch, 1 93 1.
J o h n Dewey, "D em ocracy and E d u c a t i o n a l A d m i n i s t r a t i o n , " N a t i o n a l E d u c a t i o n A s s o c i a t i o n D e p a r tm e n t o f S u p e r i n ­
t e n d e n c e , O f f i c i a l R e p o r t , p . 53, 1 9 3 7 .
i c i e s was c a r r ie d o u t by o f f i c i a l l y d e s ig n a te d o f f i c e r s a c t ­
in g a s a g e n ts o f th e grou p .
III.
tu rn ,
ORGANIZATION OF THE STUDY
The s t u d y was o r g a n i z e d i n t o s e v e n c h a p t e r s *
Each,
d e a l t w ith th e fo llo w in g p h a se s o f th e s tu d y :
(1) th e
p r o b le m , d e f i n i t i o n o f t e r m s , an d c h a p t e r o r g a n i z a t i o n ,
th e rev ie w o f r e l a t e d
ground o f th e s u b j e c t ,
in
(2 )
s tu d ie s in c lu d in g th e h i s t o r i c a l b ack ­
(3 ) t h e p r o c e d u r e s em ployed i n c o n ­
d u c t i n g t h e s t u d y i n c l u d i n g a l l p h a s e s fro m d e f i n i n g t e r m s t o
a d e t a i l e d a c c o u n t o f t h e m eth o d o f a n a l y s i s o f q u e s t i o n n a i r e
re tu rn s,
(4) th e f in d in g s r e l a t e d to th e ty p e s o f p ro c e d u re s
e x i s t i n g an d s u g g e s t e d a s r e p o r t e d by t e a c h e r s a n d a d m i n i s ­
tra to rs,
(5 ) t h e f i n d i n g s r e l a t e d t o e x i s t i n g a n d d e s i r a b l e
a m o u n ts o f t e a c h e r i n i t i a t i o n o f m ovem ents f o r p o l i c y f o r m a ­
tio n ,
(6 ) t h e f i n d i n g s r e l a t e d t o t e a c h e r a n d s u p e r i n t e n d e n t
a w a r e n e s s t o t h e p r o b le m s o f d e m o c r a t i c a d m i n i s t r a t i o n a s r e ­
v e a l e d by t h e i r r e p l i e s t o s i x q u e s t i o n s ,
and ( 7 ) t h e summary,
c o n c l u s i o n s and re c o m m e n d a tio n s o f t h e s t u d y .
CHAPTER I I
REVIEW. OF RELATED STUDIES
C o n s i d e r i n g t h e volum e o f w r i t i n g on e d u c a t i o n a l t o p i c
th e m a t e r i a l a v a i l a b l e on t e a c h e r p a r t i c i p a t i o n in th e fo rm a­
tio n o f a d m in is tr a tiv e p o l ic i e s i s r a th e r sm a ll.
o f t h e s t u d i e s h a v e b e e n made i n t h e l a s t
A lm o st a l l
t w e n ty y e a r s , ^
E a r l y i n v e s t i g a t i o n s w ere c o m p le te d i n 1919 a n d 1920 by
U p d e g r a f f , 2 f o l l o w e d by t h o s e o f O rtm an^ and S e a r s 4 i n 1 921,
M o rriso n
n
i n 1925, Cooke a n d S c h m itz
an d C a r p e n t e r 7 i n 19 52,
Jo h n C. Almack, E d u c a t i o n f o r C i t i z e n s h i p ,
H o u g h to n M i f f l i n C o ,, 1 9 2 4 ) , p p . 2 1 - 3 9 .
(B o sto n :
^ H a r l a n U p d e g r a f f , " R e p o r t o f t h e C om m ittee o n S u p e r ­
i n t e n d e n t s r P r o b l e m s , " ( C o o p e r a t i o n I n M aking C o u r s e s o f
S tu d y ), P ro c e e d in g s o f th e R a tio n a l E d u c a tio n A s s o c ia t io n ,
4 7 :6 7 5 -7 1 6 , 1919.
® E . J . O rtm an, •'T e a c h e r C o u n c i l s , " A m e ric a n S c h o o l
B o a rd J o u r n a l , 6 2 : 4 9 - 5 0 , 113, A p r i l , L 921.
4 J . B. S e a r s , " T e a c h e r P a r t i c i p a t i o n i n P u b l i c S c h o o l
A d m i n i s t r a t i o n , " A m erican S c h o o l B o a rd J o u r n a l , 6 5 : 2 9 - 3 2 ,
1 1 3 - 1 1 4 , O c t o b e r , 192 1.
^ J o h n Cayce M o r r i s o n , L e g a l S t a t u s o f C i t y S c h o o l
S u p e r i n t e n d e n t s , ( B a l t i m o r e : W a ric k and T o r k I n c . , 1 9 2 2 ) ,
p p . 99-120.
6 D. H. Cooke a n d B. A. S c h m itz , " P a r t i c i p a t i o n o f
T e a c h e r s i n t h e A d m i n i s t r a t i o n o f S m a ll H ig h S c h o o l s , "
S c h o o l R eview ,. 4 0 : 4 4 - 5 0 , J a n u a r y , 1 9 3 2 ..
7 W. W. C a r p e n t e r , " P a r t i c i p a t i o n o f T e a c h e r s I n t h e
D e te rm in a tio n o f School P o l i c i e s , " Peabody J o u r n a l of E ducat i o n , 9 :2 3 4 -3 8 , Ja n u a ry , 1932.
a n d Moser® a n d E l d r i d g e L. McSwain^ i n 1 9 3 7 - 3 8 .
A ' b r i e f h i s t o r i c a l s k e t c h o f t h e l i t e r a t u r e on t h e d e ­
v e lo p m e n t o f t e a c h e r p a r t i c i p a t i o n i n f o r m i n g s c h o o l p o l i ­
c ie s,
a s r e p o r t e d i n e d u c a t i o n a l m a g a z i n e s and b o o k s, p r e ­
cedes a d e ta il e d account o f th e v a rio u s im p o rta n t s tu d ie s .
As f a r a s c o u l d b e a s c e r t a i n e d t h e f i r s t
form al stu d y
t o i n v e s t i g a t e t h e n a t u r e and amount o f t e a c h e r p a r t i c i p a t i o n
w h ic h e x i s t e d i n s c h o o l s t h r o u g h o u t t h e c o u n t r y was u n d e r ­
t a k e n i n 1919 by t h e N a t i o n a l E d u c a t i o n A s s o c i a t i o n ' s Commit­
t e e on A d m i n i s t r a t i v e P r o b le m s h e a d e d by U p d e g r a f f .
T h is
f i r s t s t u d y may h a v e b e e n d u e t o a c o n s i d e r a b l e amount o f
c r i t i c a l t h i n k i n g w hich d e v e l o p e d a s a c o n s e q u e n c e o f t h e
W orld W a r . ^
Not u n t i l 1918 d i d R e a d e r s ' G uide t o P e r i o d i c a l
L i t e r a t u r e l i s t an a r t i c l e on t e a c h e r p a r t i c i p a t i o n .
f o l l o w i n g y e a r t h e r e w ere t e n a r t i c l e s ,
a r t i c l e s in 1920.
From t h i s p o i n t on,
The
fo llo w e d by fo u r te e n
t h e am ou nt o f w r i t i n g
h a s v a r i e d fro m y e a r t o y e a r , w i t h t h e g r e a t e s t number o f
® W il b u r E. M o ser, " T e a c h e r P a r t i c i p a t i o n i n S c h o o l
A d m i n i s t r a t i o n : I t s N a t u r e , E x t e n t , and D e g ree o f A d v o c a c y ,"
(U n p u b lish ed D o c t o r 's D i s s e r t a t i o n , P a lo A lto , C a l i f o r n i a :
S t a n f o r d U n i v e r s i t y , 1 9 3 8 ) , p p . 300.
9 E l d r i d g e L. McSwain, " C o o p e r a t i o n a s T e a c h e r s and
A d m i n i s t r a t o r s Yiew I t , " E l e v e n t h Y e a rb o o k o f t h e N a t i o n a l
E d u c a t i o n A s s o c i a t i o n , D e p a r tm e n t o f S u p e r v i s o r s and D i r e c t ­
o r s o f I n s t r u c t i o n , 1 9 39, p p . 1 5 3 - 7 6 .
^ Y. T. T h a y e r , " D e m o c r a t i c S c h o o l A d m i n i s t r a t i o n , "
E d u c a tio n a l A d m in is tr a tio n and S u p e r v is io n , 1 1 :3 6 1 -7 2 , Sep­
te m b e r , 1 9 2 9 . E. C. B ro o k s , E d u c a t i o n f o r D e m o c ra c y ,
( C h i c a g o : Rand M cN ally C o ., 1 9 1 9 ) , p p . 7 0 - 9 .
12
a r t i c l e s a n d s t u d i e s b e i n g p u b l i s h e d i n 1925,
1938.
In th e s e y e a rs f i f t e e n ,
fo u rte e n ,
a r t i c l e s r e s p e c t i v e l y w ere p u b l i s h e d .
1929, 1937 and
t w e n ty and t h i r t e e n
D u rin g each o f th e s e
y e a r s a p p r o x i m a t e l y t h r e e t i m e s a s many a r t i c l e s a p p e a r e d a s
com pared t o t h e i n t e r v e n i n g y e a r s . 11
The r e c e n t s t u d i e s h a v e
b e e n v e r y c o m p r e h e n s iv e i n n a t u r e .
S tu d ie s on t h e s t a t u s o f t e a c h e r p a r t i c i p a t i o n in
s c h o o l a d m i n i s t r a t i v e p o l i c y f o r m a t i o n . The s t u d y o f
12
U p d eg raff
made i n 1919 f o r t h e N a t i o n a l E d u c a t i o n A s s o c i a ­
t i o n was a r e p o r t on t h e p r a c t i c e s b e i n g u s e d by t h e N a t i o n ’ s
s c h o o l s i n m a k in g c o u r s e s o f s t u d y , a n d s u p e r i n t e n d e n t s * r e ­
a c t i o n s to th e c o o p e r a tiv e d ev elo p m en t o f t h e s e c o u r s e s .
O rtm an
s u p p l i m e n t e d t h i s s t u d y b y m a k in g an a n a l y s i s o f t h e
k i n d s o f o r g a n i z a t i o n s u s e d f o r t e a c h e r c o o p e r a t i o n i n a d m in ­
i s t r a t i v e p o l i c y m a k in g .
S e a r s 1^ e x t e n d e d t h e p r e v i o u s s t u d y
b y e x a m in i n g t h e la w s an d r e g u l a t i o n s u n d e r w h ic h t h e e o u n 15
c i l ty p e o r g a n i z a t i o n s o p e r a t e d . M o rris o n
l a t e r in v e s ti-
^ T h e s e n u m b ers w ere s e c u r e d b y c o u n t i n g t h e a r t i c l e s
on t h e s u b j e c t i n R e a d e r s G uid e t o P e r i o d i c a l L i t e r a t u r e and
t h e E d u o a t i o n I n d e x . . A t a b l e sh o w in g t h i s d a t a a p p e a r s o n
P*
12 U p d e g r a f f , l o c . c i t .
O rtm an, l o c . c i t .
S e a rs , o p . c i t . , p p . 29-32.
M o rriso n , l o c . c i t .
13
g a te d th e m a tte r o f l e g a l i z i n g t e a c h e r o r g a n iz a tio n s f o r
p a rtic ip a tio n ,
i n d ic a t i n g a ls o th e p h a ses o f sch o o l a d m in is­
tra tio n
i n w h ich t e a c h e r p a r t i c i p a t i o n s h o u l d h e l e g a l i z e d .
xc
Cooke an d S c h m itz
made a s t u d y o f t h e am ount o f t e a c h e r
p a r t i c i p a t i o n w h ic h e x i s t e d i n a l i s t o f s p e c i f i c a c t i v i t i e s ,
in q u ir in g a lso
i n t o t h e num ber o f t e a c h e r s a n d a d m i n i s t r a t o r s
17
who b e l i e v e d t e a c h e r s s h o u l d p a r t i c i p a t e .
C a rp en ter
car­
r i e d on a n e x p e r i m e n t i n M i s s o u r i t o n o t e r e a c t i o n s o f t e a c h ­
e r s and s u p e r i n t e n d e n t s t o a s u g g e s t i o n s y s te m o f t e a c h e r
p a rtic ip a tio n ,
n o tin g a l s o th e f i e l d s th o u g h t a d v is a b le f o r
en co u rag in g te a c h e r s u g g e s tio n s .
A m o s t c o m p r e h e n s iv e s t u d y
18
was c a r r i e d on b y M o s e r .
He i n v e s t i g a t e d t h e n a t u r e , e x ­
t e n t and d e g re e o f ad vocacy o f t e a c h e r p a r t i c i p a t i o n i n
s c h o o l a d m i n i s t r a t i o n w i t h r e g a r d t o a l a r g e num ber o f s p e ­
c if i c a d m in istra tiv e a c t i v i t i e s .
A s e c o n d c o m p r e h e n s iv e
s t u d y was u n d e r t a k e n b y t h e n a t i o n a l E d u c a t i o n A s s o c i a t i o n ,
19
D e p a r tm e n t o f S u p e r v i s o r s a n d D i r e c t o r s o f I n s t r u c t i o n .
T h i s i n v e s t i g a t i o n c o m p riz e d t h e E l e v e n t h Y e a rb o o k o f t h a t
o rg a n iz a tio n .
The s u b j e c t s c o v e r e d i n t h e i r q u e s t i o n n a i r e
%
3*6 co o k e a n d S c h m itz , l o c . c i t .
17 C a r p e n t e r ,
lo c . c i t .
1® M o ser, l o c . c i t .
1® McSwain, l o c . c i t .
14
s t u d y c o n c e r n e d a t t i t u d e s and p r a c t i c e s i n t h e N a tio n * s
s c h o o l s r e l a t i v e t o t h e p l a c e o f t h e s c h o o l i n a d e m o c ra c y ,
t h e e x t e n t and d e s i r e f o r t e a c h e r p a r t i c i p a t i o n and t h e a d ­
v a n t a g e s and d i s a d v a n t a g e s o f t h e sam e.
A r t i c l e s a n d r e f e r e n c e s on t e a c h e r -p a r t i c i p a t i o n .
A lm o st a l l o f ' t h e a r t i c l e s on t h e s u b j e c t a p p e a r i n g i n e d u c a ­
t i o n a l m a g a z i n e s e x p r e s s e d some p o i n t f a v o r i n g t e a c h e r p a r t i ­
c ip a tio n .
T h e se s u g g e s t i o n s v a r i e d w i d e l y a s t o t h e a m ou nt,
k i n d a n d a r e a s o f p a r t i c i p a t i o n w hieh w e re d e s i r a b l e .
A c h e c k was made on t h e t i t l e s o f 144 s i g n i f i c a n t
a r t i c l e s 2^ p e r t a i n i n g t o t e a c h e r p a r t i c i p a t i o n i n d e t e r m i n i n g
s c h o o l p o l i c i e s c o v e r i n g a p e r i o d o f t w e n t y t h r e e y e a r s fro m
1918 t o 1 9 4 1 .
T h e s e a r t i c l e s w e re c l a s s i f i e d u n d e r t w e l v e
s e p a r a te h e a d in g s a c c o rd in g to th e d i f f e r e n t p o i n t s o f
e m p h a s is a n d a r e a s o f d i s c u s s i o n *
a r e shown on T a b l e I .
The r e s u l t s o f t h i s c h e c k
To t h e d e g r e e i n w hich t h e t i t l e s r e ­
f l e c t t h e p o i n t o f e m p h a s is o f t h e a r t i c l e s ,
i t was shown
t h a t a p r e d o m i n a n t p a r t o f t h e s u b j e c t s w ere c o n c e r n e d w i t h
te a c h e r p a r tic ip a tio n in g e n e ra l,
and th e r e l a t i o n s h i p b e ­
tw e e n d e m o c rac y a n d t e a c h e r p a r t i c i p a t i o n i n t h e c o n t r o l o f
a d m in istra tiv e p o lic ie s .
O ver 57 p e r c e n t o f t h e 144 a r -
20 R e f e r e n c e s f o r t h e s e a r t i c l e s w ere t h e R e a d e r s *
G u id e t o P e r i o d i c a l L i t e r a t u r e an d t h e E d u c a t i o n I n d e x .
T h e s e a r t i c l e s make up t h e t o t a l num ber o f a r t i c l e s fo u n d
u sa b le fo r t h i s stu d y .
15
TABLE I
CLASSIFICATION OF 144 SIGNIFICANT ARTICLES ON TEACHER-PARTI­
CIPATION LISTED BY TITLE CONTENT, 1 9 1 8 -1 9 4 1
T itle
Number
of
a rtic le s
P er cent
of
to ta l
1 . T e a c h e r P a r t i c i p a t i o n and P r i n ­
c ip le s of P a r tic ip a tio n
46
32
2 . D em ocracy and P a r t i c i p a t i o n
37
2 5 .6
3. A r e a s f o r T e a c h e r P a r t i c i p a t i o n
11
7 .6
4. B e n e f i t s o f P a r t i c i p a t i o n
9
6 • 25
5 . E x t e n s i o n o f P a r t i c i p a t i o n and
P ro v isio n f o r P a r tic ip a tio n
8
5 .5
6. T ypes o f P a r t i c i p a t i o n
7
4 .8
7. S e c o n d a r y T e a c h e r P a r t i c i p a t i o n
6
4 .1 7
8 . S h o u ld T e a c h e r s P a r t i c i p a t e
6
4 .1 7
9. R e p o rts o f O rg a n iz a tio n s and o f
P a rtic ip a tio n P ra c tic e s
6
4 .1 7
10* M i s c e l l a n e o u s .
4
3
11. S t a tu s o f P a r t i c i p a t i o n
3
2
1 2 . T e c h n iq u e s o f P a r t i c i p a t i o n
1
0 .6
T o ta ls
144
1 0 0 .0 0
16
t i d e s w e re e n c o m p a s se d by t h e s e two t i t l e s .
The t o p i c
r a n k i n g t h i r d i n num ber o f a r t i c l e s r e p r e s e n t e d a b o u t 7 p e r
cen t o f th e t o t a l ,
w h i l e n i n e t o p i c s made up t h e r e m a i n i n g
36 p e r c e n t . .
To t h e d e g r e e t h a t t h e n um ber o f a r t i c l e s a p p e a r i n g i n
a n y one y e a r r e f l e c t e d t h e am ount o f i n t e r e s t i n t h e s u b j e c t ,
F i g u r e 1 i n d i c a t e s t h a t i n t e r e s t i n t e a c h e r p a r t i c i p a t i o n was
q u ite v a ria b le ,
pi
x
M ore a r t i c l e s a p p e a r e d i n t h e l a s t f o u r
y e a r s t h a n d u r i n g an y f o u r y e a r p e r i o d s i n c e 1 9 1 8 .
T h is was
p o s s i b l y d u e t o t h e f a c t t h a t s e v e r a l i m p o r t a n t s t u d i e s w e re
co n d u cted d u r in g th o s e y e a r s .
I m p o r t a n t i n v e s t i g a t i o n s on t e a c h e r p a r t i c i p a t i o n .
th e e ig h t s tu d ie s l i s t e d
o r d e r g i v e n . 22
a b o v e e a c h was su m m arize d i n t h e
The f i r s t s t u d y was t h a t o f U p d e g r a f f 23 f o r
th e N a tio n a l E d u c a tio n A s s o c ia tio n .
The i n f o r m a t i o n s o u g h t
was t h e num ber a n d k i n d s o f c o m m itte e s u s e d f o r c o u r s e o f
s t u d y m a k in g ,
m itte e s,
t h e num ber a n d k i n d s o f p e r s o n n e l on t h e com­
t h e p r o c e d u r e s em p lo y ed by t h e c o m m itte e s ,
th e u s e
21 A r t i c l e s r e f e r e d to were s e c u r e d fro m H e a d e r s *
G uide t o P e r i o d i c a l L i t e r a t u r e , E d u c a t i o n I n d e x .
22 S t u d i e s o f U p d e g r a f f , O rtm an, S e a r s , M o r r i s o n ,
C a r p e n t e r , Cooke a n d S c h m itz , M o s e r, and McSwain f o r t h e
n a t i o n a l E d u c a t i o n A s s o c i a t i o n , D e p a r tm e n t o f S u p e r v i s o r s
an d D i r e c t o r s o f I n s t r u c t i o n .
23 U p d e g r a f f , l o o . c i t .
Of
17
STUDIES
C om m ittee on s u p e r i n t e n d e n t s 1
p ro b lem s
mo S e a r s
Ortman
172 I
192 2,
17 2 3
I72H
M o rriso n
17 2 5
I7Z7
Cooke and S c h m it z ; C a r p e n t e r
I7BH
173 n
i
% 3 n 5 6 7 8 9 io n 12 <3
>S H '7 18 11 so
31
,
8 t h Y e a rb o o k , M i c h ig a n E d u c a ­
tio n A s so c ia tio n
M o ser
N .E .A . 1 1 t h Y e a rb o o k , N .E .A .
D ep’ t . o f S u p e r v is o r s and d i r e c ­
to rs of in s tru c tio n
P r o c e e d i n g s o f 8 t h A n n u a l G o n f .,
C h ic a g o H. D ep f t . o f E d u c a t i o n
F R e g iu e n c .y
FIGURE 1
IMPORTANT STUDIES AND FREQUENCY DISTRIBUTION
OF ARTICLES ON TEACHER PARTICIPATION
18
o f e x p e rts,
t h e k i n d s o f r e l a t i o n s h i p s w hich e x i s t e d b e tw e e n
s u p e r in te n d e n ts and te a c h e r s ,
t h e num ber o f t i m e s and t h e e x ­
t e n t t o w h ic h t h e c o u r s e s w ere a l t e r e d by t h e s u p e r i n t e n d e n t s
and t e a c h e r s ,
th e o p in io n s o f s u p e r in te n d e n ts as to th e r e l a ­
t i v e w o r th o f v a r i o u s c o m m i tt e e s ,
and th e l o s s ’o r g a i n i n tim e
f o r c o n s tr u c tin g th e c o u rs e o f s tu d y .
T hree h u n d red tw e n ty
n i n e c i t i e s r e p l i e d t o t h e q u e s t i o n n a i r e w h ic h was s e n t o u t ,
r e v e a l i n g 176 c i t i e s h a d 499 t e a c h e r c o m m itte e s r e p r e s e n t i n g
a l l s u b je c t d e p artm e n ts o f th e sc h o o l.
k i n d s o f c o m m i tt e e s e x i s t e d .
T w enty t h r e e d i f f e r e n t
B etw een 60 and 80 p e r c e n t o f
t h e c o m m itte e s w e re a p p o i n t e d by th e s u p e r i n t e n d e n t s , m ore
a p p o i n t m e n t s b e i n g made i n s m a l l t h a n i n l a r g e c i t i e s .
The
c o m m itte e s w ere composed m o s t l y o f t e a c h e r s b u t some w ere o f
p r i n c i p a l s and o t h e r a d m i n i s t r a t i v e o f f i c e r s .
Members w ere
u s u a l l y a p p o i n t e d t o t h e c o m m itte e s o n t h e b a s i s o f q u a l i f i ­
c a tio n s to serv e.
te a c h e rs*
E x p e r t s i n m o s t c a s e s w orked w i t h t h e
As t o l o s s o f e f f i c i e n c y 68 p e r c e n t o f t h e s u p e r ­
i n t e n d e n t s r e p o r t e d no l o s s w h i l e 32 p e r c e n t r e p o r t e d t h a t
a lo s s o ccu rred.
The c h i e f b e n e f i t r e p o r t e d was an i n c r e a s e d
i n t e r e s t on t h e p a r t o f p a r t i c i p a n t s .
Ho c o n c l u s i o n s w ere
a v a i l a b l e t o show w h ic h t y p e o f c o m m itte e f u n c t i o n e d b e s t .
O rtm an24 c o n t i n u e d t h e s t u d y o f t e a c h e r o r g a n i z a t i o n s
Ortman, l o c , c i t .
by i n v e s t i g a t i n g t h i r t y
te a c h e r c o u n c ils o f r e p r e s e n ta tiv e
U n i t e d S t a t e s c i t i e s t o s e e how t h e y w e re o r g a n i z e d a n d i n
w h at a c t i v i t i e s t h e o r g a n i z a t i o n s w e re e n g a g e d .
He fo u n d
t h a t i n g e n e ra l th e c o u n c ils r e p r e s e n te d a l l sch o o l d e p a r t­
m en ts,
t h a t some w e re a n d o t h e r s w ere n o t o f f i c i a l l y s a n c ­
tio n e d by th e s u p e rin te n d e n ts a n d /o r b o ard s of e d u c a tio n .
O nly two o r g a n i z a t i o n s w e re f o u n d t o h a v e l e g a l s t a t u s .
c o u n c i l s h a d t h e i r own la w s a n d r e g u l a t i o n s .
A ll
E a c h h a d some
r e g u l a r m eans o f b r i n g i n g i t s c o n c l u s i o n s b e f o r e t h e p r o p e r
a
a u th o ritie s.
A l t h o u g h t h e c o u n c i l m e m b e rsh ip r a n g e d fro m s i x
t o 150 t h e a v e r a g e was e i g h t e e n .
No r e l a t i o n s h i p seem ed t o
e x i s t b e tw e e n t h e s i z e o f t h e s c h o o l s y s te m a n d t h e s i z e o f
th e c o u n c ils .
w e re f o u n d .
S ev en m e th o d s o f e l e c t i n g c o u n c i l m em bers
T h ese w e re c l a s s i f i e d a s (1 ) g r o u p s a s s e m b ly
w here a l l t h e g r o u p s m e t a s one b o d y a n d e l e c t e d fro m t h e
d i f f e r e n t g r o u p s p r e s e n t , r e p r e s e n t a t i v e m em bers,
(2 ) a s s e m ­
b l e d g r o u p s i n w h ic h e a c h g ro u p e l e c t e d i t s own r e p r e s e n t a ­
tiv e s,
(3 ) s c h o o l - b u i l d i n g g r o u p s , w h e re t h e g r o u p s a c c o r d ­
in g to s iz e e le c te d r e p r e s e n ta tiv e s ,
(4 ) c l u b g r o u p s ,
w h ic h e a c h t e a c h e r s 1 c l u b e l e c t e d i t s own m em bers,
t r i c t groups,
in
(5 ) d i s ­
i n w h ic h t h e m em bers w ere e l e c t e d fro m v a r i o u s
d i s t r i c t s w ith in a c ity ,
(6) v o l u n ta r y a s s o c i a t i o n s ,
w here
e a c h a s s o c i a t i o n e l e c t e d m em bers, who t h e n a t t e n d e d a s e c o n d
m e e t i n g w i t h i n t h e i r own o r g a n i z a t i o n ,
an d e l e c t e d t h e
20
a l l o t t e d num ber o f r e p r e s e n t a t i v e s t o t h e c o u n c i l ,
c i l in tu rn ,
la rg e ,
at its
th e coun­
f i r s t m e e t i n g , e l e c t i n g f i v e members a t
( 7 ) a n d t h e g e n e r a l e l e c t i o n t y p e i n w hich t h e p e r s o n ­
n e l of th e in d iv id u a l sc h o o ls o f fo u r s u p e rv is o ry d i s t r i c t s
e l e c t e d r e p r e s e n t a t i v e s t o a n o m i n a t i n g c o n f e r e n c e w here m ore
t h a n e n o u g h m em bers w e re n o m in a te d an d i n t u r n p l a c e d on a
b a llo t fo r a g en eral e le c tio n ,
th re e p r i n c i p a l s th en c o l l e c t ­
i n g t h e b a l l o t s a n d c e r t i f y i n g them t o t h e d i s t r i c t c h a ir m a n
who c a n v a s s e d t h e v o t e s a n d a n n o u n c e d t h e r e s u l t s .
To d e t e r ­
m in e t h e a c t i v i t i e s i n w h ic h t h e s e c o u n c i l s w e re e n g a g e d
Ortman ex am in e d t h e i r c o n s t i t u t i o n s .
He f o u n d t h a t t h e p u r ­
p o s e s f o r t h e i r e x i s t e n c e w e re t o a d v i s e , p ro m o te t h e w e l f a r e
o f t h e s c h o o l , p ro m o te c o o p e r a t i o n ,
r a is e te a c h in g sta n d ard s,
a s s i s t i n f i n a n c i a l r e a d j u s t m e n t , a f f i l i a t e w i t h t h e A m e ric an
F e d e r a t i o n o f L a b o r , p a r t i c i p a t e i n com m unity a f f a i r s ,
g iv e
t e a c h e r s an o r g a n i z e d m eans o f e x p r e s s i o n , a n d g i v e t h e
s u p e r i n t e n d e n t a d v i c e on s c h o o l m a t t e r s .
E x am in a tio n o f th e
work done by t h e s e c o u n c i l s showed t h a t t h e y h a d a c c o m p l i s h e d
t h e i r p u rpo ses.
M ost s u p e r i n t e n d e n t s s t a t e d t h a t t h e a i d
g i v e n by t h e c o u n c i l s was v a l u a b l e .
The s t u d y showed t h a t
m o st c o u n c i l s w ere o f a n a d v i s o r y n a t u r e ,
th a t th e c o u n c ils
h a d d i f f i c u l t y i n k n o w in g t h e a t t i t u d e s a n d d e s i r e s o f t h e i r
c o n stitu e n c y ,
an d t h a t e x p e r t o p i n i o n was u s u a l l y e n g a g e d
d u rin g th e p la n n in g s ta g e s o r a f t e r co m p letio n o f a c o u n c il
stu d y ,
th e form er b e in g p r e f e r e d .
21
S ears
25
c o m p le te d a q u e s t i o n n a i r e s t u d y s i m i l a r t o
t h a t o f O rtm an.
I n v o l v e d was an i n v e s t i g a t i o n o f t h e c o n s t i ­
t u t i o n a l la w s and r e g u l a t i o n s o f t e a c h e r s * c o u n c i l s .
Two
h u n d r e d s i x t y e i g h t s c h o o l s u p e r i n t e n d e n t s w e re a s k e d t o f u r ­
n is h in fo rm a tio n in d ic a tin g ,
o f th e v a rio u s c o u n c ils ,
a s re v e a le d in th e c o n s t i t u t i o n s
th e e x is te n c e o f te a c h e r o r g a n iz a ­
tio n s,
th e d a te o f o rg a n iz a tio n ,
t h e nam es o f t h e o r g a n i z a ­
tio n s ,
th e p e rso n o r p e rso n s re s p o n s ib le f o r i n i t i a t i n g th e
movement t o e s t a b l i s h t h e c o u n c i l ,
th e s iz e ,
th e c o m p o sitio n
and l i s t o f o f f i c e r s w ith t h e i r l e n g t h o f te n u r e ,
f o r o r g a n iz in g th e c o u n c ils ,
t h e w ork d o ne,
t h e b a s i s f o r t h e c o u n c i l ’ s pow er t o a c t *
th e p urpo se
t h e r e s u l t s and
Of t h e 151 s u p e r ­
in te n d e n ts r e p ly in g e ig h ty f i v e r e p o r te d th e e x is te n c e o f
c o u n c i l s m o s t o f w h ic h w ere o r g a n i z e d i n 1919 and 1 9 20.
T w e n ty - n in e d i f f e r e n t t i t l e s w ere l i s t e d .
a p p e a re d i n a lm o st e v e ry t i t l e
t i o n s ’ p o i n t s o f em phases.
The word c o u n c i l
re g a rd le s s o f th e o rg a n iz a ­
A m a j o r i t y o f t h e c o u n c i l s w ere
i n i t i a t e d a t th e su g g e stio n o f th e s u p e r in te n d e n ts .
The a v ­
e r a g e c o u n c i l was com posed o f t w e n t y t o f i f t y members e l e c t e d
i n many d i f f e r e n t w ays, a l l v a r i a t i o n s o f r e p r e s e n t a t i v e
p ro ced u res.
The u s u a l l i s t o f o f f i c e r s c o n s i s t e d o f a c h a i r ­
man, s e c r e t a r y ,
tre a su re r,
c o m m itte e m em bers.
S ears,
b o ard o f d i r e c t o r s ,
a u d ito r,
and
T e n u re o f o f f i c e was u s u a l l y on e y e a r *
lo c . c it .
33
The c h i e f p u r p o s e . o f t h e c o u n c i l s a s r e p o r t e d was t o a d v i s e
on a d m i n i s t r a t i v e m a t t e r s w h ic h c o n c e r n e d t h e s c h o o l s y s te m
a s a w h o le .
Some i n d i c a t i o n o f o t h e r p u r p o s e s was s e e n i n
th e v a rio u s t i t l e s .
S e a rs l i s t e d e le v e n d i f f e r e n t a c t i v i t i e s
i n w h ic h t h e c o u n c i l s e n g a g e d ,
c o n c e rn in g n o t o n ly l o c a l m at­
t e r s h u t such a c t i v i t i e s a s s t a t e l e g i s l a t i o n .
The g e n e r a l
t r e n d was t o work on p r o b l e m s d i r e c t l y r e l a t e d t o t e a c h e r s
o r te a c h in g .
The r e s u l t s o f c o o p e r a t i o n showed e v i d e n c e s o f
im p ro v e d m o r a l e a n d u n d e r s t a n d i n g b e tw e e n v a r i o u s s c h o o l
groups.
M ost c o u n c i l s r e g a r d l e s s o f t h e i r w i d e s p r e a d a c t i v ­
i t i e s h a d no l e g a l s t a t u s .
M ost c o u n c i l s w ere o f f i c i a l l y
r e c o g n i z e d by t h e s u p e r i n t e n d e n t s a n d / o r b o a r d s o f e d u c a t i o n .
The a u t h o r c o n c l u d e d t h a t t h e o r g a n i z a t i o n o f t e a c h e r c o u n c i l s
was a c i t y movement an d t h a t t h e y o p e r a t e d c h i e f l y a s a d v i s o r y
o rg a n iz a tio n s.
M o rris o n ,in
c o n n e c t i o n w i t h h i s b o o k on t h e L e g a l
S t a tu s o f th e C ity School S u p e r in te n d e n t, co n d u cted a stu d y
on t h e l e g a l i z a t i o n o f t e a c h e r p a r t i c i p a t i o n i n t h e a d m i n i s ­
t r a t i o n o f sc h o o ls.
Q u e s t i o n n a i r e s w ere s e n t d i r e c t l y t o
156 s u p e r i n t e n d e n t s ,
in s tr u c to r s o f school a d m in istra tio n ,
a n d t o one h u n d r e d b o a r d m em b ers.
F i f t y q u e s t i o n n a i r e s w ere
s e n t t o b o a r d m em bers v i a t h e S t a t e F e d e r a t i o n o f S c h o o l
B o a r d s o f Hew J e r s e y #
The p u r p o s e o f t h e s t u d y was t o f i n d
g e
M o rriso n , lo c # c i t .
23
what a re a s ,
p a tio n .
i f an y ,
s h o u l d be r e c o g n i z e d f o r t e a c h e r p a r t i c i ­
R e p l i e s w ere r e c e i v e d fro m ' n i n e t y one s u p e r i n t e n d e n t s
o f c i t i e s r a n g i n g i n s i z e fro m 2 ,5 0 0 t o one m i l l i o n an d fro m
t h ir t e e n U n iv e rs ity i n s tr u c to r s o f school a d m in is tra tio n .
M o r r i s o n s e l e c t e d t h e s u p e r i n t e n d e n t s on t h e b a s i s o f t h e i r
r e p u t a t i o n s f o r e s t a b l i s h i n g s u c c e s s f u l s c h o o l sy s te m s.
re g a rd to p a r t i c i p a t i o n in th e s e le c tio n of s u b je c ts ,
W ith
c o n te n t
o f th e c u r r i c u la , r u l e s g o v e rn in g r o u tin e sc h o o l p ro c e d u re s ,
and t h e s e l e c t i o n o f t e x t b o o k s and s u p p l i e s ,
b o th l a y and
p r o f e s s i o n a l p e o p le b e lie v e d t e a c h e r s sh o u ld p a r t i c i p a t e .
B etw een 60 a n d 80 p e r c e n t o f t h e p r o f e s s i o n a l g ro u p i n d i c a t ­
ed t h a t t e a c h e r s s h o u ld have th e p r i v i l e g e o f i n i t i a t i n g p o l ­
i c i e s i n t h e ab o v e named a r e a s ,
w h i l e o n l y 40 t o 46 p e r c e n t
o f t h e l a y g ro u p a g r e e d w i t h t h a t o p i n i o n .
The h i g h e r p e r ­
c e n t a g e s i n b o t h i n s t a n c e s w ere i n t h e l a r g e s y s t e m s .
M o rri­
s o n c o n c l u d e d t h a t i t w ould be a d v i s a b l e t o l e g a l i z e t e a c h e r
p a r t i c i p a t i o n o n l y i n t h e a r e a s o f i n s t r u c t i o n and c u r r i c u l u m
c o n stru c tio n .
One o f t h e f i r s t s e c t i o n a l s t u d i e s was c a r r i e d o u t by
Cooke and S c h m i t z . 27
e d u c a tio n ,
T h e i r s t u d y was c o n f i n e d t o s e c o n d a r y
in v e s tig a tin g te a c h e r p a r t i c i p a t i o n in f i f t y f iv e
sm a ll h ig h s c h o o ls in M is s o u r i.
T h i s i n v e s t i g a t i o n was c o n -
c e r n e d w i t h t h e d e g r e e t o w h ich t e a c h e r s do and s h o u l d p a r t i ­
27 Cooke and S ch m itz, l o c .
c it.
c ip a te in n in e s e le c te d a c t i v i t i e s o f a d m in is tr a tio n .
ers,
Teach­
s u p e r i n t e n d e n t s and p r o f e s s o r s o f e d u c a t i o n p a r t i c i p a t e d
in th e stu d y .
At t h e t i m e i t was c o n d u c t e d none o f t h e
s c h o o ls co n cern ed had t e a c h e r o r g a n i z a t i o n s .
Four hundred
f i f t y q u e s t i o n n a i r e s w e re s e n t t o t h e r e g u l a r t e a c h e r s who
r e t u r n e d £43 u s u a b l e r e p l i e s .
in ,
When t h e t e a c h e r s * r e p l i e s w ere
110 q u e s t i o n n a i r e s w ere s e n t t o t h e a d m i n i s t r a t o r s o f
t h o s e s c h o o l s a n d 103 r e t u r n s w ere r e c e i v e d .
F i f t y a b b re v i­
a t e d fo rm s w e re t h e n s e n t t o o u t s t a n d i n g p r o f e s s o r s o f s c h o o l
a d m in istra tio n .
M o st o f t h e r e p l i e s i n d i c a t e d t h a t t e a c h e r s
sh o u ld p a r t i c i p a t e i n th e fo rm a tio n o f p o l i c i e s f o r th e a c ­
t i v i t i e s i n w h ic h t h e y w ere d i r e c t l y c o n c e r n e d .
In o th e r
m a t t e r s i t was i n d i c a t e d t e a c h e r s s h o u l d be c o n s u l t e d .
As
t o p r e v a i l i n g p r a c t i c e s many t e a c h e r s d i d n o t p a r t i c i p a t e .
M ost c o o p e r a t i v e a c t i v i t i e s seemed t o b e u n d e r c l o s e a d m i n i s ­
tr a t iv e su p e rv isio n .
T each ers re p o rte d l e s s ,
m ore c o o p e r a t i o n t h a n d i d t h e s u p e r i n t e n d e n t s .
and a p p ro v e d o f
One o f t h e
m o s t v a l u a b l e p h a s e s o f t h i s s t u d y was t h e d e l i n e a t i o n o f
s e v e r a l d eg rees o f te a c h e r p a r t i c i p a t i o n .
C a r p e n t e r 28 c a r r i e d o u t an e x p e r i m e n t i n c o o p e r a t i o n
w i t h n i n e t e e n s u p e r i n t e n d e n t s who were members o f one o f h i s
g rad u a te c la s s e s .
E a c h s u p e r i n t e n d e n t i n a u g u r a t e d some t y p e
o f s u g g e s t i o n s y s te m i n h i s own s c h o o l .
C a rp en ter, l o c . c i t .
T e a c h e r s w ere i n -
25
v i t e d t o make s u g g e s t i o n s o n m a t t e r s o f p o l i c y .
A t t h e end
o f th e y e a r th e s u p e r i n te n d e n t s r e p o r t e d to C a rp e n te r th e
m e th o d s u s e d t o i n f o r m t e a c h e r s o f t h e d e s i r e f o r s u g g e s t i o n s ,
t h e num ber o f s u g g e s t i o n s r e c e i v e d m o n th l y ,
sid e re d ,
th e s u b je c ts con­
t h e num ber o f s u g g e s t i o n s u s e d a s a b a s i s f o r p e rm a ­
nent p o lic ie s,
and t h e c h a n g e i n a t t i t u d e ,
i f any,
in th e
t e a c h e r s w hich m i g h t h a v e b e e n due t o t h e s u g g e s t i o n s y s te m .
Of t h e 795 s u g g e s t i o n s r e c e i v e d b y t h e s u p e r i n t e n d e n t s a p p r o x ­
i m a t e l y one e i g h t h w e re a d o p t e d i m m e d i a t e l y , w h i l e a n a d d i ­
t i o n a l one e i g h t h w e re made t h e b a s i s o f re c o m m e n d a tio n s t o
t h e b o a r d s o f e d u c a t i o n f o r p e rm a n e n t p o l i c i e s .
The s u p e r ­
i n t e n d e n t s , e x c e p t o n e , r e p o r t e d im p ro v e d m o r a l e among t h e
tea ch e rs.
As a r e s u l t o f t h e s t u d y C a r p e n t e r c o n c l u d e d t h a t
t h e t e a c h e r s c o n c e r n e d w ere i n t e r e s t e d i n a l m o s t a l l p h a s e s
o f a d m i n i s t r a t i o n a n d many s u g g e s t i o n s c o n t r i b u t e d by t h e
t e a c h e r s w ere v a l u a b l e .
The f i r s t m a j o r s t u d y i n v o l v i n g t h e s c h o o l s o f C a l i ­
f o r n i a was made by M o s e r . H e
a p p r o a c h e d t h e p r o b le m fro m
t h e s t a n d p o i n t t h a t t h e v i t a l e le m e n t i n t e a c h e r p a r t i c i p a ­
t i o n was t h e d e t e r m i n a t i o n o f t h e c o n t r o l l i n g p o l i c i e s o f t h e
sc h o o l.
To a s c e r t a i n t h e d e g r e e s o f p a r t i c i p a t i o n h e d e ­
v i s e d a q u e s t i o n n a i r e on t h e am ount and k i n d o f t e a c h e r p a r t i ­
c ip a tio n in a d m in is tra tiv e fu n c tio n s,
29 M oser, l o c . c i t .
and t h e d e g r e e o f t e a c h -
©r s a t i s f a c t i o n o r d i s s a t i s f a c t i o n w i t h t h e a d m i n i s t r a t i v e
fu n c tio n s l i s t e d .
S ix h u n d r e d s i x t y o n e t e a c h e r s a n d s e v e n t y
n in e s u p e r in te n d e n ts answ ered th e q u e s t i o n n a i r e .
On t h e h a s i s
o f t h e s e r e p l i e s i t was f o u n d t h a t t e a c h e r s w e re g e n e r a l l y
s a t i s f i e d w ith th e m a n a g e ria l p h a se s o f a d m i n i s t r a t io n h u t
w e re d i s s a t i s f i e d w i t h t h e a d m i n i s t r a t i v e f u n c t i o n s w h ic h '
d i r e c t l y a f f e c te d th e te a c h e r s .
The s t u d y r e v e a l e d t h a t a d ­
m i n i s t r a t o r s w ere m ore s a t i s f i e d w i t h t h e s t a t u s quo o f ad m in ­
i s t r a t i o n t h a n w ere t e a c h e r s ,
t h a t e l e m e n t a r y t e a c h e r s w ere
m ore s a t i s f i e d t h a n s e c o n d a r y t e a c h e r s ,
t h a t t e a c h e r s o f sm a ll
s c h o o l s w ere m ore s a t i s f i e d t h a n t e a c h e r s o f l a r g e s c h o o l s ,
a n d t h a t t e a c h e r s o f one t o t h r e e y e a r s e x p e r i e n c e l e s s
s a t i s i f e d th an th e av erag e te a c h e r .
T here a p p e a re d to he a
d i f f e r e n c e o f o p i n i o n b e tw e e n t e a c h e r s and a d m i n i s t r a t o r s a s
t o t h e m e th o d s u s e d i n d e t e r m i n i n g s c h o o l p o l i c i e s .
W h ile a
m a j o r i t y o f t e a c h e r s r e p o r t e d t h a t a d m i n i s t r a t o r s made t h e
p o lic ie s,
a d m i n i s t r a t o r s w e re o f t h e o p i n i o n t h a t a c o n s i d e r ­
a b l e amount o f c o o p e r a t i o n h a d t a k e n p l a c e i n c o n n e c t i o n w i t h
th e fo rm a tio n o f th e p o l i c i e s c o n ce rn e d .
A la r g e p e rc e n ta g e
o f te a c h e r s and s p e c i a l i s t s r e p l i e d in fa v o r o f a h ig h d eg ree
of p a rtic ip a tio n ,
e s p e c i a l l y on t h e l e v e l o f c o m p l e t e t e a c h e r
- a d m i n i s t r a t o r c o l l a b o r a t i o n d u r i n g i n i t i a l and f i n a l s t a g e s
w ith f i n a l a d m in is tr a tiv e rev ie w ,
M o ser c o n c l u d e d t h a t a d ­
m i n i s t r a t o r s and t e a c h e r s a g r e e d f a i r l y w e l l a s t o t h e g o a l s
t o b e r e a c h e d i n c o o p e r a t i o n , b u t i n d i c a t e d t h e r e was l i t t l e
a c t i v e c o o p e r a t i o n on th e p a r t o f t h e e n t i r e s t a f f s c o n c e r n e d .
M ost p a r t i c i p a t i o n a p p e a r e d t o he i n t h e n a t u r e o f c r i t i c i s m s
from m in o r ity g ro u p s .
T h e r e w as, h o w e v e r,
some e v i d e n c e o f a
t r e n d t o w a rd m o re t e a c h e r p a r t i c i p a t i o n i n t h e f o r m a t i o n o f
school p o lic ie s .
The l a t e s t c o m p r e h e n s iv e n a t i o n w i d e s t u d y was c o m p le te d
h y E l d r i d g e L . MoSwain®^ f o r t h e D e p a r tm e n t o f S u p e r v i s o r s and
D i r e c t o r s o f I n s t r u c t i o n o f th e N a tio n a l E d u c a tio n A s s o c ia tio n .
T h i s q u e s t i o n n a i r e s t u d y c o v e r e d a w id e r a n g e o f s u b j e c t s i n ­
c lu d in g a t t i t u d e s ,
id e a ls , p r i n c i p le s o f e d u c a tio n , o p p o rtu n i­
t i e s to engage in c o o p e ra tiv e a d m i n i s t r a t io n ,
re la tiv e
a t i o n on t h e p a r t o f s e v e r a l s c h o o l and l a y g r o u p s ,
cooper­
and t h e
a d v a n t a g e s an d d i s a d v a n t a g e s o f c o o p e r a t i v e a d m i n i s t r a t i o n
p ro ced u res.
The c o m m itte e c a r r i e d on t h e s t u d y i n su c h a
m an n e r a s t o s e c u r e d a t a w h ich w ould h e l p s c h o o l s w i s h i n g t o
e x p e rim e n t w ith c o o p e r a tiv e a d m i n i s t r a t i o n te c h n iq u e s .
Some
1200 q u e s t i o n n a i r e s w ere s e n t t o s u p e r i n t e n d e n t s i n s c h o o l s
o f a l l s t a t e s o f th e U n ited S t a te s ,
w ere u s a b l e r e t u r n s .
Of t h e s e 38 p e r c e n t
A p p r o x i m a t e l y 4 ,0 0 0 c o p i e s w ere s e n t t o
t h e t e a c h e r s i n t h e s e same s c h o o l s and 36 p e r c e n t o f t h e r e ­
t u r n s w e re u s a b l e .
Erom t h i s f a i r l y w id e s a m p li n g t h e r e was
a l m o s t u n a n im o u s a g r e e m e n t among t e a c h e r s and a d m i n i s t r a t o r s
i n r e g a r d t o b e l i e f s i n d e m o c r a t i c i d e a l s and a t t i t u d e s on
MeSwain, l o c . c i t .
th e n a tu r e o f th e sc h o o l program f o r a d e m o c ra tic s o c i e t y .
T each ers and a d m in is tr a to r s s u b s t a n t i a l l y a g re e d t h a t th e r e
s h o u l d he c o o p e r a t i o n i n s c h o o l a d m i n i s t r a t i o n .
More t h a n
h a l f o f th e te a c h e r s ex p re ssed a d e s ir e to p a r t i c i p a t e .
d e s i r e a s s t a t e d was f o r m ore p a r t i c i p a t i o n .
p u p ils ,
T h is
As f o r t h e
s u p e r i n t e n d e n t s t h o u g h t them , o n t h e w hole t o o im m a tu re
f o r a n y c o n s i d e r a b l e am ount o f p a r t i c i p a t i o n .
T e a c h e r s and
s u p e r i n t e n d e n t s e x p r e s s e d t h e o p i n i o n t h a t a l a c k o f k n o w le d g e ,
p re p a ra tio n ,
and t e c h n i q u e s made p a r t i c i p a t i o n d i f f i c u l t .
The
c u s to m a r y b o a r d p r o c e d u r e o f h o l d i n g t h e s u p e r i n t e n d e n t r e ­
s p o n s ib le f o r s c h o o l p o l i c i e s a l s o c o m p lic a te d th e p ro b lem o f
te a c h e r p a r tic ip a tio n .
p e rs o n a lity c la sh e s.
O th e r d i f f i c u l t i e s
in v o lv e d f r e q u e n t
The p r a c t i c e a s r e p o r t e d ,
in c o n tra s t
to th e e x p re ssed id e a ls o f te a c h e r p a r t i c i p a t i o n r e v e a l needed
changes in p u b lic sch o o l a d m in is tr a tio n .
I t was c o n c l u d e d
t h a t t h e s c h o o l a s an o r g a n i z a t i o n , n e e d e d t o o p e r a t e i n a man­
n e r c o n s i s t e n t w i t h i t s a im s and i d e a l s so t h a t a l l p a r t i c i ­
p a n ts c o u ld d e v elo p te c h n iq u e s ,
p ria te
to d e m o c ra tic l i v i n g .
a ttitu d e s,
and i d e a l s a p p ro ­
In o r d e r to b r in g t h i s a b o u t,
f u r t h e r e x p e rim e n tin g to d is c o v e r b e t t e r c o o p e r a tio n p r o c e ­
d u r e s was s u g g e s t e d .
C o n c lu sio n s.
The p r e v i o u s e i g h t i n v e s t i g a t i o n s e x ­
t e n d e d o v e r a w ide a r e a o f t h e f i e l d o f t e a c h e r c o o p e r a t i o n
in th e d e te rm in a tio n o f a d m i n i s t r a t i v e p o l i c y .
In d ic a tio n s
w h ic h a p p e a r e d a s a r e s u l t o f t h e e x a m i n a t i o n o f t h e s e s t u d ­
i e s w ere t h a t t h e n a t u r e o f t h e m ore r e c e n t i n v e s t i g a t i o n s
showed a c r y s t a l i z a t i o n o f i d e a s a b o u t t h e s i g n i f i c a n t e l e ­
m e n ts o f t e a c h e r p a r t i c i p a t i o n .
T h ese e l e m e n t s seem ed t o be
th e d eg ree o f p a r t i c i p a t i o n a ff o rd e d ,
d i s s a t i s f a c t i o n s in p a r ti c ip a tio n ,
w h ic h t e a c h e r s p a r t i c i p a t e d ,
t h e s a t i s f a c t i o n s and
th e b re a d th of a re a in
t h e am ount o f a g re e m e n t a s t o
t h e g o a l s t o be r e a c h e d a s w e l l a s t o t h e c o n d i t i o n s w h ic h
p re v a ile d ,
t h e d e v e lo p m e n t o f t e c h n i q u e s f o r p a r t i c i p a t i o n ,
t h e a w a r e n e s s o f t h e i m p l i c a t i o n s o f d e m o c ra c y f o r s c h o o l
a d m in istra tio n ,
and e s p e c i a l l y th e p r o v i s i o n s f o r and th e
a m o u n ts o f t e a c h e r i n i t i a t i o n o f s c h o o l p o l i c i e s .
CHAPTER I I I
METHODS OF PROCEDURE
The p r o c e d u r e s d e s c r i b e d i n t h i s c h a p t e r r e l a t e d i n
tu r n to th e d e f i n i t i o n o f term s,
stu d ie s,
n a ire ,
th e a n a ly s is o f r e l a te d
t h e c o n s t r u c t i o n and d i s t r i b u t i o n o f t h e q u e s t i o n ­
th e r e t u r n s ,
an d t h e m e th o d s o f t r e a t m e n t o f t h e q u e s ­
tio n n a ire d a ta .
M ethod o f d e f i n i n g t e r m s .
Due t o t h e l o o s e n e s s w i t h
w h ic h m o s t o f t h e t e r m s r e l a t i n g t o t e a c h e r p a r t i c i p a t i o n
w ere u s e d , a s p e c i a l e f f o r t was made t o d e f i n e a l l s i g n i f i ­
c a n t k e y w o r d s .u s e d i n t h i s i n v e s t i g a t i o n .
T h i s was done by
r e f e r i n g t o many a u t h o r i t a t i v e w r i t e r s i n t h e e d u c a t i o n a l
f i e l d who h a d w r i t t e n d i s c r i m i n a t i n g l y on t h e s u b j e c t a t
h a n d , and s e l e c t i n g t h e m o st c a r e f u l l y d e f i n e d and m o st a p ­
p l i c a b l e te rm s.
T h e se t e r m s w ere t h e n u s e d a c c o r d i n g t o t h e
lis te d d e fin itio n s .
P rocedure f o r a n a ly s in g r e l a t e d s t u d i e s .
A r e v i e w of*
t h e m o s t i m p o r t a n t s t u d i e s on t e a c h e r p a r t i c i p a t i o n was com­
p l e t e d c o v e r i n g a p e r i o d o f a p p r o x i m a t e l y t w e n ty y e a r s .
a n a l y s i s was a l s o made o f t h e n u m b e rs , k i n d s ,
An
and y e a r l y
d i s t r i b u t i o n s o f a r t i c l e s w r i t t e n on s u b j e c t s d i r e c t l y r e ­
l a t e d to te a c h e r p a r t i c i p a t i o n .
The l a t t e r a n a l y s i s was
made t o n o t e p a r t i c u l a r p h a s e s o f i n t e r e s t an d p e r i o d i c r e -
31
c u r r e n c e s o f i n t e r e s t in th e s u b j e c t .
M ethod o f c o n s t r u c t i o n o f t h e q u e s t i o n n a i r e .
In o rd er
t o s e c u r e t h e i n f o r m a t i o n n e c e s s a r y t o c o m p le te t h i s s t u d y
t h e q u e s t i o n n a i r e shown on t h e f o l l o w i n g p a g e was d e s i g n e d t o
c o n ta in a l i s t o f f i f t y a d m in istra tiY e a c t i v i t i e s u s u a lly
found i n sc h o o l o r g a n i z a t i o n s .
An e i g h t colum n c h e c k l i s t
was a r r a n g e d o p p o s i t e t h e f i f t y a d m i n i s t r a t i v e a c t i v i t i e s i n
s u c h a m an n e r t h a t r e p l i e s c o u l d be i n d i c a t e d by c h e c k i n g o r
n u m b e r in g a p p r o p r i a t e s q u a r e s .
The f i r s t f i v e c o lu m n s o f t h e
s c a l e r e p r e s e n t e d one c o m p le te u n i t .
T h is f i v e p l a c e s c a l e
p e rm itte d p a r t i c i p a n t s to i n d ic a te th e d eg ree o f te a c h e r a d m in is tr a to r c o o p e ra tio n in d e te rm in in g p o l i c i e s f o r each o f
th e f i f t y a d m in is tr a tiv e a c t i v i t i e s .
B e g in n in g a t th e l e f t
a n d p r o c e e d i n g a c r o s s t h e p a g e t h e colum n h e a d i n g s f o r t h i s
sc a le w ere:
1 . A d m in is tra tiv e o f f i c e r s d e cid e p o l i c i e s .
2. A d m in is tra tiv e o f f i c e r s d ecid e p o l i c i e s a f t e r con­
s u ltin g te a c h e rs.
3 . T e a c h e r s an d a d m i n i s t r a t i v e o f f i c e r s work t o g e t h e r
on e q u a l b a s i s .
D e c isio n s f i n a l .
4. T each ers d ecid e p o l i c i e s a f t e r c o n s u ltin g a d m in is­
tra tiv e o ffic e rs .
5. T ea ch e rs d e c id e p o l i c i e s .
The r e m a i n i n g t h r e e colum ns w ere h e a d e d ;
QUESTIONNAIRE on TEACHER - ADMINISTRATOR RELATIONS. T° corapIete wil1 take thirty m,nut“ -
What use do administrators make of the information and knowledge possessed by Los Angeles
County teachers ? What method do these administrators employ in establishing vital school poli­
cies ? A general summary of the findings will be available at the conclusion of this study.
W ill you cooperate in making this study reliable by checking the table and answering the questions
according to your best individual opinions?
In no case w ill participants or schools be identified. D o n o t p la c e m a r k s o f id e n tif ic a tio n o n th is p a p e r .
P L E A S E IN D IC A T E T O W H A T E X T E N T T H E T E A C H E R S O F Y O U R D IS T R IC T P A R T I C I P A T E IN T H E F O R M A ­
T IO N O F T H E A D M I N IS T R A T IV E A C T I V I T I E S L I S T E D B E L O W .
6
you
think id e a l ?
to in d ic a te
7
Check a c tiv ities in which you t h in k
teach ers
as well as a d m i n i s t r a t o r s
should initiate plans for form ing or
changing a d m in istra tiv e p o lic y .
5
do
III, IV, V
4
Check ac tiv itie s in which teachers a s
well as a d m in is tr a to r s initiate m o v e ­
m ents for the form ation or change o f
a d m in istra tiv e p o lic y .
Which
method
Use Nos. I, II,
your a n s w e r s .
p o lic ie s.
3
decide
2
Teachers
1
^
ADMINISTRATIVE ACTIVITIES
c o n s u lt­
5. A nsw er the questions at the bottom o f the questionnaire.
> Teachers decide policies after
ed ing a d m in istra tiv e o ffic e rs
p o lic ie s
p o l-
4. Place a circle around the I l l ’s and IV ’s in colum n 6 if
you think teachers should elect their own representatives
to respective com m ittees.
a d m in istra tiv e o ffic ers
on equal basis.
D eci-
A d m in istra tiv e officers decide
after consulting te a c h e r s .
decide
3. P lace a circle around the checks in colum ns 2 and 3 if
the teacher representatives on the respective com m ittees
are selected by teachers.
S' Teachers and
H work to g eth e r
w sions fin a l.
m
^
officers
2. Check colum ns 6, 7, 8 con secu tively, according to direc­
tions given at the top o f each colum n.
A d m in is tra tiv e
icie s.
1. F ive degrees o f participation are indicated (I, II, III, IV,
V ). P lace an X in the square which represents th e pre­
dom inate m ethod o f determ ining the policies o f each
activity listed below.
_
t '
C
J
D I R E C T I O N S
Com plete one direction at a tim e in consecutive order.
8
1 Selection o f tex t books
2 Selection o f library and supplem entary books
1
1
r
3 Selection o f educational m agazines
4 R egulation o f the school library
'
H
5 R egulation o f school hours
6 D eterm ination o f annual or sem ester prom otions
1
7 Preparation o f school calendars
8 M aintenance and operation o f school plant and equipm ent
1
9 R egulation and m aintenance o f ‘use o f building’ schedules
10 Preparation o f school budgets
|
1
11 Supervision o f student finances
12 Adm in, o f educational supplies— am ounts, kinds, distribution
1
13 D evelopm ent o f school building plans
1
14 Selection o f building and ground equipm ent
15 Transportation o f pupils
16 A dm inistration o f public relations
17 Preparation and distribution o f daily bulletins
18 A dm inistration o f classroom organization and control
|
19 Preparation o f daily programs
1
20 Adm in, of school records, registers, and personnel reports
21 E stablishm ent and m aintenance o f pupil records
22 R egistration o f pupils
23 G rouping and classification o f pupils
24 Prom otion o f pupils
25 Adm inistration o f a testin g program
26 Supervision o f pupil governm ent
27 Supervision o f studentbo'dy activities
28 Supervision o f discipline
2 9 R egulation o f truants and delinquents
30 D evelopm ent o f standards o f pupil conduct
31 Supervision o f pupil activities
32 D eterm ining and regu lating scholarship standards
33 Providing and m aintaining a health program
34 Supervision o f corridors and grounds, incl. yard-duty schedules
35 M aintaining visual education
36 Em ploym ent o f janitors
37 Em ploym en o f teachers— determ ining their prof. requirem ents
r ... ...
38 Em ploym ent o f supervisors
|
39 Prom otion o f teachers - ratings, etc.
40 D eterm ination o f salary schedules, salaries and increases
41 R egulation o f sick leave
|
4 2 M aking teaeher assignm ents
4 3 D evelopm ent o f in-service training and advancem ent program
45 D evelopm ent o f curriculum and course o f study
4 6 D evelopm ent o f educational philosophy
47 D evelopm ent o f m ethods o f instruction
48 D eterm ination o f teachers' m eetin gs, incl. kind, num ber, tim e
4 9 D evelopm ent o f code o f ethics
50 D evelopm ent of teacher w elfare policies, conditions o f work, etc.
52 Adm inistration o f adm inistrative offices and personnel
YES
NO
C H E C K IN C O L U M N S P R O V ID E D
l
D o y o u th in k te a c h e r s h a v e th e n e c e s s a r y e x p e r ie n c e , tr a i n i n g a n d a b ility t o p a r t i c i p a t e i n t h e f o r m a t io n
o f a d m in is tr a tiv e p o lic ie s ?
2
Do you think th at p resent teacher load m akes it m ost d ifficult fo r teach ers to p articipate exten sively in
the form ation o f adm inistrative policies?
3
I f y o u h a d y e u r c h o ic e w o u ld y o u p r e f e r to w o rk in a s c h o o l s y s te m w h e r e t e a c h e r s p a r tic ip a te d e x te n ­
s iv e ly in th e d e te r m in a tio n o f a d m in is tr a tiv e p o lic ie s ?
4
Concerning teacher participation in the determ ination o f adm inistrative policy, do you think it would be
preferable to have an established procedure recognized by your board o f education?
5
H a s th e a d m in is tr a tio n a n d th e b o a r d o f e d u c a tio n in y o u r sc h o o l d is tr ic t r e c o g n iz e d a n d e s ta b lis h e d a
p o lic y c o n c e r n in g t e a c h e r p a r tic ip a tio n in th e d e te r m in a tio n o f a d m in is tr a tiv e p o lic y ?
6
Do you think school adm inistration can b e dem ocratic w ithou t teacher partcipation in th e determ ination o f
adm inistrative policy?
P L E A S E A N S W E R T H E S E Q U E S T IO N S A B O U T Y O U R S E L F
1. Yrs. in present system as teacher (
), adm inistrator (
).®- U nderline to indicate m arital status— (m arried) (sin g le ).
2. U nderline p resent position — (teach er) (adm in istrator).
3. Total yrs. experience as teacher (
) , adm inistrator (
4. U nderline to indicate sex — (m a le) (fe m a le ).
5. D o you hold an adm inistrative credential? — (
).
Check to indicate form al train in g: less than B . A . (
B.A . ( ) ; G raduate w ork ( ) ; M.A. or equ ivalen t (
work beyond M.A. (
).
8. T eaching field? (In d icate dept. & grad e) (
) . 9. A dm inistrative field? (S u p t., supervisor, etc.) (
);
);
).
).
33
1.
I,
II,
(6 ) Which m eth o d do y o u t h i n k i d e a l ?
III,
2.
Use Numbers
IY, Y t o i n d i c a t e y o u r a n s w e r .
(7 ) C heck a c t i v i t i e s
i n w h ich t e a c h e r s a s w e l l a s
a d m i n i s t r a t i v e o f f i c e r s i n i t i a t e m ovem ents f o r t h e f o r m a t i o n
o r change o f a d m i n i s t r a t i v e p o l i c y .
3.
( 8 ) Check a c t i v i t i e s i n w h ic h y o u t h i n k t e a c h e r s
a s w e ll a s a d m i n i s t r a t i v e o f f i c e r s sh o u ld i n i t i a t e p la n s f o r
f o r m in g o r c h a n g i n g a d m i n i s t r a t i v e p o l i c y .
The h e a d i n g f o r colum n s i x r e f e r e d t o t h e p r e c e d i n g
f i v e colum ns w h i l e t h e s t a t e m e n t s i n colum n s e v e n and e i g h t
w ere i n d e p e n d e n t o f t h e o t h e r s i x c o lu m n s.
In a d d i t i o n to th e above,
w ere a s k e d ,
th e fo llo w in g s i x q u e s tio n s
e a c h r e l a t i n g t o some p h a s e o f t e a c h e r p a r t i c i ­
p a tio n in th e d e te rm in a tio n o f a d m in is tr a tiv e p o l i c i e s :
1 . Do you t h i n k t e a c h e r s h a v e t h e n e c e s s a r y e x p e r i ­
ence,
tra in in g ,
and a b i l i t y t o p a r t i c i p a t e i n t h e f o r m a t i o n
o f a d m in is tra tiv e p o lic y ?
2 . Do you t h i n k t h a t p r e s e n t t e a c h e r l o a d m akes i t
m ost d i f f i c u l t f o r t e a c h e r s to p a r t i c i p a t e e x t e n s i v e l y i n
th e fo rm a tio n of a d m in is tr a tiv e p o lic y ?
3 . I f y o u h a d y o u r c h o i c e w ould y o u p r e f e r t o work i n
a s c h o o l s y s te m w here t e a c h e r s p a r t i c i p a t e d e x t e n s i v e l y i n
th e d e te rm in a tio n o f a d m in is tr a tiv e p o l ic i e s ?
4 . C o n cern in g t e a c h e r p a r t i c i p a t i o n i n th e d e te r m in ­
a t i o n o f a d m i n i s t r a t i v e p o l i c y do y o u t h i n k i t w ould be
34
p r e f e r a b l e to have an e s t a b l i s h e d p ro c e d u re re c o g n iz e d by
y o u r b o ard o f e d u c a tio n ?
5 . Has t h e a d m i n i s t r a t i o n and t h e b o a r d o f e d u c a t i o n
in your sc h o o l d i s t r i c t re c o g n iz e d a n d 'e s ta b l is h e d a p o lic y
c o n c e rn in g te a c h e r p a r t i c i p a t i o n in th e d e te rm in a tio n o f a d ­
m in i s t r a ti v e p o lic y ?
6. Bo you t h i n k s c h o o l a d m i n i s t r a t i o n c a n h e d e m o c r a t ­
ic w ith o u t te a c h e r p a r t i c i p a t i o n in th e d e te rm in a tio n o f
a d m in is tra tiv e p o lic y ?
F in a lly ,
e a c h p a r t i c i p a n t was a s k e d t o a n s w e r n i n e
p e rs o n a l q u e stio n s p e r ta in in g ,
in o rd e r,
to years of e x p e ri­
e n c e i n t h e p r e s e n t s y s te m , p r e s e n t p o s i t i o n a s t e a c h e r o r
a d m in istra to r,
t o t a l y e a rs e x p erien c e,
sex , p o s s e s s i o n o f an
a d m in istra tiv e c re d e n tia l, m a rita l s ta tu s ,
tra in in g ,
te a c h in g f i e l d ,
l e v e l o f a c a d e m ic
and a d m i n i s t r a t i v e f i e l d .
E v e r y e f f o r t was made t o g e t f r a n k r e p l i e s .
To t h i s
en d a l l p a r t i c i p a n t s w ere r e q u e s t e d t o l e a v e t h e i r q u e s t i o n ­
n a ire s u n id e n tifie d .
F u r t h e r m o r e a s s u r a n c e s w e re g i v e n t h a t
n o p e r s o n a l o r i n d i v i d u a l s c h o o l i d e n t i f i c a t i o n s w ou ld be
m ade.
C om plete d i r e c t i o n s w ere l i s t e d
in th e c o n se c u tiv e
o r d e r i n w h ic h t h e q u e s t i o n n a i r e was t o be a n s w e re d t o a s s u r e
a r e a s o n a b l e u n i f o r m i t y an d a c c u r a c y o f r e p l i e s .
Due t o t h e l e n g t h o f t h e q u e s t i o n n a i r e s p e c i a l p r e ­
c a u t i o n s w ere t a k e n t o i n s u r e s u b s t a n t i a l r e t u r n s .
To a s s u r e
.
35
b e t t e r r e c e p t i o n and g e n e r a l l y t o make t h e q u e s t i o n n a i r e
p r e s e n t a b l e and l e s s f o r m i d a b l e i n a p p e a r a n c e i t was p r i n t e d
on one s i d e o f a n e i g h t a n d one f o u r t h b y t w e n ty I n c h s e m ir a g bond p a p e r o f good q u a l i t y .
A b r i e f e x p la n a tio n headed each q u e s tio n n a ir e .
T h is
s t a t e m e n t was p l a n n e d t o r e p l a c e a s e p a r a t e I n t r o d u c t o r y
le tte r,
S p e c i a l p r e c a u t i o n s w e re t a k e n I n a r r a n g i n g a n d
d e s i g n i n g t h e fo rm ,
i n c l u d i n g arra n g em e n t and ty p e s o f p r i n t
f o r c l a r i t y an d e a s e o f r e a d i n g .
P r i n t i n g t h e fo rm on a
s i n g l e s u r f a c e r a t h e r t h a n i n b o o k l e t s t y l e seem ed t o make
t h e t a s k o f r e p l y i n g l e s s o v e rw h e lm in g .
The q u e s t i o n n a i r e
was f o l d e d t o f a c i l i t a t e o p e n i n g o f t h e fo rm ,
and t o l e a v e
th e t i t l e
sp e c ia l fra n ­
and i n t r o d u c t i o n e x p o s e d .
F in a lly ,
c h i s e e n v e l o p e s w ere p r i n t e d f o r r e t u r n m a i l .
T h e se w ere
e n c lo se d w ith each q u e s tio n n a ir e .
M ethod o f d i s t r i b u t i n g q u e s t i o n n a i r e s .
1941,
On M arch 18,
c o p i e s o f t h e q u e s t i o n n a i r e w ere s e n t t o 436 t e a c h e r s
o f Los A n g e le s c o u n t y s c h o o l s .
A l l l e t t e r s w ere a d d r e s s e d i n
lo n g h a n d and s e n t f i r s t c l a s s m a i l d i r e c t l y t o t h e r e c i p i e n t s .
One week l a t e r q u e s t i o n n a i r e s w ere s e n t t o 70 a d m i n i s t r a t o r s
I n t h e same m a n n e r a s d e s c r i b e d a b o v e .
The r e a s o n f o r t h i s
d e l a y was t o a l l o w t e a c h e r s an o p p o r t u n i t y t o r e p l y w i t h o u t
i n f l u e n c e o r a s s i s t a n c e fro m a d m i n i s t r a t i v e o f f i c e r s .
R e p l i e s came i n c o n s i s t e n t l y a l t h o u g h n o t i n l a r g e n u m b ers
36
f o r a p e r i o d o f t h r e e w eeks a t w h ich tim e a U n i t e d S t a t e s
p e n n y p o s t c a r d e x p r e s s i n g t h a n k s t o t h o s e who h a d made r e ­
t u r n s a n d r e m i n d in g o t h e r s o f t h e a u t h o r ’ s d e s i r e t o h a v e
t h e i r r e p l i e s w ere s e n t t o a l l who h a d r e c e i v e d q u e s t i o n ­
n a ire s.
The f o l l o w i n g i s a r e p r o d u c t i o n o f t h e s t a t e m e n t
w h ic h a p p e a r e d on t h e c a r d :
D e a r _________________ ,
I f you h a v e r e t u r n e d t h e q u e s t i o n n a i r e
on T e a e h e r - A d m i n i s t r a t o r R e l a t i o n s , y o u r r e ­
p l y i s g r a t e f u l l y a c k n o w le d g e d .
I f you h a v e n o t y e t a n s w e re d i t , y o u r
r e p l y w i l l he r e c e iv e d w ith a p p r e c i a t i o n .
T ours t r u l y ,
The d i s t r i b u t i o n o f t h e q u e s t i o n n a i r e s was made t o s e c u r e
f a i r r e p r e s e n t a t i o n from th e k in d e r g a r te n th ro u g h th e j u n i o r
h i g h s c h o o l s o f a l l Los A n g e le s C o u n ty e l e m e n t a r y a n d j u n i o r
h ig h sch o o l d i s t r i c t s p o s s e s s in g d i s t r i c t s u p e r in te n d e n ts .
On t h e f o l l o w i n g p a g e T a b l e I I shows t h e d i s t r i b u t i o n
o f q u e s t i o n n a i r e s by s i z e o f s c h o o l d i s t r i c t s *
The r e p l i e s
o f t h e t e a c h e r s w e re s e g r e g a t e d i n t o f o u r g r o u p s a c c o r d i n g
to th e s i z e o f sc h o o l d i s t r i c t s
e m p lo y e d .
te a c h e rs,
te a c h e rs.
i n w hich t h e r e s p o n d e n t s w ere
T h e s e d i s t r i c t g r o u p i n g s were a s f o l l o w s r 1 — 20
2 1 — 60 t e a c h e r s ,
6 1 — 150 t e a c h e r s ,
and o v e r 150
T h e s e g r o u p s w ere r e f e r e d t o i n t h i s c h a p t e r ,
sm a lle s t to la r g e s t,
as g ro u p s: I ,
II,
III,
an d IV.
fro m
Of t h e
436 q u e s t i o n n a i r e s s e n t t o t e a c h e r s 1 4 .7 p e r c e n t w ent t o
TABLE I I
DISTRIBUTION: OF QUESTIONNAIRES TO
TEACHERS BY SCHOOL-SIZE GROUPS
I
Group
R e p rese n ted
II
Number o f
sc h o o ls
re p re se n te d
III
Number o f
T eachers
re p re se n te d
IT
Y
YI
T II
A v e ra g e No.
o f ques­
tio n n a ire s
se n t each
School
D istric t
P e rce n tag e *
o f T eachers
re c e iv in g
q u e stio n ­
n a ire s
Number o f
q u e stio n ­
n a ire s
d istrib u t­
ed
P e rc e n ta g e
D istrib u ­
tio n is of
T o ta l
21 . Q
64
1 4 .7
3 .2
1 -2 0
teach ers
(I)
20
303
21 -6 0
te a c h e rs
(II)
31
1 ,1 4 9
1 4 .0
156
3 5 .8
5 .0
61-ISO
te a c h e rs
13
1 ,2 9 0
8 .0
107
2 4 .5
8 .2
O ver 150
te a c h e rs
(IT )
9
8 ,1 5 1
1 .0
109
2 5 .0
1 2 .0
T o ta ls
73
1 0 ,8 9 3
4 .0
436
1 0 0 .0
6 .0
(rn)
^ P e r c e n t a g e s w ere ro u n d e d t o t h e n e a r e s t t e n t h o f one p e r c e n t
03
<3
38
g ro u p I ,
35*8 p e r c e n t w e n t t o g ro u p I I ,
t o g ro u p I I I ,
2 4 . 5 p e r c e n t w ent
a n d 25 p e r c e n t w e n t t o g r o u p I T t e a c h e r s ;
T h i s v a r i a t i o n i n p e r c e n t a g e was o f f s e t by t h e num ber o f
q u e s tio n n a ire s sen t to each d i s t r i c t .
A p p ro x im ately t h r e e
q u e s t i o n n a i r e s w e re s e n t t o e a c h s c h o o l d i s t r i c t I n g ro u p I ,
f i v e q u e s t i o n n a i r e s w ent t o e a c h s c h o o l d i s t r i c t i n g r o u p I I ,
e i g h t q u e s t i o n n a i r e s w e re s e n t t o e a c h o f t h e g r o u p I I I
sc h o o ls,
and t w e lv e q u e s t i o n n a i r e s w ere s e n t t o t h e g ro u p
fo u r school d i s t r i c t s .
C o n c e r n i n g th e d i s t r i b u t i o n o f q u e s t i o n n a i r e s w i t h i n
t h e s c h o o l s , T a b le I I I d i s c l o s e s t h a t a p p r o x i m a t e l y 61 p e r
c e n t w e re s e n t t o p r i m a r y and i n t e r m e d i a t e g r a d e t e a c h e r s an d
39 p e r c e n t w e re d i v i d e d b e tw e e n t h e s e v e n t h a n d e i g h t h g r a d e
t e a c h e r s o f t h e e l e m e n t a r y s c h o o l s and t h e j u n i o r h i g h s c h o o l
te a c h e rs.
S e v e n ty o f t h e 506 q u e s t i o n n a i r e s w ere s e n t t o t h e
d i s t r i c t su p e rin te n d e n ts.
school d i s t r i c t s
I n m ost i n s t a n c e s th e j u n i o r h ig h
and t h e e l e m e n t a r y d i s t r i c t s w ere u n d e r t h e
j u r i s d i c t i o n o f t h e same s u p e r i n t e n d e n t ,
Q u e s t i o n n a i r e s w e re
s e n t to s i x a s s i s t a n t s u p e r i n te n d e n t s .
A n a ly sis o f r e t u r n s .
A n a l y s i s o f t h e r e t u r n s showed
t h e r e w e re n i n e t y r e p l i e s fro m e l e m e n t a r y t e a c h e r s and t w e n t y
f o u r fro m j u n i o r h i g h s c h o o l t e a c h e r s , m a k in g a t o t a l t e a c h e r
r e s p o n s e o f 114 r e p l i e s .
B a se d on t h e d i s t r i b u t i o n o f 436
59
tabu:
ni
DISTRIBUTION OF QUESTIONNAIRES TO TEACHERS,
BY SCHOOL DEPARTMENTS
School
d e p artm e n t
re p re se n te d
Number o f
q u e stio n n a ire s
Ber c e n t1
of
to ta l
K in d e rg a rte n to
t h i r d grade
152
3 0 .3
G ra d e s 4 — 5 — 5
13 5
3 0 .5
3
•7
G ra d e s 7 —8
95
2 1 .8
Ju n io r h ig h
( 7 — 8 — 9)
73
1 6 .7
E le m e n ta ry 2
u n c la ss ifie d
K in d e rg a rte n to
e ig h th g rade
T o ta ls
565
436
8 3 .3 *
1 0 0 .0
^ Numbers r o u n d e d t o t h e n e a r e s t t e n t h o f one p e r c e n t .
2 U n c la s s ifie d in c i t y sc h o o l d ir e c to r y a s to s p e c if ic grad e.
* Not t o h e t o t a l e d .
40
q u e s t i o n n a i r e s to t e a c h e r s t h i s r e p r e s e n te d a t o t a l r e s p o n s e
o f 2 6 .1 p e r c e n t .
Two r e p l i e s ,
one e a c h fro m a t e a c h e r and
a s u p e r i n t e n d e n t w e re r e c e i v e d to o l a t e t o b e i n c l u d e d i n t h e
stu d y .
T h e se were n o t i n c l u d e d i n t h e t o t a l p e r c e n t a g e o f
re p lie s.
T ab le I T r e v e a l s t h a t th e s m a lle s t p e rc e n ta g e o f r e ­
t u r n s came from g ro u p I T s c h o o l s ,
w h ile group I I I te a c h e r s *
p e r c e n t a g e o f r e t u r n s was h i g h e s t , b e i n g a p p r o x i m a t e l y o n e
t h i r d o f t h e q u e s t i o n n a i r e s d i s t r i b u t e d t o th e m .
Group I
and I I t e a c h e r r e t u r n s w e re 28 p e r c e n t and 2 4 p e r c e n t r e ­
sp e c tiv e ly .
From t h e s t a n d p o i n t o f s c h o o l d e p a r t m e n t r e s p o n s e
T a b le V i n d i c a t e s t h a t th e j u n i o r h ig h sc h o o l g ro u p r e t u r n s
w ere h i g h e s t w i t h 3 2 .9 p e r c e n t .
The l o w e s t p e r c e n t a g e r e ­
t u r n came fro m t h e s e v e n t h a n d e i g h t h g r a d e t e a c h e r g r o u p ,
o n l y 20 p e r c e n t b e i n g r e c e i v e d .
O th e r p e rc e n ta g e r e t u r n s
w e re 2 3 . 5 and 2 4 . 8 p e r c e n t f o r t h e k i n d e r g a r t e n t o t h i r d
grade,
and f o u r t h to s i x t h g r a d e t e a c h e r g r o u p s r e s p e c t i v e l y .
T w enty f o u r and e i g h t t e n t h s p e r c e n t o f t h e q u e s t i o n n a i r e s
d i s t r i b u t e d to t e a c h e r s o f th e k i n d e r g a r t e n and th e f i r s t
e i g h t g r a d e s w ere r e t u r n e d .
Of t h e s e v e n t y q u e s t i o n n a i r e s s e n t t o t h e s u p e r i n t e n d ­
e n t s T a b le T I r e v e a l s t h a t f i v e were r e t u r n e d fro m g ro u p I
d is tric ts ,
e i g h t fr o m g ro u p I I d i s t r i c t s ,
th re e d i s t r i c t s ,
s e v e n fro m g r o u p
and f o u r f r o m g ro u p I T d i s t r i c t s .
T h e r e was
TABLE TT
NUMBERS AND PERCENTAGES Of TEACHER
REPLIES FROM SCHOOL-SIZE GROUPS
I
II
Group
re p re se n te d
No. o f
sc h o o ls
re p re se n te d
III
rr
No. o f q u e s ­ No. o f
tio n n a ire s
re p lie s
d i s t r ib u t e d re c e iv e d
V
P erce n tag e *
of d istrib u te d
q u e stio n n a ire s
retu rn e d
P e rc e n ta g e o f
t o ta l re tu rn s
re p re se n te d
IT
1 -2 0
te a c h e rs
(I)
20
64
18
2 8 .1
1 5 .8
2 1 -6 0
te a c h e rs
(II)
31
156
38
2 4 .4
3 3 .3
6 1 -1 5 0
tea ch e rs
(III)
13
107
34
3 1 .8
2 9 .8
Over 150
te a c h e rs
(IV)
9
109
24
2 2 .0 .
2 1 .1
73
436
114
2 6 .1
1 0 0 .0
T o ta ls
* P e r c e n t a g e s w ere r o u n d e d t o t lie n e a r e s t t e n t h o f one p e r c e n t .
TABLE V
NUMBERS AND PERCENTAGES OF TEACHERS1 REPLIES
FROM VARIOUS ELEMENTARY AND JUNIOR HIGH SCHOOL DEPARTMENTS
I
II
III
IV
P e rce n tag e * o f
D istrib u te d
Q u e stio n n a ire s
re tu rn e d
V
No. o r q u e s ­
tio n n a ire s
d istrib u te d
No. o f
re p lie s
re c eiv e d
Kgn. - 3
132
31
2 3 .5
2 7 .2
4 -5 -6
133
37
2 7 .8
3 2 .5
3
3
1 0 0 .0
2 .6
7 -8
95
19
2 0 .0
1 6 .7
J r . h ig h
(7 -8 -9 )
73
24
3 2 .9
2 1 .0
K g n .- 8
363
90
2 4 .8
7 8 .9 * *
T o ta ls
436
11 4
2 6 .1
S c h o o l D e p t,
re p re se n te d
E le m e n ta ry
(u n c la ssifie d )
P e rc e n ta g e o f t o t a l
re tu rn s
re p re se n te d
* P e r c e n t a g e s w ere ro u n d e d t o n e a r e s t t e n t h o f one p e r c e n t .
** N ot t o he t o t a l e d .
1 0 0 .0
43
TABLE VI
NUMBER AND PERCENTAGES OE SUPERINTENDENTS’ REPLIES
EROM SCHOOL-SIZE GROUPS
' S iz e of
D istric ts
Number o f
Q u e stio n n a ire s
D istrib u te d
Number
ot
R e p lie s
R e c e iv e d
P e rc e n ta g e *
P e rc e n ta g e
o f D istrib u te d
of to ta l
re tu rn s
Q u e stio n n a ire s
R e tu rn e d
re p re se n te d
1-20
tea ch ers
(I)
19
5
2.6,0
2 1 .0
2 1 -6 0
teach ers
(II)
29
8
2 8 .0
3 3 .0
6 1 -1 5 0
te a c h e rs
(III)
13
7
5 4 .0
2 9 .0
Over 150
te a c h e rs
9
4
4 4 .0
1 7 .0
T o ta ls
70
24
3 4 .0
1 0 0 ,0
Crv)
^ P e r c e n t a g e s ro u n d e d t o t h e n e a r e s t one p e r c e n t .
44
a t o t a l o f tw e n ty f o u r u s a b l e r e t u r n s fro m t h e s u p e r i n t e n d e n t s
r e p r e s e n t i n g a re s p o n s e o f 5 4 .3 p e r c e n t.
Summary o f i n f o r m a t i o n c o n c e r n i n g r e s p o n d e n t s .
In ad­
d i t i o n to th e in fo rm a tio n s e c u re d on te a c h e r p a r t i c i p a t i o n in
t h e d e t e r m i n a t i o n o f s c h o o l p o l i c i e s t h e r e s p o n d e n t s w ere
a sk e d to answ er n in e p e r s o n a l q u e s tio n s d e a lin g w ith th e
t e a c h e r s f s t a t u s in th e sc h o o l.
T hese n i n e q u e s t i o n s s o u g h t
in fo rm a tio n on:
1. T ea rs o f e x p erien c e
3. P re s e n t p o s i t io n — te a c h e r o r a d m in is tr a to r
3. T o t a l y e a r s e x p e r i e n c e
4.
Sex o f r e s p o n d e n t
5. C r e d e n tia ls h e ld — e s p e c i a l l y i f a d m in is tr a tiv e
6. M a r ita l s t a t u s
¥ . F o rm a l t r a i n i n g ( L e s s A .B ., A .B ., M .A .)
8 . T each in g f i e l d
9. A d m in is tr a tiv e f i e l d .
T a b le ¥11 i n c l u d e s i n f o r m a t i o n on t h e y e a r s o f e x p e r i ­
ence,
th e a d m i n i s t r a t i v e c r e d e n t i a l h o l d e r s ,
th e sex,
and th e
am ount o f p r o f e s s i o n a l t r a i n i n g p o s s e s s e d by t h e t e a c h e r s
a n s w e r in g t h e q u e s t i o n n a i r e .
T a b l e ¥11 shows t h a t 61 p e r
c e n t o f t h e r e s p o n d e n t s w e re t e a c h e r s w ith e i g h t o r m ore
y e a rs o f e x p e rie n c e ,
t h a t e i g h t e e n o f t h e 114 t e a c h e r s h e l d
a d m in istra tiv e c re d e n tia ls ,
t h a t 87 w e re women, an d t h a t t h e
TABLE Y II
SUMMARY OE INFORMATION CONCERNING ONE
HUNDRED FOURTEEN TEACHERS ANSWERING THE QUESTIONNAIRE
II
D e g re e H e ld
Y ears o f te a c h in g
e x p erien c e
8 or
1 - 3 , 4 - 7 , more
Number
of
T eachers
P e rc e n ta g e
Number i s
o f T o ta l
22
1 9 ,0
23
2 0 .0
69
6 1 ,0
L ess
th a n
A . B . , A . B . , M.A.
18
68
28
1 5 ,8
5 9 ,2
2 5 .0
III
IY
A d m in is tra tiv e
C re d e n tia l
H o ld e rs
B e sp o n d e n ts
Male
F e m a le
T o ta l
18
27
87
114
1 5 .8
2 4 .0
7 6 .0
1 0 0 .0
P e r c e n t a g e r o u n d e d t o t h e n e a r e s t one t e n t h o f one p e r c e n t .
46
m a j o r i t y o f t h e t e a c h e r s h e l d A.B:. d e g r e e s .
In fo rm a tio n c o n c e rn in g th e s iz e o f sch o o l d i s t r i c t s
in
w h ic h t h e s u p e r i n t e n d e n t s w ere e m p loy ed was i n c l u d e d on
T a b l e Y I.
The i n f o r m a t i o n g i v e n on T a b l e V I I I i n d i c a t e s t h a t
a l l th e s u p e rin te n d e n ts had o v e r e ig h t y e a rs o f e x p e rie n c e ,
a l l b u t one w ere men, two h a d l e s s t h a n A.B. d e g r e e s ,
h a d A .B . d e g r e e s , t h r e e h a d M.A. d e g r e e s ,
w ork b e y o n d t h e M.A. d e g r e e ,
th re e
f o u r t e e n h a d done
a n d tw o p o s s e s s e d a d v a n c e d d e g r e e s .
T h e r e was a p o s s i b i l i t y i n c o n n e c t i o n w ith t h e s u p e r i n t e n d e n t s *
r e p l i e s t h a t t h e s a m p l i n g was n o t e n t i r e l y a r e p r e s e n t a t i v e
one.
I t w as w i t h i n t h e r e a l m o f p r o b a b i l i t y t h a t t h e r e s p o n s e s
w ere t h o s e o f t h e s u p e r i n t e n d e n t s m o s t i n t e r e s t e d i n t h e s u b ­
je c t,
a n d t h e r e f o r e l i k e l y t o d i v u l g e somewhat m ore d e m o c r a t i c
s i t u a t i o n s t h a n w ould b e i n d i c a t e d b y a t r u e c r o s s s e c t i o n .
P ro ced u res fo r a n a ly s is o f q u e stio n n a ire d a ta .
The
tre a tm e n t o f th e q u e s tio n n a ir e d a ta in v o lv e d s e v e r a l p r o c e s s ­
es in c lu d in g th e ta b u la tio n o f r e p l i e s ,
th e l i s t i n g of te a c h ­
e r s * a n d s u p e r i n t e n d e n t s * r e s p o n s e s on e x i s t i n g and i d e a l
p ro ced u res,
t h e c o m p a r is o n o f t e a c h e r s a n d a d m i n i s t r a t o r s
o p i n i o n s on e x i s t i n g and i d e a l m e th o d s , a n d t h e a n a l y s i s o f
r e t u r n s f o r e v id e n c e s o f s i g n i f i c a n t d i f f e r e n c e s in e x i s t i n g
an d i d e a l p r o c e d u r e s f o r t h e d e t e r m i n a t i o n o f a d m i n i s t r a t i v e
p o lic ie s.
P ro ced u res used in ta b u la tin g q u e stio n n a ire r e p l i e s .
TABLE T i l l
SUMMARY OF INFORMATION CONCERNING TWENTY FOUR
SUPERINTENDENTS AND ADMINISTRATIVE OFFICERS ANSWERING
THE QUESTIONNAIRE
P r o f e s s io n a l T ra in in g
D egrees
Y ears o f
E x p erien c e
1-3
Number
S u p e rin ­
te n d e n ts
P e rce n tag e
o f T o ta l
4 -7
8 o r m ore
Less
th an
A.B.
34
1 0 0 .0
A .B .
M.A.
Work
bey o n d
M.A.
M ale
F e m ale
2
3
3
16
23
1
8 .0
1 3 .0
1 3 .0
6 6 .0
9 6 .0
4 .0
P e r c e n t a g e s a c c u r a t e t o one p e r c e n t .
48
T e a c h e rs * r e p l i e s w e re t a l l i e d
n o t o n l y a s a s i n g l e g ro u p h u t
i n a d d i t i o n t h e y w e re t a l l i e d b y s p e c i a l g ro u p s a c c o r d i n g t o
siz:e o f d i s t r i c t s ,
sio n a l tra in in g ,
tiv e ),
grad e l e v e ls ,
y e a r s of e x p erien c e, p r o f e s ­
h in d s o f c r e d e n tia ls
(e s p e c ia lly a d m in istra - -
and a c c o r d i n g t o t y p e o f s c h o o l *i n c l u d i n g t h e j u n i o r
h i g h s c h o o l t e a c h e r g ro u p and t h e k i n d e r g a r t e n t o e i g h t h
g r a d e t e a c h e r g ro u p ' ( r e p r e s e n t i n g t h e c o n v e n t i a l e i g h t y e a r
e le m e n ta ry s c h o o l) .
To i n s u r e a c c u r a c y a l l t a b u l a t i o n s w ere r e c h e c k e d u n t i l
fou n d to h e - c o r r e c t .
S t a t i s t i c a l tre a tm e n t of th e ta b u la te d r e p l i e s .
m e th o d s o f l i s t i n g t h e r e p l i e s w ere u s e d .
Two
The r e s p o n s e s t o
e a c h o f t h e a c t i v i t i e s o n e x i s t i n g and i d e a l p r o c e d u r e s a s
w e l l a s t h e t o t a l num ber o f r e s p o n s e s f o r e a c h t e a c h e r s * and
s u p e r i n t e n d e n t s * g ro u p w e re a v e r a g e d f o r i n d i c a t i o n s o f
c e n t r a l t e n d e n c i e s , a n d t h e ra n g e s - o f t h e d i s p e r s i o n s o f t h e
m i d d l e 50 p e r c e n t o f r e p l i e s were c a l c u l a t e d t o i n d i c a t e
th e d i v e r s i t y and s i m i l a r i t y o f p ro c e d u re s i n u se o r s u g g e s t­
ed f o r u s e i n t h e d e t e r m i n a t i o n o f a d m i n i s t r a t i v e p o l i c i e s .
P r o c e d u r e s f o r c o m p a r is o n o f a d m i n i s t r a t o r s * a n d
t e a c h e r s * a v e r a g e o p i n i o n s on e x i s t i n g a n d i d e a l m e th o d s f o r
d e te rm in in g th e p o l i c i e s o f th e f i f t y a d m in is tr a tiv e a c t i v ­
itie s .
An e x t e n d e d s e r i e s o f c o m p a r is o n s was made o f t h e
t e a c h e r s * and s u p e r i n t e n d e n t s *
o p in io n s w ith re g a rd to th e
49
m e th o d s em p lo y ed and p r o c e d u r e s c o n s i d e r e d d e s i r a b l e f o r t h e
d e te rm in a tio n o f school p o l i c i e s .
fo llo w s:
(1 ) t e a c h e r s *
T h ese c o m p a r is o n s w e re a s
a v e r a g e s o f e x i s t i n g c o n d i t i o n s w ere
com pared w i t h t h e i r a v e r a g e s o f s u g g e s t e d p r o c e d u r e s ;
su p e rin te n d e n ts*
(2 )
a v e r a g e s o f e x i s t i n g c o n d i t i o n s w e re com­
p a re d w ith t h e i r a v e rag e s o f su g g e ste d p ro c e d u re s ;
(3) t e a c h ­
e r s * a v e r a g e s o f e x i s t i n g p r o c e d u r e s w ere com pared w i t h t h e
s u p e rin te n d e n ts ’ av erag es of e x is tin g c o n d itio n s ;
(4) te a c h ­
e r s * a v e r a g e s o f s u g g e s t e d p r o c e d u r e s w ere com pared w ith t h e
su p e rin te n d e n ts*
a v e ra g e s o f su g g e ste d p ro c e d u re s ;
g a r t e n to e i g h t h g rad e te a c h e r s *
(5 ) k i n d e r ­
a v e r a g e s o f e x i s t i n g and
i d e a l c o n d i t i o n s w e re com pared w i t h t h e e x i s t i n g an d s u g g e s t e d
p r o c e d u r e s r e p o r t e d by t h e j u n i o r h i g h s c h o o l t e a c h e r s ; and
( 6 ) c o m p a ris o n o f t h e v a r i o u s s i z e - g r o u p s *^ a v e r a g e s on e x i s t ­
i n g p r o c e d u r e s was made w i t h t h e i r a v e r a g e s o n i d e a l m e th o d s .
M e th o d s f o r c o m p a r is o n o f a d m i n i s t r a t o r s * a n d t e a c h e r s *
t o t a l - r e s p o n s e a v e r a g e s on e x i s t i n g a n d i d e a l p r o c e d u r e s f o r
d e te rm in in g sch o o l p o l i c i e s .
I n a d d i t i o n t o t h e a b o v e , com­
p a r i s o n s o f t h e v a r i o u s g r o u p s w ere made f o r s i m i l a r i t i e s and
d i f f e r e n c e s in th e g e n e r a l a t t i t u d e s o f th e s e g ro u p s a s t o
t h e i d e a l p r o c e d u r e s t o em ploy i n d e t e r m i n i n g p o l i c i e s .
^ T h e r e w ere f o u r s i z e - g r o u p s e a c h r e p r e s e n t i n g i n
t u r n , d i s t r i c t s w i t h 1 — 20 t e a c h e r s , 2 1 — 60 t e a c h e r s , 61—
150 t e a c h e r s , a n d o v e r 150 t e a c h e r s .
F irst,
t h e s e s i m i l a r i t i e s a n d d i f f e r e n c e s w ere shown by com­
p a r in g th e t o t a l re sp o n se a v e ra g e s o f e x i s t i n g c o n d itio n s
w ith th o s e o f th e su g g e ste d o r i d e a l p ro c e d u re s f o r a l l groups
i n c l u d i n g t e a c h e r s a s a w h o le ,
s u p e rin te n d e n ts,
j u n io r h ig h
sc h o o l t e a c h e r s , k i n d e r g a r t e n to e ig h th g ra d e t e a c h e r s , and
t h e t e a c h e r s i z e - g r o u p s ; and s e c o n d , t h e s i m i l a r i t i e s and
d i f f e r e n c e s w ere shown b y c o m p a rin g t h e d i f f e r e n t t o t a l r e ­
sponse a v e ra g e s o f e x i s t i n g c o n d itio n s f o r a l l groups l i s t e d
a b o v e , and by c o m p a rin g t h e d i f f e r e n t t o t a l r e s p o n s e a v e r a g e s
of su g g e ste d o r i d e a l p ro c e d u re s f o r a l l th e gro u p s a lr e a d y
g iv e n .
P r o c e d u r e s f o r c o m p a r is o n o f t h e a v e r a g e o p i n i o n s o f
th e grade l e v e l , e x p e r ie n c e , and p r o f e s s i o n a l t r a i n i n g groups
w i t h t h o s e o f t h e t e a c h e r s a s a w h o le . The a v e r a g e o p i n i o n s
2
3
4
o f th e g rade l e v e l ,
e x p e rie n c e ,
and p r o f e s s i o n a l t r a i n i n g
g r o u p s w ere c o n t r a s t e d w i t h t h e a v e r a g e o p i n i o n s o f t h e
2 The g r a d e l e v e l g ro u p s r e p r e s e n t e d i n t u r n , t e a c h e r s
fro m t h e k i n d e r g a r t e n t o t h i r d g r a d e , t e a c h e r s o f t h e f o u r t h ,
f i f t h a n d s i x t h g r a d e s , t e a c h e r s o f t h e s e v e n t h and e i g h t h
g r a d e s , and j u n i o r h i g h s c h o o l t e a c h e r s ,
® E x p e r i e n c e g r o u p s w ere i n t u r n composed o f t e a c h e r s
w i t h 1—-3 y e a r s e x p e r i e n c e , 4— 7 y e a r s e x p e r i e n c e , and 8 o r
m ore y e a r s e x p e r i e n c e .
4
e r s w ith
d eg rees,
d eg rees,
The p r o f e s s i o n a l t r a i n i n g g r o u p s i n c l u d e d : (1 ) t e a c h ­
l e s s t h a n A.B. d e g r e e s , (2 ) t e a c h e r s w ith A.B.
( 3 ) t e a c h e r s p o s s e s s i n g M.A. o r o t h e r a d v a n c e d
and t e a c h e r s p o s s e s s i n g a d m i n i s t r a t i v e c r e d e n t i a l s .
51
t e a c h e r s a s a w h o le , by c o m p a rin g t h e t o t a l - r e s p o n s e a v e r a g e s
o f t h e f o r m e r g r o u p s w i t h t h o s e o f t h e t e a c h e r s a s a w hole
w i t h r e s p e c t t o b o t h e x i s t i n g and d e s i r a b l e p r o c e d u r e s f o r
p o lic y d e te rm in a tio n -..
M e th o d s f o r d e t e r m i n i n g d i f f e r e n c e s i n t o t a l r e s p o n s e
averages.
In o rd e r to r e v e a l th e s ig n if ic a n c e o f th e d i f f e r ­
en ces in t o t a l re s p o n se a v e ra g e s th e c r i t i c a l r a t i o s o f th o se
a v e r a g e s w e re c a l c u l a t e d .
I n t h e i n s t a n c e s w h ere t h e c r i t i c a l
r a t i o s w e re f o u r o r l a r g e r some e v id e n c e o f a s i g n i f i c a n t
d i f f e r e n c e was s u s p e c t e d .
When t h e c r i t i c a l r a t i o was tw o o r
t h r e e tim e s a s l a r g e a s n e c e s s a r y t o show a s i g n i f i c a n t d i f ­
f e r e n c e t h e r e was m o re c e r t a i n t y t h a t t h e a p p a r e n t d i f f e r e n c e s
i n t h e s c o r e s u n d e r c o m p a r is o n w ere n o t dtie t o e r r o r s i n
c h a n c e s a m p li n g .
The m e th o d u s e d t o d e t e r m i n e t h e c r i t i c a l
r a t i o s was t o d i v i d e t h e q u a r t i l e d e v i a t i o n s o f t h e d i s t r i b u ­
t i o n s f o r t h e a v e r a g e s u n d e r c o n s i d e r a t i o n by t h e s q u a r e r o o t
o f t h e r e s p e c t i v e n u m b ers o f r e s p o n s e s i n v o l v e d .
These quo­
t i e n t s w ere t h e n s q u a r e d , and t h e s q u a r e r o o t o f t h e sum o f
t h e two s q u a r e s a b s t r a c t e d .
T h i s P 32 o f t h e d i f f e r e n c e o f
t h e two s c o r e s w as d i v i d e d i n t o t h e d i f f e r e n c e o f t h e a v e r ­
a g e s i n v o l v e d a n d t h e q u o t i e n t r e c e i v e d was c o n s i d e r e d s i g n i ­
f i c a n t i f i t w ere f o u r o r l a r g e r .
A d d i t i o n a l p r o c e d u r e s em plo yed i n a n a l y s i n g q u e s t i o n n a ire r e s u lts .
S u p p l i m e n t i n g t h e f o r e g o i n g m e th o d s o f
52
a n a l y s i s an a t t e m p t was made t o show th e k i n d s o f a c t i v i t i e s
w h ich w ere a s s o c i a t e d w ith s t a n d a r d i z e d a n d d i v e r s i f i e d p r o ­
c e d u r e s , and t h e t y p e s o f p r o c e d u r e s w i t h w hich t h e g r e a t e s t
an d l e a s t a m o u n ts o f a g r e e m e n t w e re d i s c l o s e d .
T h e s e i n d i c a t i o n s w e re shown by r e f e r i n g t o t h e a v e r ­
a g e s and t h e r a n g e s o f t h e d i s p e r s i o n s o f t h e m id d l e 50 p e r
c e n t o f r e p l i e s to th e a c t i v i t i e s in q u e s tio n f o r e v id e n c e s
o f p r o c e d u r e s on w h ich l a r g e num bers o f s c h o o l s c o n c u r r e d
and a l s o i n w hich t h e p r a c t i c e s shown w e re w i d e l y s c a t t e r e d .
C o n c lu sio n s.
The ab ove c h a p t e r h a s b e e n d e v o te d t o
t h e d e s c r i p t i o n o f t h e p r o c e d u r e s em p lo y ed i n t h e t h e s i s .
In
a d d i t i o n t o a summary o f i n f o r m a t i o n on t h e q u e s t i o n n a i r e r e ­
sp o n d en ts,
th e m e th o d s w ere i n d i c a t e d f o r d e f i n i n g t e r m s ,
a n a ly sin g r e la te d
q u e stio n n a ire ,
stu d ie s,
c o n s t r u c t i n g and d i s t r i b u t i n g t h e
a n a ly s in g th e r e tu r n s ,
q u e stio n n a ire d a ta .
and I n a n a ly s in g th e
CHAPTER IV
TYPES OE PROCEDURES EMPLOYED FOR DETERMINING
ADMINISTRATIVE POLICIES
The f i r s t o f t h r e e s e c t i o n s o f t h e q u e s t i o n n a i r e d e a l t
w ith th e p ro c e d u re s used in sc h o o ls f o r th e d e te rm in a tio n o f
a d m in istra tiv e p o lic ie s .
T h e r e w e re 114 t e a c h e r s * a n d t w e n t y
fo u r su p e rin te n d e n ts* re sp o n se s to t h i s p o r tio n of th e q u es­
tio n n a ire .
T h e se w ere a n a l y s e d f o r e v i d e n c e s o f t h e g e n e r a l
e x i s t i n g c o n d i t i o n s a s w e l l a s f o r e v i d e n c e s o f t h e m e th o d s
e m p lo y ed i n s p e c i f i c s i t u a t i o n s an d g r o u p s .
I n a d d i t i o n to t h e a h o v e a n a n a l y s i s was made o f t h e
v a r i o u s g ro u p s * r e p l i e s t o n o t e t h e t y p e s o f p r o c e d u r e s c o n ­
s id e r e d i d e a l f o r d e te rm in in g school p o l i c i e s .
Many c o m p a r is o n s w e re made t o n o t e t h e a m o u n ts o f
a g re e m e n t and d i s a g r e e m e n t i n t h e s u g g e s t e d p r o c e d u r e s ,
and
t h e a m o u n ts o f s t a n d a r d i z a t i o n a n d d i v e r s i f i c a t i o n i n e x i s t ­
i n g m e th o d s u s e d f o r d e t e r m i n i n g p o l i c i e s .
The c h a p t e r i s d i v i d e d i n t o n i n e s e c t i o n s e a c h i n t u r n ,
except th e l a s t ,
d e a l i n g w i t h a p h a s e o f t h e ah o v e a n a l y s i s .
T h e se s e c t i o n s i n c l u d e t h e f o l l o w i n g :
(1 ) t h e t e a c h e r s *
re p lie s
on t h e e x i s t i n g p r o c e d u r e s a n d t h e p r o c e d u r e s w hich t h e y r e ­
p o rte d i d e a l f o r th e d e te rm in a tio n o f p o l i c i e s ,
(2} t h e s u p e r ­
i n t e n d e n t s * r e p l i e s on e x i s t i n g and s u g g e s t e d p r o c e d u r e s f o r
p o lic y d e te rm in a tio n ,
(3 ) t h e c o m p a r is o n o f t h e t e a c h e r s * a n d
54
su p e rin te n d e n ts*
re p lie s,
(4} t h e c o m p a r is o n o f j u n i o r h i g h
s c h o o l t e a c h e r s * and t h e k i n d e r g a r t e n t o e i g h t h g r a d e t e a c h ­
ers* resp o n se s,
(5 ) t h e c o m p a r is o n o f t e a c h e r s *
c o rd in g to th e s i z e o f sc h o o l d i s t r i c t s
w ere e m p lo y ed ,
re p lie s ac­
i n w h ich t h e t e a c h e r s
( 6 ] t h e c o m p a r is o n o f t h e a y e r a g e s o f t h e t o t a l
r e s p o n s e s t o a l l t h e a c t i v i t i e s f o r e a c h g ro u p i n d i c a t e d i n
th e stu d y ,
(7 ) t h e c o m p a r is o n o f t h e t o t a l - r e s p o n s e a v e r a g e s
o f t h e t e a c h e r s when g r o u p e d a c c o r d i n g t o g r a d e l e v e l s ,
o f e x p e rie n c e ,
y ears
and a m o u n ts o f f o r m a l e d u c a t i o n a l t r a i n i n g ,
w i t h t h e t o t a l - r e s p o n s e a v e r a g e s o f t h e t e a c h e r s a s a w h o le ,
a n d ( 8 ) t h e summary.
I.
TEACHERS* REPLIES ON EXISTING AND IDEAL PROCEDURES
FOR POLICY DETERMINATION
E x i s t i n g and i d e a l c o n d i t i o n s r e p o r t e d by t e a c h e r s .
The r e s p o n s e fro m t h e t e a c h e r s t o e a c h o f t h e f i f t y a d m i n i s ­
t r a t i v e a c t i v i t i e s was u n i f o r m l y h i g h .
The a v e r a g e o f 107 o u t
o f 114 p o s s i b l e r e p l i e s t o e a c h a c t i v i t y r e p r e s e n t e d a r e s p o n s e
o f 92 p e r c e n t .
T e a c h e r s w ere a s k e d t o i n d i c a t e t h e d e g r e e o f t e a c h e r
p a r t i c i p a t i o n in th e d e te rm in a tio n o f a d m in is tr a tiv e p o l i c i e s
w h ic h e x i s t e d i n t h e i r s c h o o l s y s te m s ,
and t h e am ount o f
t e a c h e r p a r t i c i p a t i o n w h ic h t h e y c o n s i d e r e d i d e a l .
r e p l i e s w e re a v e r a g e d f o r c e n t r a l t e n d e n c i e s ,
T h e se
and t h e d i s p e r ­
s i o n s o f t h e m i d d l e 50 p e r c e n t o f t h e r e p l i e s t o e a c h
55
a c t i v i t y w ere m e a s u r e d .
As was i n d i c a t e d i n t h e p r o c e d u r e ,
f i v e d e g r e e s o f p a r t i c i p a t i o n w ere l i s t e d ,
r a n g i n g fro m a
c o n d i t i o n i n w hich t h e s c h o o l a d m i n i s t r a t i o n d e t e r m i n e d t h e
p o l i c i e s to a s i t u a t i o n r e p r e s e n te d by th e o p p o s ite e x tre m e .
T h e se f i v e d e g r e e s o f p a r t i c i p a t i o n w ere r e f e r e d t o i n t h i s
c h a p t e r a s Type One, Type Two, Type T h r e e , Type F o u r , a n d
Type F i v e ,
c o r r e s p o n d i n g w i t h t h e co lum n h e a d num bers on t h e
q u e stio n n a ire .
B a se d o n t h e i r a v e r a g e r e s p o n s e s t e a c h e r s i n d i c a t e d
t h a t a m a j o r i t y o f t h e s c h o o l p o l i c i e s w ere d e t e r m i n e d b y
th e a d m in is tr a to r s e i t h e r in d e p e n d e n tly o r a f t e r c o n s u ltin g
th e te a c h e r s .
The a v e r a g e s o f e x i s t i n g c o n d i t i o n s shown o n
F i g u r e Z i n d i c a t e d t h a t 30 p e r c e n t o f t h e p o l i c i e s w ere
c h i e f l y d e t e r m i n e d by t h e u s e o f Type One p r o c e d u r e s ; 4 4 p e r
c e n t w ere c h i e f l y d e t e r m i n e d b y t h e u s e o f Type Two m e th o d s ;
Type T h re e h a d b e e n m a i n l y em ployed i n ZZ p e r c e n t o f t h e
c a s e s ; and i n 4 p e r c e n t o f t h e c a s e s ,
o r i n two i n s t a n c e s ,
Type F o u r p r o c e d u r e s came i n t o e x t e n s i v e u s e .
Under i d e a l c o n d itio n s th e a v e ra g e s o f te a c h e rs *
re­
p l i e s r e v e a l e d t h a t Type One p r o c e d u r e s s h o u l d be l a r g e l y
em p lo y ed i n d e t e r m i n i n g 8 p e r c e n t o f t h e p o l i c i e s ; Type Two
i n 44 p e r c e n t o f t h e c a s e s ; Type T h r e e i n 44 p e r c e n t o f t h e
i n s t a n c e s ; a n d Type F o u r p r o c e d u r e s s h o u l d be e x t e n s i v e l y
used in d e te rm in in g 4 p e r c e n t o f th e p o l i c i e s .
56
E x i s t i n g C o n d i t i o n s shown
in b lac k
I d e a l C o n d i t i o n s shown I n
red
ADMINISTRATIVE ACTIVITIES
Q s c o re s
A1 3d
1. S e le c tio n o f t e x t books
2 . S e le c tio n o f l i b r a r y and su p p llm e n ta ry books
3 . S e le c tio n o f e d u c a tio n a l m agazines
zs
4 . R e g u la tio n o f th e sch o o l l i b r a r y
ZJ_
5 . R e g u la tio n o f sc h o o l ho u rs
_LZ_
Zl
6. D e te rm in a tio n o f an n u a l o r s e m e ste r pro m o tio n s
P r e p a r a tio n o f s c h o o l c a le n d a rs
.L i .
8 . M aintenance and o p e ra tio n o f p la n t and equipm ent
9. R e g u la tio n and m aintenance o f b u ild in g sc h ed u le s
10. P r e p a r a tio n o f s c h o o l b u d g ets
_LA_
11
d±.
11. S u p e rv is io n o f s tu d e n t fin a n c e s
12. A d m in is tra tio n o f e d u c a tio n a l s u p p lie s
13. Development o f sc h o o l b u ild in g p la n s
j LJL
14. S e le c tio n o f b u ild in g and ground equipm ent
U l_
15. T r a n s p o r ta tio n o f p u p ils
_U _
16. A d m in is tra tio n o f p u b lic r e l a t i o n s
i-y
17. P r e p a r a tio n and d i s t r i b u t i o n o f d a il y b u l l e t i n s
18. A d m in is tra tio n o f classro o m o r g a n iz a tio n and c o n tr o l
19. P r e p a r a tio n o f d a ll y program s
20. A d m in is tra tio n o f r e c o r d s , r e g i s t e r s , and p e rs o n n e l r e p o r t s
21. E s ta b lish m e n t and m aintenance o f p u p il re c o rd s
A d.
jLJL
22. R e g i s tr a ti o n o f p u p ils
23. Grouping and c l a s s i f i c a t i o n o f p u p ils
2d,
2d
24. Prom otion o f p u p ils
25. A d m in is tra tio n o f a t e s t i n g program
3-6
j-H
JbSL M..
26. S u p e rv is io n o f p u p il government
2 9
30
2 9
2 d
28. S u p e rv is io n o f d i s c i p l i n e
so
Zd
29. R e g u la tio n o f t r u a n t s and d e lin q u e n ts
Lk L9_
27. S u p e rv is io n o f s tu d e n t body a c t i v i t i e s
30. Development o f s ta n d a rd s o f p u p il conduct
3-1
3 «/
2-g
Z.H
31. S u p e rv is io n o f p u p il a c t i v i t i e s
32. D eterm ining and r e g u l a ti n g s c h o la r s h ip sta n d a rd s
33. P ro v id in g and m a in ta in in g a h e a lth program
34. S u p e rv is io n o f h a l l s , g ro u n d s, y ard d u ty sc h ed u le s
AdL
35. M a in ta in in g v i s u a l e d u c a tio n
ZJL.
3-0
3-3
29
2-7
10
36. Employment o f j a n i t o r s
37. Employment o f te a c h e r s - d e te rm in in g p r o f . req u irem e n ts
38. Employment o f s u p e rv is o rs
j L J_
39. Prom otion o f te a c h e r s - r a t i n g s , e t c .
Id L .
40. D e te rm in a tio n o f s a la r y sc h ed u le s
JLJL
4 1 . R e g u la tio n o f s ic k le a v e
13
4 2 . Making te a c h e r assig n m en ts
Id ,
4 3 . Development o f in - s e r v i c e t r a i n i n g and advancement
44. Development o f cu rricu lu m and c o u rse o f s tu d y
A dd
45. Development o f e d u c a tio n a l p h ilo so p h y
2 JA -
46. Development o f m ethods o f i n s t r u c t i o n
47. D eterm ining t e a c h e r s ' m eetin g s - k in d ,- num ber, and tlm e
A l£_
48. Development o f code o f e th i c s
A jl.
AA L
49. Development o f t e a c h e r w e lfa re p o l ic i e s
50. A d m in is tra tio n o f a d m in is tr a tiv e o f f i c e s and p e rs o n n e l
2:0 2-tf
1 7 5 2 7 5 3 7 5 4 7 5 5 . 5
EIGUKE 2
DISTRIBUTIONS OF 114 TEACHERS* REPLIES ON EXISTING
AND IDEAL PROCEDURES E0R POLICY DETERMINATION
A c t i v i t i e s i n w h ic h a v e r a g e s o f e x i s t i n g and i d e a l
c o n d i t i o n r e s p o n s e s w ere s i m i l a r a n d d i f f e r e n t .
F ig u re 2 on
t h e p r e c e d i n g p a g e shows t h a t i n s e v e n i n s t a n c e s t e a c h e r s *
a v e ra g e s o f e x i s t i n g c o n d itio n s n e a r ly c o in c id e d w ith th e
a v e ra g e s f o r su g g e ste d id e a l c o n d itio n s ,
v a r y i n g n o t more
t h a n one t e n t h o f o ne d e g r e e on t h e s c a l e .
T h ese p o i n t s o f
a g r e e m e n t w ere i n c o n n e c t i o n w i t h t h e e s t a b l i s h m e n t o f p o l i ­
c i e s f o r t h e a d m i n i s t r a t i o n o f c l a s s r o o m o r g a n i z a t i o n and
c o n t r o l (No. 1 8 ) , ^ t h e p r e p a r a t i o n o f d a i l y p r o g r a m s ( 1 9 ) ,
t h e s u p e r v i s i o n o f s t u d e n t body a c t i v i t i e s
v isio n of d is c ip lin e
p u p il conduct (3 0 ),
(2 8 ),
(2 7 ),
th e su p e r­
t h e d e v e lo p m e n t o f s t a n d a r d s o f
th e s u p e r v is io n o f p u p il a c t i v i t i e s
(3 1 ),
a n d t h e d e t e r m i n i n g an d r e g u l a t i n g o f s c h o l a r s h i p s t a n d a r d s
(3 2).
P o i n t s o f g r e a t e s t d i f f e r e n c e w ere i n c o n n e c t i o n w i t h
th e d e te m i n a ti o n o f th e p o l i c i e s f o r th e s e le c tio n o f t e x t ­
books (1 ),
t h e s e l e c t i o n o f e d u c a ti o n a l m ag azin es ( 3 ) ,
d e v e lo p m e n t o f s c h o o l b u i l d i n g p l a n s
o f s a l a r y sc h ed u le s,
(13 ),
th e d e te rm in a tio n
s a l a r i e s a n d i n c r e a s e s (4G ),
tio n o f sic k le a v e (4 1 ),
th e
th e r e g u la ­
t h e d e v e lo p m e n t o f i n - s e r v i c e . t r a i n ­
i n g and a d v a n c e m e n t p ro g r a m ( 4 3 ) , t h e d e t e r m i n a t i o n o f t e a c h ­
ers* m e e tin g s ,
i n c l u d i n g k i n d , num ber a n d t im e ( 4 7 ) ,
and t h e
1 Numbers r e f e r t o t h e v a r i o u s a c t i v i t i e s on t h e
q u e stio n n a ire .
58
d e v e lo p m e n t o f t e a c h e r w e l f a r e p o l i c i e s ,
e tc ,
(4 9 ).
c o n d i t i o n s o f w ork,
The a v e r a g e s o f t h e r e p l i e s . f o r t h e s e a c t i v i t i e s
w ere a t l e a s t e i g h t t e n t h s o f one d e g r e e a p a r t .
K in d s o f a c t i v i t i e s i n w h ic h t h e a v e r a g e s o f e x i s t i n g
an d i d e a l c o n d i t i o n r e s p o n s e s w e re s i m i l a r , an d d i f f e r e n t .
M ost o f t h e a c t i v i t i e s i n w h ic h t h e r e was t h e g r e a t e s t a g r e e ­
m e n t b e tw e e n e x i s t i n g and s u g g e s t e d m e th o d s o f p o l i c y d e t e r ­
m i n a t i o n w e re t h o s e h a v i n g to do w i t h c e r t a i n i n s t r u c t i o n a l
p h a s e s o f c la ssro o m t e a c h i n g .
M ost o f t h e a c t i v i t i e s i n w h ich t h e r e was t h e l e a s t
a g r e e m e n t b e tw e e n e x i s t i n g and s u g g e s t e d m e th o d s o f p o l i c y
d e t e r m i n a t i o n w e re t h o s e i n w hich t e a c h e r s w ere m o s t v i t a l l y - .
co n cern ed ,
n a m e ly t h e a c t i v i t i e s g o v e r n i n g t e a c h i n g f a c i l i ­
t i e s and t h e t e a c h e r * s p e r s o n a l w e l l - b e i n g .
R e l a t i o n s h i p be tw een p r o c e d u r e t y p e s and s i m i l a r and
d i f f e r e n t av erag e re sp o n se s of e x i s t i n g and i d e a l c o n d itio n s .
A l l o f t h e p o i n t s o f a g r e e m e n t b e tw e e n e x i s t i n g an d i d e a l
c o n d i t i o n s w e re l o c a t e d i n colum n t h r e e o r f o u r ,
(F ig u re 2 ),
r e p r e s e n t i n g a n e x t e n s i v e u s e o f Type T h r e e and F o u r p r o c e ­
d u re s in th e d e te rm in a tio n o f th e p o l i c i e s .
Type One
m e th o d s w ere u s e d i n two i n s t a n c e s i n w hich t h e a v e r a g e
d i f f e r e n c e s i n e x i s t i n g a n d s u g g e s t e d i d e a l c o n d i t i o n s w ere
o n l y two t e n t h s o f one d e g r e e a p a r t .
The p o l i c i e s o f t h e
e i g h t a c t i v i t i e s whose a v e r a g e s r e p r e s e n t e d th e g r e a t e s t
59
d i s c r e p a n c i e s b e tw e e n e x i s t i n g and s u g g e s t e d i d e a l c o n d i t i o n s
w e re d e c i d e d i n t h r e e i n s t a n c e s b y t h e u s e o f Type One p r o ­
c e d u r e s a n d i n t h e r e m a i n i n g f i v e c a s e s by Type Two p r o c e d u r e s .
The e v i d e n c e show ed t h a t t e a c h e r s w e re somewhat m ore s a t i s f i e d
w i t h t h e T y p e s T h r e e a n d F o u r m e th o d s o f e s t a b l i s h i n g p o l i c i e s
t h a n t h e y w ere w i t h t h e m e th o d s r e p r e s e n t e d by Type One and t o
some e x t e n t b y Type Two p r o c e d u r e s .
S ig n ific a n c e o f average resp o n se d i f f e r e n c e s .
M ost o f
t h e a v e r a g e s r e p r e s e n t i n g e x i s t i n g and i d e a l c o n d i t i o n s w ere
r e la tiv e ly s im ila r.
G e n e r a l l y a d i f f e r e n c e o f one t e n t h o f
one d e g r e e w as n o t s i g n i f i c a n t ,
but a d if f e r e n c e of th re e to
f o u r t e n t h s o f one d e g r e e on t h e f i v e p o i n t s c a l e
a l m o s t a lw a y s t o be s i g n i f i c a n t .
2
was fo u n d
R e g a rd le ss of th e r e l i a b i l ­
i t y o f th e d i f f e r e n c e s in th e a v e ra g e s o f e x i s t i n g and i d e a l
c o n d i t i o n s no r a d i c a l d e p a r t u r e s w e re s u g g e s t e d b y t h e t e a c h ­
ers.
K in d s o f a c t i v i t i e s a s s o c i a t e d w i t h v a r i o u s t y p e s o f
p ro ced u res.
Where Type One p r o c e d u r e s w ere r e p o r t e d u s e d
b u sin e ss a d m in istra tio n ,
em ploym ent and c o n t r o l o f p e r s o n n e l ,
2 The f i v e p o i n t s c a l e r e f e r s t o t h e f i v e d e g r e e s c a l e
o f te a c h e r p a r t i c i p a t i o n in th e d e te rm in a tio n o f a d m in is tra ­
tiv e p o lic ie s.
E ac h o f f i v e c olum ns r e p r e s e n t e d a d i f f e r e n t
ty p e o f p a r t i c i p a t i o n .
Where p e r c e n t a g e s w ere u s e d t h e
c e n t e r p o i n t o f e a c h colum n was r e p r e s e n t e d b y t h e colum n
w h o le n u m b er.
60
o ffic e a d m in istra tio n ,
and th e a d m i n i s t r a t i o n o f g e n e r a l
r o u t i n e m a t t e r s w e re t h e k i n d s o f a c t i v i t i e s i n c l u d e .
Type
Two p r o c e d u r e s w e re u s e d i n d e c i d i n g t h e p o l i c i e s o f a w ide
v a rie ty of a c t iv i t ie s ,
w h i l e Type T h r e e p r o c e d u r e s an d m a t t e r s
o f c l a s s i n s t r u c t i o n and p u p i l c o n tr o l a p p e a re d to he a s s o c i ­
a te d .
F i g u r e 2 r e v e a l s t h r e e i n s t a n c e s i n w h ich t e a c h e r a v e r ­
a g e s s u g g e s t e d t h e w ide u s e o f Type One p r o c e d u r e s .
A pproach­
i n g t h i s same p o s i t i o n w e re t h e p r o c e d u r e s s u g g e s t e d f o r f o u r
o th e r a c t i v i t i e s .
A n a ly sis o f th e s e sev en a c t i v i t i e s i n d i ­
c a t e d t h a t t h e y r e p r e s e n t e d a r e a s w h ic h w ere c h i e f l y o f a
b u s i n e s s n a t u r e , o u t s i d e t h e r e a lm o f t e a c h e r a c t i v i t i e s o r
i n w hich t h e v i t a l i n t e r e s t and w e l f a r e o f t h e t e a c h e r s w ere
som ewhat r e m o t e .
Type Two p r o c e d u r e s w ere s u g g e s t e d i n t h i r ­
t e e n i n s t a n c e s w hich d e a l t w i t h t h e b u s i n e s s p h a s e s o f a d m i n i ­
s t r a t i o n on one h an d a n d on t h e o t h e r w i t h t h e em ploym ent o f
school p e rso n n e l.
C o n t r a s t e d w i t h t h e s e v e n a c t i v i t i e s i n w h ic h t e a c h e r s ’
a v e r a g e r e s p o n s e s i n d i c a t e d t h a t l a r g e a m o u n ts o f Type One
p ro c e d u re s sh o u ld be u se d ,
t w e n t y two a c t i v i t i e s w e re l i s t e d
f o r t h e u s e o f Type T h r e e p o l i c y d e t e r m i n a t i o n a n d Type F o u r
was s u g g e s t e d f o r two a c t i v i t i e s , m a k in g a t o t a l o f t w e n t y
f o u r p o l i c i e s w hich w ere m o st i d e a l l y d e t e r m i n e d by T y pes
T hree and F o u r.
I n a d d i t i o n f i v e a c t i v i t i e s w ere l o o a t e d i n
th e u p p e r t e n t h o f th e second d eg ree o f th e s c a l e ,
w h ic h
61
i n d i c a t e d t h a t a c o n s i d e r a b l e num ber o f Type T h r e e p r o c e d u r e s
w e re em p lo yed i n d e t e r m i n g t h e i r p o l i c i e s .
R eferen ce to
F i g u r e 2 i n d i c a t e d t h a t t h e a b o v e a c t i v i t i e s w e re c l a s s i f i ­
a b le in to f o u r p h a s e s ,
in c lu d in g in s tr u c tio n ,
and c o n t r o l o f c l a s s a n d p u p i l a c t i v i t i e s ,
o rg a n iz a tio n
te a c h e r e d u c a tio n ­
a l and p r o f e s s i o n a l a d v a n c e m e n t, a n d t e a c h e r w e l f a r e .
The
a r e a s r e p r e s e n t e d w e re r e c o g n i z e d a s v i t a l t o t e a c h e r s b e ­
c a u s e o f t h e d i r e c t c o n n e c t i o n b e tw e e n t h e s e a r e a s a n d t e a c h ­
i n g and t e a c h e r w e l f a r e .
Range o f t h e d i s p e r s i o n s o f t h e m i d d l e 50 p e r c e n t o f
re p lie s.
In a d d i t i o n t o th e m easu res o f c e n t r a l ten d e n cy o f
t e a c h e r s ’ r e p l i e s a m easure o f th e d is p e r s i o n o f t h e i r r e ­
p l i e s t o e x i s t i n g a n d d e s i r a b l e m e th o d s o f p o l i c y f o r m a t i o n
was m ade.
T h e se w e re a l s o g i v e n o n F i g u r e 2 .
W ith r e g a r d t o t h e e x i s t i n g m e th o d s o f p o l i c y f o r m a ­
t i o n t h e m id d le 50 p e r c e n t o f r e p l i e s t o s i x t e e n a c t i v i t i e s
w e re shown t o h e l o c a t e d w i t h i n an a r e a o f o n e d e g r e e o n t h e
fiv e p o in t sc a le .
T h i s r e v e a l e d t h a t t h e s e a c t i v i t i e s were
r a t h e r p r e d o m i n a n t l y d e t e r m i n e d by th e a v e r a g e r e s p o n s e s
shown.
A p p a re n tly i n m ost s c h o o ls th e p o l i c i e s o f th e s e
s i x t e e n a c t i v i t i e s w e re d e t e r m i n e d i n much t h e same m a n n e r.
I n f i v e i n s t a n c e s t h e d i s p e r s i o n o f t h e m id d l e 50 p e r c e n t
o f r e p l i e s w as w ide en ou gh t o enco m p ass m ore t h a n two d e g r e e s
on th e f i v e p o in t s c a l e .
S in c e th e ra n g e o f th e d i s p e r s i o n o f
62
t h e m id d l e 50 p e r c e n t o f t h e s e r e p l i e s was e x t e n d e d o v e r
m ore t h a n 40 p e r c e n t o f t h e e n t i r e s c a l e a c o n s i d e r a b l e l a c k
o f u n i f o r m i t y was i n d i c a t e d i n t h e m e th o d s em ployed f o r d e t e r ­
m in in g th e p o l i c i e s o f th o s e a c t i v i t i e s ,
To a p r o p o r t i o n a t e
d e g r e e t h i s was t r u e o f t h e t h i r t e e n a c t i v i t i e s whose r e p l i e s
w e re d i s t r i b u t e d o v e r one t o o n e a n d one h a l f s p a c e s ,
and a l s o
f o r t h e r e m a i n i n g s i x t e e n a c t i v i t i e s whose r e p l i e s w ere
l o c a t e d o v e r a n a r e a o f one a n d o ne h a l f t o two s p a c e s o f t h e
sc a le .
R e p l i e s t o t h e s u g g e s t e d i d e a l m e th o d s o f d e t e r m i n i n g
p o l i c i e s d i s c l o s e d th e ra n g e o f th e d i s p e r s i o n s o f th e m id d le
50 p e r c e n t o f r e p l i e s t o b e l e s s t h a n one s p a c e i n f o u r t e e n
in sta n c e s ,
o f one t o one an d o n e h a l f s p a c e s i n t h i r t y
in ­
s t a n c e s , o f one an d one h a l f t o two s p a c e s i n f o u r i n s t a n c e s ,
a n d o f m ore t h a n two s p a c e s i n one i n s t a n c e .
The r a n g e o f
t h e d i s p e r s i o n o f t h e m id d l e 50 p e r c e n t o f r e p l i e s o f t h e
f o u r t e e n c a s e s o c c u p i e d l e s s t h a n 20 p e r c e n t o f t h e s c a l e ,
w h ic h i n d i c a t e d t h a t t e a c h e r s w e re g e n e r a l l y a g r e e d on t h e
p r o c e d u r e s t o be u s e d .
in th e t h i r t y
A f a i r d e g re e o f ag reem en t e x i s t e d
c a s e s w h e re t h e d i s p e r s i o n s r e p r e s e n t e d 20 t o
30 p e r c e n t o f t h e e n t i r e s c a l e .
K in d s o f a c t i v i t i e s i n w h ic h • p ro c e d u re s w ere r e l a ­
t i v e l y sim i 1» r i n a l l s c h o o l s ,
p r o c e d u r e s w ere d i f f e r e n t .
and a c t i v i t i e s i n w h ich t h e
The ty p e o f a c t i v i t i e s i n w hich
t h e m o s t s i m i l a r p r o c e d u r e s w ere r e p o r t e d w ere t h o s e a c t i v i -
63
t i e s d e a lin g w ith o f f i c e and b u s in e s s a d m i n i s t r a t i o n and
se v e ra l phases o f te a c h e r p erso n n el a d m in istra tio n .
On t h e
o t h e r h a n d t h e t y p e s o f a c t i v i t i e s i n w hich t h e m o s t s i m i l a r
p r o c e d u r e s w ere s u g g e s t e d w e re t h o s e a c t i v i t i e s d e a l i n g w i t h
t h e r e g u l a t i o n o f p u p i l c o n d u c t and a f f a i r s ,
phases o f p e rso n n el a d m in istra tio n ,
c u rric u lu m ,
some
a n d two i t e m s o f b u s i n e s s
a d m in istra tio n .
M ost o f t h e a c t i v i t i e s i n w h ic h r e l a t i v e l y l a r g e d i f ­
f e r e n c e s o c c u r r e d i n t h e p r a c t i c e o f v a r i o u s s c h o o l s w ere
c o n n e c t e d w i t h t h e o r g a n i z a t i o n o f i n s t r u c t i o n and i n s t r u c ­
tio n a l m a te ria l,
and te a c h e r s *
su p e rv isio n o f p u p ils ,
ty p e s o f p ro m o tio n s,
e th ic s .
I n s t a n c e s i n w h ic h t h e g r e a t e s t d i f f e r e n c e s w e re r e ­
c o r d e d f o r s u g g e s t e d p r o c e d u r e s w ere i n c o n n e c t i o n w i t h p u p i l
and s c h o o l r e c o r d s ,
g ram s,
th e c l a s s i f i c a t i o n o f p u p ils ,
d a ily p ro ­
and t h e d e t e r m i n a t i o n o f s a l a r y s c h e d u l e s ,
in c re a ses,
e tc .
R e l a t i o n o f t h e m i d d l e 50 p e r c e n t d i s p e r s i o n s t o t h e
p rocedure ty p e s ,
fro m F i g u r e 2 i t was r e v e a l e d t h a t th e
a v e r a g e s o f t h e r a n g e s o f t h e d i s p e r s i o n s o f t h e m id d le 50
p e r c e n t o f r e p l i e s t o t h e a c t i v i t i e s i n w h ic h T ypes One,
Two an d T h r e e p r o c e d u r e s i n t u r n w ere r e p o r t e d u s e d was s i x t y
f o u r h u n d r e d t h s , one a n d f i f t y s i x h u n d r e d t h s , a n d one and
s i x t y e i g h t h u n d r e d t h s d e g r e e s r e s p e c t i v e l y on t h e f i v e p o i n t
sc a le .
T h i s e v i d e n c e i n d i c a t e d t h a t when t h e a v e r a g e r e ­
s p o n s e show ed t h a t a l i b e r a l t y p e o f p r o c e d u r e w as em ployed
f o r th e d e te rm in a tio n of a p o lic y th e use o f th e p re c e d u re
was n o t to o w e l l s t a n d a r d i z e d ,
b u t when Type One p r o c e d u r e s
w e re l a r g e l y em ployed t h e y w ere g e n e r a l l y u s e d b y a c o m p a ra ­
t i v e l y l a r g e group o f s c h o o ls .
I n d i c a t e d h e r e i s a move
to w a rd d e m o c r a t i c p r a c t i c e s n o t y e t e n t i r e l y a c c e p t e d b y t h e
g ro u p a t l a r g e .
ETo l a r g e d i f f e r e n c e s a p p e a r e d i n t h e a v e r a g e r a n g e o f
t h e d i s p e r s i o n s o f t h e m i d d l e 50 p e r c e n t o f r e s p o n s e s t o
th e su g g e s te d ty p e s o f p r o c e d u r e s f o r th e v a r io u s a c t i v i t i e s .
The a v e r a g e r a n g e s o f t h e d i s p e r s i o n s o f t h e m id d l e 50 p e r
c e n t o f r e p l i e s f o r t h e a c t i v i t i e s i n w hich T y p es One, Two,
and T h re e p r o c e d u r e s i n t u r n w e re u s e d w ere e i g h t y s i x h u n ­
d re d th s,
one a n d t w e n ty e i g h t h u n d r e d t h s ,
h u n d red th s d e g re e s r e s p e c tiv e ly ,
T eachers* o p in io n s ,
a n d one a n d t w e l v e
on t h e f i v e p l a c e s c a l e .
i t was d i s c l o s e d ,
v a r i e d s l i g h t l y m ore
when Type Two p r o c e d u r e s w e re e m plo yed t h a n when Type T h r e e
m e th o d s w e re u s e d a n d b o t h r e p r e s e n t e d g r e a t e r d i s p e r s i o n s
t h a n when Type One m e th o d s w e re e m p lo y e d .
T h e r e seem ed t o
be some e v i d e n c e t o s u p p o r t t h e c o n c l u s i o n t h a t t h e o p i n i o n s
o f t e a c h e r s w i t h r e g a r d t o t h e u s e o f Type One p r o c e d u r e s was
r a t h e r u n ifo rm .
65
II.
SUPERINTENDENTSf REPLIES ON EXISTING AND SUGGESTED
PROCEDURES FOR POLICY DETERMINATION
A v e ra g e r e s p o n s e s o f e x i s t i n g and i d e a l m e th o d s o f
p o lic y d e te rm in a tio n .
S u p e r in te n d e n ts i n d i c a t e d by t h e i r
average resp o n se s of e x i s ti n g c o n d itio n s ,
c h a r t e d on F i g u r e
3, t h a t t h e p o l i c i e s o f t h e f i f t y a d m i n i s t r a t i v e a c t i v i t i e s
w ere d e t e r m i n e d b y a l a r g e u s e o f Type One p r o c e d u r e s i n 12
i
p e r c e n t o f t h e i n s t a n c e s , b y a n e x t e n s i v e u s e o f Type Two
p r o c e d u r e s i n 52 p e r c e n t o f t h e a c t i v i t i e s ,
by an e x t e n s i v e
u s e o f Type T h r e e p r o c e d u r e s i n 34 p e r c e n t o f t h e a c t i v i t i e s ,
an d b y t h e e x t e n s i v e u s e o f Type E o u r p r o c e d u r e s i n one i n ­
s ta n c e o n ly .
A cco rd in g to th e above, s u p e r i n te n d e n t s d i s ­
c l o s e d an e x t e n s i v e u s e o f Type Two a n d T h r e e p r o c e d u r e s f o r
th e d e te rm in a tio n o f a d m in is tra tiv e p o l i c i e s .
In th e su g g e ste d p ro c e d u re s f o r th e v a rio u s a c t i v i t i e s
a l a r g e u s e o f Type One was s u g g e s t e d i n 6 p e r c e n t o f t h e
a c tiv itie s,
a l a r g e u s e o f Type Two i n 36 p e r c e n t o f t h e
a c tiv itie s,
a n d e x t e n s i v e u s e o f Type T h r e e i n 38 p e r c e n t o f
th e c a s e s ,
and t h e c o m b in ed u s e o f T y pes Two and T h r e e w ere
s u g g e s t e d i n 20 p e r - c e n t o f t h e i n s t a n c e s .
Type E o u r was n o t
recom m ended.
A c t i v i t i e s i n w hich a v e r a g e s o f e x i s t i n g an d i d e a l
c o n d i t i o n r e s p o n s e s w e re s i m i l a r , a n d d i f f e r e n t .
The m o s t
66
E x i s t i n g C o n d i t i o n s shown
in h lac k
I d e a l C o n d i t i o n s shown i n
red
ADMINISTRATIVE ACTIVITIES
A verages
1. S e le c tio n o f t e x t books
2 . S e le c tio n o f l i b r a r y and su p p lim e n ta ry books
3 . S e le c tio n o f e d u c a tio n a l m agazines
<1 s c o re s
2-fa
3 Z
_zsl
L i3 _
-A-Q
LL
3-3
-S i.
■Si
■to\
2-7
_5£_
4 . R e g u la tio n o f th e sch o o l l i b r a r y
-JLL
1L Lf_
5 . R e g u la tio n o f s c h o o l h o u rs
6. D e te rm in a tio n o f an n u al o r s e m e ste r prom otions
7. P r e p a r a tio n of sch o o l c a le n d a rs
8 . M aintenance and o p e ra tio n o f p la n t and equipm ent
9. R e g u la tio n and m aintenance o f b u ild in g sc h ed u le s
10. P r e p a r a tio n o f sc h o o l b u d g e ts
AS_
2 ..1
2 -5
is
J s L .
•5
15
Z.o
19
L L
■HI
/-(,
/■%
L it
UL
JLl
11. S u p e rv is io n o f s tu d e n t fin a n c e s
12. A d m in is tra tio n o f e d u c a tio n a l s u p p lie s
13. Development o f sch o o l b u ild in g p la n s
14. S e le c tio n o f b u ild in g and ground equipm ent
15. T r a n s p o r ta tio n o f p u p ils
17. P r e p a r a tio n and d i s t r i b u t i o n o f d a il y b u l l e t i n s
37
JLL
I g
2 -1
Jg_
LI
Lfc.
AJ
19. P r e p a r a tio n o f d a il y program s
2 .o
L- -Bl
.
m
m . ii
21. E s ta b lish m e n t and m aintenance o f p u p il re c o rd s
2 .2
2 5
23. G rouping and c l a s s i f i c a t i o n o f p u p ils
2A._
_i47
24. Prom otion o f p u p ils
25. A d m in is tra tio n o f a t e s t i n g program
26. S u p e rv is io n o f p u p il government
JLL
_42_
_4L.
■Lo
A JL
I
L i
___ i i
20. A d m in is tra tio n o f r e c o r d s , r e g i s t e r s , and p e rs o n n e l r e p o r t s
22. R e g i s tr a ti o n o f p u p ils
A<L
■HI
2m
1 -7
18. A d m in is tra tio n o f classro o m o r g a n iz a tio n and c o n tr o l
A h■SH
i a
JL2 ZL
16. A d m in is tra tio n o f p u b lic r e l a t i o n s
JISL .
&L.
A L
■(,1
J lL .
-J U -
JLL
_ ja _
1,4
JA .
s ii.
27. S u p e rv is io n of s tu d e n t body a c t i v i t i e s
29. R e g u la tio n o f t r u a n t s and d e lin q u e n ts
30. Development o f s ta n d a rd s o f p u p il conduct
31. S u p e rv is io n o f p u p il a c t i v i t i e s
■HO
■53
•37
2.6
30
27
2 <7
SH
2.7
3-2
JA.
■HI
JJl.
.61
.IQ
Z6 2%
1•*? Z-2
28. S u p e rv is io n o f d i s c i p l i n e
so
JL L
■HI
52
J A .
_*&_
32. D eterm ining and r e g u l a ti n g s c h o la r s h ip s ta n d a rd s
HI...
33. P r o v id in g and m a in ta in in g a h e a lth program
2.>j 23
2Ji LiL
34. S u p e rv is io n o f h a l l s , g ro u n d s, y ard d u ty sc h ed u le s
3 5. M a in ta in in g v i s u a l e d u c a tio n
3 6. Employment o f j a n i t o r s
J L
L£ L L
L I L±
LSI__ L3l.
L3. gJL
37. Employment o f te a c h e r s - d e te rm in in g p r o f . re q u ire m e n ts
38. Employment o f s u p e rv is o rs
39. Prom otion o f te a c h e r s - r a t i n g s , e t c .
So
ALL
42
40. D e te rm in a tio n o f s a la r y sc h ed u le s
JS 3 -
I-7 2-2
L £ ILL
2.3 XL
4 1 . R e g u la tio n o f s ic k le a v e
42. Making t e a c h e r assig n m en ts
4 3 . Development o f i n - s e r v i c e t r a i n i n g and advancem ent
■toO
J0_
JLL
A L
■29
■HZ
■31
ALL
■u8
A L
■St,
■bl
■52
■H9
•37
4 4. Development o f cu rricu lu m and c o u rse o f s tu d y
4 5. Development o f e d u c a tio n a l p h ilo so p h y
2Ji
&3_
4 6. Development o f m ethods o f i n s t r u c t i o n
2 1
2- H
4 7. D eterm ining t e a c h e r s ' m eetin g s - k in d , number, and tim e
k-H Z-9,
JLL
48. Development o f code o f e th i c s
2-3
3-3
JL L
AL
•37
■39
II
IS
AfL
MS
2.2
2-5
4 9. Development o f t e a c h e r w e lfa re p o l i c i e s
50. A d m in is tra tio n o f a d m in is tr a tiv e o f f i c e s and p e rs o n n e l
T o ta ls
5
its
57
3 .5
4 .5
5 .5
■10
5
1T5
275
575
4 t5
5 .5
FIGURE 3
DISTRIBUTION OF TWENTY FOUR SUPERINTENDENTS1 REPLIES ON
EXISTING AND IDEAL PROCEDURES FOR POLICY DETERMINATION
67
s t r i k i n g f e a tu r e of th e average re sp o n se s o f th e e x is tin g
an d i d e a l p r o c e d u r e s d i s p l a y e d on F i g u r e 3 was t h e i r d e g r e e
of sim ila rity .
The d i f f e r e n c e s i n t h e s e a v e r a g e s w ere e v en
l e s s s i g n i f i c a n t t h a n t h e y a p p e a r e d t o b e , due t o t h e r e l a ­
t i v e l y s m a l l n u m b er o f r e p l i e s i n v o l v e d .
E ven th o u g h t h e
q u a r t i l e d e v i a t i o n s w e re s m a l l t h e r e w ere few i n s t a n c e s i n
w h ic h c r i t i c a l r a t i o s o f m ore t h a n t h r e e w ere f o u n d .
one i n s t a n c e ,
B a rrin g
t h e g r e a t e s t p o i n t o f d i f f e r e n c e was s i x t e n t h s
o f one d e g r e e .
E ven h e r e t h e d i f f e r e n c e was n o t s i g n i f i c a n t .
O nly i n one i n s t a n c e ,
t h a t o f d e te rm in in g and r e g u l a t i n g
sc h o la rsh ip sta n d a rd s
(3 2 ) was t h e r e a s i g n i f i c a n t d i f f e r e n c e .
H e re t h e a v e r a g e s w ere one d e g r e e a p a r t on t h e s c a l e .
I t was
n o t e d t h a t i n t h i s i n s t a n c e t h e s u g g e s t e d p r o c e d u r e was m ore
c o n s e rv a tiv e th a n th e a c tu a l c o n d itio n re p o rte d .
F i g u r e 3 d e m o n s t r a t e s t h a t t h e s u p e r i n t e n d e n t s w e re
f a i r l y w e l l s a t i s f i e d w i t h t h e m e th o d s u s e d t o d e t e r m i n e t h e
a d m in istra tiv e p o lic ie s .
K in d s o f a c t i v i t i e s a s s o c i a t e d w i t h v a r i o u s t y p e s o f
p ro ced u res.
I n t h e c o n d i t i o n s w h ic h t h e s u p e r i n t e n d e n t s r e ­
p o rte d e x is tin g ,
t h e p o l i c i e s o f a num ber o f t h e a c t i v i t i e s
of b u sin e ss a d m in istra tio n ,
school p l a n t o p e ra tio n ,
m e n t, p r o m o t i o n and a s s i g n m e n t o f p e r s o n n e l ,
e m p lo y ­
a n d o f f i c e man­
a g em en t w e re d e c i d e d m a i n l y by t h e u s e o f Type One p r o c e ­
dures.
The p o l i c i e s o f t h e r e m a i n i n g a c t i v i t i e s w ere d e c i d e d
68
l a r g e l y by t h e u s e o f T y p es Two and T h r e e p r o c e d u r e s .
In
b o t h t y p e s t h e r e was a f a i r l y r e p r e s e n t a t i v e l i s t o f a d m i n i ­
stra tiv e a c tiv itie s .
Only i n m a t t e r s p e r t a i n i n g t o t h e t r a n s p o r t a t i o n o f
p u p ils ,
t h e em plo ym en t o f s c h o o l p e r s o n n e l , ’ an d t h e a d m i n i s ­
t r a t i o n o f th e o f f i c e and o f f i c e p e rs o n n e l,
d id t h e a d m i n i s ­
t r a t o r s i n d i c a t e t h a t Type One s h o u l d be u s e d e x t e n s i v e l y .
I n t h e c a s e o f t h e em ploym ent o f t e a c h e r s and t h e c o n t r o l o f
t h e a d m i n i s t r a t i v e o f f i c e s and p e r s o n n e l , t h e s u p e r i n t e n d e n t s
i n d i c a t e d t h a t some u s e o f Type Two p r o c e d u r e s s h o u l d a l s o be
e m p lo y e d .
A c co rd in g to th e a v e ra g e re s p o n s e s o f th e s u g g e s t­
ed p r o c e d u r e s t h e re m a in in g a c t i v i t i e s
s h o u l d be d e t e r m i n e d
by t h e e x t e n s i v e u s e o f Type Two and T h r e e p r o c e d u r e s .
Bange o f t h e d i s p e r s i o n s o f t h e m id d l e 50 p e r c e n t o f
re p lie s.
N ot o n l y w e re t h e a v e r a g e s o f t h e r e p l i e s o f e x i s t ­
i n g and i d e a l c o n d i t i o n s q u i t e s i m i l a r ,
th e d is p e r s io n
o f r e p l i e s was n o t g r e a t .
th e d is p e r s io n
of
b u t i n m ost i n s t a n c e s
In th e range
of
th e m id d le 50 p e r c e n t o f r e p l i e s o f t h e
e x i s t i n g c o n d itio n s o n ly f i v e a c t i v i t i e s c o n ta in e d re sp o n se s
t h a t w e re d i s p e r s e d o v e r a n a r e a o f one a n d one h a l f t o two
d e g r e e s on t h e s c a l e ,
w h ile t h e r e p l i e s t o t w e n t y e i g h t a c ­
t i v i t i e s w ere s p r e a d o v e r one t o one a n d one h a l f d e g r e e s ,
and t h e ra n g e s
o f t h e s p r e a d o f t h e m id d le 50 p e r c e n t o f
th e r e p l i e s of
th e
r e m a i n i n g s e v e n a c t i v i t i e s w ere d i s p e r s e d
o v e r l e s s t h a n one u n i t on t h e f i v e p l a c e s c a l e .
T h is d i s ­
p o s i t i o n d e m o n stra te d t h a t th e p ro c e d u re s r e p o r t e d by th e
s u p e r i n t e n d e n t s w ere i n many i n s t a n c e s , w e l l s t a n d a r d i z e d .
R e g ard in g th e re s p o n s e s t o th e su g g e s te d p r o c e d u re s ,
t h e m id d l e 50 p e r c e n t o f t h e r e p l i e s o f one h a l f o f t h e a c ­
t i v i t i e s was d i s p e r s e d o v e r a n a r e a o f l e s s t h a n one d e g r e e ;
t h e r e p l i e s t o t w e n t y t h r e e a c t i v i t i e s w ere s p r e a d o v e r an
a r e a o f one t o one and one h a l f d e g r e e s ; and i n o n l y two i n ­
s t a n c e s w ere t h e r a n g e s o f t h e d i s p e r s i o n s o f t h e m id d l e 50
p e r c e n t o f r e p l i e s b e tw e e n one and one h a l f and two d e g r e e s
on t h e s c a l e .
The c o n c e n s u s o f o p i n i o n h e r e was e v e n m ore
c o n s i s t e n t l y u n ifo rm th a n in th e case o f r e p l i e s to e x i s t i n g
c o n d itio n s.
A lth o u g h t h e r e was seme e v i d e n c e t o show t h a t
t h e p o l i c i e s r e p o r t e d a n d s u g g e s t e d b y some s u p e r i n t e n d e n t s
w ere q u i t e a t v a r i a n c e w i t h t h e a v e r a g e s o f t h e m a j o r i t y ,
on
t h e w hole t h e r a n g e o f t h e d i s p e r s i o n s o f t h e m i d d l e 50 p e r
c e n t o f r e p l i e s was s m a l l , w h ic h r e v e a l e d t h a t t h e a v e r a g e s
w ere r e a s o n a b l y a c c u r a t e r e p r e s e n t a t i o n s o f t h e s u p e r i n t e n ­
d e n ts * r e p l i e s .
K in d s o f a c t i v i t i e s
i n w hich p r o c e d u r e s w ere r e l a t i v e ­
l y s i m i l a r I n a l l s c h o o l s , and a c t i v i t i e s i n w h ic h t h e p r o ­
c e d u r e s w ere d i f f e r e n t .
S u p e rin te n d e n ts* r e p o r t s o f e x i s t i n g
c o n d i t i o n s l i s t e d s e v e n t e e n i n s t a n c e s i n w h ich t h e a g re e m e n t
a s t o t h e p r o c e d u r e s em p lo y ed was l a r g e .
These e x te n d e d o v e r
70
a lm o st a l l p h a s e s o f th e a d m i n i s t r a t i v e a c t i v i t i e s ,
b u sin e ss a d m in istra tio n ,
p u p il a c t iv i t ie s ,
of in stru c tio n .
in c lu d in g
te a c h e r p erso n n el a d m in is tra tio n ,
c u r r i c u l u m d e v e lo p m e n t, and o r g a n i z a t i o n
The f i v e i n s t a n c e s i n w h ich t h e g r e a t e s t
r a n g e o f t h e d i s p e r s i o n o f t h e m i d d l e 50 p e r c e n t o f r e p l i e s
o f e x i s t i n g c o n d i t i o n s o c c u r r e d w e re i n t h e s e l e c t i o n o f
h o o k s,
th e p r e p a r a t i o n o f d a i l y program s,
c la s s r o o m o r g a n i z a ­
t i o n and c o n t r o l and th e r e g i s t r a t i o n o f p u p i l s .
T h e re w e re e v e n m o re i n s t a n c e s i n t h e r e p l i e s o f
i d e a l c o n d i t i o n s i n w h ic h t h e d i s p e r s i o n s o f v a r i o u s a c t i v i ­
t i e s w ere s m a l l .
These a c t i v i t i e s r e p r e s e n te d e v e r y p h a se o f
school a d m in is tra tio n .
The tw o i n s t a n c e s o f g r e a t e s t d i s p e r ­
s i o n s o f t h e m i d d l e 50 p e r c e n t o f r e p l i e s w ere i n t h e r e g u ­
l a t i o n o f t h e l i b r a r y and t h e p r o m o t i o n o f t e a c h e r s .
The r e l a t i o n o f t h e m i d d l e 50 p e r c e n t d i s p e r s i o n s t o
th e p ro c e d u re ty p e s .
The a v e r a g e r a n g e o f t h e d i s p e r s i o n s o f
t h e m i d d l e 50 p e r c e n t o f r e p l i e s t o a c t i v i t i e s f o r w h ich
T ypes One, Two, a n d T h r e e w e re r e p o r t e d u s e d w ere f i f t y e i g h t
h u n d red th s,
one a n d e i g h t h u n d r e d t h s , a n d on e an d t w e n t y two
h u n d r e d t h s d e g r e e s r e s p e c t i v e l y on th e f i v e p o i n t s c a l e .
T h is i n d i c a t e d a c o n s id e r a b le d i f f e r e n c e
in th e d i s p e r s i o n
o f r e p l i e s b e tw e e n Type One an d T y pes Two a n d T h r e e p r o c e ­
d u res.
T h e re seem ed t o b e a f a i r l y w id e a g r e e m e n t among t h e
71
v a r i o u s s c h o o l s a s t o when Type One s h o u l d h e u s e d ,
an d t o
a p r o p o r t i o n a t e d e g r e e t h i s was t r u e f o r Type Two and T h r e e
p ro ced ures.
T h e re w ere much s m a l l e r d i s p e r s i o n s i n t h e a v e r a g e s
o f t h e s p r e a d s o f t h e m i d d l e 50 p e r c e n t o f r e p l i e s f o r t h e
id e a l c o n d itio n s.
H e re t h e s e a v e r a g e s f o r T y p es One, Two and
T h re e p r o c e d u r e s w e re s i x t y e i g h t h u n d r e d t h s ,
n in e ty e ig h t
h u n d r e d t h s , a n d one an d s i x h u n d r e d t h s d e g r e e s r e s p e c t i v e l y
on t h e f i v e p o i n t s c a l e .
T h e re was a t e n d e n c y f o r a m ore common a g r e e m e n t when
Type One was s u g g e s t e d t h a n when T y pes Two a n d T h r e e w ere
proposed f o r u se .
III.
TEACHERS’ AND SOPERIHTENDEHTS’ REPLIES COMPARED
The s i m i l a r i t i e s a n d d i f f e r e n c e s o f t e a c h e r s ’ and
s u p e r i n t e n d e n t s * r e p l i e s t o e x i s t i n g p r o c e d u r e s an d t o i d e a l
c o n d i t i o n s w e re shown by a c o m p a r is o n o f t h e a v e r a g e s and
t h e t y p e s o f p r o c e d u r e s w hich e a c h g ro u p s t a t e d w ere u s e d o r
sh o u ld be u se d .
The r a n g e s o f t h e d i s p e r s i o n s o f t h e m id d l e
50 p e r c e n t o f r e p l i e s w ere t a k e n i n t o a c c o u n t i n m a k in g t h e
f i n a l e stim a te s of c o n d itio n s.
A lso c o n s i d e r e d w ere t h e
a c t i v i t i e s f o r w h ich t h e i n d i c a t e d a n d s u g g e s t e d p r o c e d u r e s
w ere e s p e c i a l l y s i m i l a r o r e s p e c i a l l y d i f f e r e n t .
R e l a t i o n s h i p b e tw e e n t e a c h e r s * and a d m i n i s t r a t o r s ’
averag e r e p l i e s to e x is ti n g c o n d itio n s .
in m ost i n s t a n c e s ,
T e a c h e rs * r e p l i e s
a s r e c o r d e d on F i g u r e 4, r e v e a l e d a m ore
c o n s e r v a t i v e e s t i m a t e o f t h e t y p e s o f p r o c e d u r e s w h ich h a d
b e e n e x t e n s i v e l y e m p lo y ed t o d e t e r m i n e s c h o o l p o l i c i e s t h a n
d id th e s u p e rin te n d e n ts .
In t h i r t y fo u r in s ta n c e s th e a v e r­
a g e r e s p o n s e s o f t e a c h e r s w ere l o w e r on t h e s c a l e t h a n t h o s e
o f th e a d m i n i s t r a t o r s ,
in f i v e c a se s th e a v e ra g e s c o in c id e d ,
an d i n t h e r e m a i n i n g e l e v e n a c t i v i t i e s
th e te a c h e rs in d ic a te d
a m ore l i b e r a l ty p e o f p r o c e d u r e t h a n d i d t h e s u p e r i n t e n d e n t s .
The d i f f e r e n c e s i n t h e a v e r a g e s w ere n o t s i g n i f i c a n t u n l e s s
t h e y w ere a t l e a s t f i v e o r s i x t e n t h s o f one d e g r e e a p a r t on
th e s c a l e .
E ased on t h i s ,
a p p r o x i m a t e l y 30 p e r c e n t o f t h e
d i f f e r e n c e s r e p o r t e d o n F i g u r e 4 w ere s i g n i f i c a n t .
C o m p ariso n o f t h e t y p e s o f p r o c e d u r e s w h ic h t e a c h e r s
an d a d m i n i s t r a t o r s i n d i c a t e d w ere em ployed i n d e t e r m i n g
p o lic ie s .
A c o m p a r is o n o f F i g u r e 4 a v e r a g e s d i s c l o s e d t h a t
t e a c h e r s r e p o r t e d m ore f r e q u e n t l y t h a n a d m i n i s t r a t o r s a n e x ­
t e n s i v e u s e o f Type One p r o c e d u r e s , a n d t h a t a d m i n i s t r a t o r s
m ore f r e q u e n t l y t h a n t e a c h e r s I n d i c a t e d an e x t e n s i v e u s e o f
T ypes Two and T h re e p r o c e d u r e s .
The s u p e r i n t e n d e n t s g e n e r ­
a l l y w ere m ore o p t i m i s t i c i n t h e i r e s t i m a t e s o f e x i s t i n g
c o n d i t i o n s t h a n w ere t h e t e a c h e r s ,
A m ore a c c u r a t e r e p r e ­
s e n t a t i o n o f t h e nu m ber o f s c h o o l s w hich em ployed t h e d i f ­
f e r e n t t y p e s o f p r o c e d u r e s i n d e t e r m i n i n g t h e i r p o l i c i e s was
C
D> $ i-3
A d m i n i s t r a t o r s 1 D a ta shown
in h lac k
T e a c h e r s 1 D a ta shown i n
red
ADMINISTRATIVE ACTIVITIES
I.
S e le c tio n o f t e x t books
2.
S e le c tio n o f l i b r a r y end su p p lim e n ta ry books
3.
S e le c tio n o f e d u c a tio n a l m agazines
4.
R e g u la tio n o f th e sch o o l l i b r a r y
5.
R e g u la tio n o f sc h o o l h o u rs
6.
D e te rm in a tio n o f an n u a l o r s e m e ste r prom otions
7.
P r e p a r a tio n o f s c h o o l c a le n d a rs
8.
M aintenance and o p e ra tio n o f p la n t and equipm ent
9.
Q s c o re s
R e g u la tio n and m aintenance o f b u ild in g sc h ed u le s
10.
P r e p a r a tio n o f sch o o l b u d g ets
11.
S u p e rv is io n o f s tu d e n t f in a n c e s
12.
A d m in is tra tio n o f e d u c a tio n a l s u p p lie s
13.
Development o f sc h o o l b u ild in g p la n s
14.
S e le c tio n o f b u ild in g and ground equipm ent
15.
T r a n s p o r ta tio n o f p u p ils
16.
A d m in is tra tio n o f p u b lic r e l a t i o n s
17.
P r e p a r a tio n and d i s t r i b u t i o n o f d a il y b u l l e t i n s
18.
A d m in is tra tio n o f classro o m o r g a n iz a tio n and c o n tr o l
19.
P r e p a r a tio n o f d a il y program s
20.
A d m in is tra tio n o f r e c o r d s , r e g i s t e r s , and p e rso n n e l r e p o r t s
21.
E sta b lish m e n t and m aintenance o f p u p il re c o rd s
2 2.
R e g i s tr a ti o n o f p u p ils
23.
Grouping and c l a s s i f i c a t i o n o f p u p ils
2 4.
P rom otion o f p u p ils
2 5.
A d m in is tra tio n o f a t e s t i n g program
2 6.
S u p e rv is io n o f p u p il government
21 2*
2 7.
S u p e rv is io n o f s tu d e n t body a c t i v i t i e s
ZS
2 8.
S u p e rv is io n o f d i s c i p l i n e
2 9.
R e g u la tio n o f t r u a n t s and d e lin q u e n ts
3 0.
Development o f s ta n d a rd s o f p u p il conduct
31.
S u p e rv is io n o f p u p il a c t i v i t i e s
32.
D eterm ining and r e g u l a ti n g s c h o la r s h ip s ta n d a rd s
33.
P ro v id in g and m a in ta in in g a h e a lth program
34.
S u p e rv is io n o f h a l l s , g ro u n d s, y ard d u ty sc h ed u le s
3 5.
M a in ta in in g v i s u a l e d u c a tio n
36.
Employment o f J a n it o r s
37.
Employment o f t e a c h e r s - d e te rm in in g p r o f . req u irem e n ts
38.
Employment o f s u p e rv is o rs
39.
Prom otion o f te a c h e r s - r a t i n g s , e t c .
40.
D e te rm in a tio n o f s a la r y sc h ed u le s
41.
R e g u la tio n o f s ic k le a v e
42.
Making te a c h e r a ssig n m en ts
43.
Development o f in - s e r v i c e t r a i n i n g and advancement
44.
Development o f cu rricu lu m and c o u rse o f s tu d y
45.
Development o f e d u c a tio n a l p h ilo so p h y
46.
Development o f m ethods o f i n s t r u c t i o n
47.
D eterm ining t e a c h e r s ' m ee tin g s - k in d , number, and tim e
48.
Development o f code o f e th i c s
49.
Development o f t e a c h e r w e lfa re p o l ic i e s
50.
A d m in is tra tio n o f a d m in is tr a tiv e o f f i c e s and p e rs o n n e l
zn
3i
2-2 20
T o ta ls
175
£75
3 5
475
O '
FIGURE 4
COMPARISON OF 114 TEACHERS' AND TWENTY FOUR SUPERINTENDENTS'
REPLIES ON EXISTING PROCEDURES FOR POLICY DETERMINATION
s e c u r e d by r e f e r i n g t o t h e r a n g e o f t h e s p r e a d o f t h e m id d l e
50 p e r c e n t o f t h e r e p l i e s o f t h e t e a c h e r s a n d s u p e r i n t e n d ­
e n ts .
The r a n g e o f t h e s p r e a d o f t h e m id d l e 50 p e r c e n t o f
teach ers*
r e p l i e s r e v e a l e d t h a t t h e e x t e n s i v e u s e o f T y p es
One, Two and T h r e e p r o c e d u r e s w ere em ployed i n t w e n t y f o u r ,
t w e n ty t h r e e ,
and s e v e n t e e n i n s t a n c e s r e s p e c t i v e l y , w h i l e
th e su p e rin te n d e n ts*
d is p e rs io n of r e p l i e s re v e a le d th a t
T y pes One, Two a n d T h r e e w ere u s e d e x t e n s i v e l y i n f o u r t e e n ,
t h i r t y o n e , a n d t w e n ty f o u r i n s t a n c e s r e s p e c t i v e l y .
p lie s
The r e ­
i n th e m id d l e 50 p e r c e n t r a n g e a l s o t e n d e d t o c o n c e n ­
t r a t e about th e a v e ra g e s.
From t h e l o c a t i o n o f t h e a v e r a g e s an d t h e s p r e a d o f
t h e r e s p o n s e s i t was n o t e d t h a t t h e t e a c h e r s r e p o r t e d t h e
g r e a t e s t u s e o f T y p es One a n d Two p r o c e d u r e s ,
w h ile th e s u p e r­
i n t e n d e n t s r e p o r t e d th e g r e a t e s t u s e o f T y p es Two aiid T h re e
m e th o d s .
The a v e r a g e s o f t h e t o t a l t e a c h e r r e s p o n s e s t o a l l a d ­
m i n i s t r a t i v e a c t i v i t i e s was s i g n i f i c a n t l y l o w e r o n t h e s c a l e
t h a n was t h e s u p e r i n t e n d e n t s *
t o t a l average.
T h i s a l s o em­
p h a s i z e d t h a t t e a c h e r s w e re somewhat m o re c o n s e r v a t i v e t h a n
th e s u p e rin te n d e n ts i n t h e i r e s tim a te s o f th e p ro c e d u re s
w h ic h w e re u s e d b y s c h o o l s t o d e t e r m i n e t h e i r p o l i c i e s .
A c t i v i t i e s i n c o n n e c t i o n w i t h w h ic h t e a c h e r s and a d ­
m i n i s t r a t o r s a g re e d o r d is a g r e e d as to th e Types o f p r o c e ­
d u r e s e m p lo y e d .
T e a c h e rs and a d m i n i s t r a t o r s a g re e d as to
75
t h e p r o c e d u r e s u s e d i n a c o n s i d e r a b l e num ber o f i n s t a n c e s
and th e s e in c lu d e d a c t i v i t i e s r e p r e s e n t a t i v e o f a l l k in d s o f
school a d m in is tra tiv e f ie ld s .
I n t h e t h i r t e e n i n s t a n c e s d i s p l a y e d on F i g u r e 4 w h ere
t e a c h e r s and a d m i n i s t r a t o r s d i s a g r e e d m o s t a s t o t y p e s o f
m e th o d s u s e d ,
te a c h e rs,
in n in e in s ta n c e s ,
r e p o r t e d m o re c o n ­
s e r v a t i v e p ro c e d u re s th a n d id th e a d m i n i s t r a t o r s .
T hese a c ­
t i v i t i e s r e p r e s e n t e d t h e d e v e lo p m e n t o f s c h o o l p l a n s ( 1 3 ) ,
th e a d m in is tr a tio n o f p u b lic r e l a t i o n s
o f p u p ils (2 2 ),
th e r e g i s t r a t i o n
t h e d e t e r m i n a t i o n and r e g u l a t i o n o f s c h o l a r ­
sh ip s ta n d a rd s (3 2 ),
i n - s e r v i c e t r a i n i n g and a d v a n c e m e n t p r o ­
gram d e v e lo p m e n t ( 4 3 ) ,
p h ilo s o p h y (4 5 ),
(1 6 ),
t h e d e v e lo p m e n t o f a n e d u c a t i o n a l
th e d e te r m in a tio n o f tea c h e rs* m e e tin g s i n ­
c lu d in g t h e i r n a tu re (4 7 ),
t h e d e v e lo p m e n t o f a code o f e t h i c s
( 4 8 ) , and t e a c h e r w e l f a r e ( 4 9 ) .
The f o u r i n s t a n c e s i n w hich
t e a c h e r s r e p o r t e d a m ore l i b e r a l t y p e o f p r o c e d u r e t h a n t h e
s u p e r in te n d e n ts in clu d e d th e a c t i v i t i e s of a d m in is tr a tio n o f
c l a s s r o o m o r g a n i z a t i o n and c o n t r o l ( 1 8 ) ,
d a i l y p rogram s (1 9 ),
th e p r e p a r a tio n o f
th e s u p e rv is io n of d i s c ip l i n e
th e s u p e rv is io n o f p u p il a c t i v i t i e s
(31).
(2 8 ),
and
T h e re w ere few
i n s t a n c e s i n w h ic h w ide v a r i a t i o n s o c c u r r e d .
Number 32
showed a v a r i a t i o n o f one and two t e n t h s d e g r e e s on t h e s c a l e ;
num bers 19, 47 a n d 49 showed v a r i a t i o n s o f e i g h t t e n t h s ,
e ig h t te n th s ,
an d n i n e t e n t h s r e s p e c t i v e l y on t h e s c a l e and
76
a l l o t h e r d i f f e r e n c e s w ere c o n f i n e d t o a p p r o x i m a t e l y f i v e
te n th s d eg rees o r le s s .
S i n c e t h e num ber o f s u p e r i n t e n d e n t s
r e p l y i n g w as s m a l l a r a t h e r l a r g e v a r i a t i o n was n e c e s s a r y t o
show a s i g n i f i c a n t d i f f e r e n c e .
R e l a t i o n s h i p e x i s t i n g b e tw e e n t e a c h e r s * and a d m i n i s ­
t r a t o r s * av erag e r e p l i e s to su g g e ste d c o n d itio n s .
and a d m in is tr a to r s *
T eachers*
a v e r a g e r e s p o n s e s t o t h e i d e a l m e th o d s
f o r t h e d e t e r m i n a t i o n o f s c h o o l p o l i c i e s were r e m a r k a b l y
sim ila r.
F i g u r e 5 shows t h e r e was l e s s t h a n t h r e e t e n t h s o f
one d e g r e e d i f f e r e n c e o n t h e s c a l e b e tw e e n t e a c h e r s *
m in istra to rs *
tie s.
and a d ­
a v e r a g e r e p l i e s i n 94 p e r c e n t o f t h e a c t i v i ­
Only i n t h r e e i n s t a n c e s w e re t h e i r a v e r a g e s q u i t e d i f ­
fe re n t,
These in c lu d e d th e re s p o n d e n ts* r e p l i e s to th e p r o ­
c e d u r e s t o be u s e d i n c o n n e c t i o n w i t h t h e r e g i s t r a t i o n o f
p u p ils (22),
c l a s s r o o m o r g a n i z a t i o n and c o n t r o l ( 1 8 ) , and
t h e p r e p a r a t i o n o f d a i l y p r o g r a m s (1 9 )*
I h t h e l a t t e r two
i n s t a n c e s t e a c h e r s ’ a v e r a g e s r e p r e s e n t e d m ore l i b e r a l s u g ­
g e stio n s ,
a n d i n t h e o t h e r a c t i v i t y a m ore c o n s e r v a t i v e p r o ­
c e d u r e t h a n was recom mended by t h e s u p e r i n t e n d e n t s .
T y p es o f p r o c e d u r e s s u g g e s t e d by t e a c h e r s and s u p e r ­
in te n d e n ts.
In a l l e x c e p t th e t h r e e i n s t a n c e s m en tio n ed ,
t h e e v i d e n c e r e v e a l e d t e a c h e r s and a d m i n i s t r a t o r s p r a c t i c a l ­
l y a g r e e d a s t o t h e t y p e o f m e th o d s t o u s e .
On t h e b a s i s o f
t h e l o c a t i o n s o f t h e a v e r a g e s and t h e l o c a t i o n s o f t h e r a n g e s
77
S u p e r i n t e n d e a t s ’ D a ta
shown i n b l a c k
T e a c h e r s ’ D a t a shown i n
red
ADMINISTRATIVE ACTIVITIES
1.
Q s c o re s
S e le c tio n o f t e x t books
3 . S e le c tio n o f l i b r a r y and su p p lim e n ta ry books
3.
S e le c tio n o f e d u c a tio n a l m agazines
4.
R e g u la tio n o f th e sch o o l l i b r a r y
5.
R e g u la tio n o f s c h o o l ho u rs
6.
D e te rm in a tio n o f an n u al o r s e m e ste r prom otions
P r e p a r a tio n o f sc h o o l c a le n d a rs
8.
M aintenance and o p e ra tio n o f p la n t and equipm ent
9.
R e g u la tio n and m ain ten an ce o f b u ild in g sc h ed u le s
10.
P r e p a r a tio n o f s c h o o l b u d g ets
11.
S u p e rv is io n o f s tu d e n t f in a n c e s
12.
A d m in is tra tio n o f e d u c a tio n a l s u p p lie s
2-V 2-7
ZH 2-H
Development o f sch o o l b u ild in g p la n s
ZM
S e le c tio n o f b u ild in g and ground equipm ent
15. T r a n s p o r ta tio n o f p u p ils
A d m in is tra tio n o f p u b lic r e l a t i o n s
P r e p a r a tio n and d i s t r i b u t i o n o f d a il y b u l l e t i n s
18.
A d m in is tra tio n o f classro o m o r g a n iz a tio n and c o n tr o l
19.
P r e p a r a tio n o f d a ll y program s
A d m in is tra tio n o f r e c o r d s , r e g i s t e r s , and p e rs o n n e l r e p o r ts
E sta b lish m e n t and m aintenance o f p u p il re c o rd s
22.
R e g i s tr a ti o n o f p u p ils
23.
G rouping and c l a s s i f i c a t i o n o f p u p ils
24.
P rom otion o f p u p ils
25.
A d m in is tra tio n o f a t e s t i n g program
26.
S u p e rv is io n o f p u p il government
27.
S u p e rv is io n o f s tu d e n t body a c t i v i t i e s
28.
S u p e rv is io n o f d i s c i p l i n e
29.
R e g u la tio n o f t r u a n t s and d e lin q u e n ts
Development o f s ta n d a rd s o f p u p il conduct
S u p e rv is io n o f p u p il a c t i v i t i e s
D eterm ining and r e g u l a ti n g s c h o la r s h ip sta n d a rd s
33.
34.
S u p e rv is io n o f h a l l s , g ro u n d s, y ard d u ty s c h ed u le s
35.
M a in ta in in g v i s u a l e d u c a tio n
36.
Employment o f j a n i t o r s
37.
M
23.
P ro v id in g and m a in ta in in g a h e a lth program
23
Employment o f t e a c h e r s - d e te rm in in g p r o f . re q u ire m e n ts
Employment o f s u p e rv is o rs
Prom otion o f te a c h e r s - r a t i n g s , e t c .
D e te rm in a tio n o f s a la r y sc h ed u le s
4 1 . R e g u la tio n o f s ic k le a v e
Making te a c h e r a ssig n m en ts
Development o f in - s e r v i c e t r a i n i n g and advancem ent
44.
Development o f c u rricu lu m and c o u rse o f stu d y
45.
Development o f e d u c a tio n a l p h ilo so p h y
4 6.
Development o f m ethods o f i n s t r u c t i o n
47.
D eterm ining t e a c h e r s ' m ee tin g s - k in d , number, and tim e
48.
Development o f code o f e th i c s
49.
Development o f te a c h e r w e lfa re p o l ic i e s
50.
A d m in is tra tio n o f a d m in is tr a tiv e o f f i c e s and p e rs o n n e l
15
£75
35
475
575
.5
1 .5
2 .5
3 .5
4 .5
5.
FIGURE 5
COMPARISON OF 114 TEACHERS’ AND TWENTY FOUR SUPERINTENDENTS’
REPLIES ON IDEAL PROCEDURES FOR POLICY DETERMINATION
o f t h e d i s p e r s i o n s o f t h e m id d l e 50 p e r c e n t o f t h e r e p l i e s
i t was i n d i c a t e d ,
a s r e c o r d e d on F i g u r e 5,
t h a t t e a c h e r s and
a d m i n i s t r a t o r s recom mended an a l m o s t e q u a l l y e x t e n s i v e u s e o f
T y p es Two and T h r e e p r o c e d u r e s a s t h e c h i e f m e t h o d s to h e em­
p lo y e d in d e te rm in in g sch o o l p o l i c i e s .
The e x t e n s i v e u s e o f
T y p es One an d F o u r p r o c e d u r e s was s u g g e s t e d b y b o t h g r o u p s i n
s e v e n i n s t a n c e s and two i n s t a n c e s r e s p e c t i v e l y ,
w h ile th e e x ­
t e n s i v e u s e o f T y p es Two an d T h re e w ere recom mended i n t w e n t y
f i v e and t w e n t y s e v e n a c t i v i t i e s r e s p e c t i v e l y .
T h e r e w ere
many c a s e s i n w h ic h two t y p e s o f p r o c e d u r e s w ere s u g g e s t e d
f o r an a c t i v i t y .
I n two o f t h e i n s t a n c e s w h e re some d i s a g r e e ­
m en t a p p e a r e d t e a c h e r s recom m ended a m ore e x t e n s i v e u s e o f
Type F o u r m e th o d s t h a n d i d s u p e r i n t e n d e n t s ,
and i n th e o t h e r
c a s e t h e f o r m e r i n d i c a t e d t h e e x t e n s i v e u s e o f T y p es One and
Two w h i l e t h e l a t t e r s t a t e d T ypes Two and T h re e s h o u l d he
used.
D if f e r e n c e s i n th e ran g e o f th e d is p e r s io n s of th e
m id d l e 50 p e r c e n t o f r e p l i e s t o t h e v a r i o u s a c t i v i t i e s .
A l t h o u g h t e a c h e r s a n d s u p e r i n t e n d e n t s g e n e r a l l y w ere a g r e e d
a s t o t h e t y p e s o f p r o c e d u r e s w h ich w ould b e i d e a l t o em ploy
t h e r e was a t e n d e n c y f o r t e a c h e r s * r e p l i e s t o be somewhat
m ore w i d e l y d i s p e r s e d t h a n t h o s e o f t h e a d m i n i s t r a t o r s .
In
s i x t e e n i n s t a n c e s t h e r a n g e o f t h e d i s p e r s i o n s o f t h e m id d l e
50 p e r c e n t o f t e a c h e r s * r e p l i e s w ere s m a l l e r t h a n t h o s e o f
79
th e a d m in is tra to rs ,
i n t h i r t y two i n s t a n c e s t h e y w e re l a r g e r ,
w h i l e i n two i n s t a n c e s t h e r a n g e s w e re i d e n t i c a l .
IT .
COMPARISON OF JUNIOR HIGH SCHOOL AND CONVENT IAL EIGHT
YEAH ELEMENTARY SCHOOL TEACHER REPLIES3
C o m p a riso n o f a v e r a g e r e p l i e s and i n d i c a t e d d i s p e r -
*
s io n s o f re s p o n se s o f ju n io r h ig h sc h o o l te a c h e r s w ith th o se
o f t e a c h e r s fr o m t h e c o n v e n t i o n a l e l e m e n t a r y s c h o o l .
The
a v e r a g e r e p l i e s o f t h e J u n i o r h i g h s c h o o l t e a c h e r s w e re com­
p a re d w ith th o se o f th e c o n v e n tio n a l e le m e n ta ry sc h o o l t e a c h ­
e r s f o r e v i d e n c e s o f d i f f e r e n c e s w h ic h m ig h t h a v e b e e n due t o
th e k in d s o f sc h o o ls in v o lv e d .
F i g u r e s G a n d 7 d i s c l o s e t h a t t h e s e d i f f e r e n c e s w ere
im p o rta n t i n o n ly s i x in s ta n c e s .
o f t e x t books (1 ),
(3 ),
T h e s e were t h e s e l e c t i o n
th e s e l e c t i o n o f e d u c a t i o n a l m ag a z in e s
th e tr a n s p o r ta tio n of p u p ils (1 5 ), th e a d m in is tra tio n
o f a t e s t i n g p ro g ra m ( 2 5 ) ,
t h e d e v e lo p m e n t o f a c o d e o f
e t h i c s ( 4 8 ) , a n d t h e d e v e lo p m e n t o f t e a c h e r w e l f a r e p o l i c i e s
(49).
In e v e ry c ase th e c o n v e n tio n a l e le m e n ta ry sc h o o l
g r o u p ’ s a v e r a g e s r e v e a l e d t h a t a m ore c o n s e r v a t i v e t y p e o f
p r o c e d u r e h a d b e e n e m p lo y ed t h e r e t h a n i n t h e j u n i o r h i g h
sc h o o l.
The u s u a l d i f f e r e n c e was s e v e n t o e i g h t t e n t h s o f
one d e g r e e on t h e f i v e p o i n t s c a l e .
The a v e r a g e s o f t h e
—
The c o n v e n t i o n a l e l e m e n t a r y s c h o o l was c o n s i d e r e d
th e k i n d e r g a r t e n t o e ig h t h g ra d e t e a c h e r group.
80
E x i s t i n g C o n d i t i o n s shown
in b lack
I d e a l C o n d i t i o n s shown i n
red
ADMINISTRATIVE ACTIVITIES
1.
S e le c tio n o f t e x t books
2.
S e le c tio n o f l i b r a r y and s u p p lim e n ta ry books
3.
S e le c tio n o f e d u c a tio n a l magazines'
4.
R e g u la tio n of th e sc h o o l l i b r a r y
Q, s c o re s
5« R e g u la tio n o f sc h o o l h o u rs
6.
D e te rm in a tio n o f an n u al o r s e m e ste r prom otions
7.
P r e p a r a tio n o f s c h o o l c a le n d a rs
8.
M aintenance and o p e ra tio n o f p la n t and equipm ent
9.
R e g u la tio n and m aintenance o f b u ild in g sc h ed u le s
10.
P r e p a r a tio n o f s c h o o l b u d g ets
11.
S u p e rv is io n o f s tu d e n t fin a n c e s
12.
A d m in is tra tio n o f e d u c a tio n a l s u p p lie s
13.
Development o f sch o o l b u ild in g p la n s
14.
S e le c tio n o f b u ild in g and ground equipm ent
15.
T r a n s p o r ta tio n o f p u p ils
16.
A d m in is tra tio n o f p u b lic r e l a t i o n s
17.
P r e p a r a tio n and d i s t r i b u t i o n o f d a il y b u l l e t i n s
18.
A d m in is tra tio n o f classro o m o r g a n iz a tio n and c o n tr o l
19.
P r e p a r a tio n o f d a il y program s
20.
A d m in is tra tio n o f r e c o r d s , r e g i s t e r s , and p e rso n n e l r e p o r t s
21.
E sta b lish m e n t and m aintenance o f p u p il re c o rd s
22.
R e g i s tr a ti o n o f p u p ils
23.
G rouping and c l a s s i f i c a t i o n o f p u p ils
24.
Prom otion o f p u p ils
25.
A d m in is tra tio n o f a t e s t i n g program
2 6.
S u p e rv is io n o f p u p il government
2 7.
S u p e rv is io n o f s tu d e n t body a c t i v i t i e s
28.
S u p e rv is io n o f d i s c i p l i n e
29.
R e g u la tio n o f t r u a n t s and d e lin q u e n ts
3 0.
Development o f s ta n d a rd s o f p u p il conduct
31.
S u p e rv is io n o f p u p il a c t i v i t i e s
32.
D eterm ining and r e g u la tin g s c h o la r s h ip s ta n d a rd s
33.
P ro v id in g and m a in ta in in g a h e a lth program
■ M
34. S u p e rv is io n o f h a l l s , g ro u n d s, y ard d u ty sc h ed u le s______
35. M a in ta in in g v i s u a l e d u c a tio n ______________________________
36. Employment o f j a n i t o r s _____________________________________
37. Employment of t e a c h e r s - d e te rm in in g p r o f . re q u ire m e n ts
38. Employment of s u p e rv is o rs _________________________________
39. Prom otion o f t e a c h e r s - r a t i n g s , e t c . _____________________
40. D e te rm in a tio n o f s a la r y sc h ed u le s_______________
4 1 . R e g u la tio n of s ic k le a v e ___________________________________
4 2 . Making te a c h e r assig n m en ts_____________________________ ■
43 . Development o f in - s e r v i c e t r a i n i n g and advancem ent______
2-5
4 4 . Development o f cu rricu lu m and c o u rse o f stu d y ____________
29
45. Development o f e d u c a tio n a l p h ilo so p h y ____________________
46. D evelopment o f m ethods o f i n s t r u c t i o n ____________________
47. D eterm ining t e a c h e r s ' m ee tin g s - k in d , number, and tim e
48. Development o f code o f e th i c s ______________ ______________
4 9. Development o f t e a c h e r w e lfa re p o l i c i e s __________________
50. A d m in is tra tio n o f a d m in is tr a tiv e o f f i c e s and p e rs o n n e l
75
175
£75
375
475
5 .5
1 5
2 .5
3 .5
4 .5
5 .5
FIGURE 6
DISTRIBUTIONS OF NINETY KINDERGARTEN— EIGHTH GRADE TEACHERS*
mtPT.TTCfi ON EXISTING AND IDEAL PROCEDURES FOR PARTICIPATION
81
E x i s t i n g C o n d i t i o n s shown
in b lac k
I d e a l C o n d i t i o n s shown m
red
ADMINISTRATIVE ACTIVITIES
Q, s c o re s
1. S e le c tio n o f t e x t books
2.^ S e le c tio n o f l i b r a r y end su p p lim e n ta ry books
S e le c tio n o f e d u c a tio n a l m agazines
4 . R e g u la tio n o f th e sch o o l l i b r a r y
R e g u la tio n o f sch o o l h o u rs
6. D e te rm in a tio n o f a n n u a l o r s e m e ste r prom otions
7. P r e p a r a tio n o f s c h o o l c a le n d a rs
8 . M aintenance and o p e ra tio n o f p l a n t and equipm ent
R e g u la tio n and m aintenance o f b u ild in g sc h ed u le s
10. P r e p a r a tio n o f sc h o o l b u d g ets
11. S u p e rv is io n o f s tu d e n t f in a n c e s
12. A d m in is tra tio n o f e d u c a tio n a l s u p p lie s
13. Development o f sch o o l b u ild in g p la n s
14. S e le c tio n o f b u ild in g and ground equipm ent
15. T r a n s p o r ta tio n o f p u p ils
16. A d m in is tra tio n o f p u b lic r e l a t i o n s
17. P r e p a r a tio n and d i s t r i b u t i o n o f d a il y b u l l e t i n s
18. A d m in is tra tio n o f classro o m o r g a n iz a tio n and c o n tr o l
19. P r e p a r a tio n o f d a il y program s
20. A d m in is tra tio n o f r e c o r d s , r e g i s t e r s , and p e rs o n n e l r e p o r t s
21. E s ta b lish m e n t and m aintenance o f p u p il re c o rd s
22. R e g i s tr a ti o n o f p u p ils
23. G rouping and c l a s s i f i c a t i o n o f p u p ils
24. Prom otion o f p u p ils
25. A d m in is tra tio n o f a t e s t i n g program
26. S u p e rv is io n o f p u p il government
27. S u p e rv is io n o f s tu d e n t body a c t i v i t i e s
28. S u p e rv is io n o f d i s c i p l i n e
29. R e g u la tio n o f t r u a n t s and d e lin q u e n ts
30. Development o f s ta n d a rd s o f p u p il conduct
31. S u p e rv is io n o f p u p il a c t i v i t i e s
32. D eterm ining and r e g u l a ti n g s c h o la r s h ip s ta n d a rd s
33. P ro v id in g and m a in ta in in g a h e a lth program
34. S u p e rv is io n o f h a l l s , g ro u n d s, y ard d u ty sc h ed u le s
35. M a in ta in in g v i s u a l e d u c a tio n
36. Employment o f j a n i t o r s
37. Employment o f t e a c h e r s - d e te rm in in g p r o f . req u irem e n ts
38. Employment o f s u p e rv is o rs
39. Prom otion o f t e a c h e r s - r a t i n g s , e t c .
40. D e te rm in a tio n o f s a la r y sc h ed u le s
4 1 . R e g u la tio n o f s ic k le a v e
42. Making te a c h e r a ssig n m en ts
4 3 . Development o f in - s e r v i c e t r a i n i n g and advancement
4 4 . Development o f cu rricu lu m and c o u rse o f s tu d y
45. Development o f e d u c a tio n a l p h ilo so p h y
46. Development o f m ethods o f i n s t r u c t i o n
47. D eterm ining t e a c h e r s ' m eetin g s - k in d , number, and tim e
48. Development o f code o f e th i c s
49. Development o f t e a c h e r w e lfa re p o l i c i e s
50. A d m in is tra tio n o f a d m in is tr a tiv e o f f i c e s and p e rso n n e l
T o ta ls
5
175
275
375
475"
FIGURE 7
DISTRIBUTIONS OF TWENTY FOUR JUNIOR HIGH SCHOOL TEACHERS’
REPLIES ON EXISTING AND IDEAL PROCEDURES FOR PARTICIPATION
82
su g g e ste d p ro c e d u re s v a r ie d n o t i c e a b l y in o n ly fo u r in s t a n c e s ,
n a m e ly ,
t h e s u p e r v i s i o n o f s t u d e n t f i n a n c e s (11)> t h e e s t a b ­
lis h m e n t and m a in te n a n c e o f p u p i l r e c o r d s (2 1 ) ,
s i o n o f c o r r i d o r s an d g ro u n d s ,
th e s u p e rv i­
i n c l u d i n g y a rd d u ty s c h e d u le s
( 3 4 ) , and t h e a d m i n i s t r a t i o n o f p u b l i c r e l a t i o n s ( 1 6 ) .
In
a l l i n s t a n c e s ex ce p t th e l a s t th e e le m e n ta ry sc h o o l te a c h e r s
s u g g e s t e d more l i b e r a l t y p e s o f p r o c e d u r e s t h a n d i d t h e J u n i o r
h ig h sc h o o l te a c h e r s .
Humber e l e v e n h a d a c r i t i c a l r a t i o o f 3 . 4 , w h i l e t h e
re m a in in g t h r e e a c t i v i t i e s h ad c r i t i c a l r a t i o s g r e a t e r th a n
4 .0 .
The g e n e r a l t e n d e n c i e s b y t h e a v e r a g e s o f t h e s u g g e s t e d
p ro ced u res,
shown on F i g u r e s 6 an d 7, d e m o n s t r a t e d t h a t a
s u b s t a n t i a l s i m i l a r i t y e x i s t e d i n t h e a t t i t u d e s o f t h e two
t e a c h e r groups a s to th e ty p e s o f p ro c e d u re s to u s e .
I n t e r e s t i n g l y enough,
th e ra n g e s o f th e d is p e r s io n s o f
t h e m i d d l e 50 p e r c e n t o f t o t a l r e s p o n s e s o f e x i s t i n g a s w e l l
a s i d e a l c o n d i t i o n s o f b o t h t e a c h e r g r o u p s w ere v e r y s i m i l a r .
Ho e v i d e n c e a p p e a r e d w h ic h w o u ld i n d i c a t e a n y g r e a t d i f f e r ­
ence in th e a t t i t u d e s o f th e t e a c h e r s in th e s e groups o r In
t h e . J u n i o r h i g h s c h o o l and c o n v e n t i o n a l e l e m e n t a r y s c h o o l
te a c h e rs* e s tim a te s o f e x i s t i n g p ro c e d u re s f o r th e d e te rm in ­
a tio n o f a d m in istra tiv e p o lic ie s .
V.
C0MPARIS0H OF TEACHERS* REPLIES ARRANGED ACCORDING
TO SIZE OF SCHOOL DISTRICTS
The s e g r e g a t i o n o f t e a c h e r s *
r e p l i e s in to gro u p s a c ­
c o r d i n g to t h e s i z e s o f s c h o o l d i s t r i c t s i n w hich t h e r e s p o n d ­
e n t s w e re e m p lo y ed was f o r t h e p u r p o s e o f n o t i n g any i m p o r t ­
a n t v a r i a t i o n s w h ic h m ig h t h a v e o c c u r r e d b e c a u s e o f t h e d i f ­
f e r e n c e s c h a r a c t e r i s t i c o f l a r g e and s m a ll s c h o o ls .
The
same b a s i s o f c o m p a r is o n was u s e d h e r e a s i n f o r m e r s e c t i o n s ,
n a m e ly ,
t h e a v e r a g e s w ere c o n t r a s t e d a n d t h e r a n g e s o f t h e
d i s p e r s i o n s o f t h e m i d d l e 50 p e r c e n t o f r e p l i e s t o t h e a c ­
t i v i t i e s w ere com pared f o r e v i d e n c e s o f t h e s i m i l a r i t i e s and
d i f f e r e n c e s i n t h e p r o c e d u r e s e m p lo y ed b y t h e v a r i o u s g r o u p s .
A l l c o m p a r is o n s w e re b a s e d on d a t a r e p o r t e d on F i g u r e s 8 , 9,
10 a n d 11 w h ere g r a p h i c p r e s e n t a t i o n s w e re g i v e n .
A rra n g e m e n t o f t e a c h e r g r o u p s .
te e n te a c h e rs*
The on e h u n d r e d f o u r ­
r e p l i e s w ere s e g r e g a t e d i n t o f o u r g r o u p s .
A ll
r e p l i e s f ro m t e a c h e r s e m p lo y ed i n one t o t w e n t y t e a c h e r s c h o o l
d i s t r i c t s w e re p l a c e d i n one g r o u p .
The s e c o n d g ro u p o f r e ­
p l i e s was fro m s c h o o l d i s t r i c t s o f t w e n t y one t o s i x t y t e a c h ­
e r s ; t h e r e m a i n i n g two g r o u p s o f r e p l i e s w e re f r o m s i x t y one
t o one h u n d r e d f i f t y t e a c h e r d i s t r i c t s ,
a n d o v e r one h u n d r e d
f i f t y te a c h e r d i s t r i c t s re s p e c tiv e ly .
C o m p a ris o n , by g r o u p s , o f t e a c h e r s * a v e r a g e r e p l i e s
on e x i s t i n g p r o c e d u r e s u s e d i n d e t e r m i n i n g a d m i n i s t r a t i v e
p o lic ie s.
When t h e r e p l i e s o f t h e f o u r g r o u p s a r r a n g e d on
F i g u r e s 8 , 9, 10 a n d 11 w e re c o m p a re d i t was f o u n d t h a t t h e
84
E x i s t i n g C o n d i t i o n s shown
in b lac k
I d e a l C o n d i t i o n s shown i n
red
ADMINISTRATIVE ACTIVITIES
Averages
1. S e le c tio n of t e x t books
2 . S e le c tio n o f l i b r a r y and su p p lim e n ta ry books
1 .0
.3 .0
4 .t
3 .4
Q s c o re s
■9 1
4 . R e g u la tio n of th e sch o o l l i b r a r y
del JL.
M LuSL
JJL & -
X,o JL.l
II 2.1
5 . R e g u la tio n o f sch o o l h o u rs
6. D e te rm in a tio n o f a n n u a l o r s e m e ste r prom otions
2 .6 ,
7 . P r e p a r a tio n o f sch o o l c a le n d a rs
1.2.
8 . M aintenance and o p e ra tio n o f p la n t and equipm ent
I. 33
3 .4
.30
1.6,
14 10
1.1
2..! O.L,
10. P r e p a r a tio n of sc h o o l b u d g ets
11. S u p e rv is io n of s tu d e n t fin a n c e s
12. A d m in is tra tio n o f e d u c a tio n a l s u p p lie s
JLL
13. Development o f sch o o l b u ild in g p la n s
1 .3
I. H
JL
JL
1 .9
1 .5 1 .0
15. T r a n s p o r ta tio n o f p u p ils
1.1 1 .4
16. A d m in is tra tio n o f p u b lic r e l a t i o n s
J J
-L 5 -L A .
1 .6 ,
.3 1
O o_
4 .1
4 .1
O L
JL
AL
OL
±02
05LJL-
1.1 1.8
22. R e g i s tr a ti o n of p u p ils
23. Grouping and c l a s s i f i c a t i o n o f p u p ils
1 .0
24. Prom otion o f p u p ils
2 .5
A JJLL
26. S u p e rv is io n of p u p il government
3 .1
2 7. S u p e rv is io n o f s tu d e n t body a c t i v i t i e s
3
28. S u p e rv is io n o f d i s c i p l i n e
3 .0
0
l.o o
31. S u p e rv is io n o f p u p il a c t i v i t i e s
32. D eterm ining and r e g u l a ti n g s c h o la r s h ip s ta n d a rd s
33. P ro v id in g and m a in ta in in g a h e a lth program
.4 3
J jL
M -
■JL
.11
JO-
-3.7.
3L
M-
3 .1
3 .0
3 .S
5 .5
1.07
3 .1
3 .1
J L
JLL
A.I 15
35. M a in ta in in g v i s u a l e d u c a tio n
.7 7
02-
O
.1 1 l .ia
34. S u p e rv is io n o f h a l l s , g ro u n d s, y ard d u ty s c h ed u le s
J L
3 .0
2 9. R e g u la tio n o f t r u a n t s and d e lin q u e n ts
3 0 . Development of s ta n d a rd s o f p u p il conduct
JL
.5 4
.S t,
3 .3
3
J 3 -
J3_
IAQ
3.3 3 .7
25. A d m in is tra tio n o f a t e s t i n g program
15JL.
4 .0
15 1 . 0
j l u l L.
21. E s ta b lish m e n t and m aintenance o f p u p il r e c o rd s
.56,
.4 1
1 .4
19. P r e p a r a tio n o f d a il y program s
20. A d m in is tra tio n o f r e c o r d s , r e g i s t e r s , and p e rs o n n e l r e p o r ts
0101.
4 .0
17. P r e p a r a tio n and d i s t r i b u t i o n o f d a l l y b u l l e t i n s
18. A d m in is tra tio n o f classro o m o r g a n iz a tio n and c o n tr o l
.8 7
.2 %
1 .0 4
14. S e le c tio n o f b u ild in g and ground equipm ent
73
.43
JL
J .2 1.7
9. R e g u la tio n and m aintenance o f b u ild in g sc h ed u le s
. 6,7
.7 2
1.8 rl.<?
3 . S e le c tio n o f e d u c a tio n a l m agazines
.7 /
2.6 -2-7
36. Employment o f j a n i t o r s
/. /
37. Employment o f te a c h e r s - d e te rm in in g p r o f . re q u ire m e n ts
/■/ 1.3
38. Employment o f s u p e rv is o rs
/./
.7 1
JL
Jo JL
.to to
1 .3
-21_
.31
.17
.88
31
1.2
l.l 1.7
.17
JS_
40. D e te rm in a tio n o f s a la r y sc h ed u le s
L3_LJL
.31
A J-
4 1 . R e g u la tio n o f s ic k le a v e
1.1
U
.2 1
A LAL.
AJs—
JJL
Jo.
39. Prom otion o f t e a c h e r s - r a t i n g s , e t c .
42. Making te a c h e r a ssig n m en ts
l.l l.o
4 3 . Development o f ln - 3 e r v lc e t r a i n i n g and advancem ent
1 .4
2 .1
.32
.32
4 5. Development o f e d u c a tio n a l p h ilo so p h y
1 .3
2 .4
I .t>o
1.11
46. Development o f m ethods o f i n s t r u c t i o n
3 2
3J> -
47. D eterm ining t e a c h e r s ' m eetin g s - k in d , number, and tim e
1.3 1JL
4 4 . Development o f c u rricu lu m and c o u rse o f s tu d y
i
4 8. Development o f code o f e th i c s
3
5
1.8
J S _
IA
1.4
M .
2J_
2 .0
2 .4
.a
13 2.L
4 9. Development o f t e a c h e r w e lfa re p o l i c i e s
5 0. A d m in is tra tio n o f a d m in is tr a tiv e o f f i c e s and p e rs o n n e l
1 ,17
■3 1 -
175
275
3 .5
4 .5
5 .5
A 2-
Ol
JL
.4 1
.4 5
•9o
1 .5
2 .5
3 .5
4 .5
5 .5
FIGURE 8
DISTRIBUTIONS OF EIGHTEEN REPLIES OF TEACHERS FROM 1 — 20
TEACHER DISTRICTS ON EXISTING AND IDEAL PROCEDURES
Existing Conditions shorn.
in black
Ideal Conditions showi in
red
ADMINISTRATIVE ACTIVITIES
I.
2
S e le c tio n o f t e x t books
g 1
3
4
3. 1
2 . S e le c tio n o f l i b r a r y and su p p lim e n ta ry books
3. S e le c tio n o f e d u c a tio n a l m agazines
-UP7
2-n 3-3
4 . R e g u la tio n of th e sch o o l l i b r a r y
Ms
5 . R e g u la tio n o f s c h o o l h o u rs
/•3 4 -3
2-6 3 1
1-3 I S
6. D e te rm in a tio n o f a n n u a l o r s e m e ste r prom otions
7. P r e p a r a tio n o f s c h o o l c a le n d a rs
8 . M aintenance and o p e ra tio n o f p la n t and equipm ent
t-Z
I I
9. R e g u la tio n and m ain ten an ce o f b u ild in g s c h ed u le s
1-3
/• 7
10. P r e p a r a tio n of s c h o o l b u d g e ts
11.
S u p e rv is io n o f s tu d e n t fin a n c e s
12.
A d m in is tra tio n o f e d u c a tio n a l s u p p lie s
13.
Development o f s c h o o l b u ild in g p la n s
14.
S e le c tio n o f b u ild in g and ground equipm ent
15.
T r a n s p o r ta tio n o f p u p ils
16.
A d m in is tra tio n o f p u b lic r e l a t i o n s
17.
P r e p a r a tio n and d i s t r i b u t i o n o f d a il y b u l l e t i n s
JJ
l-tp xa
/•y is
A d m in is tra tio n o f classro o m o r g a n iz a tio n and c o n tr o l
4-0
20.
A d m in is tra tio n o f r e c o r d s , r e g i s t e r s , and p e rs o n n e l r e p o r t s
21.
E s ta b lish m e n t and m aintenance o f p u p il re c o rd s
z-o 2-Z
2 2.
R e g i s tr a ti o n o f p u p ils
Prom otion o f p u p ils
25.
A d m in is tra tio n o f a t e s t i n g program
26.
S u p e rv is io n of p u p il government
27.
S u p e rv is io n o f s tu d e n t body a c t i v i t i e s
28.
S u p e rv is io n o f d i s c i p l i n e
29.
R e g u la tio n o f t r u a n t s and d e lin q u e n ts
30.
Development o f s ta n d a rd s o f p u p il conduct
31.
S u p e rv is io n o f p u p il a c t i v i t i e s
3-g
3-3
1:8 f-f
Z-H Z-7
21 Zi
3-;
2-1
3-X
1-7
J jj
31
3 •/
41
2 0
32.
D eterm ining and r e g u l a ti n g s c h o la r s h ip s ta n d a rd s
P ro v id in g and m a in ta in in g a h e a lth program
34.
S u p e rv is io n o f h a l l s , g ro u n d s, y ard d u ty sc h ed u le s
35.
M a in ta in in g v i s u a l e d u c a tio n
2t> 3-7
36.
Employment o f j a n i t o r s
1-0
37.
Employment o f te a c h e r s - d e te rm in in g p r o f . req u irem e n ts
38.
Employment o f s u p e rv is o rs
39.
Prom otion o f t e a c h e r s - r a t i n g s , e t c .
40.
D e te rm in a tio n o f s a la r y s c h e d u le s
/•X 3-3
41.
R e g u la tio n o f s ic k le a v e
42.
Making te a c h e r a ssig n m en ts
l-o
/■V
43.
Development o f in - s e r v i c e t r a i n i n g and advancement
I *
Li*£-
-L0 LJl.
11 1-3
X %
44.
Development o f c u rricu lu m and c o u rse o f s tu d y
45.
Development o f e d u c a tio n a l p h ilo so p h y
/■fc 3-3
25 Z'l
46.
Development o f m ethods o f I n s t r u c t i o n
3-w
3- 3
47.
D eterm ining te a c h e rs * m eetin g s - k in d , number, and tim e
1-7
2 b
48.
Development of code o f e th i c s
/•<?
31
Development o f te a c h e r w e lfa re p o l i c i e s
50.
A d m in is tra tio n o f a d m in is tr a tiv e o f f i c e s and p e rs o n n e l
t-DC>
31
33.
49.
1^3
!-Z
P r e p a r a tio n o f d a il y program s
G rouping and c l a s s i f i c a t i o n o f p u p ils
■30
LZ-
19.
23.
■32
2-2 Z-L
I-7 X-H
18.
2 4.
I
\ e> I H
2)
T75 575 35 475 O'
US'
5
1 .5
2 .5
3 .5
4 .5
5
FIGURE 9
DISTRIBUTIONS OF THIRTY EIGHT REPLIES OF TEACHERS FROM
2 1 — 60 TEACHER DISTRICTS ON EXISTING AND IDEAL PROCEDURES
Existing Conditions shown
in black
Ideal Conditions shown in
red
ADMINISTRATIVE ACTIVITIES
Q, s c o re s
I* S e le c tio n o f t e x t cooks
2. S e le c tio n o f l i b r a r y and su p p lim e n ta ry books
3. S e le c tio n o f e d u c a tio n a l m agazines
4 . R e g u la tio n o f th e sch o o l l i b r a r y
5. R e g u la tio n o f sch o o l ho u rs
6. D e te rm in a tio n o f an n u a l o r s e m e ste r prom otions
7. P r e p a r a tio n o f s c h o o l c a le n d a rs
8 . M aintenance and o p e ra tio n o f p la n t and equipm ent
9. R e g u la tio n and m ain ten an ce o f b u ild in g s c h ed u le s
10. P r e p a r a tio n of sch o o l b u d g ets
11. S u p e rv is io n o f s tu d e n t fin a n c e s
12. A d m in is tra tio n o f e d u c a tio n a l s u p p lie s
13. Development o f sch o o l b u ild in g p la n s
14. S e le c tio n o f b u ild in g and ground equipm ent
15. T r a n s p o r ta tio n o f p u p ils
16. A d m in is tra tio n o f p u b lic r e l a t i o n s
17. P r e p a r a tio n and d i s t r i b u t i o n o f d a il y b u l l e t i n s
18. A d m in is tra tio n o f classro o m o r g a n iz a tio n and c o n tr o l
19. P r e p a r a tio n o f d a il y program s
20. A d m in is tra tio n o f r e c o r d s , r e g i s t e r s , and p e rs o n n e l r e p o r t s
21. E s ta b lish m e n t and m aintenance o f p u p il re c o rd s
22. R e g i s tr a ti o n o f p u p ils
23. Grouping and c l a s s i f i c a t i o n o f p u p ils
24. Prom otion o f p u p ils
25. A d m in is tra tio n o f a t e s t i n g program
26. S u p e rv is io n o f p u p il government
27. S u p e rv is io n o f s tu d e n t body a c t i v i t i e s
28. S u p e rv is io n o f d i s c i p l i n e
29. R e g u la tio n o f t r u a n t s and d e lin q u e n ts
30. Development o f s ta n d a rd s o f p u p il conduct
31. S u p e rv is io n o f p u p il a c t i v i t i e s
32. D eterm ining and r e g u l a ti n g s c h o la r s h ip s ta n d a rd s
33. P ro v id in g and m a in ta in in g a h e a lth program
34. S u p e rv is io n o f h a l l s , g ro u n d s, y ard d u ty s c h ed u le s
I 'HO
35. M a in ta in in g v i s u a l e d u c a tio n
36. Employment o f j a n i t o r s
37. Employment of t e a c h e r s - d e te rm in in g p r o f . req u irem e n ts
38. Employment o f s u p e rv is o rs
39. Prom otion o f t e a c h e r s - r a t i n g s , e tc
40. D e te rm in a tio n o f s a la r y s c h e d u le s
41. R e g u la tio n o f s ic k le a v e
4 2 . Making te a c h e r a ssig n m en ts
4 3 . Development o f i n - s e r v i c e t r a i n i n g and advancement
44. Development o f c u rricu lu m and c o u rse o f s tu d y
45. Development o f e d u c a tio n a l p h ilo so p h y
46. Development o f m ethods o f i n s t r u c t i o n
47. D eterm ining t e a c h e r s ' m eetin g s - k in d , number, and tim e
48. Development o f code o f e th i c s
49. Development o f t e a c h e r w e lfa re p o l i c i e s
50. A d m in is tra tio n o f a d m in is tr a tiv e o f f i c e s and p e rs o n n e l
T o ta ls
FIGURE 10
DISTRIBUTIONS OF THIRTY FOUR REPLIES OF TEACHERS FROM
6 1 — 150 TEACHER DISTRICTS ON EXISTING AND IDEAL PROCEDURES
Existing Conditions shown
in black
Ideal Conditions shown in
red
ADMINISTRATIVE ACTIVITIES
1.
Q, s c o re s
S e le c tio n of t e x t books
2.
S e le c tio n o f l i b r a r y and s u p p lim e n te ry books
3.
S e le c tio n o f e d u c a tio n a l m agazines
4.
R e g u la tio n o f th e sch o o l l i b r a r y
5 , R e g u la tio n o f sc h o o l h o u rs
6. D e te rm in a tio n o f a n n u a l o r s e m e ste r prom otions
P r e p a r a tio n o f s c h o o l c a le n d a rs
8.
M aintenance and o p e ra tio n o f p la n t and equipm ent
9.
R e g u la tio n and m aintenance o f b u ild in g sc h ed u le s
10.
P r e p a r a tio n o f sch o o l b u d g ets
11.
S u p e rv is io n o f s tu d e n t f in a n c e s
12.
A d m in is tra tio n o f e d u c a tio n a l s u p p lie s
13.
Development o f sc h o o l b u ild in g p la n s
14.
S e le c tio n o f b u ild in g and ground equipm ent
15.
T r a n s p o r ta tio n o f p u p ils
16.
A d m in is tra tio n o f p u b lic r e l a t i o n s
17, P r e p a r a tio n and d i s t r i b u t i o n o f d a il y b u l l e t i n s
18.
A d m in is tra tio n o f classro o m o r g a n iz a tio n and c o n tr o l
19.
P r e p a r a tio n o f d a il y program s
20.
A d m in is tra tio n o f r e c o r d s , r e g i s t e r s , and p e rs o n n e l r e p o r ts
21.
E sta b lish m e n t and m aintenance o f p u p il re c o rd s
22.
R e g i s tr a ti o n o f p u p ils
23.
Grouping and c l a s s i f i c a t i o n o f p u p ils
2 4.
P rom otion of p u p ils
25.
A d m in is tra tio n o f a t e s t i n g program
26.
S u p e rv is io n o f p u p il government
2 7.
S u p e rv is io n of s tu d e n t body a c t i v i t i e s
2 8.
S u p e rv is io n o f d i s c i p l i n e
2 9.
R e g u la tio n o f t r u a n t s and d e lin q u e n ts
30.
Development o f s ta n d a rd s o f p u p il conduct
31.
S u p e rv is io n o f p u p il a c t i v i t i e s
32.
D eterm ining and r e g u la tin g s c h o la r s h ip s ta n d a rd s
33.
P ro v id in g and m a in ta in in g a h e a lth program
34.
S u p e rv is io n o f h a l l s , g ro u n d s, y ard d u ty s c h ed u le s
35.
M a in ta in in g v i s u a l e d u c atio n
36.
Employment o f j a n i t o r s
9-1
3$
3-1
3
21 2-t
3-Q
31
3-1
37, Employment o f te a c h e r s - d e te rm in in g p r o f . req u irem e n ts
38.
Employment o f s u p e rv is o rs
39.
Prom otion o f te a c h e r s - r a t i n g s , e t c .
40.
D e te rm in a tio n o f s a la r y s c h ed u le s
41.
R e g u la tio n o f s ic k le a v e
42.
Making te a c h e r assig n m en ts
43.
Development o f i n - s e r v i c e t r a i n i n g and advancem ent
44.
Development o f cu rricu lu m and c o u rse o f s tu d y
45.
Development of e d u c a tio n a l p h ilo so p h y
46.
Development o f m ethods o f I n s t r u c t i o n
2-5
47.
D eterm ining te a c h e rs * m ee tin g s - k in d , number, and tim e
/•7 ZH
48.
Development of code o f e th i c s
49.
Development o f t e a c h e r w e lfa re p o l i c i e s
50.
A d m in is tra tio n o f a d m in is tr a tiv e o f f i c e s and p e rso n n e l
5
175
S'
FIGURE 11
DISTRIBUTIONS OF TWENTY FOUR REPLIES OF TEACHERS FROM MORE THAN
150 TEACHER DISTRICTS ON EXISTING AND IDEAL PROCEDURES
a v e r a g e s o f t h e 1 — 20 and o v e r 150 t e a c h e r d i s t r i c t s r e p r e ­
s e n te d th e m ost c o n s e r v a tiv e e s tim a te s o f e x i s t i n g
c o n d itio n s,
w h i l e t h e 2 1 - - 6 0 and 61 — 150 t e a c h e r g r o u p s ' a v e r a g e s r e ­
v e a l e d t h a t t h e s e , r e s p o n d e n t s w ere t h e m o s t l i b e r a l i n t h e i r
e stim a te s o f e x is tin g p ro ced u res.
The a v e r a g e r e p l i e s o f t h e
t e a c h e r s from 1 — 20 a n d o v e r 150 t e a c h e r d i s t r i c t s w ere d i s ­
trib u te d
sc a le .
c h i e f l y i n t h e f i r s t t h r e e c o lum ns o f t h e f i v e p l a c e
The p e r c e n t a g e o f a v e r a g e r e p l i e s l o c a t e d i n e a c h o f
t h e s e colum ns was 38,
teach er d is t r ic t s ,
32, and 22 r e s p e c t i v e l y f o r t h e 1 — 20
and 36, 34,
and 28 r e s p e c t i v e l y f o r t h e
d i s t r i c t s o f o v e r 150 t e a c h e r s .
The a v e r a g e r e p l i e s o f t h e
21— 60 and 6 1 — 150 t e a c h e r d i s t r i c t s
w ere a l s o c h i e f l y l o c a t e d
i n th e f i r s t t h r e e colu m n s o f t h e s c a l e .
i n t h e d i r e c t i o n o f colum n t h r e e ,
av erag es.
A c o n sid e ra b le s h i f t
h o w e v er, was n o t e d i n t h e s e
The p e r c e n t a g e s o f a v e r a g e r e p l i e s l o c a t e d i n e a c h
o f t h e t h r e e c o lu m n s w ere 32 ,
32, and 30 r e s p e c t i v e l y f o r t h e
2 1 — 60 t e a c h e r d i s t r i c t s and 24, 4 2 , a n d 30 r e s p e c t i v e l y f o r
t h e 61— 150 t e a c h e r d i s t r i c t s .
The a v e r a g e s from t h e l a s t
m e n t i o n e d g ro u p r e p r e s e n t e d t h e m o s t l i b e r a l o p i n i o n s a s t o
e x is tin g c o n d itio n s.
E x i s t i n g t y p e s o f p r o c e d u r e s a s i n d i c a t e d by t h e
r a n g e o f t h e d i s p e r s i o n s o f th e m i d d l e 50 p e r c e n t o f r e p l i e s .
The r a n g e o f t h e d i s p e r s i o n s o f t h e m id d l e 50 p e r c e n t o f
r e p l i e s o f t e n i n d i c a t e d t h a t two t y p e s o f p r o c e d u r e s w ere
89
a lm o st e q u a lly u se d f o r th e d e te r m i n a ti o n o f p o l i c i e s .
T h is
o v e r l a p p i n g o f t y p e s d i d n o t ch an g e th e s i t u a t i o n i n d i c a t e d
by th e a v e ra g e r e s p o n s e s .
The 1 — 20 and t h e o v e r 150 t e a c h e r
d i s t r i c t r e p l i e s a g a i n d i s c l o s e d t h e g r e a t e s t u s e o f Type One
and Two p r o c e d u r e s ,
w h i l e t h e t e a c h e r s o f t h e 21— 60 and 6 0 —
150 g r o u p s r e p o r t e d t h e m o st e x t e n s i v e u s e o f T y p es Two and
T h re e m e th o d s .
T e a c h e r s fro m t h e 6 1 — 150 t e a c h e r d i s t r i c t s
re p o rte d a n o tic e a b ly g r e a t e r use o f l i b e r a l ty p e s o f p ro c e ­
d u res th a n d id th e te a c h e r s o f th e o th e r th r e e d i s t r i c t
g ro u p s.
C o m p ariso n o f a v e r a g e . r e s p o n s e s o f s u g g e s t e d p r o c e d u r e s
f o r d e te rm in in g p o l i c i e s .
A cco rd in g to th e a v e ra g e re s p o n s e s
t h e 1 — 20 a n d o v e r 150 t e a c h e r g r o u p s s u g g e s t e d t h e m o s t c o n ­
s e r v a t i v e p r o c e d u r e s , w h i l e t h e 2 1 -6 0 and 6 1— 150 t e a c h e r
g ro u p s s u g g e s te d th e m ost l i b e r a l m eth o d s.
1 — 20 t e a c h e r d i s t r i c t s
T each ers in th e
s u g g e s t e d a n e q u a l u s e o f Type Two
a n d T h r e e p r o c e d u r e s ; t e a c h e r s o f o v e r 150 t e a c h e r d i s t r i c t s
s u g g e s t e d an 8 p e r c e n t g r e a t e r u s e o f Type Two t h a n Type
T h r e e m e t h o d s ; t e a c h e r s i n t h e 2 1 — 60 t e a c h e r d i s t r i c t s s u g ­
g e s t e d a 10 p e r c e n t g r e a t e r u s e o f Type T h r e e t h a n o f Type
Two p r o c e d u r e s ; a n d t e a c h e r s i n 6 1 — 150 t e a c h e r d i s t r i c t s
s u g g e s t e d a 22 p e r c e n t g r e a t e r u s e o f Type T h r e e t h a n o f
Type Two m e th o d s f o r d e t e r m i n i n g p o l i c i e s .
S u g g e s t e d t y p e s o f p r o c e d u r e s a s i n d i c a t e d by t h e
90
r a n g e o f t h e d i s p e r s i o n s o f t h e m id d l e 50 p e r c e n t o f r e p l i e s .
The r a n g e o f t h e d i s p e r s i o n s o f t h e m i d d l e 50 p e r c e n t o f
r e p l i e s showed t h a t t h e a v e r a g e r e s p o n s e s r e p r e s e n t e d r a t h e r
a c c u r a t e l y ' th e su g g e stio n s of th e v a rio u s g ro u p s.
o f th e 1 — SO an d o v e r 150 t e a c h e r d i s t r i c t s
T eachers
su g g e ste d a
g r e a t e r u s e o f T ype Two p r o c e d u r e s t h a n d i d t h e t e a c h e r s o f
t h e r e m a i n i n g two g r o u p s who s u g g e s t e d t h e g r e a t e s t u s e o f
Type T h re e m e th o d s f o r d e t e r m i n i n g p o l i c i e s .
T e a c h e r s fro m
th e 1--S 0 te a c h e r d i s t r i c t s su g g e s te d a s e x te n s iv e a u s e o f
Type One p r o c e d u r e s a s was r e p o r t e d i n u s e , w h i l e t h e o t h e r
g r o u p s r e p o r t e d t h a t Type One s h o u l d be u s e d o n l y a b o u t one
t h i r d a s f r e q u e n t l y a s i t was e m p lo y e d .
group,
Y I.
th ro u g h o u t,
The 6 1 — 150 t e a c h e r
s u g g e s t e d t h e m o st l i b e r a l p r o c e d u r e s .
DIFFERENCES IN EXISTING AND IDEAL TOTAL RESPONSE
AVERAGES OF EIGHT INDICATED GROUPS
T o ta l- response a v e ra g e s.
The t o t a l - r e s p o n s e a v e r a g e s
r e p r e s e n t e d t h e t e a c h e r s ’ and s u p e r i n t e n d e n t s ’ i n d i c a t i o n s
o f t h e a v e r a g e am ou nts o f t e a c h e r p a r t i c i p a t i o n i n t h e d e t e r ­
m i n a t i o n o f a d m i n i s t r a t i v e p o l i c y w hich e x i s t e d o r s h o u l d .
e x i s t in th e s c h o o ls .
A l l d a t a u s e d i n t h e c o m p a r is o n s w ere
fro m T a b l e IX w h ic h c o n t a i n e d t h e a v e r a g e s ,
tio n s ,
q u a r tile d e v ia ­
and c r i t i c a l r a t i o s o f th e i n d i c a t e d g ro u p s.
C ritic a l ra tio s .
C r i t i c a l r a t i o s were c a l c u l a t e d f o r
TABLE IX
SIGNIFICANT DIFFERENCES IN EXISTING AND IDEAL PROCEDURE
TOTAL-RESPONSE AVERAGES OF INDICATED GROUPS
E x i s t i n g C o n d i t i o n D a ta
I d e a l C o n d i t i o n D a ta
Group
A v e r­
ages
D e v ia ­
tio n s
R e­
sponses
A v e r­
ages
D e v ia ­
tio n s
S u p e rin te n d ­
e n ts
2.2
.7 0
1 ,1 7 1
2 .5
.6 8
846
9 .7
T eachers
2 .0
.9 2
5 ,3 4 2
2 .4
.7 8
4, 572
2 2 .8
K in d e rg a rte n
to E ig h th
G rade
2 .0
.9 3
4, 215
2 .5
.8 0
3 ,5 3 8
2 6 .3
J u n io r h ig h
2 .1
.89
1 ,1 2 7
2 .4
. 76
1 ,0 3 4
8 .3
1 -8 0
2 .0
.9 6
840
2 .4
.9 0
825
8 .8
2 1 -6 0
2 .1
.98
1 ,8 1 0
2 .5
.79
1, 430
1 2 .9
6 1 -1 5 0
2 .1
.96
1 ,6 2 4
2 .7
.7 4
. 1, 337
1 9 .4
Over 150
1 .8
.7 5
1 ,0 8 8
2 .3
.79
951
1 4 .3
R e­
sponses
C ritic a l
R a tio s
S iz e -g ro u p :
92
e a c h o f t h e t o t a l - r e s p o n s e - a v e r a g e c o m p a r is o n s a p p e a r i n g on
T a b l e IX, a n d i n e v e r y c a s e t h e c r i t i c a l r a t i o s w ere h i g h .
I n one c a s e t h e c r i t i c a l r a t i o was s i x and one h a l f t i m e s
g r e a t e r t h a n was r e q u i r e d t o show a s i g n i f i c a n t d i f f e r e n c e .
The l o w e s t c r i t i c a l r a t i o w as m o re t h a n t w i c e t h e n e c e s s a r y
amount t o show a s i g n i f i c a n t d i f f e r e n c e .
S u p e r in te n d e n ts * average r e s p o n s e s .
c lo s e s th a t th e s u p e rin te n d e n ts *
T a b l e IX d i s ­
to ta l- r e s p o n s e av erag e o f
e x i s t i n g c o n d i t i o n s was two and two t e n t h s w h i l e t h e a v e r a g e
o f t h e same g ro u p f o r s u g g e s t e d p r o c e d u r e s was two an d f i v e
te n th s.
These a v e ra g e s d e m o n s tra te d t h a t a d m i n i s t r a t o r s b e ­
l i e v e d a s l i g h t l y m ore l i b e r a l t y p e o f p r o c e d u r e t h a n e x i s t e d
sh o u ld be used f o r p o l ic y d e te r m in a tio n .
A lso fro m t h e s e
t o t a l a v e r a g e s i t was shown t h a t a l m o s t an e q u a l amount o f
T ypes Two a n d T h re e p r o c e d u r e s s h o u l d be u s e d .
The q u a r t i l e
d e v i a t i o n s o f s e v e n t y h u n d r e d t h s and s i x t y e i g h t h u n d r e d t h s
f o r th e e x i s t i n g and su g g e ste d c o n d itio n s r e s p e c t iv e ly r e ­
v e a l e d t h a t t h e r a n g e s o f th e m i d d l e 50 p e r c e n t o f r e p l i e s
were c o n f i n e d ,
i n b o t h e x i s t i n g a n d i d e a l m eth o d s* r e s p o n s e s ,
t o l e s s t h a n one a n d one h a l f s p a c e s on t h e f i v e p l a c e s c a l e .
T h is r e p r e s e n te d a f a i r l y l a r g e a g reem e n t a s to th e ty p e s o f
p r o c e d u r e s s u g g e s t e d f o r u s e e s p e c i a l l y when c o n s i d e r e d i n
t e r m s o f two r a t h e r t h a n one t y p e o f p r o c e d u r e .
T each ers * t o t a l average r e s p o n s e s .
The t e a c h e r s *
t o t a l a v e ra g e s f o r e x i s t i n g and s u g g e s te d i d e a l p ro c e d u re s
w e re two, a n d two and f o u r t e n t h s r e s p e c t i v e l y .
These a v e r ­
a g e s showed t h a t t e a c h e r s c o n s i d e r e d t h e u s e o f m ore l i b e r a l
ty p e s o f p a r t i c i p a t i o n d e s i r a b l e .
The q u a r t i l e d e v i a t i o n s
o f n i n e t y two h u n d r e d t h s a n d s e v e n t y e i g h t h u n d r e d t h s r e ­
s p e c t i v e l y f o r e x i s t i n g and i d e a l p r o c e d u r e r e p l i e s d i s c l o s e d
t h a t t h e r a n g e o f t h e s p r e a d o f t h e m id d l e 50 p e r c e n t o f r e ­
p l i e s c o v e r e d a p p r o x i m a t e l y two s p a c e s f o r e x i s t i n g c o n d i t i o n s
and one and one h a l f s p a c e s f o r s u g g e s t e d p r o c e d u r e r e p l i e s .
T h i s r a t h e r w ide d i s p e r s i o n ,
e s p e c i a l l y i n one c a s e ,
rev e ale d
t h a t th e c e n t r a l ten d en cy d id n o t a c c u r a t e l y r e p r e s e n t th e
e x i s t i n g c o n d itio n s r e p o r te d by th e t e a c h e r s .
The a g r e e m e n t
as to th e h in d o f p ro c e d u re s c o n s id e re d d e s i r a b l e ap p eared
t o be m o d e r a t e .
When t h e a v e r a g e s an d t h e r a n g e s o f t h e d i s ­
p e r s i o n o f t h e m id d l e 50 p e r c e n t o f r e p l i e s w e re c o n s i d e r e d
a l a r g e r p e rc e n ta g e o f te a c h e r s su g g e ste d th e u se th an i n d i ­
c a t e d t h e e x i s t e n c e o f Type T h r e e p r o c e d u r e s .
K in d e rg a rte n to e ig h th g rade t e a c h e r s T t o t a l re s p o n se
av erag es.
The t o t a l a v e r a g e s o f t h e k i n d e r g a r t e n t o e i g h t h
g r a d e t e a c h e r g ro u p w ere two, and two and f i v e t e n t h s r e ­
s p e c t i v e l y f o r e x i s t i n g and i d e a l p r o c e d u r e s .
The r a n g e s o f
t h e d i s p e r s i o n s o f t h e m i d d l e 50 p e r c e n t o f r e p l i e s w ere
a p p r o x i m a t e l y two s p a c e s f o r t h e e x i s t i n g c o n d i t i o n s and one
and s i x t y h u n d r e d t h s s p a c e s f o r t h e i d e a l p r o c e d u r e r e s p o n s e s .
94
An e x t e n s i v e u s e o f two t y p e s o f p r o c e d u r e s was i n d i c a t e d
and a l s o s u g g e s t e d .
A g re a te r s h ift
in th e d i r e c t i o n o f l i b ­
e r a l t y p e s o f p r o c e d u r e s i s shown h e r e t h a n i n t h e t e a c h e r
g ro u p a s a w h o le .
J u n io r h ig h sc h o o l te a c h e r t o t a l re s p o n s e a v e r a g e s .
The t o t a l a v e r a g e s f o r t h e J u n i o r h i g h s c h o o l t e a c h e r g ro u p
w ere two and o n e t e n t h a n d two a n d f o u r t e n t h s r e s p e c t i v e l y .
Only i n t h e c a s e o f t h e s u p e r i n t e n d e n t s ’ a v e r a g e s was t h e r e
a c l o s e r a g r e e m e n t a s t o t h e e x i s t i n g and s u g g e s t e d t y p e s o f
procedures.
S i n c e t h e r a n g e s o f t h e d i s p e r s i o n s o f t h e m id ­
d l e 50 p e r c e n t o f r e p l i e s f o r b o t h a v e r a g e s w ere b e tw e e n
on e a n d one h a l f a n d two s p a c e s on t h e s c a l e t h e e x t e n s i v e
u s e o f two t y p e s o f p r o c e d u r e s was r e v e a l e d .
The s h i f t fro m
a c o n s e r v a t i v e t o a m ore l i b e r a l t y p e o f p r o c e d u r e i n t h e
t e a c h e r s ’ s u g g e s t i o n s was th e l e a s t n o t i c e a b l e i n t h i s
group.
T o ta l- r e s p o n s e a v e ra g e s of te a c h e r groups a rra n g e d
a c c o rd in g to th e s i z e o f sch o o l d i s t r i c t s .
The r e p l i e s o f
t h e s e g r o u p s w ere s e g r e g a t e d ' a c c o r d i n g t o t h e s i z e o f s c h o o l
d i s t r i c t s i n w hich t h e r e s p o n d e n t s w ere em p lo y ed ,
a l s o r e c o r d e d on T a b l e IX .
and w ere
The t o t a l a v e r a g e s o f t h e s m a l l ­
e s t and l a r g e s t s i z e g r o u p s i n t u r n w ere two* and one and
e i g h t t e n t h s f o r e x i s t i n g c o n d i t i o n s and two a n d f o u r t e n t h s
and two and t h r e e t e n t h s f o r t h e s u g g e s t e d p r o c e d u r e s .
Among
t h e f o u r g r o u p s t h e s e a v e r a g e s r e p r e s e n t e d n o t o n l y t h e m o st
c o n s e r v a tiv e e s tim a te s o f e x i s t i n g p ro c e d u re s h u t a ls o th e
m o st c o n s e r v a t i v e e s t i m a t e s o f t h e s u g g e s t e d p r o c e d u r e s t o
be u s e d .
The amount o f c h a n g e s u g g e s t e d ,
i n th e d i r e c t i o n
o f t h e u s e o f m ore l i b e r a l p r o c e d u r e s , was f o u r t e n t h s f o r .
t h e s m a l l e s t a n d f i v e t e n t h s o f one d e g r e e f o r t h e l a r g e s t
siz e -g ro u p .
The t o t a l a v e r a g e s o f t h e e x i s t i n g c o n d i t i o n s
r e p o r t e d by t h e E l — 60 and t h e 6 1 — 150 t e a c h e r g r o u p s were
two a n d one t e n t h e a c h , w h i l e t h e t o t a l a v e r a g e s f o r t h e s u g ­
g e s t e d p r o c e d u r e s w ere two a n d f i v e t e n t h s and two and s e v e n
te n th s re s p e c tiv e ly .
The d i f f e r e n c e s i n t h e e x i s t i n g and
s u g g e s t e d a v e r a g e s w ere f o u r t e n t h s and s i x t e n t h s r e s p e c ­
t i v e l y f o r t h e two g r o u p s .
The d i f f e r e n c e o f s i x t e n t h s o f
one d e g r e e b e tw e e n t h e e x i s t i n g an d s u g g e s t e d p r o c e d u r e a v e r ­
a g e s o f t h e 6 1 — 150 t e a c h e r g ro u p s r e p r e s e n t e d t h e g r e a t e s t
s h i f t o f t h e f o u r g r o u p s i n t h e d i r e c t i o n o f l i b e r a l m e th o d s
of p o lic y d e te rm in a tio n .
TO.
COMPARISON OF TOTAL RESPONSE AVERAGES
OF THE INDICATED GROUPS
D if f e r e n c e s in th e e x i s t i n g t o t a l resp o n se av erag es
o f th e I n d ic a te d g ro u p s.
T a b l e X was c o m p ile d t o show t h e
c r i t i c a l r a t i o s of v a rio u s g ro u p s1 a v e ra g e s o f e x is tin g con­
d i t i o n s w h ic h h a d b e e n com pared f o r s i m i l a r i t i e s a n d d i f f e r ­
ences.
T h i s T a b le d i s c l o s e d t h a t s i g n i f i c a n t d i f f e r e n c e s
TABLE X
INDICATIONS OF SIGNIFICANT DIFFERENCES IN TOTAL
RESPONSE AVERAGES ON EXISTING CONDITIONS, OF
TEACHER AND ADMINISTRATOR GROUPS
G roup s
Compared
A v e ra g e
d istrib u tio n s
f o r t o t a l g roup
resp o n ses
Q u a rtile
d e v ia tio n s
f o r t o t a l g ro u p
resp o n ses
T o ta l i n d i ­
v id u a l r e ­
sponse by
C ritic a l
groups
ra tio s
S i z e G ro u p :*
1 -2 0
2 1-60
2 .0
2 .1
.96
.9 8
840
1 ,8 1 0
2 .5
1 -2 0
Over 150
2 .0
1 .8
.9 6
.7 5
840
1 ,0 8 8
5 .0
2 1-60
6 1 -1 5 0
2 .1
2 .1
.9 8
.9 6
1 ,8 1 0
1 ,6 2 4
0 .0
2 1 -6 0
O ver 150
2 .1
1 .8
.9 8
.7 5
1 ,8 1 0
1 ,0 8 8
9 .1
61 -1 5 0
O ver 150
2 .1
1 .8
.9 6
. .7 5
1, 624
1 , 088
9 .1
* S i z e s d e t e r m i n e d b y num ber o f t e a c h e r s i n e a c h d i s t r i c t .
A l l t e a c h e r s w e re c l a s s i f i e d i n t o f o u r g r o u p s .
TABLE X, c o n tin u e d
INDICATIONS OF SIGNIFICANT DIFFERENCES IN TOTAL
RESPONSE AVERAGES ON EXISTING CONDITIONS, OF
TEACHER AM) ADMINISTRATOR GROUPS
G-roups
Compared
A v e rag e
d istrib u tio n s
f o r t o t a l g ro u p
resp o n ses
Q u a rtile
d e v ia tio n s
f o r t o t a l g ro u p
responses
T o ta l i n d i ­
v id u a l r e ­
C ritic a l
sp o n s e by
groups
ra tio s
1 -2 0
S u p e rin te n d e n ts
2 .0
2 .2
.9 6
.7 0
840
1 ,1 7 1
5 .1
2 1 -6 0
S u p e rin te n d e n ts
2 .1
2 .2
.9 8
.7 0
1 ,8 1 0
1 ,1 7 1
3 .2
61 -1 5 0
S u p e rin te n d e n ts
2 .1
2 .2
.9 6
.7 0
1 ,6 2 4
1 ,1 7 1
3 .2
O ver 150
S u p e rin te n d e n ts
1 .8
2 .2
.75
.7 0
1 , 088
1,-171
1 1 .4
T eachers
S u p e rin te n d e n ts
2 .0
2. 2
.9 2
.70
5 , 342
1 ,1 7 1
8 .3
J u n io r h ig h
K in d e rg a rte n to
E i g h t h G rade
2 .1
2 .0
.8 9
.9 3
1 ,1 2 7
4 ,2 1 5
3 .3
98
e x i s t e d i n t h e a v e r a g e s o f t e a c h e r s fro m o v e r 150 t e a c h e r
d i s t r i c t s and t h e t e a c h e r s fro m t h e o t h e r t h r e e s i z e - g r o u p s .
Twice t h e d i f f e r e n c e o c c u r r e d b e tw e e n t h e o v e r 150 t e a c h e r
•
g ro u p and t h e two t e a c h e r g r o u p s o f S I — 60 and 6 1 — 150 t h a n
o c c u r r e d b e tw e e n t h e o v e r 150 and t h e 1 — SO t e a c h e r g r o u p s ,
w h ere t h e c r i t i c a l r a t i o was s l i g h t l y m ore t h a n s i g n i f i c a n t .
Ho s i g n i f i c a n t d i f f e r e n c e s o c c u r r e d i n t h e o t h e r s i z e - g r o u p
c o m p a riso n s.
When t h e e x i s t i n g t o t a l - r e s p o n s e a v e r a g e s o f t h e s i z e g r o u p s w ere com pared w i t h t h e s u p e r i n t e n d e n t s 1 t o t a l a v e r a g e
of e x is tin g p ro ced u res,
t h e r e w ere s i g n i f i c a n t d i f f e r e n c e s
b e tw e e n t h e l a t t e r a v e r a g e and t h e 1 — SO t e a c h e r gro up and
t h e o v e r 150 t e a c h e r g ro u p a v e r a g e s .
th e su p e rin te n d e n ts!
The c r i t i c a l r a t i o o f
and 1— SO t e a c h e r g ro up a v e r a g e s was
s l i g h t l y g r e a t e r th an r e q u ire d to r e p r e s e n t a s i g n i f i c a n t
d i f f e r e n c e i n t h e two a v e r a g e s ,
w h ile th e c r i t i c a l r a t i o o f
t h e s u p e r i n t e n d e n t s ’ and o v e r 150 t e a c h e r g ro u p a v e r a g e s was
a lm o st th r e e tim e s g r e a t e r th an n e c e s s a r y to i n d i c a t e a s i g ­
n i f i c a n t d i f f e r e n c e i n th e two a v e r a g e s .
When t h e e x i s t i n g t o t a l - r e s p o n s e a v e r a g e o f t h e j u n i o r
h i g h s c h o o l t e a c h e r s was c o n t r a s t e d w i t h t h a t o f t h e s i m i l a r
a v e r a g e o f t h e k i n d e r g a r t e n t o e i g h t h g r a d e t e a c h e r g rou p no
s ig n if ic a n t d iffe re n c e e x is te d .
P o s s i b l y t h e m o st i m p o r t a n t c o m p a ris o n made was t h a t
b e tw e e n t h e t e a c h e r s ( a s a c o m p l e t e g ro u p ) and t h e s u p e r i n ­
99
te n d e n ts .
The r e l a t i v e l y l a r g e number o f r e s p o n s e s r e p r e ­
s e n t e d b y t h e t o t a l a v e r a g e s made t h i s c o m p a r is o n a f a i r l y
r e l i a b l e one.
The s u p e r i n t e n d e n t s T t o t a l a v e r a g e o f two and
two t e n t h s and t h e t e a c h e r s *
t o t a l a v e r a g e o f two and no
t e n t h s r e v e a l e d a two t e n t h s o f o ne d e g r e e d i f f e r e n c e on t h e
sc a le .
A c ritic a l ra tio
s ig n ific a n t e x is te d .
o f t w i c e t h e amount n e c e s s a r y t o be
T eachers,
a t l e a s t to a s m a ll d e g re e ,
c o n s i d e r e d t h e p r o c e d u r e s i n u s e m ore c o n s e r v a t i v e i n n a t u r e
th a n d id th e s u p e r in te n d e n ts .
D if f e r e n c e s in th e su g g e ste d t o t a l - r e s p o n s e a v e ra g e s
o f th e in d ic a te d g ro u p s.
T a b l e XI c o n t a i n s t h e c r i t i c a l
r a t i o s o f t h e i n d i c a t e d c o m p a r is o n s o f s u g g e s t e d - p r o c e d u r e
to ta l-re s p o n s e av erag es.
C o m p a riso n o f t h e s i z e - g r o u p a v e r ­
a g e s d i s c l o s e d t h a t no s i g n i f i c a n t d i f f e r e n c e s e x i s t e d b e ­
tw e e n t h e 1 - - 2 0 t e a c h e r group an d t h e 2 1 — 60 and o v e r 150
te a c h e r groups.
A c r i t i c a l r a t i o o f e i g h t and one t e n t h was
f o u n d f o r t h e 1 - - 2 0 and 61— 150 t e a c h e r g r o u p a v e r a g e s .
The
g r e a t e s t d if f e r e n c e o c c u rre d in th e t o t a l re s p o n se a v e ra g e s
o f t h e t e a c h e r s fro m th e 6 1 - - 1 5 0 and t h e o v e r 150 t e a c h e r
d istric ts.
H e re t h e c r i t i c a l r a t i o was f o u r t i m e s l a r g e r
t h a n r e q u i r e d t o show a s i g n i f i c a n t d i f f e r e n c e .
A m ost i n ­
t e r e s t i n g s i t u a t i o n a r o s e from t h e above d a t a i n t h a t t h e
t e a c h e r r e s p o n s e from t h e l a r g e s t d i s t r i c t s
su g g e ste d th e u se
o f m ore c o n s e r v a t i v e p r o c e d u r e s t h a n d i d t h e 2 1 — 60 o r 61 — 150
TABLE XI
INDICATIONS OB SIGNIFICANT DIFFERENCES IN TOTAL-RESPONSE
AVERAGES ON SUGGESTED IDEAL CONDITIONS OF TEACHER AND
ADMINISTRATIVE GROUPS
G roups
Compared
A v e rag e
d istrib u tio n s
f o r t o t a l g roup
resp o n ses
Q ,u a r t i l e
d e v ia tio n s
f o r t o t a l g ro u p
resp o n ses
T o ta l i n d i ­
v id u a l r e ­
sp o n ses by C r i t i c a l
groups
ra tio s
S iz e group:
1 -2 0
2 1 -6 0
2 .4
2 .5
.9 0
.79
82 5
1 ,4 3 0
2 .8
1 -2 0
Over 150
2 .4
2 .3
.90
.7 9
825
951
2 .5
1 -2 0
61 -1 5 0
2 .4
2 .7
.9 0
.7 4
825
1 ,3 3 7
8 .1
2 1 -6 0
6 1 -1 5 0
2 .5
2 .7
.79
.7 4
1 ,4 3 0
1 ,3 3 7
7 .1
2 1 -6 0
O ver 150
2 .5
2 .3
.7 9
.7 9
1 ,4 3 0
951
6 .1
6 1 -1 5 0
Over 150
2 .7
2 .3
.7 4
.79
1 ,3 3 7
951
1 2 .1
100
TABLE XI, jc o n tin u e d
INDICATIONS OE SIGNIFICANT DIFFERENCES IN TOTAL-RESPONSE
AVERAGES ON SUGGESTED IDEAL CONDITIONS OF TEACHER AND ■
ADMINISTRATIVE GROUPS
G ro ups
Compared
A v e ra g e
d istrib u tio n s
f o r t o t a l group
resp o n ses
Q u a rtile
d e v ia tio n s
f o r t o t a l g roup
respo nses
T o ta l i n d i­
v id u a l r e ­
s p o n s e s by C r i t i c a l
ra tio s
gro u p s
1 -20*
S u p e rin te n d e n ts
2 .4
2 .5
.9 0
.6 8
825
846
2 .6
2 1 -6 0
S u p e rin te n d e n ts
2 .5
2 .5
.7 9
.6 8
I , 430
846
.0
6 1 -1 5 0
S u p e rin te n d e n ts
2 .7
2 .5
.7 4
.6 8
1 ,3 3 7
846
6 .5
Over 150
Sup e r i n t en d en t s
2 .3
2 .5
.79
.6 8
951
84 6
5 .7
T eachers
S u p e rin te n d e n ts
2 .4
2 .5
.7 8
.6 8
4 ,5 7 2
846
3 .8
J u n io r h ig h
K in d e rg a rte n to
E ig h th grade
2 .4
2 .5
.7 6
.8 0
1 ,0 3 4
3 ,5 3 8
•
3 .6
TO I
* R e f e r s t o c l a s s i f i c a t i o n o f t e a c h e r s b y s c h o o l s y s te m s i z 6 .
102
te a c h e r siz e -g ro u p s,
w h i l e t h e 6 1 — 150 t e a c h e r g ro u p s u g g e s t ­
e d t h e u s e o f c o n s i d e r a b l y m o re l i b e r a l p r o c e d u r e s t h a n d i d
any o f th e o th e r th r e e s iz e - g r o u p s .
When t h e s i z e - g r o u p t o t a l r e s p o n s e a v e r a g e s w ere com­
p a re d w ith th e s u p e r i n t e n d e n t s ’ t o t a l a v erag e o f su g g e ste d
p r o c e d u r e s a s i g n i f i c a n t d i f f e r e n c e a p p e a r e d b e tw e e n t h e l a t ­
t e r and t h e 6 1 - - 1 5 0 and t h e o v e r 150 t e a c h e r d i s t r i c t g ro u p
averages.
The t e a c h e r r e p l i e s from th e 61— 150 t e a c h e r d i s ­
t r i c t s s u g g e s t e d m ore l i b e r a l t y p e s ,
o f t h e o v e r 150 t e a c h e r d i s t r i c t s
an d t h e t e a c h e r r e p l i e s
i n d i c a t e d m o re c o n s e r v a t i v e
ty p e s o f p ro c e d u re s th an d i d th e s u p e r i n t e n d e n t s .
The c o m p a r is o n o f j u n i o r h i g h s c h o o l t e a c h e r t o t a l re s p o n s e a v e ra g e s to s u g g e s te d c o n d i t i o n s w ith th e a v e ra g e o f
t h e k i n d e r g a r t e n t o e i g h t h g r a d e t e a c h e r s p r o d u c e d no s i g n i ­
f i c a n t d if f e r e n c e of o p in io n s.
A g ain t h e m o s t i m p o r t a n t c o m p a r is o n seemed t o b e t h e
r e l a t i o n o f t h e t e a c h e r s ’ ( a s a w h o le ) a n d s u p e r i n t e n d e n t s ’
t o ta l - r e s p o n s e a v e rag e s to t h e i r su g g e ste d p ro c e d u re s f o r
u se in d e te rm in in g p o l i c i e s .
T each ers su g g e ste d th e u se o f
a l m o s t t h e same t y p e o f p r o c e d u r e s a s t h e s u p e r i n t e n d e n t s
d id .
T h e re was one t e n t h o f a d e g r e e d i f f e r e n c e i n t h e i r
t o t a l - r e s p o n s e a v e r a g e s , w i t h t h e t e a c h e r s on t h e c o n s e r v a ­
tiv e sid e .
n ific a n t.
The d i f f e r e n c e h o w e v e r was t o o s m a l l t o b e s i g ­
103
V III.
COMPARISON OF TOTAL-RESPONSE AVERAGES OF GRADE LEVEL,
EXPERIENCE AND FORMAL TRAINING GROUPS WITH SIMILAR AVERAGES
OF COMBINED TEACHER RESPONSES
R e s u l ts o f t h e s t a t e d c o m p a riso n s.
T ab le X II r e v e a l s
t h a t when t h e t o t a l - r e s p o n s e a v e r a g e s o f e x i s t i n g and s u g ­
g e ste d p ro c e d u re s f o r th e grad e l e v e l,
e x p e r ie n c e and fo rm a l
t r a i n i n g g r o u p s w ere co m p ared w i t h t h e s i m i l a r a v e r a g e s o f
t h e com bined t e a c h e r - g r o u p r e s p o n s e t h e r e was no i n s t a n c e i n
w h ich t h e a v e r a g e s v a r i e d m ore t h a n one t e n t h o f o n e d e g r e e
on t h e s c a l e .
I n th e e x i s t i n g c o n d itio n t o t a l - r e s p o n s e a v e r ­
a g e s t h e r e w e re two o u t o f a p o s s i b l e e l e v e n s i g n i f i c a n t
d iffe re n c e s.
T h e s e o c c u r r e d i n t h e 1 — 3 y e a r and 8 o r m ore
y e a rs e x p erien c e gro u p s.
In th e su g g e ste d p ro ce d u re t o t a l -
r e s p o n s e a v e r a g e s t h e r e w e re t h r e e o u t o f e l e v e n p o s s i b l e
s ig n ific a n t d iffe re n c e s,
and th e s e o c c u rre d in th e 4 t h - - 5 t h —
6 t h g r a d e s e c t i o n o f t h e g r a d e - l e v e l g ro u p , a n d i n t h e l e s s
t h a n A.B. a n d M.A. d e g r e e s e c t i o n s o f t h e f o r m a l t r a i n i n g
group.
The c r i t i c a l r a t i o s i n no c a s e w ere m ore t h a n f i v e
and t h r e e t e n t h s .
The c o n c l u s i o n s draw n fro m t h e ab ove
i m p l i c a t i o n s w ere t h a t t h e d i f f e r e n c e s i n t e a c h e r s 1 a t t i t u d e s
on t h e e x i s t i n g p r o c e d u r e s i n u s e and on t h e t y p e s o f p r o c e ­
d u r e s w h ic h s h o u l d b e u s e d w e re n o t c h a r a c t e r i s t i c a l l y due
to th e grade l o c a t i o n s ,
t h e amount o f e x p e r i e n c e ,
m al t r a i n i n g of th e r e s p o n d e n ts .
o r th e f o r ­
TABLE X II
SIGNIFICANT DIFFERENCES IN THE TEACHERS' AND INDICATED
GROUPS’ TOTAL-RESPONSE AVERAGES
E x i s t i n g C o n d i t i o n D a ta
T eacher
g ro u p
A verages
Q u a rtile
d e v ia tio n s
I d e a l C o n d i t i o n D a ta
T o ta l
re­
sponses
A v e r­
ages
Q u a r tile T o ta l
d e v ia - r e tio n s
sponses
K in d e rg a rte n
t o T h i r d G rade
2 .1
.9 8
1 ,4 9 0
2 .4
•
G r a d e s 4 , 5, 6
2 .0
.84.
1, 6 95
2 .5
G ra d e s 7, 8
2 .0
.20
885
2 .4
v85
776
J u n i o r h ig h
2 .1
.8 9
1 ,1 2 7
2 .4
.7 6
years
2 .1
.4 7
1 ,0 5 8
2 .5
4 - 7 y ears
2 .1
.99
988
8 o r m ore
y ears
1 .9
.89
5 ,2 8 8
4, 572
1 ,2 4 9
.79
1 ,4 1 7
02
.7 8
5 .6
o
o•
2 .4
o
o•
5, 542
o
o•
.9 2
o
o•
2 .0
CO
A ll T eachers
Combined
C ritic a l ra tio s
o f l i s t e d g ro u p
and t e a c h e r
t o t a l resp o n se
averages
E x is tin g Id e a l
.0 0
4 .2
.0 0
1 , 054
5 .4
.7 4
981
5 .0
5 .7
2 .5
.79
822
2 .9
5 .5
2 .4
.8 1
2 ,7 4 8
' 4 .8
.
.0 0
1 - 5
o
o
E x p e rie n c e :
104
TABLE X II, c o n tin u e d
SIGNIFICANT DIFFERENCES IN THE TEACHERSf AND INDICATED
GROUPS * TOT AL-RESPONSE AVERAGES
E x i s t i n g C o n d i t i o n D a ta
Teacher
g roup
Q u a rt!le
d e v ia tio n s
T o ta l
re­
sponses
A v e r­
ages
Q u a rtile T o ta l
d e v ia - r a ­
tio n s
sponses
C ritic a l ra tio s
o f l i s t e d gro up
and te a c h e r
t o t a l resp o n se
av erages
E x is tin g Id e a l
o
o•
.9 2
5, 342
2 .4
.7 8
4 ,5 7 2
Less th a n
A.B.
1 .9
.9 0
800
2 .5
.4 1
761
A .B.
2 .0
.9 2
3 ,2 8 1
2 .4
.8 1
2, 670
M.A.
2 .0
.9 5
1, 256
2 .5
.7 1
1 ,1 2 3
.0 0
4 .2
2 .5
.7 3
751
.0 0
3 .3
o
o•
2 .0
o
o•
A ll T eachers
Combined
A verages
I d e a l C o n d i t i o n D a ta
T ra in in g
g ro u p :
A d m in is tra ­
t i v e C re d e n ­
tia l
' 2 .9
5 .3
.0 0
i
2 .0
.4 1
835
105
106
ix .
summary
Summary o f t e a c h e r s T r e p l i e s on m e th o d s f o r d e t e r m i n ­
in g p o l i c i e s .
(1 ) T e a c h e r s i n d i c a t e d t h a t t h r e e m e th o d s w e re c h i e f l y
used to d e te rm in e sc h o o l p o l i c i e s .
The p r e d o m i n a n t m eth od
was f o r a d m i n i s t r a t o r s t o d e t e r m i n e t h e p o l i c i e s a f t e r c o n ­
s u ltin g te a c h e rs.
I n many i n s t a n c e s h o w e v e r a d m i n i s t r a t o r s
i n d e p e n d e n t l y d e t e r m i n e d t h e p o l i c i e s , a n d i n a few c a s e s t h e
s u p e r i n t e n d e n t s c o o p e r a t e d w i t h t h e t e a c h e r s on a n e q u a l
b a s i s w ith th e d e c is io n s rea ch e d b e in g f i n a l ,
p e n d in g b o ard
of e d u c a tio n a p p ro v a l.
(2 ) An e x t e n s i o n o f t h e l a t t e r p r o c e d u r e a n d a r e d u c ­
t i o n i n t h e p r o c e s s o f d e t e r m i n i n g a d m i n i s t r a t i v e p o l i c i e s by
i n d e p e n d e n t a c t i o n on t h e p a r t o f t h e s u p e r i n t e n d e n t s was c o n ­
sid e re d d e s ir a b le .
(3 ) The m o st s a t i s f a c t i o n w i t h e x i s t i n g p r o c e d u r e s was
in c o n n e c tio n w ith th e c o n tr o l o f p u p il a c t i v i t i e s .
(4 ) The m o st d i s s a t i s f a c t i o n w i t h e x i s t i n g p r o c e d u r e s
was i n . c o n n e c t i o n w i t h a c t i v i t i e s v i t a l t o t e a c h e r w e l f a r e .
(5) A h ig h d eg ree o f s t a n d a r d i z a t i o n e x i s t e d in th e
m e th o d s f o r d e t e r m i n i n g p o l i c i e s i n a p p r o x i m a t e l y one t h i r d
of th e a c t i v i t i e s .
(6 ) T h e re was l e s s d i v e r s i t y o f o p i n i o n o n t h e p r o c e ­
d u r e s w h ic h s h o u l d e x i s t t h a n t h e r e was on t h e p r o c e d u r e s i n
e x is te n c e .
(7 ) The g r e a t e s t s t a n d a r d i z a t i o n o f p r o c e d u r e s o c c u r ­
r e d i n t h e a c t i v i t i e s d e a l i n g w i t h " b u sin e ss a d m i n i s t r a t i o n
a n d w i t h some p h a s e s o f p e r s o n n e l m an ag em ent.
(8) T e a c h e r s w ere m o s t a g r e e d on t h e i d e a l m e th o d s t o
em p lo y i n d e t e r m i n i n g t h e p o l i c i e s o f t h e a c t i v i t i e s d e a l i n g
w ith p u p i l co n d u ct,
c u r r i c u l u m and t h e a d m i n i s t r a t i o n , o f p e r ­
so n n e l.
( 9 ) The g r e a t e s t d i v e r s i t y o f e x i s t i n g p r o c e d u r e s was
r e p o r t e d t o he i n c o n n e c t i o n w i t h i n s t r u c t i o n a l a c t i v i t i e s .
(1 0 ) The g r e a t e s t d i v e r s i t y o f o p i n i o n a s t o t h e i d e a l
p r o c e d u r e s t o em ploy was i n c o n n e c t i o n w i t h t h e a c t i v i t i e s
p e r t a i n i n g to s c h o o l and p u p i l r e c o r d s , p u p i l c l a s s i f i c a t i o n ,
and s a l a r y s c h e d u l e s .
(1 1 ) The g r e a t e s t s t a n d a r d i z a t i o n o c c u r r e d when s u p e r ­
in te n d e n ts in d e p e n d e n tly d e c id e d th e sc h o o l p o l i c i e s .
Summary o f s u p e r i n t e n d e n t s * r e p l i e s on m e th o d s f o r
d e te rm in in g p o l i c i e s .
(1 )
S u p e r i n t e n d e n t s r e p o r t e d t h a t two m e th o d s w ere
c h i e f l y u s e d to . d e t e r m i n e p o l i c i e s .
T hey d i s c l o s e d t h e p r e ­
d o m in a n t m eth o d i n u s e t o h e a d m i n i s t r a t i v e d e t e r m i n a t i o n o f
p o lic ie s a f t e r c o n su ltin g te a c h e rs .
I t was a l s o i n d i c a t e d
t h a t a l a r g e num ber o f p o l i c i e s w ere d e t e r m i n e d hy c o o p e r a t ­
i n g w i t h t e a c h e r s on a n e q u a l h a s i s .
108
(2 ) M ost o f t h e p r o c e d u r e s r e p o r t e d i n u s e w ere c o n ­
sid e re d s a tis f a c to r y .
(3 ) A d m i n i s t r a t o r s i n d e p e n d e n t l y d e t e r m i n e d t h e p o l i ­
c i e s o f t h e a c t i v i t i e s d e a l i n g w i t h t h e em ploym ent o f s c h o o l
p e r s o n n e l and b u s i n e s s m anag em ent.
(4 ) A h i g h d e g r e e o f u n i f o r m i t y e x i s t e d i n t h e m e th o d s
f o r d e t e r m i n i n g t h e p o l i c i e s o f o v e r o ne t h i r d o f t h e a c t i v i ­
tie s.
A f a i r d e g r e e o f s t a n d a r d i z a t i o n was r e p o r t e d f o r m o s t
of th e a c t i v i t i e s .
(5 ) A u n i f o r m l y h i g h d e g r e e o f a g r e e m e n t e x i s t e d a s t o
t h e i d e a l p r o c e d u r e s t o em ploy i n d e t e r m i n i n g s c h o o l p o l i c i e s .
(6 ) A lm o st c o m p l e t e s t a n d a r d i z a t i o n was i n d i c a t e d when
a d m i n i s t r a t o r s in d e p e n d e n tly d e te rm in e d th e p o l i c i e s .
Summary on c o m p a r is o n o f t e a c h e r s * an d s u p e r i n t e n d e n t s *
re p lie s.
(1 ) T e a c h e r s * r e s p o n s e s showed t h e e x i s t e n c e o f
s l i g h t l y m ore c o n s e r v a t i v e m e th o d s t h a n w e re i n d i c a t e d by t h e
su p e rin te n d e n ts*
re p lie s.
(2 ) T e a c h e rs * an d s u p e r i n t e n d e n t s *
p r o c e d u r e s t o em ploy w e re v e r y s i m i l a r ,
r e p l i e s on i d e a l
e a c h g ro u p i n d i c a t ­
i n g t h a t t h e p r o c e d u r e s w h e re b y a d m i n i s t r a t o r s d e c i d e p o l i ­
c i e s a f t e r c o n s u l t i n g t e a c h e r s and w h e re b y t h e y work t o g e t h e r
on an e q u a l b a s i s in d e te r m in in g p o l i c i e s sh o u ld be e q u a l ly
used.
109
(5 )
T e a c h e r s d i s p l a y e d l e s s u n a n i m i t y o f o p i n i o n on
i d e a l p r o c e d u r e s to e m plo y, an d i n d i c a t e d l e s s s t a n d a r d i z a t i o n
o f p r a c t i c e s th an d id th e s u p e r in te n d e n ts .
Summary on c o m p a r is o n s o f j u n i o r h i g h s c h o o l and k i n ­
d e r g a r te n to e ig h th g rade t e a c h e r s * r e p l i e s .
T e a c h e r s fro m
th e k in d e r g a r te n to th e e ig h th grade o f th e c o n v e n tio n a l e l e ­
m e n t a r y s c h o o l and t e a c h e r s fro m t h e j u n i o r h i g h s c h o o l r e ­
p o r t e d s i m i l a r c o n d i t i o n s w i t h r e g a r d t o e x i s t i n g m e th o d s an d
su g g e ste d i d e a l p ro c e d u re s f o r p o lic y d e te rm in a tio n .
I n d i c a t i o n s o f t h e t o t a l - r e s p o n s e a v e r a g e s s u m m a r iz e d .
The e v i d e n c e p r e s e n t e d by t h e t o t a l - r e s p o n s e a v e r a g e s o f t h e
d i f f e r e n t g ro u p s* r e p l i e s i n e v e r y I n s t a n c e c o i n c i d e d w i t h
th e f in d in g s a lr e a d y p r e s e n te d u n d e r th e p re c e d in g h e a d in g s .
C o m p a riso n o f t h e t o t a l r e s p o n s e a v e r a g e s o f t h e g r a d e
l e v e l , e x p e r ie n c e , and p r o f e s s i o n a l t r a i n i n g g ro u p s w ith th e
t o t a l a v e r a g e s o f a l l t e a c h e r s c o m b in e d .
The c o m p a r is o n s o f
th e t o t a l re sp o n se a v erag e s o f th e g rad e l e v e l groups,
e x p e rie n c e groups,
th e
and t h e p r o f e s s i o n a l t r a i n i n g g r o u p s w i t h
th e t o t a l resp o n se av erag es o f a l l th e te a c h e rs re v e a le d t h a t
no d i f f e r e n c e s w ere s u f f i c i e n t l y l a r g e t o w a r r a n t s p e c i f i c
c o n c lu sio n s.
CHAPTER T
TEACHER INITIATION OF MOVEMENTS FOR POLICY CHANGE
The se c o n d p h a s e o f t h e q u e s t i o n n a i r e ' s t u d y d e a l t w i t h
t h e a c t i v i t i e s i n w hich t e a e h e r i n i t i a t i o n o f m ovem ents f o r
p o l i c y c h a n g e s e x i s t e d and i n w hich s u c h i n i t i a t i o n o f move­
m e n ts f o r p o l i c y f o r m a t i o n s was c o n s i d e r e d d e s i r a b l e .
c l u d e d i n t h e c h a p t e r w e re t h e f o l l o w i n g s e c t i o n s :
In ­
(1 ) t h e
nu m b er and p e r c e n t a g e ' o f r e p l i e s on t h e i n i t i a t i o n o f m ove­
m e n ts f o r p o l i c y c h a n g e s ,
(2.) t h e c o m p a r is o n o f p e r c e n t a g e s
o f t e a c h e r s 1 and s u p e r i n t e n d e n t s *
re p lie s,
v a r ia tio n s in th e p e rc e n ta g e s o f r e p l i e s ,
f 3) t h e e x tr e m e
sh o w in g t h e k i n d s
o f a c t i v i t i e s i n w hich th e . p e r c e n t a g e s w ere h i g h ,
w h ic h t h e y w e re d i f f e r e n t ,
low , and i n
(4 ) t h e c o m p a r is o n s o f t h e s i z e -
g ro u p s* p e r c e n t a g e s o f r e p l i e s on t e a c h e r i n i t i a t i o n o f m ove­
m e n ts f o r p o l i e y f o r m a t i o n , t h e c o m p a r is o n o f t h e k i n d e r ­
g a rte n to e ig h th grade,
and j u n i o r h i g h s c h o o l t e a c h e r g ro u p s*
p e r c e n t a g e s o f r e p l i e s on t e a c h e r i n i t i a t i o n o f m ovem ents f o r
p o lic y fo rm a tio n ,
I.
and (5 ) t h e summary.
TEACHERS* AND SUPERINTENDENTS* REPLIES ON TEACHER
INITIATION OF MOVEMENTS FOR POLICY CHANGE
Number a n d p e r c e n t a g e o f s u p e r i n t e n d e n t s * r e p l i e s on
t e a c h e r i n i t i a t i o n o f m ovem ents f o r p o l i c y c h a n g e s .
T ab le
X I I I shows t h a t o u t o f a p o s s i b l e tw e n ty f o u r r e p l i e s t h e
111
TABLE X I II
DISTRIBUTION OF SUPERINTENDENTS * AND TEACHERS1 RESPONSES
INDICATING EXISTING AMOUNTS OF TEACHER INITIATION
OF MOVEMENTS FOR POLICY CHANGES*
Sup erinten dents'
r e p lie s
Per Cent
Number
Per Cent
3 3
H'Q
!«.<?
0l'.\
3 5. /
Xfll
I&-7
£/./
10:3
I1
JO
St-3
7SO
70-9.
61.5
29. X
37 .S
20. fi
tx.s
ISO
20. fi
2 7. %
H5.<&
HJ-7
14. S e le c tio n o f b u ild in g and ground equipment
7
2 9 .2 .
15. T ransportation o f p u p ils
3
9 O
17
05
13
3 %
ADMTNT57TRATTVE AfiTIVTTTRS
Number
T eachers’
r e p lie s
1. S e le c tio n o f t e x t books
2. S e le c t io n o f lib r a r y and suppllm entary books
/ ’«
3 . S e le c t io n o f ed u ca tio n a l magazines
/ 1
4 . R egulation of th e sch ool lib r a r y
t 5
5. R egulation o f school hours
7
6. Determ ination o f annual or sem ester prom otions
9
7. P reparation o f school calend ars
10. P reparation o f school budgets
5
Z
L
5
11. Su p ervision o f student fin a n ce s
7
8 . Maintenance and o peration o f p la n t and equipment
9. R egulation and maintenance o f b u ild in g sch ed u les
12. A dm inistration o f ed u ca tio n a l s u p p lie s
13. Development o f sch o o l b u ild in g plans
9 0
3 X
17
2 9
/ H
7
/ 5
11
2 9
/ 9
X 1
7
23. Grouping and c l a s s i f i c a t i o n o f p u p ils
9
/ 7
24. Promotion o f p u p ils
J5
(*2-5
9 /
25. A dm inistration o f a t e s t in g program
70-3
26. S u p ervision o f p u p il government
/ 7
/«
3 1
36
27. Sup ervision o f student body a c t i v i t i e s
/ s
28. S u p ervision o f d is c ip lin e
i a
/ %
17. P reparation and d is tr ib u t io n o f d a lly b u lle t in s
13
18. A d m inistration o f cla ssro o m ,o rg a n iza tio n and co n tro l
!S
/ 5
JO
13
19. Preparation o f d a lly programs
20. A dm inistration o f r e co r d s, r e g is t e r s , and p ersonnel r e p o r ts
21. Establishm ent and m aintenance o f p u p il records
22. R e g is tr a tio n o f p u p ils
29. R egulation o f tru a n ts and d elin q u en ts
30. Development o f standards o f p u p il conduct
31. S up ervision o f p u p il a c t i v i t i e s
32. Determ ining and r e g u la tin g sc h o la r sh ip standards
33. P roviding and m aintaining a h e a lth program
34. Su p ervision o f h a l l s , grounds, and yard dutv sch ed u les
35. M aintaining v is u a l education
36. Employment o f Ja n ito r s
37. Employment o f tea c h e r s - determ ining t h e ir p r o f. requirem ents
38. Employment o f su p erv iso rs
ft
/ 5
/5
17
m
>7
12
}
3,
l
8
39. Promotion o f tea c h e r s - r a tin g s , e to .
40. Determ ination o f s a la r y sch ed u les
1 x,
8
3
41. R egulation o f s ic k lea v e
42. Making tea ch er assignm ents
43. Development o f i n -s e r v ic e tr a in in g and advancement
f7
44. Development o f curriculum and course o f study
/'•a
45. Development o f ed u ca tio n a l philosoph y
46. Development o f methods o f in s tr u c t io n
is
16
47. Determ ining tea c h e r s' m eetings - kin d , number, and tim e
/'S
48. Development o f code o f e t h ic s
IS
49. Development o f tea c h e r w e lfa r e p o l ic i e s
/
50. A d m inistration o f a d m in istra tiv e o f f i c e s and personnel
H
1
7S.O
625
75.0
33-3
6a. 5
(*2-5
70.9,
59-3
70 3
S o -O
4-2 ,
9- X
33-3
SO.O
33- 3
IX. 5
76-3
75.0
i>2.S
<d>.7
6215
63'■5
59,3
9.6
21- |
JX. 5
50.0
S9-S L
59-3
62-5
H lf
S9x
37- 5
70- ft
16. A d m inistration o f p u b lic r e la t io n s
7 -7
J3-X
26
t
ft
3 8
3 f
25-9
J2. 3
t&tf
6.1
2X-Q
/sA
3 .3 -3
35. 1
/¥■ 9
. XI .<f
/!■¥
291
35 9
37-X
3/6
29 A
/ 5
35-1
rx-pu
U3
HX
3 x>
35
36-9
2<k!
3 0 .7
9 o
37-7
32-5
3?
3 1
3
X7-X-
6
S- 3
7
/
2 -6
/ 6
3
/
26
27 X
XX. ft
9
7-7
X9
3 9
XI. 1
.73-3
2*
29.6
38
33 . 3
/<?A
XX
3)
3l ¥
5
27. X,
21. 1
9 *
* I n f o r m a t i o n f o r t h i s t a b l e c o r r e s p o n d s w i t h colum n s e v e n o n t h e
q u e stio n n a ire .
** One h u n d r e d f o u r t e e n t e a c h e r s and tw e n ty f o u r s u p e r i n t e n d e n t s
a n s w e r e d t h e q u e s t i o n n a i r e ; p e r c e n t a g e s a r e b a s e d on t h e s e a m o u n ts .
112
g r e a t e s t num ber o f s u p e r i n t e n d e n t s i n d i c a t i n g t h e u s e o f
te a c h e r i n i t i a t i v e
i n p o l i c y f o r m a t i o n m ovem ents was e i g h t e e n ,
w h i l e t h e s m a l l e s t num ber r e p l y i n g was o n e .
In th e fo rm er
i n s t a n c e 75 p e r c e n t o f t h e a d m i n i s t r a t o r s r e p l i e d a n d i n t h e
l a t t e r case 4 p e r cen t o f th e a d m in is tr a to r s d is c lo s e d th a t
t e a c h e r s i n i t i a t e d m ovem ents f o r c h a n g e s i n p o l i c i e s o f t h e
re la te d a c tiv itie s .
T a b l e XIV r e v e a l s t h a t t h e a v e r a g e num­
b e r o f s u p e r in te n d e n ts r e p o r t i n g th e u s e o f t e a c h e r i n i t i a t i v e
was e l e v e n and t h r e e t e n t h s .
T h is r e p r e s e n te d f o r th e s u p e r ­
i n t e n d e n t s a n a v e r a g e r e p l y o f 47 p e r c e n t .
Mxmber and p e r c e n t a g e o f t e a c h e r s * r e p l i e s o n t e a c h e r
i n i t i a t i o n o f m ovem ents f o r p o l i c y c h a n g e s .
T ab le X I I I i n ­
d i c a t e s t h a t o u t o f a p o s s i b l e one h u ndred f o u r te e n t e a c h e r
r e s p o n s e s i n any one a c t i v i t y t h e g r e a t e s t num ber r e p l y i n g
t h a t t e a c h e r s i n i t i a t e d m ovem ents f o r t h e ch an g e o f p o l i c i e s
was f o r t y e i g h t an d t h e s m a l l e s t r e s p o n s e was t h r e e .
These
n u m b ers r e p r e s e n t e d 42 p e r c e n t and 1 . 5 p e r c e n t r e s p e c t i v e l y
o f th e p o s s ib le te a c h e r r e p l i e s .
r e s p o n s e s to each a c t i v i t y
The a v e r a g e o f t h e t e a c h e r
sh o w in g t e a c h e r s i n i t i a t e d move­
m e n ts f o r p o l i c y c h a n g e s was tw e n ty f i v e and f i v e t e n t h s o r
a p p r o x i m a t e l y 22 p e r c e n t o f t h e p o s s i b l e t e a c h e r r e p l i e s .
num ber and p e r c e n t a g e o f s u p e r i n t e n d e n t s 1 r e p l i e s on
d e s i r a b l e a m ou nts o f t e a c h e r i n i t i a t i o n o f m ovem ents f o r
p o lic y changes.
The s u p e r i n t e n d e n t s 1 s t a t i n g t h a t t e a c h e r s
TABLE XIV
GROUP REPLIES INDICATING TEACHERS DO INITIATE OR SHOULD
INITIATE MOVEMENTS FOR THE CHANGE OF SCHOOL POLICIES
Group
No. o f
ques­
tio n ­
n a ire s
ta b u ­
la te d
S u p e rin te n d e n ts
T eachers i n i t i a t e
m ovem ents f o r p o l i c y c h a n g e
T ea ch e rs sh o u ld i n i t i a t e
m ovem ents f o r p o l i c y c h an g e
F r e q u e n c y o f R e sp o n se
F r e q u e n c y o f R e sp o n se
Number
P er cent
Number
P er cent
24
1 1 .3
4 7 .0
1 1 .7
4 9 .0
114
2 5 .5
2 2 .6
4 0 .4
3 5 .8
18
2 .9
1 6 .0
5 .4
3 0 .0
2 1 -6 0
38
7 .8
2 0 .5
1 5 .4
4 0 .5
6 1 -1 5 0
34
9 .0
2 6 .5
1 2 .0
3 5 .3
O ver 150
23
5 .5
2 3 .9
6 .9
3 0 .0
K in d e rg a rte n to
E i g h t h G rade
89
1 8 .0
2 0 .2
3 2 .8
3 6 .9
J u n io r h ig h
23
7 .5
3 2 .6
7 .6
3 3 .0
A ll T eachers
S i z e G roup:
1 -2 0 .
115
114
sh o u ld I n i t i a t e p o l i c i e s ,
a s r e p o r t e d on T a b le XT, w a s ■s t r i k ­
in g ly s im ila r to t h e i r in d ic a tio n s o f i n i t i a t i o n p r a c t i c e s in
use.
A g a in t h e g r e a t e s t num ber o f a n s w e r s t o an y one a c t i v ­
i t y was e i g h t e e n a n d t h e s m a l l e s t num ber o f r e p l i e s was t h r e e ,
r e p r e s e n t i n g a r a n g e o f I E - -7 5 p e r c e n t o f t h e t o t a l p o s s i b l e
re s p o n se s to each a c t i v i t y .
The a v e r a g e num ber o f s u p e r i n ­
t e n d e n t s 1 r e s p o n s e s t o e a c h a c t i v i t y was e l e v e n and s e v e n
t e n t h s w h i l e t h e a v e r a g e p e r c e n t a g e o f r e p l i e s was f o r t y n i n e .
Number a n d p e r c e n t a g e o f t e a c h e r s * r e p l i e s on d e s i r ­
a b l e a m o u n ts o f t e a c h e r i n i t i a t i o n o f m ovem ents f o r p o l i c y
c h a n g e s .'
As f o r t h e p e r c e n t a g e o f t e a c h e r s *
re p o rtin g th a t
t e a c h e r s s h o u l d i n i t i a t e m ovem ents f o r p o l i c y c h a n g e s , t h e r e
was a n a v e r a g e 60 p e r c e n t i n c r e a s e o v e r t h e p e r c e n t a g e o f
r e t u r n s sh o w in g i n i t i a t i o n p r a c t i c e s i n u s e .
T a b le IT d i s ­
c l o s e s , t h a t t h e l a r g e s t num ber o f t e a c h e r r e s p o n s e s w as s i x t y
t h r e e o r 55 p e r c e n t ,
a n d t h e s m a l l e s t r e s p o n s e was f o u r o r
5*5 p e r c e n t o f t h e t o t a l p o s s i b l e r e p l i e s .
The a v e r a g e
t e a c h e r r e s p o n s e t o e a c h a c t i v i t y was f o r t y a n d f o u r t e n t h s ,
r e p r e s e n t i n g 3 5 .8 p e r c e n t o f t h e t o t a l p o s s i b l e r e t u r n s .
I I..
COMPARISON OF PERCENTAGES OF TEACHERS*
AND SUPERINTENDENTS * REPLIES
C o m p ariso n o f t h e p e r c e n t a g e o f t e a c h e r s * and s u p e r ­
in te n d e n ts*
r e p l i e s on e x i s t i n g am ounts o f t e a c h e r i n i t i a -
115
TABLE XT
DISTRIBUTION OF SUPERINTENDENTS* AND TEACHERS’ RESPONSES
INDICATING AMOUNTS OF TEACHER INITIATION OF MOVEMENTS
FOR POLICY CHANGES WHICH SHOULD EXIST*
S u p e r in te n d e n ts '
re p lie s
ADMTNTSTRATTTC ACTTVTTTKS
1 . S e le c tio n o f t e x t books
2 . S e le c tio n o f l i b r a r y and su p p liir.en ta ry books
3 . S e l e c t io n o f e d u c a tio n a l m agazines
4 . R e g u la tio n o f th e sch o o l l i b r a r y
5. R e g u la tio n o f sch o o l h o u rs
6 . D e te rm in a tio n o f a n n u a l o r se m e ste r p ro m o tio n s
7. P r e p a r a tio n o f s c h o o l c a le n d a rs
Number
I'f,
14
/ 7
1L
4
9
(o
8 . M aintenance and o p e ra tio n o f p l a n t and equipm ent
7
9 . R e g u la tio n and m aintenance o f b u ild in g s c h e d u le s
7
*6
/ 0
10. P r e p a r a tio n o f sch o o l b u d g e ts
11. S u p e rv is io n o f s tu d e n t fin a n c e s
12. A d m in is tra tio n o f e d u c a tio n a l s u p p lie s
i 7
13. Development o f sc h o o l b u ild in g p la n s
/
14. S e le c tio n o f b u ild in g and ground equipm ent
9
H
/ 3
/ 0
1H
I H
15. T r a n s p o r ta tio n o f p u p ils
16. A d m in is tra tio n o f p u b lic r e l a t i o n s
17. P r e p a r a tio n and d i s t r i b u t i o n o f d a l l y b u l l e t i n s
18. A d m in is tra tio n o f c la s s ro o m .o rg a n iz a tio n and c o n tr o l
19. P r e p a r a tio n o f d a il y program s
20. A d m in is tra tio n o f r e c o r d s , r e g i s t e r s , and p e rs o n n e l r e p o r t s
21. E sta b lish m e n t and m aintenance o f p u p il r e c o rd s
22. R e g i s tr a ti o n o f p u p ils
23. G rouping and c l a s s i f i c a t i o n o f p u p ils
24. Prom otion o f p u p ils
o
10
l 1
8
/ to
13
Number
P e r Cent
lota - 7
7 5-0
no.$
5' 7
5 0
5 3
H <o
2 S
HX
29
1$
2 0
2 H
3 5
5 0 -‘ O
H 3-i
Hta-5
HO-H
SLH-C,
3 t-4
XS-H
15-4
n s
3 1 -1
33-3
37. S'
15-0
X 4-%
X 9-Z
3.3-3
H I-7
59,-3
¥1-1
316
SH-X
HI I
59,-3
U l-S
3L9,
H9
Hi
tto-n
m-i
3-1
H5-4
33 3
tito- 7
3 7
1 8
H 9
sq.x
52
59,3
taX S
,55
S3
S3
S3
30
26. S u p e rv is io n o f p u p il governm ent
30. Development o f s ta n d a rd s o f p u p il conduct
IS
13
15
13
IS
31. S u p e rv is io n o f p u p il a c t i v i t i e s
/
H
5 ‘2.3
33. P ro v id in g and m a in ta in in g a h e a lt h program
1H
1H
1S
59,-3
S i-3
(o l-5
11
HS-$
3
,2 -5
¥
3
9
/ H
11
/6 -7
28. S u p e rv is io n o f d i s c i p l i n e
36. Bnployment o f J a n it o r s
37. Employment o f t e a c h e r s - d e te rm in in g t h e i r p r o f . re q u ire m e n ts
38. Employment o f s u p e rv is o rs
41. R e g u la tio n o f s ic k le a v e
1
42. Making te a c h e r a ssig n m en ts
43. Development o f i n - s e r v i c e t r a i n i n g and advancem ent
1 L,
1L
45. Development o f e d u c a tio n a l p h ilo so p h y
/
6
46. Development o f m ethods o f I n s t r u c t i o n
47. D eterm in in g t e a c h e r s ' m ee tin g s - k in d , num ber, and tim e
48. Development o f code o f e t h i c s
49. Development o f t e a c h e r w e lfa r e p o l i c i e s
50. A d m in is tra tio n o f a d m i n i s t r a t iv e o f f i c e s and p e rs o n n e l
/V
It
IS
¥
So
3 7
3 9
9
HO
!H
29. R e g u la tio n o f u r u a n ts and d e lin q u e n ts
* *
P e r Cent
25. A d m in is tra tio n o f a t e s t i n g program
27. S u p e rv is io n o f s tu d e n t body a c t i v i t i e s
T e a c h e rs ’
re p lie s
sv.%
u i-s
SH-%
1,1-5
/X -S
31-5
S3 3
h s .4
2.9-0,
u -7
LL -7
C.6,-7
U -7
S i- 3
(oL-9
(oZ-S
it,. 7
30 -7
H3-9,
3H -X
3H-X
1-9
35 -1
M L
9X9
HZ 1
3H- 2
15-4
¥2.4
n S (o
ni-x
H t-S
UL-S
%
¥ 6 -5
ZL-T,
H<o 5
SO
HS
3*9-5
H I.
36-9,
5 2
HSU
5
HJL.
.*L
/ S
...1.3—
27
H i
¥H
3 *
H9
6 f
5H
L3
so.
St
LI
i 1
H3-Z
3 -5
13■%
- 1 6 5 1 --------Z 3-7
HX-I
39-6
H -\
H Z -9
S3 5
S o -9
SS- 7
HS-6,
HH-.S
S3-5
9-(a
^ I n f o r m a t i o n f o r t h i s t a b l e c o r r e s p o n d s w i t h co lu m n e i g h t on t h e
q u e stio n n a ire .
**One h u n d r e d f o u r t e e n t e a c h e r s and t w e n t y f o u r s u p e r i n t e n d e n t s a n ­
s w e re d t h e q u e s t i o n n a i r e . P e r c e n t a g e s a r e b a s e d on t h e s e a m o u n ts .
116
t i o n o f m ovem ents f o r p o l i c y f o r m a t i o n .
T a b le X I I I d i s c l o s e s
t h a t in f i v e a c t i v i t i e s th e p e rc e n ta g e o f a d m i n i s t r a t o r s i n ­
d i c a t i n g t e a c h e r s i n i t i a t e d m ovem ents f o r p o l i c y c h a n g e s was
more t h a n t h r e e t i m e s a s g r e a t a s t h e p e r c e n t a g e o f t e a c h e r s
r e p o r t i n g t h e sam e.
o f su p e rin te n d e n ts*
resp o n ses.
I n t w e n t y two a c t i v i t i e s t h e p e r c e n t a g e
r e p l i e s was t w i c e t h a t o f t h e t e a c h e r s *
I n t w e n ty one a c t i v i t i e s t h e p e r c e n t a g e o f s u p e r ­
i n t e n d e n t s r e p l y i n g was r o u g h l y one a n d one h a l f t o a l m o s t
two t im e s a s g r e a t a s t h e p e r c e n t a g e o f t e a c h e r s r e p o r t i n g .
I n two i n s t a n c e s t h e p e r c e n t a g e s o f t e a c h e r s * r e p l i e s s u r ­
p a sse d th o se o f th e s u p e r in te n d e n ts .
From t h e t a b u l a r e v i d e n c e a v a i l a b l e i t was a p p a r e n t
t h a t a much s m a l l e r p e r c e n t a g e o f t e a c h e r s t h a n s u p e r i n t e n d ­
e n t s r e p o r t e d t e a c h e r i n i t i a t i o n o f m ovem ents f o r t h e c h a n g e
of p o lic ie s.
C o m p a riso n o f t h e p e r c e n t a g e o f t e a c h e r s * a n d s u p e r ­
i n t e n d e n t s * r e p l i e s on d e s i r a b l e a m o u n ts o f t e a c h e r i n i t i a ­
t i o n o f m ovem ents f o r p o l i c y f o r m a t i o n .
The p e r c e n t a g e d i f ­
f e r e n c e s w hich e x i s t e d b e tw e e n t h e s u p e r i n t e n d e n t s * a n d
tea ch e rs*
r e s p o n s e s o f d e s i r e d p r a c t i c e s w e re c o n s i d e r a b l y
s m a l l e r t h a n t h e p e r c e n t a g e d i f f e r e n c e s o f t h e r e p l i e s on
e x is tin g c o n d itio n s.
I n t w e n ty one a c t i v i t i e s T a b l e XV shows t h a t t h e p e r ­
c en tag e o f s u p e r in te n d e n ts r e p o r t i n g t e a c h e r s sh o u ld i n i t i a t e
117
p o l i c i e s was one and one t h i r d t o one and one h a l f t i m e s
g r e a t e r t h a n t h e p e r c e n t a g e o f t e a c h e r s i n d i c a t i n g t h e sam e.
In f o u r a c t i v i t i e s th e p e rc e n ta g e o f s u p e r i n te n d e n t s t r e p l i e s
r e p r e s e n t e d s l i g h t l y m ore t h a n t w i c e t h e p e r c e n t a g e o f t e a c h ­
e r s * r e s p o n s e s f o r t h e same a c t i v i t i e s . .
th e p e rc e n ta g e o f su p e rin te n d e n ts*
In th ir te e n in sta n c e s
r e p l i e s was s l i g h t l y m ore
t h a n one and o n e h a l f t i m e s g r e a t e r t h a n t h e t e a c h e r s * p e r ­
c e n ta g e o f r e p l i e s f o r th o se tw e lv e a c t i v i t i e s .
The t e a c h e r s *
and s u p e r in te n d e n ts * p e rc e n ta g e o f r e s p o n s e s s t a t i n g te a c h e r s
s h o u l d i n i t i a t e m ovem ents f o r t h e f o r m a t i o n o f p o l i c i e s i n t h e
t w e lv e a c t i v i t i e s w h ic h r e m a in e d v<?ere a p p r o x i m a t e l y e q u a l .
I n o n l y one i n s t a n t d i d t h e p e r c e n t a g e o f t e a c h e r r e s p o n s e s
exceed t h a t o f th e s u p e rin te n d e n ts .
The e v i d e n c e d i s c l o s e d t h a t a s m a l l e r p e r c e n t a g e o f
t e a c h e r s th a n s u p e r in te n d e n ts r e p o r te d t h a t te a c h e r s sh o u ld
i n i t i a t e m ovem ents f o r t h e f o r m a t i o n o f p o l i c i e s .
III.
EXTREME VARIATIONS IN PERCENTAGES OE REPLIES
K in d s o f a c t i v i t i e s a s s o c i a t e d w i t h e x tr e m e v a r i a t i o n s
i n p e r c e n t a g e s o f t e a c h e r s * and s u p e r i n t e n d e n t s * r e p l i e s on
e x is tin g te a c h e r i n i t i a t i v e .
T a b l e s XIV and XV d i s c l o s e t h a t
te a c h e r s and s u p e r in te n d e n ts b e lie v e d te a c h e r s d id o r sh o u ld
i n i t i a t e m ovem ents f o r t h e f o r m a t i o n o f p o l i c i e s i n a p p r o x i ­
m a t e l y t h e same num ber o f a c t i v i t i e s .
The i n s t a n c e s i n w hich t h e p e r c e n t a g e s o f t e a c h e r s *
118
and s u p e r i n t e n d e n t s 1 r e p l i e s w ere r e l a t i v e l y h i g h e x t e n d e d
o v e r many i f n o t a l m o s t a l l k i n d s o f s c h o o l a c t i v i t i e s .
T a b le
X I I I r e v e a l s t h a t t h e p o i n t s a t w h ich t h e g r e a t e s t d i f f e r e n c e s
o c c u rre d in th e te a c h e rs*
an d s u p e r i n t e n d e n t s * p e r c e n t a g e o f
r e s p o n s e s o n , e x i s t i n g a m o u n ts o f t e a c h e r i n i t i a t i o n w ere i n
c o n n e c t i o n w i t h t h e d e v e lo p m e n t o f s c h o o l b u i l d i n g p l a n s ( 1 3 ) ,
t h e p r e p a r a t i o n and d i s t r i b u t i o n o f d a i l y b u l l e t i n s ( 1 7 ) ,
th e
r e g i s t r a t i o n o f p u p i l s ( 2 2 ) , and t h e d e v e lo p m e n t o f i n - s e r v i c e
t r a i n i n g a n d a d v a n c e m e n t p ro g ra m ( 4 3 ) .
K in d s o f a c t i v i t i e s a s s o c i a t e d w i t h e x tr e m e v a r i a t i o n s
i n p e r c e n t a g e s o f t e a c h e r s 1 a n d s u p e r i n t e n d e n t s 1 r e p l i e s on
d e s i r a b l e a m o u n ts o f t e a c h e r i n i t i a t i v e .
The a c t i v i t i e s i n
w h ic h r e l a t i v e l y few a d m i n i s t r a t o r s and t e a c h e r s i n d i c a t e d
t e a c h e r s s h o u l d i n i t i a t e m ovem ents f o r p o l i c y c h a n g e s w ere i n
c o n n e c tio n w ith p u p il t r a n s p o r t a t i o n
(1 5 ),
t h e em ploym ent o f
s c h o o l p e r s o n n e l (36, 37, 3 8 ), and th e a d m i n i s t r a t i o n o f a d ­
m i n i s t r a t i v e o f f i c e s and p e r s o n n e l ( 5 0 ) .
te a c h e rs*
The p e r c e n t a g e s o f
and a d m i n i s t r a t o r s ’ r e s p o n s e s i n w h ich t h e g r e a t e s t
d i f f e r e n c e s o c c u r r e d i n t h e am ount o f t e a c h e r i n i t i a t i v e
con­
s i d e r e d d e s i r a b l e w ere i n c o n n e c t i o n w i t h t h e t r a n s p o r t a t i o n
o f p u p ils (1 5 ),
th e r e g i s t r a t i o n o f p u p ils (2 2 ), th e r e g u la ­
t i o n o f t r u a n t s and d e l i n q u e n t s ( 2 9 ) , a n d t h e em ploym ent o f
c u sto d ia n s (3 6 ).
I n m o st i n s t a n c e s t e a c h e r s a n d s u p e r i n t e n d e n t s a g r e e d
119
o n w h ic h a c t i v i t i e s t e a c h e r s s h o u l d o r d i d i n i t i a t e m ovem ents
f o r th e fo rm a tio n o f p o l i c i e s .
The p e r c e n t a g e s ,
th o u g h r u n ­
n i n g i n a somewhat p a r a l l e l m a n n e r , w ere much l o w e r f o r t h e
t e a c h e r s th a n f o r th e a d m i n i s t r a t o r s in b o th th e i n d i c a t i o n s
o f e x i s t i n g p r a c t i c e s a n d i n p r a c t i c e s w h ich s h o u l d e x i s t ,
IV .
COMPARISON OF SIZS-GROUPS* PERCENTAGES OF REPLIES ON
TEACHER INITIATION OF MOVEMENTS FOR POLICY FORMATION
T a b l e XIV r e v e a l s t h a t t h e h i g h e s t p e r c e n t a g e o f t e a c h ­
e r s i n i t i a t i n g m ovem ents f o r p o l i c y c h a n g e s was i n t h e 6 1 — 150
t e a c h e r d i s t r i c t g r o u p , a n d t h e l o w e s t p e r c e n t a g e was i n t h e
1 — 20 t e a c h e r d i s t r i c t s .
T h i s i n d i c a t e d t h a t t h e r e w e re
f e w e r t e a c h e r - i n i t i a t e d m ovem ents i n t h e s m a l l d i s t r i c t s t h a n
t h e r e w e re i n t h e l a r g e o n e s .
The same t a b l e a l s o shows t h a t
a h i g h e r p e r c e n t a g e o f t h e t e a c h e r s fro m t h e 2 1 — 60 a n d t h e
6 1 — 150 t e a c h e r d i s t r i c t s s t a t e d t e a c h e r s s h o u l d i n i t i a t e
m ovem ents f o r p o l i c y c h a n g e s t h a n d i d t h e t e a c h e r s f r o m t h e
1 — 20 an d o v e r 150 t e a c h e r d i s t r i c t s .
V.
COMPARISON OF THE KINDERGARTEN TO EIGHTH GRADE, AND JUN­
IOR HIGH SCHOOL TEACHER GROUPSf PERCENTAGES OF REPLIES ON
TEACHER INITIATION OF MOVEMENTS FOR POLICY FORMATION
A c o m p a r is o n o f t h e p e r c e n t a g e s o f r e s p o n s e s o f t h e
t e a c h e r s fro m t h e k i n d e r g a r t e n t o t h e e i g h t h g r a d e a n d t h e
j u n i o r h ig h s c h o o l t e a c h e r g ro u p s r e v e a le d (T ab le X I I I ) t h a t
120
a g r e a t e r p e rc e n ta g e o f th e ju n io r h ig h sc h o o l te a c h e r s
i n i t i a t e d m ovem ents f o r p o l i c y c h a n g e s ,
but th a t a sm a lle r
p e r c e n t a g e o f t h i s g ro u p i n d i c a t e d t e a c h e r s s h o u l d i n i t i a t e
m ovem ents f o r t h e f o r m a t i o n o f p o l i c i e s ,
th an d id th e k i n d e r ­
g a rte n to e ig h th g rad e te a c h e r group.
¥1.
SUMMARY
T e a c h e r s * a n d s u p e r i n t e n d e n t s * r e p l i e s on e x i s t i n g a n d
d e s i r a b l e a m o u n ts o f t e a c h e r I n i t i a t i o n o f m ovem ents f o r t h e
fo rm a tio n o f p o l i c i e s .
(1)
A c o n s id e ra b ly sm a lle r p e rc e n ta g e o f te a c h e r s th an
a d m i n i s t r a t o r s d i s c l o s e d t h a t t e a c h e r s i n i t i a t e d m ovem ents
f o r th e change o f p o l i c i e s .
(2} A s m a l l e r p e r c e n t a g e o f t e a c h e r s t h a n a d m i n i s t r a ­
t o r s i n d i c a t e d t e a c h e r s s h o u l d i n i t i a t e m ovem ents f o r p o l i c y
fo rm a tio n s.
(3 ) A g r e a t e r p e r c e n t a g e i n c r e a s e i n t h e d e s i r e f o r
t e a c h e r s t o i n i t i a t e m ovem ents f o r t h e f o r m a t i o n o f p o l i c i e s
was e v i d e n c e d i n t h e t e a c h e r s T r e p l i e s t h a n i n t h e s u p e r i n ­
ten d e n ts* r e s p o n s e s .
(4 ) Few t e a c h e r s and a d m i n i s t r a t o r s r e v e a l e d t e a c h e r s
s h o u l d o r d i d i n i t i a t e m ovem ents f o r t h e f o r m a t i o n o f p o l i ­
c ie s in c o n n e c tio n w ith p u p il t r a n s p o r t a t i o n ,
em ploym ent o f
sch o o l p e rs o n n e l, and th e a d m in is tr a tio n o f sc h o o l o f f i c e s
and o f f i c e p e r s o n n e l .
121
S iz e - g ro u p s1 r e p l i e s .
( 1 ) T e a c h e r s from t h e 1 — 20 t e a c h e r d i s t r i c t s r e p o r t e d
t h e e x i s t e n c e o f t h e s m a l l e s t am ount o f t e a c h e r i n i t i a t i o n o f
m ovem ents f o r p o l i c y c h a n g e s , w h i l e t h e t e a c h e r s fro m t h e
6 1 — 150 t e a c h e r d i s t r i c t s r e p o r t e d t h e g r e a t e s t am ount o f
te a c h e r i n i t i a t i v e
i n m ovem ents f o r t h e f o r m a t i o n o f p o l i c i e s .
(2 ) T e a c h e r s from t h e 1 — 20 and o v e r 150 t e a o h e r d i s ­
t r i c t s r e p o r t e d l e a s t and t h e t e a c h e r s fro m t h e 6 1— 150
t e a c h e r d i s t r i c t s r e p o r t e d m ost f r e q u e n t l y t h a t t e a c h e r s
s h o u l d i n i t i a t e m ovem ents f o r t h e f o r m a t i o n o f p o l i c i e s .
J u n i o r h i g h s c h o o l an d k i n d e r g a r t e n t o e i g h t h g r a d e
/te a c h e rs* r e p l i e s .
J u n i o r h i g h s c h o o l t e a c h e r s m o re t h a n
k i n d e r g a r te n t o e ig h th g rade t e a c h e r s d is c lo s e d th e e x i s t ­
ence o f t e a c h e r i n i t i a t i v e
i n t h e m ovem ents f o r p o l i c y c h a n g e s ,
w h i l e t h e r e v e r s e was t r u e i n t h e r e p o r t s o f t h e i n s t a n c e s
w h e re t e a c h e r s s h o u l d i n i t i a t e m ovem ents f o r t h e c h a n g e o f
p o lic ie s.
CHAPTER VI
DISTRIBUTION AND COMPARISON OF REPLIES TO SIX QUESTIONS
DEALING WITH TEACHER PARTICIPATION
• IN SCHOOL POLICY DETERMINATION
I.
INTRODUCTION
P u rpose o f th e s i x q u e s t io n s .
The t h i r d a n d f i n a l
p h a s e o f t h e q u e s t i o n n a i r e on t e a o h e r p a r t i c i p a t i o n had t o
do w i t h t h e a t t i t u d e s o f t e a c h e r s and s u p e r i n t e n d e n t s o n s i x
q u e s tio n s c o n s id e re d to he s i g n i f i c a n t l y r e l a t e d to th e p r o b ­
lem o f t e a c h e r p a r t i c i p a t i o n i n t h e d e t e r m i n a t i o n o f a d m i n i s ­
tr a tiv e p o lic y .
F i v e o f t h e q u e s t i o n s w ere d e s i g n e d t o i n ­
d i c a t e t h e r e s p o n d e n t s * d e g r e e o f a w a r e n e s s t o t h e p r o b le m s
in v o lv e d in p l a c i n g d e m o c ra tic p r a c t i c e s i n t o o p e r a tio n ,
w h i l e t h e r e m a i n i n g q u e s t i o n w as i n t e n d e d t o s e c u r e i n f o r m a ­
t i o n on t h e num ber o f s c h o o l d i s t r i c t s
i n w h ic h t e a c h e r p a r t i ­
c i p a t i o n h a d b e e n f o r m a l l y r e c o g n i z e d by t h e r e s p e c t i v e
b o ard s o f e d u c a tio n .
T re a tm e n t o f th e fre q u e n c y d i s t r i b u t i o n s .
quency d i s t r i b u t i o n s o f t h e te a c h e r-g ro u p s *
The f r e ­
r e p l i e s to th e
s i x q u e s t i o n s w ere a r r a n g e d on T a b l e s XVI—XXI i n c l u s i v e .
E ach t a b l e c o n t a i n s t h e n u m b ers a n d p e r c e n t a g e s o f t h e
g ro u p s* r e p l i e s t o one o f t h e s i x q u e s t i o n s .
These t a b l e s
w ere l o c a t e d d i r e c t l y a f t e r t h e a n a l y s i s o f t h e i r r e s p e c t i v e
123
c o n te n ts .
C o m p a riso n s w ere made o f s u p e r i n t e n d e n t s 1 and t e a c h ­
e r s * r e s p o n s e s , o f t h e r e p l i e s fro m t h e k i n d e r g a r t e n t o e i g h t h
g r a d e and j u n i o r h i g h s c h o o l t e a c h e r groups*, and o f t h e r e ­
p l i e s fro m t h e f o u r t e a c h e r s i z e - g r o u p s .
II.
COMPARISONS OF REPLIES TO QUESTION I
(Do t e a c h e r s h a v e t h e n e c e s s a r y t r a i n i n g , e x p e r i e n c e ,
and a b i l i t y t o p a r t i c i p a t e i n th e fo rm a tio n
of a d m in istra tiv e p o lic ie s ? )
T e a c h e r s { and s u p e r i n t e n d e n t s * r e p l i e s .
An 8 p e r c e n t
l a r g e r p ro p o rtio n o f th e s u p e rin te n d e n ts th an te a c h e rs r e p lie d
in th e a f f i r m a t i v e to q u e s tio n o n e.
In b o th i n s t a n c e s th e
p r e p o n d e r a n c e o f p o s i t i v e r e s p o n s e s showed t h a t t e a c h e r s a n d
s u p e r in te n d e n ts a l i k e c o n s id e re d t e a c h e r s c a p a b le o f p a r t i c i ­
p a tin g in th e fo rm a tio n o f p o l i c i e s .
K i n d e r g a r t e n t o e i g h t h g r a d e and j u n i o r h i g h s c h o o l
te a c h e rs1 r e p lie s .
The p e r c e n t a g e s o f r e p l i e s f o r t h e c o n ­
v e n t i o n a l e l e m e n t a r y and j u n i o r h i g h s c h o o l g r o u p s w e re 81
an d 71 r e s p e c t i v e l y .
A lth o u g h t h e t e a c h e r s fro m t h e c o n v e n ­
t i o n a l e i g h t y e a r e l e m e n t a r y s c h o o l r e v e a l e d m ore s t r o n g l y
t h a n t h e j u n i o r h i g h s c h o o l t e a c h e r s t h a t t e a c h e r s w ere c a p ­
a b le o f p a r t i c i p a t i o n ,
b o t h g r o u p s so i n d i c a t e d w i t h l a r g e
m a jo ritie s of a ffirm a tiv e responses.
I t was i n t e r e s t i n g t o
n o t e h o w e v e r t h a t 29 p e r c e n t o f t h e j u n i o r h i g h s c h o o l
te a c h e r s r e p ly in g d id n o t th in k te a c h e r s q u a li f ie d to p a r t i -
TABLE XVI
FREQUENCY DISTRIBUTION OF REPLIES TO QUESTION I:
DO TEACHERS HAVE THE NECESSARY TRAINING, EXPERIENCE AND
ABILITY TO PARTICIPATE IN THE FORMATION OF ADMINISTRATIVE
POLICIES?
Y es
No
Per
cent
Num­
ber
Per
cent
S u p e rin te n d e n ts
20
8 7 .0
3
1 3 .0
A l l t e a c h e r s c om b in ed
63
7 9 .0
22
2 1 .0
K in d e rg a rten to e ig h th
grade i n c l u s i v e
66
8 1 .0
15
1 9 .0
J u n io r h ig h
17
7 1 .0
7
2 9 .0
1 — 20
12
6 7 .0
6
3 3 .0
2 1 — 60
27
7 9 .0
7
2 1 .0
6 1 — 150
27
8 7 .0
4
1 3 .0
O ver 150
17
7 7 .0
5
2 3 .0
Group
Num­
ber
S ize g ro u p :
135
c ip a t e in p o l i c y fo r m a tio n .
C o m p ariso n o f s i z e - g r o u p s 1 r e p l i e s .
The t e a c h e r s from
t h e 1 — 20 t e a c h e r d i s t r i c t s ga v e t h e l e a s t i n d i c a t i o n t h a t
t e a c h e r s w ere c a p a b l e o f p a r t i c i p a t i o n w h i l e t h e t e a c h e r s
f ro m t h e 6 1 — 150 t e a c h e r d i s t r i c t s w ere t h e m o st o p t i m i s t i c
in th is re g a rd .
The two r e m a i n i n g g r o u p s w ere a l m o s t e q u a l
i n t h e i r o p in io n s o f th e c a p a b i l i t i e s o f te a c h e r s w ith re g a r d
to p a r t i c i p a ti o n .
I n t h e 1 — 20 t e a c h e r g r o u p o ne t h i r d o f
t h e r e s p o n d e n t s d i s c l o s e d t h a t t e a c h e r s w ere n o t q u a l i f i e d t o
a s s i s t i n p o l i c y m a k in g , and 23 p e r c e n t o f t h e l a r g e s t d i s ­
t r i c t r e s p o n d e n t s r e p o r t e d t h e sa m e.
c e p tio n ,
A g a in , w i t h t h e one e x ­
th e m a j o r it y o f t e a c h e r s e x p re ss e d c o n fid e n c e in th e
a b i l i t y o f te a c h e rs to p a r t i c i p a t e .
III.
COMPARISONS OF REPLIES TO QUESTION I I
(Do y o u t h i n k t h a t p r e s e n t t e a c h e r l o a d m akes i t m o st
d i f f i c u l t f o r te a c h e rs to p a r t i c i p a te e x te n siv e ly
in th e f o m a tio n o f a d m in is tra tiv e p o lic ie s ? )
T e a c h e r s 1 an d s u p e r i n t e n d e n t s T r e p l i e s .
N o te w o r th y i s
t h e f a c t t h a t o v e r 70 p e r c e n t o f a l l t e a c h e r s r e s p o n d e d t h a t
t e a c h e r l o a d s w ere t o o h e a v y t o p e r m i t e x t e n s i v e p a r t i c i p a - '
t i o n i n p o l i c y m a k in g .
S i x t y two p e r c e n t o f t h e s u p e r i n t e n d ­
e n t s r e p o r t t h a t t h e same s i t u a t i o n e x i s t e d .
On t h e c o n t r a r y
m ore . t h a n one t h i r d o f t h e s u p e r i n t e n d e n t s d i s a g r e e d w i t h t h e
m a j o r i t y d e c i s i o n a s d i d 29 p e r c e n t o f t h e t e a c h e r s .
126
TABLE X 7II
FREQUENCY DISTRIBUTION OF REPLIES TO QUESTION I I :
DO YOU THINK THAT PRESENT TEACHER LOAD MAKES IT MOST
DIFFICULT FOR TEACHERS TO PARTICIPATE EXTENSIVELY
IN THE FORMATION OF ADMINISTRATIVE POLICIES?
Y es
No
Num­■ P e r
ber
cent
Num­
ber
Per
cent
S u p e rin te n d e n ts
15
6 2 .5
9
3 7 .5
A l l t e a c h e r s com bined
80
7 0 .8
33
29 • 2
K in d e rg a rte n to e ig h th
grade i n c lu s iv e
66
7 4 .2
23
2 5 .8
J u n i o r h ig h
14
5 8 .3
10
4 1 .7
1 — 20
13
7 2 .2
5
2 7 .8
2 1 — 60
27
7 3 .0
10
2 7 .0
6 1 — 150
23
7 0 .0
10
3 0 .0
O yer 150
17
7 1 .0
7
2 9 .0
Group
S iz e -g ro u p :
127
K i n d e r g a r t e n t o e i g h t h g r a d e and j u n i o r h i g h s c h o o l
te a c h e rs1 r e p lie s .
W hile 74 p e r c e n t o f t h e t e a c h e r s o f t h e
K i n d e r g a r t e n to e i g h t h g r a d e group i n d i c a t e d t h a t p r e s e n t
t e a c h e r l o a d m ak es p a r t i c i p a t i o n d i f f i c u l t ,
o n l y 58 p e r c e n t
o f t h e J u n i o r h i g h s c h o o l t e a c h e r g ro u p so c o n c u r r e d .
E ith e r
t h e r e was a l i g h t e r t e a c h e r l o a d i n th e l a t t e r g rou p o r t h e r e
was a d e f i n i t e d i f f e r e n c e o f o p i n i o n on t h e m a t t e r .
C o m p a riso n o f s i z e - g r o u p s * r e p l i e s .
When t e a c h e r s *
r e p l i e s w ere g ro u p e d a c c o r d i n g t o s i z e o f s c h o o l d i s t r i c t s
in
w hich t h e r e s p o n d e n t s w ere e m p lo y ed no a p p r e c i a b l e d i f f e r e n c e
i n t h e i r r e p l i e s was n o t e d .
A ll s u b s t a n t i a l l y ag reed t h a t
t e a c h e r l o a d s w e re t o o h e a v y f o r e x t e n s i v e p a r t i c i p a t i o n i n
th e fo rm a tio n o f p o l i c i e s .
The p e r c e n t a g e o f r e p l i e s i n e a c h
g ro u p w hich d i s c l o s e d t h e c o n t r a r y to be t r u e was a p p r o x i ­
m a te ly tw e n ty e i g h t .
IV .
COMPARISON OF REPLIES TO QUESTION I I I
( I f you h a d y o u r c h o i c e w ould you p r e f e r t o work i n a
s c h o o l s y s te m w here t e a c h e r s p a r t i c i p a t e d e x t e n s i v e l y
in th e d e te rm in a tio n o f a d m in is tr a tiv e p o lic ie s ? )
T e a c h e r s r and s u p e r i n t e n d e n t s 1 r e p l i e s .
A m ore o r
l e s s u n i f o r m o p i n i o n o c c u r r e d among t e a c h e r s and a d m i n i s t r a ­
t o r s on t h e d e s i r a b i l i t y o f w o r k in g i n a s y s te m w here t e a c h ­
e r s p a r t i c i p a t e d in th e d e te rm in a tio n o f p o l i c i e s .
The p e r ­
c e n t a g e s o f a f f i r m a t i v e r e s p o n s e s w ere a p p r o x i m a t e l y s e v e n t y
128
.
■
TABLE X V III
FREQUENCY DISTRIBUTION OB REPLIES TO QUESTION I I I :
IB YOU HAD YOUR CHOICE WOULD YOU PREBER TO WORK IN A SCHOOL
S I STEM WHERE TEACHERS PARTICIPATED EXTENSIVELY IN THE
DETERMINATION OB ADMINISTRATIVE POLICIES?
Y es
No
Num­- P e r
cent
ber
Num­
ber
Per
cent
S u p e rin te n d e n ts
17
7 4 .0
6
2 6 .0
A l l t e a c h e r s com b in ed
85
7 8 .7
22
2 1 .3
K in d e rg a rte n to e ig h th
grade i n c l u s i v e
69
8 1 .2
16
1 8 .8
J u n io r h ig h
16
7 0 .0
7
3 0 .0
1 — 20
11
6 1 .0
7
3 9 .0
2 1 — 60
29
8 2 .9
6
1 7 .1
6 1 — 150
28
8 7 .5
4
1 2 .5
O ver 150
17
7 4 .0
6
2 6 .0
Group
S iz e-g ro u p :
129
n in e and s e v e n ty f o u r r e s p e c t i v e l y .
A p p a r e n t l y t h e r e was a
r e c o g n i t i o n on t h e p a r t o f b o t h g r o u p s o f t h e d e s i r a b i l i t y
a nd n e e d f o r s u c h p a r t i c i p a t i o n .
K i n d e r g a r t e n t o e i g h t h g r a d e and j u n i o r h i g h s c h o o l
te a c h e rs* r e p lie s .
W h ile 8 1 p e r c e n t o f t h e t e a c h e r s i n t h e
k i n d e r g a r t e n t o e i g h t h g ra d e , t e a c h e r g r o u p r e p o r t e d a p r e f e r ­
e n c e t o w ork w here t h e y c o u l d p a r t i c i p a t e ,
o n l y 70 per- c e n t
o f t h e j u n i o r h i g h s c h o o l t e a c h e r s i n d i c a t e d t h e same d e s i r e .
B o th p e r c e n t a g e s w ere s u b s t a n t i a l l y l a r g e r t h a n f i f t y y e t 30
p e r c e n t o f th e ju n io r h ig h sc h o o l te a c h e rs r e tu r n e d n e g a tiv e
r e p l i e s on t h i s q u e s t i o n .
C o m p a riso n o f s i z e - g r o u p s * r e p l i e s .
A g a in t e a c h e r s
fro m t h e s m a l l d i s t r i c t s r e t u r n e d t h e l o w e s t p e r c e n t a g e o f
a f f ir m a tiv e responses*
t h i s tim e t o t h e q u e s t i o n o f t h e d e ­
s i r a b i l i t y o f w o r k in g i n a s y s te m w here t e a c h e r s p a r t i c i p a t e
e x te n siv e ly .
The p e r c e n t a g e s o f r e p l i e s fro m g r o u p s 2 1 — 60,
61 — 150, an d o v e r 150 w ere a p p r o x i m a t e l y e i g h t y t h r e e ,
e ig h t,
and s e v e n ty f o u r r e s p e c t i v e l y ,
e ig h ty
a l l in d ic a tin g a la rg e
m a jo r ity o f p o s i t iv e re sp o n se s to th e q u e s tio n .
A lm o st 40
p e r c e n t o f t h e t e a c h e r s fro m t h e s m a l l e s t d i s t r i c t s gave
n e g a tiv e re sp o n se s.
V.
COMPARISON OF REPLIES TO QUESTION I T
(C o n c ern in g t e a c h e r p a r t i c i p a t i o n In th e d e te r m in a tio n
130
o f a d m i n i s t r a t i v e p o l i c y , do y o u t h i n k i t w ould be
p r e f e r a b le to have an e s ta b lis h e d p ro ced u re
r e c o g n i z e d by y o u r b o a r d o f e d u c a t i o n ? )
T e a c h e r s * an d s u p e r i n t e n d e n t s * r e p l i e s .
The t e a c h e r s
w ere much m ore c e r t a i n t h a t a n e s t a b l i s h e d p r o c e d u r e f o r p a r ­
t i c i p a t i o n w ould be d e s i r a b l e t h a n w ere t h e s u p e r i n t e n d e n t s ,
a lth o u g h b o th g roups r e g i s t e r e d a m a j o r it y o f a f f i r m a t i v e r e ­
p lie s.
K i n d e r g a r t e n t o e i g h t h g r a d e and j u n i o r h i g h s c h o o l
t e a c h e r s \ .r e p l i e s .
The p e r c e n t a g e o f r e p l i e s i n t h e a f f i r m a ­
t i v e f o r b o t h t h e k i n d e r g a r t e n t o e i g h t h g r a d e an d j u n i o r
h i g h s c h o o l t e a c h e r s was p r e p o n d e r a n t .
A p p r o x i m a t e l y 91 p e r
c e n t o f th e j u n i o r h ig h s c h o o l t e a c h e r s p r e f e r e d an e s t a b l i s h ­
ed p r o c e d u r e w h i l e o v e r 82 p e r c e n t o f t h e t e a c h e r s i n t h e
o t h e r g ro u p gave a s i m i l a r i n d i c a t i o n .
C o m p a riso n o f s i z e - g r o u p s * r e p l i e s .
A la rg e m a jo rity
o f t h e r e p l i e s fro m a l l t h e s i z e - g r o u p s w ere f a v o r a b l e t o
b o ard r e c o g n i t i o n o f an e s t a b l i s h e d p ro c e d u re f o r te a c h e r
p a rtic ip a tio n .
The p e r c e n t a g e s o f a f f i r m a t i v e r e s p o n s e s
r a n g e d from a p p r o x i m a t e l y s e v e n t y two t o n i n e t y s e v e n .
The
61 — 150 t e a c h e r d i s t r i c t g ro u p r e t u r n e d a l m o s t a 100 p e r c e n t
a ff ir m a tiv e resp o n se to t h i s q u e s tio n .
V I.
COMPARISON OF REPLIES TO QUESTION V
131
TABLE XIX
FREQUENCY DISTRIBUTION OF REPLIES TO QUESTION IT :
CONCERNING TEACHER PARTICIPATION IN THE DETERMINATION OF AD­
MINISTRATIVE POLICY, DO YOU THINK IT WOULD BE PREFERABLE
TO HAVE AN ESTABLISHED PROCEDURE, RECOGNIZED BY
YOUR BOARD OF EDUCATION?
Yes
No
Numher'"
Per
cent
S u p e rin te n d e n ts
15
68.2
7
3 1 .8
A l l t e a c h e r s com b in ed
85
8 4 .2
16
1 5 .8
K in d e rg a rte n t o e ig h th
grade in c lu s iv e
64
8 2 .1
14
1 7 .9
J u n io r h ig h
21
9 1 .3
2
8 .7
1— 20
13
7 2 .2
5
2 7 .8
21 — 60
30
8 1 .1
7
1 8 .9
61--150
32
9 7 .0
1
3 .0
O ver 150
19
8 2 .6
4
1 7 .4
Group
Numher
Per
cent
S iz e -g ro u p :
132
(Has t h e a d m i n i s t r a t i o n a n d t h e h o a r d o f e d u c a t i o n i n
y o u r s c h o o l d i s t r i c t r e c o g n iz e d and e s t a b l i s h e d a
p o lic y c o n ce rn in g te a c h e r p a r t i c i p a t i o n in th e
d e te rm in a tio n of a d m in is tra tiv e p o lic y ? )
T e a c h e r s * and s u p e r i n t e n d e n t s * r e p l i e s ,
A c o n sid e ra b ly
l a r g e r p ro p o r tio n o f s u p e rin te n d e n ts th a n te a c h e rs r e p o r te d
t h a t b o a rd s o f e d u c a tio n had e s t a b l i s h e d p o l i c i e s c o n c e rn in g
te a c h e r p a r tic ip a ti o n in p o lic y f o m a tio n .
The f o r m e r w ere
i n a b e t t e r p o s i t i o n t h a n t h e t e a c h e r s t o know t h e s t e p s
b o a rd s o f e d u c a tio n had ta k e n .
The l a t t e r w ere i n a b e t t e r
p o s i t i o n t h a n t h e s u p e r i n t e n d e n t s t o know i f t h e b o a r d p o l i ­
c i e s h a d b e en p l a c e d i n f o r c e .
Two t h i r d s o f t h e t e a c h e r s
d i s c l o s e d t h a t p o l i c i e s h a d n o t b e e n s e t by t h e b o a r d , w h i l e
s l i g h t l y l e s s t h a n one h a l f o f t h e a d m i n i s t r a t o r s c o n c u r r e d .
K i n d e r g a r t e n t o e i g h t h g r a d e and j u n i o r h i g h s c h o o l
te a c h e rsf r e p lie s .
S l i g h t l y m ore t h a n one t h i r d o f t h e k i n d ­
e r g a r t e n to e ig h th g rad e te a c h e r re s p o n se s re v e a le d t h a t
b o a rd p o l i c i e s on t e a c h e r p a r t i c i p a t i o n h ad b e e n e s t a b l i s h e d ,
a n d 25 p e r c e n t o f t h e j u n i o r h i g h s c h o o l t e a c h e r r e p l i e s
d i s c l o s e d t h e sam e.
B o th g r o u p s r e p o r t e d t h a t i n m o st s c h o o l s
b o a rd s had n o t e s t a b l i s h e d such p o l i c i e s ,
h o w e v e r, t h e j u n i o r
h i g h s c h o o l t e a c h e r g ro u p i n d i c a t e d t h i s by a 10 p e r c e n t
l a r g e r p r o p o r t i o n t h a n d i d th e o t h e r g r o u p .
C o m p a riso n o f s i z e - g r o u p s * r e p l i e s .
A m ost i n t e r e s t ­
i n g s i t u a t i o n was r e v e a l e d b y t h e r e p l i e s o f t h e f o u r s i z e -
133
TABLET-XX
FREQUENCY DISTRIBUTION OF REPLIES TO QUESTION V:
HAS THE ADMINISTRATION AND THE BOARD OF EDUCATION IN YOUR
SCHOOL DISTRICT RECOGNIZED AND ESTABLISHED A POLICY
CONCERNING TEACHER PARTICIPATION IN THE DETER­
MINATION OF ADMINISTRATIVE POLICY?
Y es
No
Num­
ber
Per
cent
Num­
ber
Per
cent
S u p e rin te n d e n ts
12
5 2 .2
11
4 7 .8
A l l t e a c h e r s com bined
54
3 2 .4
71
6 7 .6
K in d e rg a rte n to e ig h th
g rad e in c lu s iv e
29
5 4 .1
56
6 5 .9
5
2 5 .0
15
7 5 .0
Group
J u n i o r h ig h
S iz e-g ro u p ;
*
1 — 20
2
1 1 .2
16
8 8 .8
2 1 — 60
12
3 2 .4
25
6 7 .6
6 1 -1 5 0
11
3 6 .7
19
6 3 .3
9
4 5 .0
11
5 5 .0
O r e r 150
134
g ro u p s.
T h e r e was a d e f i n i t e i n d i c a t i o n a s shown by t h e p e r ­
c e n t a g e s on T a b l e XX t h a t a s d i s t r i c t s
became l a r g e r more
t e a c h e r s r e p o r t e d t h e e x i s t e n c e o f b o a r d p o l i c i e s on t h e m a t ­
t e r o f te a c h e r p a r t i c p a t i o n in th e fo rm a tio n o f p o l i c i e s .
Only IX p e r c e n t o f t h e t e a c h e r s from t h e 1— 20 t e a c h e r d i s ­
t r i c t s r e p o r te d th e e x is te n c e o f such p o l i c i e s ;
a p p ro x im a te ly
one t h i r d o f t h e t e a c h e r s fro m t h e 2 1 — 60 a n d - 6 1 — 150 t e a c h e r
d is tric ts
so r e p o r t e d ; and 45 p e r c e n t o f t h e t e a c h e r s fro m
th e l a r g e s t d i s t r i c t s
s ta te d
t h a t b o a rd p o l i c i e s had been e s ­
ta b lish e d .
V II.
COMPARISON OF REPLIES TO QUESTION VI
(Do you t h i n k s c h o o l a d m i n i s t r a t i o n can be d e m o c r a t i c
w i t h o u t t e a c h e r p a r t i c i p a t i o n i n th e d e t e r ­
m in a tio n o f a d m in is tr a tiv e p o lic y ? )
T e a c h e r s 1 an d s u p e r i n t e n d e n t s * r e p l i e s .
T h irty s ix p e r
c e n t o f t h e a d m i n i s t r a t o r s b e l i e v e d t h a t s c h o o l s c o u l d be
d e m o c ra tic a lly a d m in iste re d w ith o u t te a c h e r p a r t i c i p a t i o n in
th e d e te rm in a tio n of a d m in is tr a tiv e p o l i c i e s .
cent o f th e te a c h e rs co n cu rred in t h i s o p in io n .
Only 13 p e r
W h ile c o n ­
s i d e r a b l y m ore t h a n one h a l f o f t h e a d m i n i s t r a t o r s r e p l i e d i n
t h e n e g a t i v e , a p r e p o n d e r a n c e o f t h e t e a c h e r s * r e p l i e s showed
t h a t t h e a d m i n i s t r a t i o n o f s c h o o l s c o u l d n o t be d e m o c r a t i c
u n le s s te a c h e r s p a r t i c i p a t e d i n th e fo rm a tio n o f p o l i c i e s .
K in d e rg a r te n to e ig h th g rad e and j u n i o r h ig h sc h o o l
135
TABLE XXI
FREQUENCY DISTRIBUTION OF REPLIES TO QUESTION V I :
DO YOU THINN SCHOOL ADMINISTRATION CAN BE DEMOCRATIC
WITHOUT TEACHER PARTICIPATION IN THE DETER­
MINATION OF ADMINISTRATIVE POLICY?
Group
Supe r i n t e n d e n t s
Y es
NumPer
her
cent
No
Numher
Per
cent
8
3 6 .4
14
6 3 .6
A l l t e a c h e r s com bined
15
1 3 .6
95
8 6 .4
K in d e rg a rte n to e ig h th
grade in c lu s iv e
12
1 3 .6
76
8 6 .4
3
1 3 .6
19
8 6 .4
1 — 20
5
2 7 .8
13
7 2 .2
8 1 — 60
4
1 0 .8
33
8 9 .2
60 — 150
3
9 .0
30
9 1 .0
O ver 150
5
2 0 .8
19
7 9 .2
J u n i o r h ig h
S iz e gro up :
136
te a c h e rs' r e p lie s .
T h e r e w e re i d e n t i c a l p e r c e n t a g e s o f r e ­
p l i e s fro m t h e k i n d e r g a r t e n t o e i g h t h g r a d e and j u n i o r h i g h
s c h o o l t e a c h e r g r o u p s on t h e q u e s t i o n b e i n g c o n s i d e r e d .
Only
1 3 .6 p e r c e n t o f t h e r e s p o n d e n t s b e l i e v e d . t h a t a d m i n i s t r a t i o n
o f s c h o o l s c o u l d be d e m o c r a t i c w i t h o u t t e a c h e r p a r t i c i p a t i o n .
I n o t h e r w o rd s t h e t e a c h e r s o f t h e s e g r o u p s o v e r w h e lm in g ly
a g r e e d t h a t t e a c h e r s m u st p a r t i c i p a t e b e f o r e s c h o o l a d m i n i s ­
t r a t i o n c o u ld b e c o n s i d e r e d d e m o c r a t i c .
C o m p a riso n o f s i z e - g r o u p s 1 r e p l i e s .
A p p r o x i m a t e l y 1G
p e r c e n t o f t h e t e a c h e r s fro m t h e S I — 60 a n d 6 1 — 150 t e a c h e r
d i s t r i c t s gav e a f f i r m a t i v e r e p l i e s t o q u e s t i o n s i x .
The a f ­
f i r m a t i v e r e s p o n s e s fro m t h e t e a c h e r s o f t h e 1 — SO a n d o v e r
150 t e a c h e r d i s t r i c t s w e re m ore t h a n t w i c e t h e a m o u n ts o f t h e
o t h e r two g r o u p s .
A ll gro u p s re v e a le d r a t h e r s tr o n g ly t h a t
t e a c h e r s n e e d e d t o p a r t i c i p a t e i n o r d e r t o make s c h o o l a d m in ­
i s t r a t i o n d e m o c ra tic .
Two o f t h e g r o u p s ’ r e s p o n s e s d i s c l o s e d
t h e l a t t e r w i t h a c o n v i n c i n g l y l a r g e num ber o f r e p l i e s .
V III.
SUMMARY
Summary on t e a c h e r s * a n d s u p e r i n t e n d e n t s f r e p l i e s .
(1) A m a j o r it y o f th e t e a c h e r s ’ and s u p e r i n t e n d e n t s ’
r e p l i e s to th e f i r s t fo u r q u e s tio n s ,
w e re i n t h e a f f i r m a t i v e .
a s shown on T a b l e XX II,
These q u e s tio n s in c lu d e d th e a b i l ­
i t y o f t e a c h e r s to p a r t i c i p a t e , ^ th e e f f e c t o f te a c h e r lo a d
4
The q u e s t i o n s w e re p a r a p h r a s e d f o r b r e v i t y .
13?
TABLE XXII
SUMMARY OE TEACHERS* AND SUPERINTENDENTS* REPLIES
TO SIX RELATED QUESTIONS
Q u e s t i o n n u m b e r:
1
2
3
4
5
6
Number
P er cent
20
87
15
63
17
74
15
68
12
52
8
36
Number
P er cent
3
13
9
37
6
26
7
32
11
48
14
64
Number
P er cent
83
79
80
77
85
79
85
84
34
32
15
14
Number
P er cent
22
21
33
23
23
21
16
16
71
68
95
86
S u p e rin te n d e n ts
Y es:
No:
T eachers
Y es:
No:
P e r c e n t a g e s ro u n d e d t o n e a r e s t w ho le n u m b er.
138
on p a r t i c i p a t i o n ,
t h e d e s i r a b i l i t y o f t e a c h i n g i n .a s c h o o l
s y s te m e m p lo y in g e x t e n s i v e t e a c h e r p a r t i c i p a t i o n p r o c e d u r e s ,
and t h e d e s i r a b i l i t y o f a b o a r d o f e d u c a t i o n p o l i c y on t e a c h ­
e r p a rtic ip a tio n p ro ced u res.
T h e r e was a s l i g h t l y h i g h e r p e r ­
c e n t a g e o f a f f i r m a t i v e a d m i n i s t r a t i v e r e p l i e s t o q u e s t i o n one
t h a n t h e r e w ere t e a c h e r r e s p o n s e s ,
b u t i n q u e s t i o n s tw o, t h r e e ,
a n d f o u r t h e p e r c e n t a g e s o f t e a c h e r r e s p o n s e s w e re h i g h e s t *
( £ ) W ith r e g a r d to q u e s t i o n f i v e , on t h e num ber o f
sc h o o ls p o s s e s s in g e s ta b lis h e d p ro c e d u re s f o r p o lic y d e t e r ­
m i n a t i o n , a p p r o x i m a t e l y one h a l f o f t h e a d m i n i s t r a t o r s i n d i ­
c a t e d p r o c e d u r e s w ere e s t a b l i s h e d , t h o u g h o n l y 3E p e r c e n t o f
th e te a c h e rs rev e ale d a lik e c o n d itio n .
(3 )
The p e r c e n t a g e s o f r e p l i e s t o q u e s t i o n s i x ,
p o s s i b i l i t y o f sc h o o l a d m i n i s t r a t io n b e in g d e m o c ra tic w ith ­
out te a ch e r p a rtic ip a tio n ,
w ere a l m o s t c o m p l e t e l y n e g a t i v e
f o r t h e t e a c h e r s b u t s l i g h t l y m o re t h a n o ne t h i r d o f t h e a d ­
m i n i s t r a t o r s T r e p l i e s showed a b e l i e f t h a t a d m i n i s t r a t i o n
c o u l d be d e m o c r a t i c w i t h o u t t e a c h e r p a r t i c i p a t i o n i n t h e d e ­
te rm in a tio n o f school p o l i c i e s .
Summary on k i n d e r g a r t e n t o e i g h t h ^g r a d e t e a c h e r s r and
ju n io r h ig h sc h o o l t e a c h e r s 1 r e p l i e s .
' Cl) A l a r g e m a j o r i t y o f t h e j u n i o r h i g h s c h o o l and
k in d e r g a r te n to e ig h th g ra d e te a c h e r groups resp o n d ed i n th e
a f f i r m a t i v e t o t h e f i r s t f o u r q u e s t i o n s a s s t a t e d above*
The
on t h e
139
d i s s e n t i n g m in o r i t y o p in io n in th e ju n io r h ig h sc h o o l te a c h e r
g ro u p was c o m p a r a t i v e l y l a r g e ,
b e i n g E9 p e r c e n t on q u e s t i o n
one an d 38 p e r c e n t on q u e s t i o n tw o .
(2 ) A bo ut two t h i r d s o f t h e r e p l i e s o f t h e two g r o u p s
b e i n g c o n s i d e r e d i n d i c a t e d t h a t few s c h o o l s p o s s e s s e d e s t a b l is h e d p ro c e d u re s f o r th e fo rm a tio n o f p o l i c i e s .
(3 ) W ith r e g a r d t o q u e s t i o n s i x b o t h t h e g r o u p s d i s ­
p lay e d s tr o n g ly th e n e c e s s i t y o f te a c h e r p a r t i c i p a t i o n f o r
a d m in is tr a tiv e p o lic y d e te rm in a tio n to he d e m o c ra tic .
Summary o f s i z e - g r o u p s ? r e p l i e s .
(1 ) A l l o f t h e s i z e - g r o u p s gave a s u b s t a n t i a l a f f i r m a ­
t i v e re sp o n se to th e f i r s t f o u r q u e s tio n s a s s t a t e d above.
The d i s s e n t i n g r e p l i e s o f t h e 1 — 20 t e a c h e r g ro u p w e re , how­
ever,
s u f f i c i e n t l y l a r g e to r e c e i v e a t t e n t i o n .
On q u e s t i o n
one a b o u t one t h i r d o f t h e g ro u p d i s s e n t e d fro m t h e m a j o r i t y
o p i n i o n ; on q u e s t i o n t h r e e 40 p e r c e n t d i s s e n t e d ; and on
q u e s t i o n f o u r 28 p e r c e n t d i s s e n t e d from t h e a f f i r m a t i v e
m a jo rity .
(2 ) Only a b o u t o n e t h i r d o f e a c h g ro u p r e p o r t e d t h e
e x iste n c e of e s ta b lis h e d p o lic ie s .
The 1 — 20 t e a c h e r g ro u p
r e p o r t e d t h e f e w e s t i n s t a n c e s a n d t h e o v e r 150 t e a c h e r g ro u p
r e p o r t e d th e m ost c a s e s o f e s t a b l i s h e d p o l i c i e s .
Some o f t h e
e v i d e n c e showed t h a t w i t h t h e i n c r e a s e i n s i z e o f t h e s c h o o l
d istric ts
t h e r e was a c o r r e l a t e d i n c r e a s e i n t h e num ber o f
.
140
e s ta b lis h e d p o lic ie s rep o rte d .
(3 )
A ll s iz e -g ro u p s s u b s t a n t i a l l y ag reed th a t th e d e­
t e r m i n a t i o n o f a d m i n i s t r a t i v e p o l i c y c o u ld n o t be d e m o c r a t i c
u n le ss te a c h e r p a r tic ip a tio n e x is te d .
W ith t h i s o p i n i o n 28
p e r c e n t o f t h e 1 — 20 t e a c h e r g ro u p d i f f e r e d .
CHAPTER Y I I
SUMMARY, CONCLUSIONS, AND RECOMMENDATIONS
I.
SOMMAET OF THE FINDINGS
T e a c h e r s -' r e p l i e s on m e th o d s T or d e t e r m i n i n g p o l i c i e s .
1. T e a c h e r s i n d i c a t e d t h a t t h r e e m e th o d s w e re u s e d t o
d e te rm in e sc h o o l p o l i c i e s .
Of t h e s e t h e p r e d o m i n a n t m e th o d
was f o r a d m i n i s t r a t o r s t o d e t e r m i n e t h e p o l i c i e s a f t e r c o n ­
s u ltin g te a c h e rs.
I n .m a n y i n s t a n c e s h o w e v e r, a d m i n i s t r a t o r s
in d e p e n d e n tly d e te rm in e d th e p o l i c i e s .
I n a few c a s e s t h e
s u p e r i n t e n d e n t s a n d t h e t e a c h e r s c o o p e r a t e d on a n e q u a l b a s i s
w ith th e d e c i s i o n s re a c h e d b e in g f i n a l i f ap p ro v ed by th e
b o ard o f e d u c a tio n .
2 . T e a c h e r s d i s c l o s e d a s d e s i r a b l e an e x t e n s i o n o f t h e
p ro ced u re in v o lv in g eq ual p a r t i c i p a t i o n ,
and a r e d u c t i o n i n
t h e m e th o d s o f d e t e r m i n i n g a d m i n i s t r a t i v e p o l i c i e s b y i n d e ­
p e n d e n t a c t i o n on th e p a r t o f t h e s u p e r i n t e n d e n t s .
3 . The m o s t s a t i s f a c t i o n w i t h e x i s t i n g p r o c e d u r e s was
in c o n n e c tio n w ith th e c o n tr o l o f p u p il a c t i v i t i e s .
4 . The m o s t d i s s a t i s f a c t i o n w i t h e x i s t i n g p r o c e d u r e s
was i n c o n n e c t i o n w i t h a c t i v i t i e s v i t a l t o t e a c h e r w e l f a r e .
5 . A h i g h d e g r e e o f s t a n d a r d i z a t i o n was shown i n t h e
m e th o d s f o r d e t e r m i n i n g t h e p o l i c i e s o f on e t h i r d o f t h e
a c tiv itie s.
142
6 . T h e r e was l e s s d i v e r s i t y o f o p i n i o n on t h e p r o c e ­
d u r e s w h ich s h o u l d e x i s t t h a n t h e r e was on t h e p r o c e d u r e s i n
e x is te n c e .
7 . The g r e a t e s t s t a n d a r d i z a t i o n o f p r o c e d u r e s o c c u r r e d
i n t h e a c t i v i t i e s d e a l i n g w i t h b u s i n e s s a d m i n i s t r a t i o n and
w i t h some p h a s e s o f p e r s o n n e l m an a g em en t.
8 . T e a c h e r s w ere m o s t a g r e e d on t h e i d e a l m e th o d s f o r
d e te rm in in g th e p o l i c i e s o f th e a c t i v i t i e s d e a l in g w ith p u p i l
c o n d u c t , c u r r i c u l u m and t h e a d m i n i s t r a t i o n o f p e r s o n n e l .
9 . The g r e a t e s t d i v e r s i t y o f e x i s t i n g p r o c e d u r e s was
r e p o r t e d i n c o n n e c tio n w ith i n s t r u c t i o n a l a c t i v i t i e s .
1 0 . The g r e a t e s t d i v e r s i t y o f o p i n i o n r e g a r d i n g t h e u s e
o f i d e a l p r o c e d u r e s was i n c o n n e c t i o n w i t h t h e a c t i v i t i e s o f
s c h o o l and p u p i l r e c o r d s , p u p i l c l a s s i f i c a t i o n ,
and s a l a r y
sc h e d u le s.
1 1 . The g r e a t e s t s t a n d a r d i z a t i o n o c c u r r e d when s u p e r i n ­
te n d e n ts in d e p e n d e n tly d ecid ed sc h o o l p o l i c i e s .
S u p e r i n t e n d e n t s T r e p l i e s on m e th o d s f o r d e t e r m i n i n g
p o lic ie s.
1.
S u p e r i n t e n d e n t s r e v e a l e d t h a t two m e th o d s were
c h i e f l y u s e d f o r t h e d e t e r m i n a t i o n o f p o l i c i e s . ' The p redom ­
i n a n t m e th o d i n u s e was t h e a d m i n i s t r a t i v e d e t e r m i n a t i o n o f
p o lic ie s a f t e r c o n su ltin g te a c h e rs.
I t was a l s o shown t h a t
a l a r g e num ber o f p o l i c i e s w e re d e t e r m i n e d b y c o o p e r a t i n g
143
w i t h t e a c h e r s on an e q u a l b a s i s .
2 . M ost o f t h e p r o c e d u r e s i n u s e w ere c o n s i d e r e d s a t i s ­
fa c to ry .
3 . A d m in is tr a to r s in d e p e n d e n tly d e te rm in e d th e p o l i ­
c i e s o f t h e a c t i v i t i e s d e a l i n g w i t h t h e em ploym ent o f s c h o o l
p e r s o n n e l and b u s i n e s s m an ag em en t.
4 . A h i g h d e g r e e o f u n i f o r m i t y e x i s t e d i n t h e m e th o d s
f o r d e t e r m i n i n g t h e p o l i c i e s o f o v e r one t h i r d o f t h e a c t i v i ­
tie s.
A f a i r d e g r e e o f s t a n d a r d i z a t i o n was r e p o r t e d f o r m o st
o f th e a c t i v i t i e s .
5 . A u n i f o r m l y h i g h d e g r e e o f a g re e m e n t e x i s t e d a s t o
t h e em ploym ent o f i d e a l p r o c e d u r e s f o r d e t e r m i n i n g s c h o o l
p o lic ie s.
6 . A lm o st c o m p le te s t a n d a r d i z a t i o n was i n d i c a t e d when
a d m i n i s t r a t o r s in d e p e n d e n tly d e te rm in e d th e p o l i c i e s .
C o m p a riso n o f t e a c h e r s * and s u p e r i n t e n d e n t s * r e p l i e s .
l i T e a c h e rs * r e s p o n s e s showed -the e x i s t e n c e o f s l i g h t l y
m ore c o n s e r v a t i v e m e th o d s t h a n w ere i n d i c a t e d by t h e s u p e r i n ­
te n d e n ts*
2.
re p lie s.
-
T e a c h e r s * and s u p e r i n t e n d e n t s * r e p l i e s on t h e u s e
o f i d e a l p r o c e d u r e s w ere v e r y s i m i l a r .
E ach g ro u p r e v e a l e d
t h a t t h e m eth o d w h e re b y a d m i n i s t r a t o r s d e c i d e d p o l i c i e s a f t e r
c o n su ltin g te a c h e rs,
and w h e reb y t h e y w o rked t o g e t h e r on an
e q u a l b a s i s i n d e t e r m i n i n g p o l i c i e s s h o u l d be e q u a l l y u s e d .
144
3.
T e a c h e r s showed l e s s u n a n i m i t y o f o p i n i o n on t h e
em ploym ent o f p r o c e d u r e s , and i n d i c a t e d l e s s s t a n d a r d i z a t i o n
o f p r a c t i c e s th a n d id th e s u p e r in te n d e n ts .
C o m p a riso n o f j u n i o r h i g h s c h o o l and k i n d e r g a r t e n t o
e ig h th grade te a c h e r s r r e p l i e s .
T e a c h e r s fro m t h e k i n d e r ­
g a r te n to e ig h th g rad e o f th e c o n v e n tio n a l e le m e n ta ry sc h o o l
and t e a c h e r s fro m t h e j u n i o r h i g h s c h o o l r e p o r t e d s i m i l a r c o n ­
d i t i o n s w i t h r e g a r d t o e x i s t i n g m e th o d s a n d s u g g e s t e d i d e a l
p ro ced u res f o r p o lic y d e te rm in a tio n .
R e p lie s a c c o rd in g to s iz e - g r o u p s .
1 . T e a c h e r s fro m t h e 1 — 20 an d o v e r 150 t e a c h e r d i s ­
t r i c t s i n d i c a t e d t h e u s e o f m ore c o n s e r v a t i v e t y p e s o f p r o ­
c e d u r e s , a n d s u g g e s t e d t h e u s e o f m o re c o n s e r v a t i v e t y p e s o f
p r o c e d u r e s t h a n d i d t h e t e a c h e r s fro m t h e 2 1 — 60 and 6 1 - - 1 5 0
teach er d i s t r i c t s .
2 . The t e a c h e r s fro m t h e 6 1 —-150 t e a c h e r d i s t r i c t s r e ­
v e a l e d c o n s i d e r a b l y m ore l i b e r a l p r o c e d u r e s i n u s e ,
and a l s o
s u g g e s t e d t h e u s e o f m o re l i b e r a l p r o c e d u r e s t h a n d i d t h e
o th e r th r e e s iz e -g ro u p s ..
T o ta l resp o n se a v e ra g e s.
The t o t a l - r e s p o n s e a v e r a g e s
o f t h e d i f f e r e n t g ro u p s* r e p l i e s I n e v e r y i n s t a n c e c o i n c i d e d
w ith th e fin d in g s a lre a d y p re s e n te d under th e p re c e d in g head­
in g s.
145
The c o m p a r is o n s o f t h e t o t a l - r e s p o n s e a v e r a g e s o f t h e
g ra d e l e v e l group,
th e e x p e r ie n c e group,
and t h e p r o f e s s i o n a l
t r a i n i n g g ro u p w i t h t h e t o t a l - r e s p o n s e a v e r a g e s o f a l l t h e
t e a c h e r s r e v e a l e d t h a t no d i f f e r e n c e s w ere s u f f i c i e n t l y l a r g e
to w arrant s p e c if ic c o n c lu sio n s.
C o m p ariso n o f r e p l i e s on t e a c h e r i n i t i a t i o n o f move­
m e n ts f o r p o l i c y c h a n g e s .
1. A c o n s id e ra b ly s m a lle r p e rc e n ta g e o f te a c h e r s th an
a d m i n i s t r a t o r s s t a t e d t h a t t e a c h e r s i n i t i a t e d m ovem ents f o r
th e change o f p o l i c i e s .
2. A s m a lle r p e rc e n ta g e o f te a c h e rs th an a d m in is tr a ­
t o r s i n d i c a t e d t e a c h e r s s h o u l d i n i t i a t e m ovem ents f o r p o l i c y
fo rm a tio n s.
5.
A g r e a t e r p e rc e n ta g e in c r e a s e in th e d e s i r e f o r
t e a c h e r s t o i n i t i a t e m ovem ents f o r t h e f o r m a t i o n o f p o l i c i e s
was e v i d e n c e d i n t h e t e a c h e r s ’ r e p l i e s t h a n i n t h e s u p e r i n ­
te n d e n ts * r e s p o n s e s .
4 . Few t e a c h e r s o r a d m i n i s t r a t o r s r e p o r t e d t h a t t e a c h ­
e r s d i d o r s h o u l d i n i t i a t e m ovem ents f o r t h e f o r m a t i o n o f
p o l i c i e s i n c o n n e c tio n w ith p u p i l t r a n s p o r t a t i o n ,
o f school p e rso n n e l,
em ploym ent
and th e a d m i n i s t r a t i o n o f s c h o o l o f f i c e s
and o f f i c e p e r s o n n e l.
5 . T e a c h e r s fro m t h e 1 — 20 t e a c h e r d i s t r i c t s r e p o r t e d
t h e e x i s t e n c e o f t h e s m a l l e s t am ount o f t e a c h e r i n i t i a t i o n o f
146
m ovem ents f o r p o l i c y c h a n g e s ,
w h ile t h e t e a c h e r s from t h e 6 1 -
150 t e a c h e r d i s t r i c t s r e p o r t e d t h e g r e a t e s t amount o f t e a c h e r
i n i t i a t i v e i n m ovem ents f o r t h e f o r m a t i o n o f p o l i c i e s .
6 . T e a c h e r s fro m t h e 1 — 20 a n d o v e r 150 t e a c h e r d i s ­
tric ts
gav e t h e l e a s t i n d i c a t i o n t h a t t e a c h e r s s h o u l d i n i t i ­
a t e m ovem ents f o r p o l i c y c h a n g e s , w h i l e t h e t e a c h e r s fro m t h e
6 1 — 150 t e a c h e r d i s t r i c t s r e p l i e d m o s t f r e q u e n t l y t h a t t e a c h ­
e r s s h o u l d i n i t i a t e m ovem ents f o r t h e f o r m a t i o n o f p o l i c i e s .
7 . J u n i o r h i g h s c h o o l t e a c h e r s m ore t h a n k i n d e r g a r t e n
to e ig h th grade te a c h e r s d is c lo s e d th e e x is te n c e of te a c h e r
in itia tiv e
i n t h e m ovem ents f o r p o l i c y c h a n g e s , w h i l e t h e r e ­
v e r s e was t r u e i n t h e r e p o r t s o f t h e i n s t a n c e s w here t e a c h e r s
s h o u l d i n i t i a t e m ovem ents f o r t h e c h an g e o f p o l i c i e s .
D i s t r i b u t i o n and c o m p a r is o n o f r e p l i e s t o t h e s i x
q u e s tio n s r e l a t e d to te a c h e r p a r t i c i p a t io n in th e d e te rm in a tio n o f a d m in istra tiv e p o l i c i e s .
1* A l l g r o u p s o f t e a c h e r s an d s u p e r i n t e n d e n t s r e v e a l e d
by s u b s t a n t i a l m a j o r i t i e s t h a t t e a c h e r s p o s s e s s e d t h e n e c e s ­
s a ry r e q u i s i t e s f o r p a r t i c i p a t i o n in th e d e te rm in a tio n o f ad ­
m in istra tiv e p o lic ie s .
A p p r o x i m a t e l y one t h i r d o f t h e 1 — 20
t e a c h e r s i z e - g r o u p a n d 29 p e r c e n t o f t h e j u n i o r h i g h s c h o o l
t e a c h e r g ro u p d i s s e n t e d fro m t h e m a j o r i t y o p i n i o n .
The 61 —
150 t e a c h e r s i z e - g r o u p r e t u r n e d a l m o s t a one h u n d r e d p e r c e n t
a ffirm a tiv e re p ly .
147
2. A m a j o r i t y o f a l l t e a c h e r groups r e p l i e d t h a t
t e a c h e r l o a d s w ere to o g r e a t t o p e r m i t t e a c h e r s to p a r t i c i ­
p a te e x te n s iv e ly i n th e fo rm a tio n o f a d m in is tr a tiv e p o l i c i e s .
The j u n i o r h i g h s c h o o l g ro u p a n d t h e s u p e r i n t e n d e n t s 1 g ro u p
c o n t a i n e d t h e l a r g e s t num ber o f d i s s e n t i n g o p i n i o n s .
In .th e
f o r m e r 38 p e r c e n t a n d i n t h e l a t t e r 4Z p e r c e n t o f t h e r e ­
s p o n d e n t s s t a t e d t h a t t e a c h e r l o a d s w e re n o t t o o h e a v y t o
p e rm it e x te n s iv e p a r t i c i p a t i o n .
3. A l a r g e m a j o r i t y o f a l l th e g ro u p s, e x c e p t one,
a g r e e d on t h e d e s i r a b i l i t y o f w o r k in g i n a s y s t e m w h e re t e a c h ­
e r s p a r t i c i p a t e d e x te n s iv e ly in th e fo rm a tio n o f a d m in is tr a ­
tiv e p o lic ie s .
F o r t y p e r c e n t o f t h e t e a c h e r s fro m t h e 1 - - 2 0
t e a c h e r g r o u p d i s s e n t e d fro m t h e ab ove o p i n i o n .
4 . A l l t e a c h e r g r o u p s , e x c e p t tw o, w e re p r e p o n d e r a n t l y
a g r e e d t h a t a n e s t a b l i s h e d p o l i c y on t e a c h e r p a r t i c i p a t i o n ,
r e c o g n i z e d b y t h e b o a r d o f e d u c a t i o n , w ould be d e s i r a b l e .
In
t h e s u p e r i n t e n d e n t s r and 1 — 20 t e a c h e r s i z e - g r o u p t h e r e w ere
d i s s e n t i n g o p i n i o n s o f 32 and 28 p e r c e n t s r e s p e c t i v e l y .
5 . W h ile s l i g h t l y m ore t h a n h a l f t h e a d m i n i s t r a t o r s
re p o rte d th e e x is te n c e of e s ta b lis h e d p o lic ie s f o r te a c h e r
p a rtic ip a tio n ,
o n l y on e t h i r d o f t h e t e a c h e r s s o i n d i c a t e d .
The e v i d e n c e showed t h a t a s t h e s i z e o f t h e d i s t r i c t s i n ­
c r e a s e d t h e r e w ere m ore s c h o o l s w i t h e s t a b l i s h e d p o l i c i e s .
6 . A ll groups s u b s t a n t i a l l y a g re ed t h a t f o r sc h o o l a d ­
m i n i s t r a t i o n t o be d e m o c r a t i c t e a c h e r p a r t i c i p a t i o n i n t h e
148
d e t e r m i n a t i o n o f t h e p o l i c i e s was e s s e n t i a l .
In th e s u p e rin ­
t e n d e n t s 1 g r o u p h o w e v e r, 36 p e r c e n t d i s a g r e e d w i t h t h e ab o v e
o p i n i o n a s d i d 28 p e r c e n t o f t h e t e a c h e r s f ro m t h e 1 — 20
te a c h e r d i s t r i c t s .
II.
CONCLUSIONS
The c o n c l u s i o n s d raw n fro m t h e q u e s t i o n n a i r e f i n d i n g s
w ere made r e l a t i v e t o d e m o c r a t i c a d m i n i s t r a t i o n a s o r i g i n a l l y
d e fin e d in t h i s stu d y .
On t h i s b a s i s ,
in as f a r a s te a c h e rs
a n d a d m i n i s t r a t o r s w ere c o n c e r n e d and w i t h r e g a r d t o p o l i c i e s
v i t a l l y a f f e c t i n g th e e n t i r e s t a f f c o n cern ed ,
th e ty p e o f
p r o c e d u r e i n w h ic h t h e a d m i n i s t r a t i v e o f f i c e r s d e t e r m i n e d t h e
p o l i c i e s o f t h e s c h o o l was c o n s i d e r e d u n d e m o c r a t i c .
When a d ­
m i n i s t r a t i v e o f f i c e r s f r e q u e n tly c o n s u lte d te a c h e r s w h ile
m a k in g t h e s c h o o l p o l i c i e s , y e t r e t a i n e d t h e i n i t i a t i v e
and
f i n a l d e c isio n s fo r a d m in is tra to rs , a c o n d itio n c lo s e ly a ll i e d
t o b e n e v o l e n t a u t o c r a c y was c o n s i d e r e d t o e x i s t .
I n term s o f
t h e o r i g i n a l d e f i n i t i o n , d e m o c ra c y was shown t o e x i s t when
t e a c h e r s a n d a d m i n i s t r a t o r s p a r t i c i p a t e d i n t h e m a k in g o f
p o l i c i e s o n a n e q u a l i t a r i a n b a s i s — w h e re t h e r e s u l t r e p r e s e n t ­
ed a c o m p o s ite a n d r e p r e s e n t a t i v e a c h i e v e m e n t .
When t h e
w e ig h t o f p o l i c y d e c i s i o n r e s t e d to a l a r g e d e g re e i n th e
^
^
__
h a n d s o f t e a c h e r s ^ t h e p r o c e s s was c o n s i d e r e d u n d e m o c r a t i c .
I n t e r m s o f t h e a b o v e m e a n in g s ,
an e s t i m a t e o f t h e
d e m o c r a t i c n a t u r e o f s c h o o l a d m i n i s t r a t i o n was m ade.
W it h i n
149
t h e ab o v e d e f i n i n g l i m i t s and c o g n i z a n t o f t h e c o n f l i c t i n g
r e p o r t s o f t e a c h e r s and a d m i n i s t r a t o r s r e l a t i v e t o e x i s t i n g
c o n d itio n s i t ap p eared t h a t th e p ro c e d u re s f o r d e te rm in in g
t h e s c h o o l p o l i c i e s w h ic h w e re v i t a l t o t h e s t a f f s c o n c e r n e d
w ere som ewhat l e s s t h a n d e m o c r a t i c .
How ever, a l l d i s t r i c t s
w ere n o t a l i k e i n t h i s l a t t e r r e s p e c t .
The g r e a t e s t e v i d e n c e
o f t h e u s e o f d e m o c r a t i c p r o c e d u r e s was fo u n d i n t h e s c h o o l
d i s t r i c t s o f 6 1 — 150 t e a c h e r s , w h i l e t h e l e a s t e v i d e n c e o f
d e m o c r a t i c m e th o d s i n t h e f o r m a t i o n o f s c h o o l p o l i c i e s was
shown t o b e i n t h e s m a l l e s t a n d l a r g e s t s c h o o l s .
T h a t t e a c h e r s and a d m i n i s t r a t o r s w ere f a i r l y w e l l
a g r e e d a s t o t h e t y p e o f p r o c e d u r e s w h ic h t h e y c o n s i d e r e d
i d e a l f o r t h e d e t e r m i n a t i o n o f p o l i c i e s was shown by t h e i r
responses.
T h at th e s e r e s p o n s e s i n d ic a t e d th e e x te n s iv e u se
o f d e m o c r a t i c p r o c e d u r e s was a l s o t r u e . ' A r e a l d i f f i c u l t y
was s e e n i n l a c k o f a g re e m e n t b e tw e e n a d m i n i s t r a t o r s and
t e a c h e r s a s t o when d e m o c r a t i c p r o c e d u r e s w ere i n o p e r a t i o n .
In a d d itio n to th e ty p e s o f p ro c e d u re s used c o n s id e r a ­
t i o n was g i v e n t o t h e i n i t i a t i o n o f m ovem ents f o r t h e f o r m a ­
t i o n o r c h an g e o f p o l i c i e s ,
by d e f i n i t i o n ,
p r e c e p t o f d e m o c ratic o p e ra tio n .
a fu n d a m e n ta l
H e re a g a i n . t e a c h e r s and
a d m i n i s t r a t o r s v a r i e d w i d e l y i n t h e i r e s t i m a t e s o f t h e am ount
of in itia tiv e e x istin g .
E v en w i t h t h e maximum r e p o r t e d t e a c h ­
e r i n i t i a t i o n o f m ovem ents f o r p o l i c y c h a n g e s t h e e v i d e n c e
r e v e a l e d t h a t t h e p r a c t i c e was n o t w i d e s p r e a d o r w e l l
150
e sta b lis h e d ,
im r t h e m o r e ,
a c c o rd in g to t h e i r r e p o r t s ,
te a c h ­
e r s and a d m i n i s t r a t o r s d i d n o t i n d i c a t e t h a t t h e u s e o f
t e a c h e r i n i t i a t i v e s h o u l d be v e r y w i d e s p r e a d .
s ib ly a lac k o f a p p re c ia tio n ,
te a c h e rs,
T h e r e was p o s ­
e s p e c i a l l y on t h e p a r t o f
o f t h e f u n d a m e n t a l r e l a t i o n s h i p b e tw e e n t h e r i g h t
t o i n i t i a t e m ovem ents f o r c h a n g e s i n p o l i c i e s a n d d e m o c r a t i c
c o n tro l.
W ith r e g a r d t o t h e s i x q u e s t i o n s r e l a t e d t o t e a c h e r
p a rtic ip a tio n ,
t h e d e m o c r a t i c i m p l i c a t i o n s w e re (1 ) t h a t
t e a c h e r s w o u ld o f n e c e s s i t y be q u a l i f i e d t o p a r t i c i p a t e ,
(£ )
t h a t t e a c h e r l o a d w ould o f n e c e s s i t y be a d j u s t e d t o p e r m i t
te a c h e r p a rtic ip a tio n ,
( 3 ) t h a t t e a c h e r s w o u ld p r e f e r t o w ork
i n s c h o o l s w h e re t e a c h e r p a r t i c i p a t i o n i n p o l i c y m a k in g was
e x te n siv e ,
( 4 ) t h a t e s t a b l i s h e d p o l i c i e s w ould o f n e c e s s i t y
be t h e o r d e r o f t h e d a y t o p r e s e r v e t h e c o n s t i t u t i o n a l r i g h t s
o f t e a c h e r s to p a r t i c i p a t e ,
(5 ) t h a t many s c h o o l s h a v e e s t a b ­
l i s h e d p o l i c i e s and ( 6 ) t h a t t e a c h e r s m u s t p a r t i c i p a t e f o r
s c h o o l a d m i n i s t r a t i o n t o be d e m o c r a t i c .
The e v i d e n c e shown by t h e r e p l i e s o f t h e t e a c h e r s and
a d m in is tr a to r s to f iv e of th e q u e s tio n s in d ic a te d th a t in
e v e r y i n s t a n c e t h e d e m o c r a t i c i m p l i c a t i o n s w ere u n d e r s t o o d
and a p p ro v e d .
H ot t o be o v e r l o o k e d h o w e v er w e re a p p r o x i ­
m a t e l y one f i f t h ' o f t h e r e s p o n d e n t s who e i t h e r d i s a g r e e d a s
to th e i m p l i c a t i o n s o f th e q u e s tio n s o r p r e f e r e d u n d e m o c ratic
a lte rn a tiv e s.
As t o t h e num ber o f s c h o o l s p o s s e s s i n g e s t a b ­
151
l i s h e d and re c o g n iz e d p ro c e d u re s th e r e p l i e s i n d ic a t e d l i t t l e
fo rm al r e c o g n itio n o f th e r i g h t o f te a c h e r s to p a r t i c i p a t e in
th e fo rm u la tio n of sc h o o l p o l i c i e s v i t a l to te a c h e r s o r o t h e r ­
w ise .
The a b o v e o b s e r v a t i o n s an d d e d u c t i o n s w ere n o t i n t e n d e d
a s f i n a l c o n c l u s i o n s on t h e s t a t u s o f t e a c h e r p a r t i c i p a t i o n
in th e d e te rm in a tio n of a d m in is tr a tio n ,
b ecau se th e l i m i t e d
number o f r e p l i e s e s p e c i a l l y fro m t h e t e a c h e r s would n o t p e r ­
m i t t h e d r a w in g o f c o n c l u s i o n s w i t h a n y d e g r e e o f f i n a l i t y .
I t was i n t e n d e d h o w e v e r, t h a t t h e a b o v e c o n c l u s i o n s b e c o n ­
s i d e r e d a s g e n e r a l t e n d e n c i e s i n Los A n g e l e s C o u n ty .
III.
RECOMMEICDATIONS
S in c e th e i n v e s t i g a t i o n i n t o th e n a t u r e and e x te n t o f
t e a c h e r p a r t i c i p a t i o n i n t h e f o r m a t i o n o f s c h o o l p o l i c i e s was
o n l y one p h a s e o f t h e d e m o c r a t i c o p e r a t i o n o f t h e s c h o o l ,
f u r t h e r s t u d i e s m i g h t w e l l be m ade: ( 1 ) t o r e l a t e t h e p r e s e n t
p r o b le m o f s t u d y t o t h e l a r g e r s u b j e c t ,
(2 ) t o i n v e s t i g a t e t h e
s p e c i f i c o r g a n i z a t i o n s u sed in th e c o o p e r a tiv e d e te rm in a tio n
of school p o lic ie s ,
(3 ) t o i n v e s t i g a t e m e th o d s em ployed i n
s e c u r i n g and m a i n t a i n in g t e a c h e r p a r t i c i p a t i o n i n p o l i c y d e t e r ­
m in a tio n ,
(4 ) t o a n a l y s e s c h o o l b o a r d p o l i c i e s a n d r e g u l a t i o n s
w ith r e g a r d to te a c h e r p a r t i c i p a t i o n ,
(5 ) t o s e c u r e i n f o r m a ­
t i o n on b o a r d o f e d u c a t i o n a n d com m unity s e n t i m e n t p e r t a i n i n g
to d em o cratic c o n tr o l o f sc h o o l p o l i c i e s ,
and ( 6 ) t o i n v e s t i ­
g a t e t h e e x i s t i n g p r o c e d u r e s by w hich a l l g r o u p s a f f e c t e d by
or v ita lly
i n t e r e s t e d i n t h e s c h o o l p a r t i c i p a t e i n t h e fo rm u ­
la tio n of i t s p o lic ie s .
BIBLIOGRAPHY
A.
BOOKS
Almack, Jo h n 0 . , E d u c a t i o n f o r C i t i z e n s h i p .
M i f f l i n Company, 1 924.
28? p p .
B o s t o n : H o u g h to n
An e a r l y a r t i c l e w h ic h -re v ie w s t h e d e v e lo p m e n t o f demo­
c r a tic school a d m in is tra tio n .
A ls o i n c l u d e s t h e p s y e o l o g i c a l e f f e c t s o f t e a c h e r p a r t i c i p a t i o n and a c t i v i t i e s
i n w h ic h p a r t i c i p a t i o n i s p o s s i b l e .
Almack, J o h n C . , and A. R. L ang, P r o b le m s o f t h e ‘L e a c h in g
P r o f e s s i o n . B oston* H o u g h to n M i f f l i n Company, 1925.
340 p p .
C o n t a i n s a f a i r l y e x t e n s i v e l i s t of. a c t i v i t i e s i n w hich
t e a c h e r p a r t i c i p a t i o n i n th e d e te r m in a tio n o f sc h o o l
p o l i c i e s w as c o n s i d e r e d d e s i r a b l e a n d f e a s i b l e b y e d u ­
c a t o r s a n d b o a r d m em bers.
Bode, Boyd H . , M odern E d u c a t i o n a l T h e o r i e s .
m i l l a n Company, 1 92 7.
351 p p .
Hew Y ork : Mac­
E l a b o r a t e s t h e m e a n in g o f d e m o c ra c y .
B ro o k s , 1 . C . , E d u c a t i o n f o r D e m o crac y .
a n d Company, 1 9 1 9 .
263 p p .
C h ic a g o : Rand M cN ally
T r e a t s t h e s u b j e c t fro m a h i s t o r i c a l s t a n d p o i n t .
A ls o
e n u m e rates c r i t e r i a f o r Ju d g in g th e d eg ree of p a r t i c i p a ­
tio n in e x is te n c e .
C u b b e r le y , E . D ., P u b l i c S c h o o l A d m i n i s t r a t i o n .
H ou g h to n M i f f l i n Company, 1 9 2 9 .
479 p p .
B o s to n :
E x p la in s th e p s y c h o lo g ic a l r e a c t i o n s to te a c h e r p a r t i c i ­
p a t i o n i n s c h o o l p o l i c y d ev elo p m en t.
K i l p a t r i c k , W. H ., Boyd H. Bode, and o t h e r s , E d u c a t i o n a l
E r o n t i e r . Hew Y o rk a n d L ondon: D. A p p l e to n C e n t u r y and
Company I n c . , 19 34.
325 p p .
S u g g e s t s a d m i n i s t r a t i o n be c o n s i s t e n t i n i t s d e m o c r a t i c
a im s .
I n d i c a t e s c r i t e r i a f o r h a n d l i n g new p r o b l e m s .
In clu d e s a c t i v i t i e s f o r p a r t i c i p a ti o n .
B u rn ish e s a
resum& o f c u r r e n t o p i n i o n .
L e w is , E . E . , P e r s o n n e l P r o b le m s o f t h e T e a c h i n g S t a f f .
Y o rk : C e n tu r y Company, 1 9 2 5 . 460 p p .
New
L i s t s many a c t i v i t i e s f o r t e a c h e r p a r t i c i p a t i o n % C iv e s
h i s t o r i c a l background o f D a l l a s , T exas C o u n c il.
155
M o r r i s o n , J o h n Oayoe, L e g a l S t a t u s o f C i t y S u p e r i n t e n d e n t s .
B a l t i m o r e : W arwick and Y o rk I n c . , 1 9 3 2 .
162 p p .
R e f e r s t o t h e r e s u l t s o f a s t u d y on t h e e x t e n t o f
le g a liz a tio n o f tea ch e r p a r tic ip a tio n re p o rte d in a
c h a p te r o f t h i s hook.
M u r s e l l , Jam es L . , P r i n c i p l e s o f E d u c a t i o n . New T o r k : W. W.
M o rto n a n d Company I n c . , 1 9 3 4 . 505 p p .
P o in ts out th e im p o s s ib ility o f e f f e c t i v e l y r e p r e s e n t­
i n g two i d e a l o g i e s .
W h itn e y , E . L . , The Growth o f T e a c h e r s i n S e r v i c e .
C e n tu r y Company, 1 9 2 7 .
308 p p .
New Y o rk :
S u g g e sts t e a c h e r s p a r t i c i p a t e i n an a d v is o r y c a p a c i ty .
L is ts a c t iv i t ie s fo r tea ch e r p a r tic ip a tio n .
B.
PERIODICAL ARTICLES
B a k e r , E . 1 . , " E x t e n d i n g D em ocracy t o S c h o o l A d m i n i s t r a t i o n , "
A m e ric a n T e a c h e r , 2 2 : 2 5 - 2 7 , S e p te m b e r, 1 9 3 7 .
E x p o u n d s t h e m e a n in g o f d em ocracy i n s c h o o l a d m i n i s t r a ­
tio n .
A lso e x p l a i n s p r o c e d u r e f o r s e l e c t i n g t e a c h e r s
c o o p e ra tiv e ly .
B l a c k h u r s t , J . H ., " S c h o o l A d m i n i s t r a t i o n T o m o rro w ," A m e ric an
S c h o o l B o a rd J o u r n a l , 9 5 : 5 6 , 9 0 - 9 2 , November, 1 9 3 7 .
E x p la in s th e n e c e s s i t y f o r d e m o c ra tic p ro c e d u re s i n p r o ­
m o t i n g e f f e c t i v e e d u c a t i o n a l a d v a n c e m e n t.
B u rk e , A. J . , and C. A l e x a n d e r , " G u id e t o t h e L i t e r a t u r e on
P u b lic S chool A d m i n i s t r a t i o n , " E le m e n ta ry S chool J o u r n a l ,
3 7 :7 6 4 -7 8 , June, 1937.
B u rk e , E . A ., "Demands o f D em ocracy on S c h o o l A d m i n i s t r a t i o n , "
E d u c a t i o n a l A d m i n i s t r a t i o n and S u p e r v i s i o n , 1 7 : 8 1 - 9 4 ,
F e b ru ary , 1931.
E n u m e r a te s a d m i n i s t r a t i v e p r o b l e m s i n c o n n e c t i o n w i t h
d e m o c ra tic s c h o o l c o n t r o l , and e x p la in s th e p l a c e o f
e f f i c i e n t d e m o c ratic c o n tr o l .
A lso t o u c h e s on s u b j e c t
o f h i s t o r i c a l d e v e lo p m e n t.
i
m
B u r s c h , C. W., " P r i n c i p l e s o f T e a c h e r P a r t i c i p a t i o n i n A d m in i­
s t r a t i o n o f t h e S m a ll H i - S c h o o l , " A m e ric a n S c h o o l B o ard
J o u r n a l , 7 7 : 4 1 - 2 , 116, D ecem ber, 1 9 2 8 .
R e v e a l s p r i n c i p l e s on w h ic h p a r t i c i p a t i o n m u s t he b a s e d .
I n d i c a t e s b e n e f i t s d e r i v e d fro m p a r t i c i p a t i o n .
C a r p e n t e r , W, W., " P a r t i c i p a t i o n o f T e a c h e r s i n t h e D e t e r m i n ­
a t i o n o f S ch o o l P o l i c i e s , " Peabody J o u r n a l o f E d u c a tio n ,
9 :2 3 4 -3 8 , Ja n u a ry , 1932. .
D e s c r i b e s an e x p e r i m e n t on t e a c h e r p a r t i c i p a t i o n i n
M isso u ri.
, " S u g g e s t i o n S y s t e m ," P e a b o d y J o u r n a l - o f E d u c a t i o n ,
8 7 1 3 - 1 5 , J u l y , 1 9 30.
D i s c u s s e s t h e i m p o r t a n c e o f t e a c h e r p a r t i c i p a t i o n fro m
th e t e a c h e r ’ s s ta n d p o in t.
Coffm an, L o tu s D ., "The Need f o r t h e S u b s t i t u t i o n o f a Coo p e r a t i v e Type o f S c h o o l O r g a n i z a t i o n f o r t h e P r e s e n t
S y s t e m ," A m e ric an S c h o o l B o a rd J o u r n a l , 5 9 : 2 9 - 3 0 ,
S e p te m b e r , 1 9 1 9 .
E l a b o r a t e s th e m e a n in g o f d e m o c rac y i n s c h o o l a d m i n i s ­
tra tio n .
Cooke, D. H . , and B. A. S c h m its , " P a r t i c i p a t i o n o f T e a c h e r s
i n t h e A d m i n i s t r a t i o n o f S m a ll H igh S c h o o l s , " S c h o o l
R e v ie w , 4 0 : 4 4 - 5 0 , J a n u a r y , 1 9 3 2 .
R e l a t e s t h e f i n d i n g s on one o f t h e m ore i m p o r t a n t d e ­
v e l o p m e n t s i n t e a c h e r p a r t i c i p a t i o n i n M i s s o u r i H igh
S c h o o ls.
A n a ly ses th e r e s u l t s o f a su rv e y o f c o n d i­
t i o n s i n f i f t y f i v e sm a ll h ig h s c h o o ls .
C o u r t i s , S. A ., " G e t t i n g C o o p e r a t i o n , " N a t i o n ’ s S c h o o l s , 21 :
3 5 - 6 , M arch, 1 9 3 8 .
D e als w ith c o n d itio n s o f u n r e s t i n sc h o o l a d m i n is tr a tio n ,
and w ith i n d i c a t i o n s o f p o s s i b l e re m e d ie s.
D istin g u ish e s
b e tw e e n l e g i s l a t i v e a n d e x e c u t i v e p h a s e s o f a d m i n i s t r a ­
tio n .
Deam, T . M ,, " T e a c h e r C o o p e r a t i o n i n A d m i n i s t r a t i o n o f H ig h
S c h o o l s , " S c h o o l R eview , 3 3 : 1 2 6 - 3 0 , F e b r u a r y , 1 9 2 5 .
15?
Shows t h e m e th o d s h y w hich t e a c h e r p a r t i c i p a t i o n may
ta k e p la c e .
Dewey, Jo h n , "D em ocracy f o r t h e T e a c h e r , * P r o g r e s s i v e E d u c a ­
t i o n , 8 : 2 1 6 - 1 8 , M arch, 1 9 5 1 .
D i s c u s s e s th e c o m p e te n c y o f t e a c h e r s t o make s c h o o l
p o lic ie s.
E g i n g t o n , D. P . , " I s D e m o c r a tic A d m i n i s t r a t i o n o f S c h o o l s
P r a c t i c a b l e ? ” A m erican S c h o o l B o a rd J o u r n a l , 8 6 : 1 5 - 1 7 ,
Ju ne, 1953.
D e f i n e s d e m o c ra c y . C o n f ir m s t h e i d e a t h a t t e a c h e r s
sh o u ld p a r t i c i p a t e .
C a u t i o n s t h a t t e a c h e r s m u st be
p ro fe s s io n a l in t h e i r c ritic is m s .
F o o t e , I r v i n g P . , ”How Can a S u p e r i n t e n d e n t P r o v i d e f o r
T eacher P a r t i c i p a t i o n in th e A d m in is tra tio n o f a C ity
S c h o o l S y s te m ? ” E d u c a t i o n a l A d m i n i s t r a t i o n a n d S u p e r v i ­
s i o n , 1 0 :2 2 1 - 2 3 2 , A p r i l , 1 9 2 4 .
L i s t s good b i b l i o g r a p h i c a l r e f e r e n c e s .
R ev iew s s e v e r a l
i m p o r t a n t a r t i c l e s a n d s t u d i e s on t e a c h e r p a r t i c i p a t i o n .
F o w lk e s , J . C . , " S h a l l A d m i n i s t r a t i o n b e L i m i t e d t o A d m in is ­
t r a t o r s ? ” n a t i o n s S c h o o l s , 3 : 4 2 - 4 6 , May, 1 9 2 9 .
D e f i n e s d e m o c r a t i c a d m i n i s t r a t i o n and i n t i m a t e s t h a t
te a c h e r p a r tic ip a tio n is e s s e n tia l to f u lf illm e n t of
e d u c a tio n a l o b je c tiv e s .
G rabo , Ray P . , ” The Oak R id g e P l a n o f T e a c h e r P a r t i c i p a t i o n , ”
E d u c a t i o n a l M ethod, 5 : 3 0 0 - 3 0 3 , M arch, 1 9 2 6 .
S u g g ests a c t i v i t i e s f o r te a c h e r p a r t i c i p a t i o n .
H an na, P a u l , " T e a c h e r P a r t i c i p a t i o n i n C u r r i c u l u m M a k i n g ,”
n a t i o n a l E le m e n ta ry P r i n c i p a l , 1 7 :1 4 2 -1 4 6 , A p r i l , 1938.
R e p o rts an e x c e l l e n t te c h n iq u e f o r g e t t i n g c o o p e ra tio n
i n c u r r i c u l u m m a k in g .
Hebb, B e r t h a T . , " C o u n c i l s o f P u b l i c S c h o o l T e a c h e r s , ” S c h o o l
L if e , 7 :9 , A p ril, 1921.
E x p l a i n s p u r p o s e s f o r w h ich c o u n c i l s a r e o r g a n i z e d .
p o r t s o n h i s t o r i c a l d e v e lo p m e n t o f c o u n c i l s .
R e­
158
H e lm e r, E t h e l , "The t e a c h e r * s F o r m u l a t i o n o f E f f e c t i v e E d u c a ­
t i o n a l A im s ," E d u c a t i o n a l A d m i n i s t r a t i o n and S u p e r v i s i o n ,
£ 3 : 6 7 3 - 7 4 , D ecem ber, 1 9 3 7 .
D is c u s s e s t h e need f o r a d e m o c ratic s i t u a t i o n
t o c a r r y o u t t h e a im s o f e d u c a t i o n .
in o rd e r
H e n d le y , C h a r l e s T ; , d e m o c r a c y and S c h o o l A d m i n i s t r a t i o n , ”
A m e ric an T e a c h e r , 2 1 : 2 1 - 2 3 , M arch, 1 9 3 7 .
P o i n t s t o t h e f a c t t e a c h e r s a r e s u b j e c t t o s p e e d up an d
o th e r la b o r d e v ic e s.
C a u tio n s t h a t a s t r o n g o r g a n iz a ; tio n of te a c h e rs is n ecessary .
H e r r o n , S t e l l a , "The P a r t t h e T e a c h e r S h o u ld P l a y i n t h e
A d m i n i s t r a t i o n o f a S c h o o l S y s t e m , ” A m e ric an S c h o o l
B o a rd J o u r n a l , 6 1 : 4 0 , A u g u s t, 1 9 2 0 .
Echoes th e o f t e n r e p e a t e d r e a s o n s f o r t e a c h e r p a r t i c i p a ­
t i o n — a te a c h e r* s v ie w p o in t.
H u n t e r , E r e d M., " T e a c h e r P a r t i c i p a t i o n i n t h e D e t e r m i n a t i o n
o f A d m i n i s t r a t i v e P o l i c i e s , " S c h o o l and S o c i e t y , 2 2 :
6 6 5 - 6 7 1 , November 2 8 , 1 9 2 5 .
P o in ts out b e n e fits o f p a r tic ip a tio n .
G iv e s a c t i v i t i e s
i n w hich t o p a r t i c i p a t e .
C o n t a i n s a d e f i n i t i o n o f demo­
c ra tic p a rtic ip a tio n .
L e e c h , C. G ., " T e a c h e r P a r t i c i p a t i o n i n t h e S m a ll C i t y , "
A m erican S c h o o l B o a rd J o u r n a l , 6 4 : 5 2 - 5 4 , M arch, 1 9 2 3 .
I n d i c a t e s t h a t i n f o r m a l p r o c e d u r e s a r e m ore d e s i r a b l e
f o r s m a ll s c h o o ls .
M acD onald, D. J . , "D em ocracy i n S c h o o l A d m i n i s t r a t i o n , "
A m e ric an S c h o o l B o a rd J o u r n a l , 6 3 : 3 1 - 3 2 , 1 19, S e p te m b e r,
19 21.
C o n t r a s t s r i g h t s and p r i v i l e g e s w i t h d u t i e s and o b l i g a ­
tio n s .
A ls o d e a l s w i t h m e th o d s o f p r o c e d u r e .
M e l c h e r , G . , "T en Ways t o I n c r e a s e t h e I n f l u e n c e o f T e a c h e r s , "
N a t i o n * s S c h o o l s , 1 5 : 2 9 - 3 0 , M a rch , 1 9 3 5 .
E n u m e r a te s v a r i o u s f u n c t i o n s f o r t e a c h e r p a r t i c i p a t i o n ,
g iv in g re a so n s f o r such c o o p e ra tio n .
159
O rtm an, E . J . , " T e a c h e r C o u n c i l s , " A m e ric a n S c h o o l B o a rd
J o u r n a l , 6 2 : 4 9 - 5 0 , 113, A p r i l , 1921';
D i s c l o s e s t h e e x t e n t o f t h e T ea ch e r. C o u n c il Movement i n
th e U n ited S t a te s .
A ls o d i s c u s s e s c o u n c i l a c t i v i t i e s .
R a b o u rn , S a r a B. F . , "The P r i n c i p a l o f a Modern H ig h S c h o o l
a n d H is C o m m itte e s,* 1 S c h o o l and S o c i e t y , 2 4 :3 3 2 - 3 3 4 ,
S e p te m b e r 11 , 1 9 2 6 .
S u g g e sts a c t i v i t i e s f o r p a r t i c i p a t i o n .
In d ic a te s th a t
p o w e rs o f c o m m itte e s c o n t r o l s t h e i r d e m o c r a t i c w o r t h .
R e i n o e h l , G. M ., " T e a c h e r P a r t i c i p a t i o n i n S c h o o l A d m i n i s t r a ­
t i o n , n N a t i o n a l E l e m e n t a r y P r i n c i p a l , 1 8 : 6 9 - 7 4 , D ecem ber,
1938.
P roposes a c t i v i t i e s f o r te a c h e r p a r t i c i p a t i o n .
R ice ,
G eorge A ., "More D em ocracy f o r T e a c h e r s , " S c h o o l and
S o c i e t y , 1 1 :2 3 0 -3 1 , F e b ru a ry , 1920.
R e v e a l s g e n e r a l u n r e s t w i t h a u t o c r a t i c m e th o d s o f s c h o o l
c o n tro l.
R u s s e l l , W, F . , " D e m o c r a t i c P r i n c i p l e s i n S c h o o l A d m i n i s t r a ­
t i o n , " T e a c h e r s * C o l l e g e R e c o rd , 3 8 : 1 0 5 - 1 8 , Novem ber,'
1 9 3 6 .D e f i n e s s y s te m s o f d e m o c ra c y .
S e a rs , J . F , , " A n a ly sis o f School A d m in is tr a tiv e C o n tr o ls ,"
E d u c a t i o n a l A d m i n i s t r a t i o n and S u p e r v i s i o n , 2 0 : 4 0 1 - 3 0 ,
S e p te m b e r, 1 9 3 4 .
D e fin e s sc h o o l a d m i n i s t r a t io n .
, , "T eacher P a r t i c i p a t i o n in P u b lic School A d m in istra ­
t i o n , " A m e ric a n S c h o o l B o a rd J o u r n a l , 6 3 : 2 9 - 3 2 , 1 1 3 -1 4 ,
O c to b e r , 1 9 2 1 .
I n v e s t i g a t e s on a n e x t e n s i v e b a s i s t h e o r i g i n a n d p u r ­
pose o f te a c h e r c o u n c ils .
S p a u ld in g ,F . E ., "C o o p e ra tio n i n School A d m in is tr a tio n ,"
S c h o o l R eview , 2 6 : 5 6 1 - 7 5 , O c t o b e r , 1 9 1 8 .
E n u m e r a te s p r i n c i p l e s u p o n w hich c o o p e r a t i o n m u st be
based.
R e v e a ls needed ty p e s o f o r g a n i z a t i o n s . D e fin e s
160
c o o p e r a t i o n and s t a t e s b e n e f i t s o f t e a c h e r p a r t i c i p a ­
tio n .
S p i n n i n g , J . M ., " A d m i n i s t r a t i o n W ith o u t P o r t f o l i o , " N at i o n f s
S c h o o l s , 2 2 : 2 6 - 2 8 , Novem ber, 1 93 8.
P ro p o ses a c t i v i t i e s f o r te a c h e r p a r t i c i p a t i o n .
In d i­
c a te s ty p e o f p a r t i c i p a t i o n c o n sid e re d d e s i r a b l e .
S t i l l m a n , C h a r l e s B ., "D em ocracy i n t h e M anagem ent o f S c h o o l s , "
A m e ric a n S c h o o l B o a rd J o u r n a l , p . 39, J u n e , 1 9 2 0 .
P o in ts out th e n e c e s s ity f o r te a c h e r s to l i v e d e m o c ra tic ­
a l l y in o rd e r to p re p a re c h i l d r e n f o r d e m o c ratic l i v i n g .
S t r a y e r , G eorge D ., "Why T e a c h e r P a r t i c i p a t i o n i n S c h o o l
A d m i n i s t r a t i o n ? " T e a c h e r *s C o l l e g e R e c o r d , 3 8 : 4 5 7 - 6 4 ,
M arch, 1 9 3 7 .
E x p la in s th e b e n e f i ts o f te a c h e r s u g g e s tio n s .
T ead ,
Ordway, "D em ocracy i n A d m i n i s t r a t i o n , " S o c i a l F r o n t i e r ,
3 : 1 0 5 - 7 , J a n u a r y , 1 9 37.
E x p la in s th e n a tu r e o f d e m o c ratic sc h o o l a d m i n i s t r a t io n .
T h a y e r , T, T*, " D e m o c r a tic S c h o o l A d m i n i s t r a t i o n , " E d u c a t i o n ­
a l A d m i n i s t r a t i o n and S u p e r v i s i o n , 1 1 : 3 6 1 - 7 2 , S e p te m b e r ,
1929.
A n a ly ses th e u n d e rly in g c a u se s o f th e c r i t i c i s m o f a u to ­
c r a t ic school a d m in is tra tio n .
U p d e g r a f f , H a r l a n , " R e p o r t o f C om m ittee on P a r t i c i p a t i o n o f
T e a c h e r s i n S c h o o l M a n a g e m e n t," E l e m e n t a r y S c h o o l
J o u r n a l , 2 2 :7 8 3 -7 8 8 , Ju n e, 1922.
E m p h a s iz e s t h e o u tc o m e s o f t e a c h e r p a r t i c i p a t i o n .
.
, "The P a r t i c i p a t i o n o f T e a c h e r s i n S c h o o l M a n a g e m e n t,"
E d u c a t i o n a l R e v ie w , 6 0 : 5 2 - 6 1 , J u n e , 1 9 2 0 .
R e v ie w s t h e c o n d i t i o n s a t t h e end o f th e W orld War I
le a d in g to th e in c re a s e d i n t e r e s t in te a c h e r p a r t i c i p a ­
tio n in school a d m in is tra tio n .
W ils o n , H. B . , "The G e n e r a l N a t u r e o f t h e S o c i a l i z e d S c h o o l , "
J o u r n a l o f E d u c a tio n , 9 7 :2 3 8 -4 1 , F e b ru a ry , 1923.
161
C o n s i d e r s t h e p s y c h o l o g i c a l a f f e c t o f p a r t i c i p a t i o n on
t e a c h e r s . E n u m e r a te s c r i t e r i a f o r d e m o c r a t i c p a r t i c i ­
p a tio n .
, "The P a r t i c i p a t i o n o f t h e 'l e a c h i n g S t a f f i n S c h o o l
A d m i n i s t r a t i o n , " E d u c a t i o n a l A d m i n i s t r a t i o n and S u p e r ­
v i s i o n , 6 : 6 1 - 7 , F e b r u a r y , 1920.
D i s c u s s e s h i s t o r i c a l d e v e lo p m e n t o f t e a c h e r p a r t i c i p a ­
tio n .
C o n c lu d e s w i t h c r i t e r i a and p r i n c i p l e s o f p a r t i ­
c ip a tio n .
Woods, B. C . , " T e a c h e r P a r t i c i p a t i o n i n S c h o o l M a n a g e m e n t,”
E d u c a t i o n , 5 8 : 6 2 7 - 3 0 , J u n e , 19 38.
C o n t a i n s a good l i s t o f a c t i v i t i e s f o r p a r t i c i p a t i o n .
D i s c u s s e s r e a s o n s f o r p a r t i c i p a t i o n , and e m p h a s i z e s t h e
n e e d f o r p r o p e r p r o c e d u r e s w h ich a r e g i v e n .
C.
PUBLICATIONS OF LEARNED ORGANIZATIONS
A d a ir, C o r n e lia S ., "T each er P a r t i c i p a t i o n i n th e D e te rm in a ­
t i o n o f S c h o o l P o l i c i e s from t h e V i e w p o i n t o f t h e C l a s s ­
room T e a c h e r , " N a t i o n a l E d u c a t i o n A s s o c i a t i o n A d d r e s s e s
a n d P r o c e e d i n g s , 6 3 : 9 8 - 1 0 2 , 19 25.
L is ts th e b e n e f i ts of te a c h e r p a r t i c i p a t i o n to te a c h e rs
and t h e e d u c a t i o n a l p r o f e s s i o n .
_______ , "The T e a c h e r i n A d m i n i s t r a t i o n , " N a t i o n a l E d u c a t i o n
A s s o c ia tio n P r o c e e d in g s , 5 8 :9 9 , 1920.
A rg u e s t h e c a u s e f o r t e a c h e r p a r t i c i p a t i o n i n t h e d e t e r . m in a tio n o f sc h o o l p o l i c i e s .
B l a n t o n , A n n ie Webb, "D em ocracy i n S c h o o l A d m i n i s t r a t i o n , "
N a t i o n a l E d u c a t i o n A s s o c i a t i o n P r o c e e d i n g s , 5 8 :5 1 5 - 5 1 8 ,
19 2 0 .
D isc u sses a c t i v i t i e s
d e sira b le .
f o r w hich t e a c h e r p a r t i c i p a t i o n i s
O o u r t i s , S. A ., " P h i l o s o p h y U n d e r l y i n g T e a c h e r P a r t i c i p a t i o n , "
E i g h t h Y e a rb o o k o f t h e M ic h ig a n E d u c a t i o n A s s o c i a t i o n ,
D e p a r tm e n t o f E l e m e n t a r y S c h o o l P r i n c i p a l s , P a r t I . ,
8 :1 3 -3 6 , 1935.
162
S e ts f o r t h e x te n s i v e l y th e p h ilo so p h y u n d e rly in g te a c h e r
p a rtic ip a tio n .
D e v e lo p s th e c r i t e r i a by w h ic h c o o p e r a ­
t i o n c a n be d e t e r m i n e d and by w hich i t n e c e s s a r i l y p r o ­
ceeds.
________ , " T e c h n i q u e s o f C o o p e r a t i o n , " N a t i o n a l E d u c a t i o n
A s s o c i a t i o n , D e p a rtm e n t o f S u p e r v i s o r s a n d D i r e c t o r s o f
I n s t r u c t i o n , 7 6 : 5 9 5 - 9 6 , 1 9 3 8 . W a s h in g to n , D .C .r t h e
A sso c ia tio n .
989 p p .
E m p h a s iz e s t h e n e e d f o r o r g a n i z a t i o n , d e f i n i t i o n o f
f u n c t i o n s , an d r e c o g n i t i o n o f l e v e l s o f c o o p e r a t i o n .
Dewey, J o h n , "D em ocracy a n d E d u c a t i o n a l A d m i n i s t r a t i o n , "
N a t i o n a l E d u c a t i o n A s s o c i a t i o n , D e p a r tm e n t o f S u p e r i n t e n d ­
ence O f f i c i a l R e p o rt, p p . 4 8 -5 5 .
W a s h in g to n , D. C . r t h e
A s s o c i a t i o n , 1 9 3 7 . 255 p p .
Dewey, i n t h i s a r t i c l e a r g u e s t h e u n d e s i r a b i l i t y o f
a u to c ra tic c o n tro l.
D o u g la s , P a u l , "F reed om o f D i s c u s s i o n , " R e p o r t o f P r o c e e d i n g s ,
A m e ric a n F e d e r a t i o n o f T e a c h e r s , 1 3 : 6 7 - 7 4 , J u l y , 1 9 2 9 .
R e l a t e s t h e f a c t o r s m a k in g a s t r o n g o r g a n i z a t i o n o f
te a c h e rs n ecessary .
E n g e l h a r d t , Ni L . , " T e a c h e r P a r t i c i p a t i o n i n S e h o o l A d m in is ­
t r a t i o n , " T w en ty T h i r d A n n u a l Schoolmen* s Week P r o c e e d ­
i n g s , p p . 212-218. U n i v e r s ity o f P e n n s y lv a n ia B u l l e t i n ,
E d u c a t i o n a l P r o g r a m s f o r Today and Tomorrow, P h i l a d e l ­
p h i a , P e n n s y l v a n i a : The U n i v e r s i t y , 1 9 3 6 . 5 7 6 p p .
E m p h a s iz e s t h e n e c e s s i t y o f t e a c h e r p a r t i c i p a t i o n t o i n ­
s u r e t h a t t e a c h e r s u n d e r s t a n d a n d s y m p a th i z e w i t h e d u ­
c a t i o n a l a d v an c em en ts.
G o s l i n g , T . W,, "A cadem ic F reedo m - From t h e V ie w p o in t o f t h e
S u p e r in te n d e n t," N a tio n a l E d u c a tio n A s s o c ia tio n P ro c e e d -in g s , 7 2 :7 9 -8 4 , 1954.
P o r t r a y s t h e ' c o n d i t i o n s u n d e r w h ic h t e a c h e r p a r t i c i p a ­
t i o n w i l l d ev elo p .
Kumpf, C. H ., and G. La F . Kumpf, " V a lu e s o f C o o p e r a t i v e
A d m i n i s t r a t i o n , " D e p a r tm e n t o f E l e m e n t a r y S c h o o l P r i n ­
c i p a l r s Y e a rb o o k o f t h e N a t i o n a l E d u c a t i o n A s s o c i a t i o n ,
1 6 :2 9 2 -9 7 , 1937.
16*3
D is c u s s e s th e a d v a n ta g e s o f c o o p e r a tio n .
In c lu d e s a
l i s t o f su g g e ste d a c t i v i t i e s f o r c o o p e ra tiv e a c tio n .
l o n g s h o r e , W. I . , " T e a c h e r P a r t i c i p a t i o n i n t h e D e t e r m i n a t i o n
o f P o l i c i e s from t h e Y ie w p o in t o f t h e P r i n c i p a l , "
N a tio n a l E d u c a tio n A s s o c ia tio n A d d re sses and P ro c e e d ­
i n g s , 6 3 : 1 0 7 - 1 1 0 , 1925.
Shows t h e I m p o r ta n c e o f d e m o c r a t i c s c h o o l c o n t r o l fro m
t h e s t a n d p o i n t o f t e a c h e r e f f i c i e n c y and m o r a l e .
M o se r, W ilh u r E . , " T e a c h e r P a r t i c i p a t i o n i n S c h o o l A d m in is ­
t r a t i o n : I t s N a t u r e , E x t e n t , a n d D e g r e e o f A d v o c a c y ,"
(u n p u b lis h e d D o c to r’ s d i s s e r t a t i o n , P a lo A lto , C a li ­
f o r n i a : S t a n f o r d U n i v e r s i t y , 1 9 3 8 ) , 200 p p .
S urveys t e a c h e r p a r t i c i p a t i o n i n C a l i f o r n i a w ith s p e c i ­
a l e m p h a s is on t e a c h e r a t t i t u d e s .
C o n ta in s an e x c e l ­
le n t l i s t of a c tiv itie s fo r p a rtic ip a tio n .
N a t i o n a l E d u c a t i o n A s s o c i a t i o n a n d A m e ric an A s s o c i a t i o n o f
S c h o o l A d m i n i s t r a t o r s , E d u c a t i o n a l P o l i c i e s C om m ission,
The S t r u c t u r e and A d m i n i s t r a t i o n o f E d u c a t i o n i n
A m e ric an D em ocracy. W a s h in g to n , D. C . : t h e C om m ission,
1938.
128 p p .
E n u m e r a te s p r i n c i p l e s f o r t h e a d m i n i s t r a t i o n o f A m e ri­
can e d u c a t i o n .
N a t i o n a l E d u c a t i o n A s s o c i a t i o n D e p a rtm e n t o f S u p e r v i s o r s and
D i r e c t o r s o f I n s t r u c t i o n , E l e v e n t h Y e a rb o o k , C o o p e ra ­
t i o n : P r i n c i p l e s and P r a c t i c e s . W a s h in g to n , B. C . : t h e
A s s o c i a t i o n , 1 9 3 8 . 244 p p .
E x p la in s c o m p re h e n s iv e ly th e p s y c h o l o g ic a l i m p l i c a t i o n s
of te a c h e r p a rtic ip a tio n .
L i s t s a c t i v i t i e s , and d e ­
f i n e s d e m o c ra c y .
P e t e r s o n , Anna Lockwood, " T e a c h e r P a r t i c i p a t i o n i n t h e D e t e r ­
m i n a t i o n o f P o l i c i e s fro m t h e Y ie w p o in t o f t h e C l a s s ­
room T e a c h e r , ” N a t i o n a l E d u c a t i o n A s s o c i a t i o n , A d d r e s ­
s e s a n d P r o c e e d i n g s , 6 3 : 9 3 - 9 8 . W a s h in g to n , D .C .: t h e
A s s o c ia tio n , 1925.
1092 p p .
D isc u sses p u rp o ses fo r e s ta b l is h i n g te a c h e r p a r t i c i p a ­
tio n .
P ie r c e , P. R ,, " P r i n c i p a l ’ s P r o f e s s io n a l C a b in e t," N a tio n a l
E d u c a t i o n A s s o c i a t i o n D e p a r tm e n t o f E l e m e n t a r y S c h o o l
im
P r i n c i p a l s , T e n th Y e a rb o o k , 3 1 1 - 2 1 6 , A p r i l ,
1931.
C a u t i o n s t h a t o r g a n i z a t i o n i s n o t enough*
S u g g e sts
a d d i t i o n a l s t e p s c o n s i d e r e d n e c e s s a r y f o r d e m o c ra c y
in th e s c h o o ls .
U p d e g r a f f , H a r l a n , " R e p o r t o f . t h e C o m m ittee on S u p e r i n t e n d e n t s
P ro b le m s ," n a t i o n a l E d u c a tio n A s s o c ia tio n P ro c e e d in g s ,
4 7 : 6 7 5 - 7 1 6 , 1919*
R e p o r t s on a d m i n i s t r a t i v e p r a c t i c e s em ployed f o r m ak in g
c o u rses o f stu d y .
S u p p le m e n ts t h i s w i t h a r e p o r t on
o r g a n iz a tio n s in use to b rin g about c o u rse o f stu d y r e ­
v isio n s.
Документ
Категория
Без категории
Просмотров
0
Размер файла
8 450 Кб
Теги
sdewsdweddes
1/--страниц
Пожаловаться на содержимое документа