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Mass-media in marketing communications: analysis, strategy and

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Mass-media in marketing
communications:
analysis,
strategy and
planning
Objectives
Mass Media Social Functions
Evolution of Mass Media
Strength and weaknesses of major mass-media
in marketing communications.
Russian media-market.
Media researches: TV, radio, press.
Communicative effectiveness of advertising and
PR campaigns.
Principles of media selection and mediaplanning.
Mass Media
пѓј
Means of communication that are
technologically capable of reaching
most people and economically
affordable to most
MASS MEDIA
SOCIAL FUNCTIONS
Entertainment
Transmit Values
Service the Economic System
Service the Political System
Set the Agenda
Inform and Interpret
Surveillance
Community Forum
Define our Relationship with Nature
A Space for Public Expression
Evolution of Mass Media
Media Fragmentation: 1940’s
•
•
•
•
•
Radio
Newspaper
Magazine
Cinema
Poster
Media Fragmentation: 1950’s
•
•
•
•
•
•
•
Radio
Newspaper
Magazine
Cinema
Poster
TV
Long Play
Media Fragmentation: 1960’s
•
•
•
•
•
•
•
•
•
Radio
Newspaper
Magazine
Cinema
Poster
TV
Long Play
Tape
Satellite
Media Fragmentation: 1980’s
• Radio, Newspaper, Magazine, Cinema,
Poster, TV, Long Play, Tape, Satellite
• CD, Walkman, Video Game, PC,
Videocassette, Recorder, Mobile Phone,
Laser Disc
Media Fragmentation: 1990’s
• Radio, Newspaper, Magazine, Cinema,
Poster, TV, Long Play, Tape, Satellite, CD,
Walkman, Video Game, PC,
Videocassette, Recorder, Mobile Phone,
Laser Disc
• DVD, Internet, Email, Webcam, TiVo,
Smartphone
Media Fragmentation: 2000’s
• Radio, Newspaper, Magazine, Cinema,
Poster, TV, Long Play, Tape, Satellite, CD,
Walkman, Video Game, PC,
Videocassette, Recorder, Mobile Phone,
Laser Disc, DVD, Internet, Email,
Webcam, TiVo, Smartphone
• Satellitte Radio, HDTV, Blue Ray, iTunes,
Podcasting, Blog, RSS, Flickr, YouTube,
Wikipedia, FaceBook…..
develop digi media pic
pic convergece
MASS MEDIA & MARCOM
PROGRAMES :
PROS & CONS
TV
Television is
a medium of entertainment
which permits millions of people
to listen to the same joke
at the same time,
and yet remain lonesome.
T.S. Eliot
TV: ADVANTAGES
High reach
High frequency potential
Low cost per contact
High intrusion value (motion, color, sound)
Attain rapid awareness
Quality creative opportunity
Ability to integrate messages with other
media
TV: DISADVANTAGES
High production costs
Clutter
Low recall
Lack of selectivity
Zapping & zipping
Relatively downscale audience profile
TV: MARCOM INSTRUMENT
ADVERTISING
PRPRODUCT PLACEMENT
SPONSORSHIP
CORPORATE IMAGE
revo
A Revolution
1950’s:
Introduction
Television !
revo
A Revolution
2
• 6000 + international TV
channels
• Broadcasters,
• public and commerical
• Digital TV
• Internet TV
• Films, Soaps, Series ....
• Satelite TV
• Preview, Postview
• DVD
TV 2.0
You choose
what you want
to see, and when !
A shift
from TV to
My TV and
We TV !
Development Digital TV 2.0
From TV 1.0 to TV 2.0:
• viewers decide, what and when to watch
• development digital technology
• creating new platforms
• preview/mainview/postview
Development Digital TV 2.0
A new way of thinking:
• Think: multi-platform
• Think: crossmedia
• Think: different viewing moments
• Think: screens instead of carier
• Think: media agnostic
More viewtime, more platforms
Viewtime
TV
channels
TV
TV repeats
New digital
TV channels
Digital TV
Video on
demand
Cable TV
IP TV
Internet
Mobile TV
New
Media
more !
Platfom
Preview
Viewer
Postview
Think:
Screen !
rupert murdoch
RADIO: ADVANTAGES
Target audience selectivity
High frequency
Able to transfer sound from TV
Portable, personal medium
Ad music can match station’s format
Flexibility
Low production costs
Short production time
Creative opportunities with music and other
sounds
Ability to integrate messages with other media
RADIO: DISADVANTAGES
Clutter
Relatively small audiences
Listener may be otherwise occupied while
listening
Some station formats relatively uninvolving for
listeners
Low attention
Target duplication with several stations use the
same format
Limited research data
RADIO: MARCOM INSTRUMENT
ADVERTISING
PR
PRODUCT PLACEMENT
SPONSORSHIP
CORPORATE IMAGE
NEWSPAPERS: ADVANTAGES
Rapid audience accumulation
Short lead time to purchase space
High credibility
Geographic flexibility
Can convey detailed copy
Strong retail trade support
Good for merchandising and promotion
Low production costs
Excellent local market penetration
NEWSPAPERS:
DISADVANTAGES
Not intrusive
Cluttered ad environment
Reproduction quality limitations (color)
Short life cycle (24 hours for daily
newspapers)
Limited target selectivity
NEWSPAPERS :
MARCOM INSTRUMENT
ADVERTISING
PR
SALES PROMOTION
SPONSORSHIP
CORPORATE IMAGE
MAGAZINES: ADVANTAGES
Efficient reach of selected audience
Timeliness
Ability to match advertising with
compatible editorial content
High quality graphics and images
Prestige
Rich light TV viewers
Excellent for complex copy
Direct response techniques and special
features
Multiple readers
MAGAZINES: DISADVANTAGES
High costs
Not intrusive: reader controls ad expose
Significant slippage from reader audience
to ad-exposure audience
Long lead times to purchase magazine
space
Long production time
Limited geographic options
MAGAZINES:
MARCOM INSTRUMENT
ADVERTISING
PR
SALES PROMOTION
SPONSORSHIP
CORPORATE IMAGE
DIRECT MAIL: ADVANTAGES
High selectivity
High information content
Opportunities for repeat exposure
DIRECT MAIL: DISADVANTAGES
Reader controls exposure
High cost per contact
Junk mail
Clutter
DIRECT MAIL:
MARCOM INSTRUMENT
ADVERTISING
PR
SALES PROMOTION
PRESS INFORM AGENCIES :
ADVANTAGES
High speed of news distribution
Multi channels of info distribution
High credibility
PRESS INFORM AGENCIES :
DISADVANTAGES
Specialized agencies
News formats
PRESS INFORM AGENCIES:
MARCOM INSTRUMENT
PR
SPONSORSHIP
CORPORATE IMAGE
INTERNET: ADVANTAGES
Company’s own web-site – full control on
the content
Creative possibilities
Flexibility
Interactivity (feedback opportunities)
User selects product information
Direct selling potential
INTERNET: DISADVANTAGES
Low intrusion value
Only for PC owners
Short life span
Websnarl (crowded access)
Surfing
Clutter
Spam problems
В© problems
Technology limitations
Few valid measurement techniques
INTERNET:
MARCOM INSTRUMENT
ADVERTISING
PR
SALES PROMOTION
DIRECT MARKETING
SPONSORSHIP
CORPORATE IMAGE
OUTDOOR (OOH): ADVANTAGES
Geographic flexibility
Broad reach
24-hour exposure
Localized message capabilities
Ability to create awareness
Production capabilities
OUTDOOR (OOH):
DISADVANTAGES
Short expose time
Brief message
Hard to make copy changes
Little segmentation possibilities
Waste coverage
Cluttered travel routes
Weather and vandalism issues
Measurement problems
Local restrictions
OUTDOOR (OOH):
MARCOM INSTRUMENT
ADVERTISING
SALES PROMOTION
SPONSORSHIP
CORPORATE IMAGE
OGILVY (GB)
ONE WORLD WIDE CANCER RESEARCH
"I SHOULDN'T BE HERE-BENCH"
PUBLICIS FRANKFURT
RENAULT MODUS "TREE"
LOWE DUBAI
AXE
DEODORANT
"SPY HOLE"
ADVANCE (DK)
LEGO "CONSTRUCTION SITE"
SAATCHI & SAATCHI (PL)
HEAD & SHOULDERS SHAMPOO
"IT CAN'T FALL HERE"
TBWA\PARIS
AMNESTY INTERNATIONAL "BARS" CAMPAIGN
TBWA\PARIS
AMNESTY INTERNATIONAL "BARS" CAMPAIGN
ARAG Insurance Billboard
Campaign
BUTTER (DГјsseldorf)
Household
Insured?
Liability Insured?
Legal Aid Insured?
user generated media slides
STRUCTURE OF THE
RUSSIAN MEDIA MARKET
I LEVEL
Mass media owned by the State or controlled by
politicized private capital
Inform &
TV
Radio
Press
Press
agencies
�ТАР-ТАСС
РћР Рў
Р�А«Новости» РТРРБК
РќРўР’
Культура
Радио России «Российская
Радио «Маяк» газета»
«Парламент
ская газета»
II LEVEL
Commercial press, TV & radio companies of national
(federal) cover
Inform &
Press
agencies
�нтерфакс
Прайм-ТАСС
TV
РЎРўРЎ
РўРќРў
REN-TV
РўР’-3
Radio
Press
«Маяк-24»
«Русское радио»
«Эхо Москвы»
Сетевые
Радиостанции
FM диапазона
Коммерсантъ
Эксперт
Комсомольская
правда
РђРёР¤
Советский спорт
III LEVEL
Regional mass media
Inform &
TV
Press
agencies
RosBalt
Channel 100
IMA -Press Regional TV
Radio
Sputnik
Hermitage
Baltica
Press
Delovoy
Peterburg
Na nevskom
Sobaka
St.Petes
Times
IV LEVEL
Global communication environment
Internet
Out of system mass media
Radio
В«LibertyВ»
В«Voice of AmericaВ»
BBC Russian service
Press
Foreign publishing
corporations
В«CosmopolitanВ» В«ELLEВ»
В«Moscow TimesВ»
В«St.Petersburg TimesВ»
MEDIA RESEARCH &
MEASUREMENTS
Advertiser buys
not time in TV or Radio air
not pages in Press Media
but
audience of Mass Media
TV Media Research
TV Audience Research
Gallup TV INDEX
• Panel research
• Electronic method (Peoplemeters)
• Respondents’ age: 4+
• 53 Russian cities (100+)
• Data provided for Russia, European part
and 25 cities
• Monitoring data
Data Collection:
TV watching registration
Sample Size
Population
Data Base
Air Monitoring
Clients
Future of Electronic Media Measurements
PPM
People meters
Surveys
Press Media Research
What do we have and
what do we measure?
CIRCULATION
AUDIENCE
What do we measure?
Definite Issue of Edition?
Average Issue of Edition?
?
NO!
YES!
National Readership Survey
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•
104 400 interviews per year
Non stop interview flow during the year
Face-to-Face interview in the household
Respondents age: 16+
62 Russian cities (100+)
Quarterly reports
What is Measured?
•
•
•
•
•
Average Issue Readership (AIR)
Half a Year Audience
Audience Socio-Demographic Structure
Publications’ Cross Audience
Subscription\Purchase
World Readership Surveys
• 2001: 60 National Readership Surveys
– 48-Face-to-face
– 12-Telephone interviews
• The biggest sample size:
India 235 000 interviews per year
• The smallest sample size:
Peru 2 000 interviews per year
• The largest number of measured editions:
Russia and China: 450+
World Readership Surveys
•
•
•
•
•
UK (NRS): 37 000
France (EPSOS): 21 400
Germany (MA): 23 976
USA (NCS): 28 000
Russia (NRS): 50 000 (30 000 Moscow, 6
000 St.Petersburg)
Readership Interview Duration
•
•
•
•
Maximum: 65 min: Germany
Average:15-20 min
Minimum: 7 min: Canada
Russia: 25 min (Moscow & St.Petersburg12-15 min)
Radio Media Research
RADIO
•
•
•
•
•
•
•
Radio Index GallupMedia (TNS)
Face-to-face interview
104 400 interview per year
Age: 16+
27 cities (100+)
18 national & 127 local radio stations
Quarterly reports
What is Measured?
• Weekly radio stations audience (Weekly
Reach)
• Average daily radio stations audience
(Daily Reach)
• Audience of time breaks (15 min)
• Frequency of listening
• Place of listening
• Audience Socio-demographic Structure
KEY MEDIA TERMS
& MEASUREMENNTS
STATISTICS for TV
• Reach: The percent of the target audience that will
see or hear an ad at least one time.
• Frequency: The number of times the average
target audience member that was reached sees or
hears an ad.
• Rating Point: represent the percent of the total
available target audience impressions that are
delivered by a media vehicle.
– GRP stands for Gross Rating Points, the sum of all the
rating points for a specific time period.
– TRP stands for Target Rating Points, the rating points
delivered to a particular target audience for a specific
time period.
STATISTICS
• Audience: The number of homes or people exposed to an advertising
vehicle.
• CPM (Cost per Thousand): Used as a comparison tool to determine
the efficiency of different media vehicles. Cost of a media vehicle
divided by the targeted impressions expressed in thousands.
– For example: a media vehicle that costs $10,000 and has an audience of
500,000 Women 18-34 has a CPM of $20.
• CPP (Cost per Point): represent how much it would cost to deliver one
target rating point, or 1% of target audience. Primarily used in television
and radio buying as a comparison and planning tool to determine how
much media can be afforded at a given budget level.
– For example, a unit that costs $1,000 and delivers a 10 Women 25-34 rating
has a CPP of $100.
• Impression: A single potential exposure of a message to a member of
your target audience. The number of pairs of eyes or ears that will be
exposed to a media vehicle.
• Share: The percentage of households or target audience members
using television or radio that are tuned to a particular program.
NEWSPAPER AND MAGAZINE
TERMINOLOGY
• Circulation: The number of copies sold or
distributed.
• Insertion: A single ad.
• Broadsheet: Term used to describe a full
or standard size newspaper such as the
New York Times. Typically, a broadsheet
newspaper is 6 columns wide by 20-22
inches high.
NEWSPAPER AND MAGAZINE
TERMINOLOGY
• Tabloid: Term used to describe a smaller than
standard size newspaper such as the Sun
Times.
– Typically, a tabloid newspaper that is 5 columns wide
by 14 inches high (approximately half the size of a
broadsheet newspaper).
• Closing Date: The final date to commit to the
purchase of advertising space.
• Materials Closing: The final date by which a
publication must receive the advertising
materials to be printed.
RADIO TERMINOLOGY
• Dayparts: How the day is broken down for
buying purposes.
•
•
•
•
•
MORNING DRIVE
DAY
AFTERNOON DRIVE
EVENING
OVERNIGHT
5am – 10am
10am – 3pm
3pm – 7pm
7pm – 12pm
12pm - 5am
OUTDOOR TERMINOLOGY
• Out-of-Home (OOH): Any form of visual
communication outside a consumer’s place of
residence
• Showing: The basic unit of measurement in
purchasing OOH. A showing is the total number
of GRPs delivered in a market on a daily basis.
• Daily Effective Circulation (DEC): The gross
number of exposure opportunities, per unit, per
day against a given target audience. Provides
basis of all outdoor measurement.
TELEVISION TERMINOLOGY
• Dayparts: How the day is broken down for buying
purposes.
• EARLY MORNING (EM)
• DAY
• EARLY FRINGE (EF)
EARLY NEWS (EN)
• PRIME ACCESS (PA)
• PRIME
• LATE NEWS (LN)
• LATE FRINGE (LF)
• OVERNIGHT
5am – 9am
9am – 4pm
4pm – 6pm
6pm – 7pm
7pm – 10pm
10pm – 10:35pm
10:35pm – 1am
1am-5am
GENERAL TERMINOLOGY
• Flighting: The scheduling pattern of an
advertising schedule.
• Gross Cost: The total cost of a media
vehicle or media schedule which includes
the “discount” typically offered by a media
supplier.
• Net Cost: The cost of a media vehicle
after all discounts are deducted.
GENERAL TERMINOLOGY
• Makegood: In broadcast, a commercial
offered in lieu of an announcement which
was (or will be) missed due to either
station error, preemption by another
advertiser, or movement of the program
purchased from one time slot to another.
In print, the free repeat of an ad to
compensate for the publication’s error in
the original insertion.
MEDIA PLANNING
PROCESS
MISSION:
• To create innovative and cost-effective
plans designed to fulfill media objectives
through the development of strategies and
tactics.
– a multi-step process
– begins with the marketing objective (what is
the client company trying to accomplish in
terms of sales, brand image and market
share)
– Media advertising is typically only one part of
a company's marketing mix
MEDIA OBJECTIVES
• an extension of the marketing objective.
• If media and advertising are a part of the
marketing strategy, what does the media
plan need to accomplish to fulfill its role?
• Answers could include share-of-mind
measurements, sales goals or brand
recognition measures.
MEDIA STRATEGY
• explains the "how" of a media campaign.
• The questions answered at this stage will help
media planners devise a strategy:
– Who is the target audience?
– Where is the target audience (global, U.S. market,
etc.)?
– When should the marketing message air (timing,
seasonality, etc.)?
– How many times should the message air?
– How will we communicate the message (creative)?
– How much does the marketer have to spend?
MEDIA STRATEGY
• forms the base of a detailed discussion of
specific tactics.
• at this stage that a media plan is
developed
• answers form the media plan
• and the next step
• is to execute the plan by airing
commercials and advertisements.
DETERMINING THE MEDIA MIX
•
•
•
•
•
•
MEDIA MIX is the proportion of
television,
radio,
print
and other forms of advertising
used in a particular campaign.
The "best" mix
a combination of
• the product or service,
• the marketing objectives,
• target audience
• and budget
Advertising Campaign
Media Research
Step 1
Competitors Advertising Analysis
•
•
•
•
•
Tasks:
Seasonality
Optimal ad campaign intensity
Advertising spending analysis
Competitors advertising tactics analysis
Step 1
Competitors Advertising Analysis
• Additional data for competitors analysis:
• Ad message format (ad duration, copy
layouts)
• Target audience
• What do they advertise? (models, images
etc)
Step 2
Media planning
•
•
•
•
Tasks:
Media Choice
Rational Budget distribution
Efficiency maximization
Step 3
Post Campaign Analysis
•
•
•
•
•
Tasks:
Efficiency Estimation
Output Control
Breakdowns monitoring
Media plan & fact comparison
Basic Media Planning Indexes
TV
• Rating: Target Audience exposed\Total TV
Audience
• Audience: share of TA (�000)
• Reach:% of the audience at which the ad
message is aimed to see the ad at least once
• Frequency: the average number of times TA are
exposed to ad message
• Share: TV Channel Audience\Total TV Audience
TV
• Affinity: TA Rating\ Total Audience Rating
• CPP: cost per point
• CPT: cost per thousand
• Cost
Radio
•
•
•
•
Daily Reach (Cover,%)
Daily Reach (Cover, �000)
Weekly Reach
Affinity: Target Audience Cover\ Total Audience
Cover
• % of Audience: share of TA in Total Audience
• CPT
• Cost
Press
•
•
•
•
AIR
Half a Year Audience
Affinity: TA\Total Audience
% of Audience
• CPT
• Cost
Basic Media Indexes
TV
Radio
Press
Rating
Daily Reach
(Cover, %)
AIR
Audience
Reach
Frequency
Share
Affinity
Daily Reach
(Cover, 000)
Weekly Reach
Half a year audience
Affinity
% of Audience
Affinity
% of Audience
CPP
CPT
Cost
CPT
Cost
CPT
Cost
Basic Rules for Media Planning
Indexes Analysis
1. Analysis and media planning are valid
only for Target Audience
2. Qualitative & Quantitative Indexes are
analyzed simultaneously
3. Analysis is valid only inside media
segments
4. Period Standardization for research and
Target Audience
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