Geography of South America GPS: SS6G1.a-b вЂў A. Locate on a regional political map selected countries of Latin America. вЂў B. Locate on a regional physical map selected physical features of Latin America. E. Q. How can I locate and label selected countries and physical features of Latin America? Activator What are physical features? Physical Features Mexico Central America Caribbean Islands South America вЂў The Andes Mountains stretch Andes Mountains over 5,000 miles along South AmericaвЂ™s west coast. вЂў It is the longest continuing mountain range on the earthвЂ™s surface. вЂў Has the highest peak in the Western Hemisphere. вЂў The plains in southern South Beyond the Andes America are called the Pampas. вЂў Pampas вЂ“ flat area with few trees Amazon River вЂў The Amazon River flows near 4,000 miles from the Andes to the Atlantic Ocean. вЂў No other river carries as much water to the ocean. вЂў Deforestation is the process of cutting and clearing awayDeforestation trees from a forest. вЂў This increases the amount of CO2 in the air. вЂў Some believe this contributes to global warming. Atacama Desert вЂў The Atacama Desert is located between the Pacific Ocean and the Andes Mountains in northern Chile. It is the driest region in the world. Patagonia вЂў Patagonia is a region in southern Chile and southern Argentina between the Andes Mountains and the Atlantic Ocean. It is made up of dry plains and plateaus. Review Questions 1. What is significant (important) about the Andes Mountains? 2. What is the source of the Amazon River and where does it flow? 3. What is deforestation? 4. What have been some major causes and effects of deforestation in the rain forest? Panama Canal вЂў Located on the Isthmus of Panama, the Panama Canal links the Atlantic and Pacific Oceans. Climate вЂў The Tropical Zone is located between 23В°27вЂ™ north and 23В°27вЂ™ south. вЂў This is the area between the Tropic of Cancer and Tropic of Capricorn. El Nino вЂў A natural weather condition that causes heavy rain and flooding during the Christmas time of year. Rainforests Where are Rainforest? вЂў Rainforests are located between the Tropic of Cancer and the Tropic of Capricorn. вЂў This area is called the "tropics". вЂў The tropics is the 3,000 mile wide band around the equator. Amazon Rainforest вЂў The Amazon is the worlds largest tropical rainforest covering 2.3 million miles. вЂў 65% of the Amazon is a jungle. вЂў 35% of the Amazon is made up of grassland. вЂў The Amazon Rainforest gets nine feet of rain every year (rains almost everyday). вЂў 20% of the earth's oxygen is produced by the Amazon Rainforest. вЂў The Amazon Rainforest is also known as the "Lungs of our Planet." вЂў The Amazon is home to 14,712 different species of animals. вЂў Over 60,000 different plants are native to the Amazon. вЂў 4,000 types of trees are grown in the rainforest. вЂў The rain forest provide food, water, natural rubber, medicinal plants, and other products. вЂў Problems вЂ“ Soil exhaustion (soil has lost the nutrients) вЂ“ Deforestation Who Lives in the Amazon? вЂў Hundreds of years ago, many Indians, or indigenous peoples, lived in the Amazon. вЂў Most lived along rivers, where canoes made transportation easy. Who else lives there now? вЂў Conquistadors вЂў Mestizos вЂў Aborigines вЂў Gringos (people from North America and Europe) Layers of the Rainforest вЂў Emergent's: Top layer. It houses most of the birds and insects. вЂў Canopy: Home to many different types of birds, insects, reptiles, mammals, and more. Under story: A cool environment under the leaves which is where you can find many animals. вЂў Forest floor: Many animals live here. It is ground level. Rainforest Fun Facts вЂў There are two types of rainforests the temperate and the tropical. Tropical rainforests are found close to the equator. Temperate rainforests are found along coasts of the United States. вЂў Every second, 1 1/2 acres of land are lost every day because human are destroying and ruining them. вЂў Every day, we are losing about 137 different types of plant, animal, and insect species. вЂў A medicine man is somebody who believed to heal others by using supernatural powers, especially among Native American people. вЂў вЂў Most medicine men are over the age of 70. вЂў When a medicine man passes away, thousands of years of irreplaceable information is lost. вЂў More than 10 million species of animals can be found in the rainforest. вЂў One hectare of land contains over 1,500 species of plants. вЂў The Amazon covers over a billion acres! вЂў In the past, there were over 10 million Indians. вЂў Today, there are only about 200,000 left. Review Questions 1. Where are rainforest located? 2. What percentage of the Amazon in jungle? 3. The Amazon rainforest produces ___% of the worlds Oxygen. 4. What are indigenous people? 5. What are the four layers of the rainforest? What do you find in each one?