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Bone Tissue and The Skeletal
The Skeletal System
• Functions of the Skeletal System
Support against gravity
Leverage for muscle action - movement
Protection of soft internal organs
Blood cell production
Storage - calcium, phosphorous, fat
The Skeletal System
• The skeletal system includes:
Other connective tissues
Tissues in Bone
• Bones contain several types of tissues
Dominated by bone CT
Contain nervous tissue and Blood CT
Contain cartilage in articular cartilages
Contain ET lining blood vessels
Bone (Osseous Tissue)
• Specialized cells - 2% of bone weight
• Strong flexible matrix
• Calcium phosphate crystals - two-thirds of
bone weight
• Collagen fibers
Types of Cartilage
• Hyaline cartilage – (glassy)
• Most abundant cartilage
• Provides support through flexibility
• Articular cartilages and costal
cartilage, larynx, trachea, and
• Elastic cartilage – contains many
elastic fibers
• Able to tolerate repeated bending
• Ear and epiglottis
• Fibrocartilage – resists strong
compression and strong tension
• An intermediate between hyaline
and elastic cartilage
• Intervertebral discs and pubic
General Shapes Of Bones
Long bones (e.g., humerus, femur)
Short bones (e.g., carpals, tarsals, patella
Flat bones (e.g., parietal bone, scapula, sternum)
Irregular bones (e.g., vertebrae, hip bones)
Structure of Typical Long Bone
• Diaphysis - tubular shaft forming the axis
of long bones.
Composed of compact bone
Central medullary cavity
Contains bone marrow
• Epiphysis – expanded end of long
• Composed mostly of spongy bone
• Joint surface is covered with articular
(hyaline) cartilage
• Epiphyseal lines separate the diaphysis
from the epiphyses
• Metaphysis – where epiphysis and
diaphysis meet
Bone Membranes
• Periosteum
• Provides anchoring points for
tendons and ligaments
• Double-layered protective
membrane, supplied with nerve
fibers, blood, and lymphatic
vessels entering the bone via
nutrient foramina.
• Inner osteogenic layer is
composed of osteoblasts and
• Endosteum
• Delicate CT membrane covering
internal surfaces of bone
• Covers trabeculae of spongy
• Lines canals in compact bone
• Also contains both osteoblasts
and osteoclasts
Gross Anatomy of Bones
• External Features of Bones – projections, depressions, and
openings that serve as sites of muscle, ligament, and tendon
attachment, as joint surfaces, or conduits for blood vessels and
• Compact Bone – dense outer layer
• Spongy Bone – (cancellous bone) honeycomb of trabeculae
(needle-like or flat pieces) filled with bone marrow
Gross Anatomy - Bone Markings
Superficial surfaces of bones reflect stresses on them
There are three broad categories of bone markings
Projections for muscle attachment
Surfaces that form joints
Depressions and openings
Table 6.1
Histology of Compact Bone
• Osteon – the structural unit of compact bone
• Lamellae – column-like matrix tubes composed of
collagen and crystals of bone salts
• Central canal - (Haversian canal) canal containing
blood vessels and nerves
Histology of Compact Bone
• Lacunae - cavities in bone containing osteocytes
• Canaliculi - hairlike canals that connect lacunae to each other and
the central canal
• Perforating canal (Volkmann’s) – channels lying at right angles to the
central canal, connecting blood and nerve supply of the periosteum
to the central canal
Cells in Bone
• Osteoprogenitor cells – precursors to osteoblasts
• Osteocytes - mature bone cells between lamellae
• Osteoclasts - bone-destroying cells, break down
bone matrix for remodeling and release of calcium
• Source of acid, enzymes for osteolysis
• Calcium homeostasis
• Osteoblasts - bone-forming cells
• Responsible for osteogenesis (new bone)
• Source of collagen, calcium salts
The Structure of Spongy Bone
• No osteons
• Lamellae as trabeculae
• Arches, rods, plates of
• Branching network of
bony tissue
• Strong in many
• Red marrow (blood
forming) spaces
Short, Irregular, and Flat Bones
• Plates of periosteumcovered compact bone
on the outside with
spongy bone, diploГ«,
on the inside
• Have no diaphysis or
• Contain bone marrow
between the
Bone Development
• Osteogenesis or Ossification – the
process of bone tissue formation that
leads to:
• The formation of the skeleton in embryos
• Bone growth until early adulthood
• Bone thickness, remodeling, and repair
Formation of the Skeleton
• Before week 8, the skeleton of a
human embryo consists of
fibrous membanes and hyaline
• Intramembranous ossification –
bone develops from a fibrous
connective tissue membrane.
The flat bones of the skull
(frontal, parietal, temporal,
occipital) and the clavicles are
formed this way.
• Endochondral ossification – bone
forms by replacing hyaline
cartilage, uses hyaline cartilage
“bones” as patterns
Bone Formation in 16-Week-Old Fetus
Bone Formation and Growth
• Intramembranous Ossification
• Ossification—Process of converting other
tissues to bone
• Forms flat bones of skull, mandible,
• Stem cells differentiate to osteoblasts
• Produces spongy bone, then compact
Copyright В© 2007 Pearson Education, Inc., publishing as Benjamin Cummings
Intramembranous Ossification
• An ossification center
appears in the fibrous
connective tissue
• Osteoblasts secrete
bone matrix within the
fibrous membrane
• Osteoblasts mature
into osteocytes
Intramembranous Ossification
• The bone matrix develops
into trabeculae.
• The trabeculae formed from
various ossification centers
fuse with one another to
create spongy bone.
• Eventually the spaces
between trabeculae fill with
red bone marrow.
Bone Formation and Growth
• Endochondral Ossification
Most bones formed this way
Cartilage model replaced by bone
Replacement begins in middle (diaphysis)
Replacement follows in ends (epiphyses)
Endochondral Ossification
Chondrocytes at
the center of the
growing cartilage
model enlarge
and then die as
the matrix
Newly derived
osteoblasts cover
the shaft of the
cartilage in a thin
layer of bone.
Blood vessels
penetrate the
cartilage. New
osteoblasts form a
primary ossification
The bone of the
shaft thickens,
and the cartilage
near each
epiphysis is
replaced by shafts
of bone.
Blood vessels invade the
epiphyses and osteoblasts form secondary
centers of ossification.
chondrocytes within
calcifying matrix
Figure 6-5
1 of 6
Longitudinal Bone Growth
• Longitudinal Growth (interstitial) – cartilage continually grows
and is replaced by bone
• Bones lengthen entirely by growth of the epiphyseal plates
• Cartilage is replaced with bone CT as quickly as it grows
• Epiphyseal plate maintains constant thickness
Epiphyseal Plate
• Cartilage is organized for
quick, efficient growth
• Cartilage cells form tall stacks
• Chondroblasts at the top of
stacks divide quickly
• Pushes the epiphysis away
from the diaphysis
• Lengthens entire long bone
• Older chondrocytes signal
surrounding matrix to calcify,
then die and disintegrate
• Leaves long trabeculae
(spicules) of calcified
cartilage on diaphysis side
• Trabeculae are partly eroded
by osteoclasts
• Osteoblasts then cover
trabeculae with bone tissue
• Trabeculae finally eaten
away from their tips by
Appositional Bone Growth
• Growing bones widen as they lengthen
• Appositional growth – growth of a bone by addition of bone tissue to its
• Bone is resorbed at endosteal surface and added at periosteal surface
• Osteoblasts – add bone tissue to the external surface of the diaphysis
• Osteoclasts – remove bone from the internal surface of the diaphysis
Figure 6-6
Bone - Remodeling/Homeostasis
• Role of Remodeling in Support
• Remodeling—Continuous breakdown and
reforming of bone tissue
• Shapes reflect applied loads
• Mineral turnover enables adapting to new
• What you don’t use, you lose. The stresses
applied to bones during exercise are
essential to maintaining bone strength and
bone mass
Bone Remodeling
• Bone is active tissue – small changes in bone architecture
occur continuously – 5 to 7% of bone mass is recycled weekly
– spongy bone is replaced every 3-4 years and compact bone
approximately every 10 years
• Remodeling Units – adjacent osteoblasts and osteoclasts
deposit and reabsorb bone at periosteal and endosteal
Bone Remodeling
• Bone Depostition
• Occurs when bone is injured or extra strength is needed
• Requires a healthy diet - protein, vitamins C, D, and A, and
minerals (calcium, phosphorus, magnesium, manganese, etc.)
• Bone Resorption
• Accomplished by Osteoclasts (multinucleate phagocytic cells)
• Resorption involves osteoclast secretion of:
• Lysosomal enzymes that digest organic matrix
• HCl that converts calcium salts into soluble forms
• Dissolved matrix is endocytosed and transcytosed into the
interstitial fluid в†’ the blood
Bone - Remodeling/Homeostasis
• Homeostasis and Mineral Storage
• Bones store calcium
• Contain 99% of body calcium
• Store up to two kg calcium
• Hormones control storage/release
• PTH, calcitriol release bone calcium
• Calcitonin stores bone calcium
• Blood levels kept constant
• Rigid elements of the skeleton meet at joints
or articulations
• Greek root “arthro” means joint
• Functions of joints
• Hold bones together
• Allow for mobility
• Articulations can be
• Bone to bone
• Bone to cartilage
• Teeth in bony sockets
Classification of Joints
• Joints can be classified by function or
• Functional
• Synarthroses – immovable joints
• Amphiarthroses – slightly moveable joints
• Diarthroses – freely moveable joints
• Structural
• Fibrous joints - generally immovable
• Cartilaginous joints - immovable or slightly
• Synovial joints - freely moveable
Functional Classification
• Functional classification – based on amount of
• Synarthroses – immovable joints
• Suture – very short CT fibers, e.g. between cranial bones
• Gomphosis – teeth in sockets
• Synchondrosis – hyaline cartilage unites bones, e.g.
epiphyseal plate, costal cartilage of 1st rib and manubrium
• Amphiarthroses – slightly moveable joints
• Syndesmosis – bones connected by ligaments, e.g. between
tibia and fibula
• Symphysis - bones are covered by hyaline cartilage fused
with fibrocartilage, e.g. between vertebrae, pubic bones of
the hip
• Diarthroses - freely moveable; knee, elbow, etc
Classifications of Joints
• Structural classification based on
• Material that binds bones together
• Presence or absence of a joint cavity
• Structural classifications include
• Fibrous
• Cartilaginous
• Synovial
Fibrous Joints
• Bones are connected by fibrous
connective tissue
• Primarily dense regular CT
• Do not have a joint cavity
• Most are immovable or slightly movable
• Types
• Sutures
• Syndesmoses
• Gomphoses
Fibrous Joints - Sutures
• Bones are tightly bound by a minimal amount of fibrous tissue
• Only occur between the bones of the skull
• Allow bone growth so the skull can expand with brain during
• Fibrous tissue ossifies in middle age
• Synostoses – closed sutures
Fibrous Joints - Syndesmoses
• Bones are connected exclusively by ligaments
• Amount of movement depends on length of fibers
• Tibiofibular joint –immovable synarthrosis
• Interosseous membrane between radius and ulna
• Freely movable diarthrosis
Fibrous Joints - Gomphoses
• Tooth in a
• Connecting
ligament – the
Figure 9.1c
Cartilaginous Joints
• Bones are united by cartilage
• Lack a joint cavity
• Two types
• Synchondroses - hyaline cartilage unites bones
• Epiphyseal plates
• Rib and sternum
• Symphyses
• Fibrocartilage unites bones – resists tension and
• Hyaline cartilage – also present as articular cartilage
• Slightly movable joints that provide strength with flexibility
• Intervertebral discs
• Pubic symphysis
Synovial Joints
• Most movable type of joint
• All are diarthroses
• Each contains a fluid-filled joint cavity
General Structure of Synovial Joints
• Articular cartilage
• Ends of opposing bones are
covered with hyaline cartilage
• Absorbs compression
• Joint cavity (synovial cavity)
• Unique to synovial joints
• Cavity is a potential space that
holds a small amount of
synovial fluid
General Structure of Synovial Joints
• Articular capsule – joint
cavity is enclosed in a twolayered capsule
• Fibrous capsule – dense
irregular connective tissue,
which strengthens joint
• Synovial membrane – loose
connective tissue
• Lines joint capsule and
covers internal joint surfaces
• Functions to make synovial
General Structure of Synovial Joints
• Synovial fluid
• A viscous fluid similar to
raw egg white
• A filtrate of blood
• Arises from capillaries in
synovial membrane
• Contains glycoprotein
molecules secreted by
General Structure of Synovial Joints
• Reinforcing ligaments
• Often are thickened parts
of the fibrous capsule
• Sometimes are
extracapsular ligaments –
located outside the
• Sometimes are
intracapsular ligaments –
located internal to the
Structures Associated with the Synovial Joint
• Tendon sheath - elongated bursa that wraps around a tendon
• Bursae – flattened fibrous sacs
• Lined with synovial membranes
• Filled with synovial fluid
• Not actually part of the joint
• Menisci
• Fat pads
Structural Classification of Synovial Joints
Gliding (plane joint, e.g., vertebra–vertebra)
Hinge (e.g., knee)
Pivot (e.g., atlas–axis)
Ellipsoidal (condyloid plant, e.g., distal
• Saddle (e.g., thumb)
• Ball-and-Socket (e.g., hip)
Types of Synovial Joints Based on Shape
Figure 5.29a–c
Copyright В© 2003 Pearson Education, Inc. publishing as Benjamin Cummings
Types of Synovial Joints Based on Shape
Figure 5.29d–f
Copyright В© 2003 Pearson Education, Inc. publishing as Benjamin Cummings
Summary of Joint Classes
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