Introduction to Photography Lee Friedlander, Self-Portrait, Haverstraw, New York. 1966. В© Lee Friedlander From There to Here How Do we Get From Here Early Daguerreotypes (positive image on glass): child, and Niagara Falls To Here Nicholas Kahn and Richard Selesnick, Card Game, from Eisbergfreisdtadt (2007) (digital montage from multiple photographs, no digital imagery) David LaChapelle, вЂњCat House,вЂќ 1999 (staged studio shots, digital montage) Jeff Wall, Scene from The Invisible Man (studio set, props) Photography: Codes and Genres (Types) Photography and/vs. вЂњA PhotographвЂќ In our culture now, we need to understand вЂњthe RealвЂќ or our attribution of вЂњRealityвЂќ as a Code or position among kinds of representations. вЂњTaking a pictureвЂќ vs. вЂњmaking a photograph:вЂќ photographs are made (constructed), not taken (memorialized вЂњquotationsвЂќ from reality). Barthes proposed that photographs were вЂњsigns without codes,вЂќ but thatвЂ™s because he was still held by a romantic notion of photography and domesticated images. Codes and Genres There are many codes (interpretive frames that we learn culturally) and genres (types) of photographs and images. One major differentiation, now often blurred and fused in photographic work: The вЂњstraight shotвЂќ (framed image with existing light) vs. staged, planned, or constructed shots, with artificial light, props, sets, etc. Some Major Photographic Genres пЃ± Documentary/Documentation, Evidence пЃ± Reportage, Photojournalism пЃ± Narrative (can use any other genre) пЃ± Landscape, Nature пЃ± Portrait пЃ± Family history and rituals, snapshots пЃ± Street photography пЃ± Studio and staged photographs пЃ± Advertising пЃ± Fashion пЃ± Fantasy images, Surrealism пЃ± Erotica, fetish, porn Earliest Photographic Images Registering Light (вЂњPhotographyвЂќ = вЂњLight WritingвЂќ) Joseph NicГ©phore NiГ©pce "View from the Window at Le Gras" (circa 1826) First Daguerreotype, 1837 Louis Jacques MandГ© Daguerre, Inherited Theoretical Issues Passivity of the camera device as вЂњlight writingвЂќ, transcription of a reality outside and in front of the camera lens. Photographic image as an вЂњindexвЂќ (semiotic term), indexical sign, that points to or represents what it signifies. ItвЂ™s value is grounded and justified in the represented thing or reality to which it is вЂњtrueвЂќ. Photography and reference (registers a вЂњtrueвЂќ external world), representation, pre-existing reality, memory, record, evidence, documentation, truth. No surprise that photography became one of the main tools of postmodernism in breaking the вЂњrealityвЂќ and вЂњtruthвЂќ codes of images, and in critiquing those codes. Alfred Stieglitz and the вЂњArt PhotographyвЂќ Debate вЂњIn photography there is a reality so subtle that it becomes more real than reality.вЂќ вЂњThe arts equally have distinct departments, and unless photography has its own possibilities of expression, separate from those of the other arts, it is merely a process, not an art.вЂќ --Stieglitz Periodical Camera Work and associated photographers were influential in establishing photography as an art form, not a mechanical or industrial trade. A debate about institutions, social class ownership and identification with photography, representation and reality, hierarchy of professions, interpretive/active вЂњartistвЂќ status of professional photographers. вЂњThe Steerage,вЂќ 1907 вЂњFlatiron Building, NY,вЂќ 1903 вЂњGeorgia OвЂ™Keeffe, Nude,вЂќ 1919 вЂњWinter on Fifth Ave., NY,вЂќ 1893 Exemplary Artist: Bresson and the вЂњDecisive MomentвЂќ Concept Henri Cartier-Bresson Model of the "street photographer", with a Leica 35mm camera and using existing light вЂњBehind the Gare Saint-Lazare,вЂќ 1932 Cartier-Bresson as вЂњtheoristвЂќ Strict adherence to вЂњindexicalвЂќ value of the photograph, assuming only the framing and interpretation of the photographer Landmark book: Images Г la Sauvette ("stolen images," "The Decisive MomentвЂќ) Photographer as Recorder, Memorializer Archive of images: Archive | Archive of images at Magnum Photos The Berlin Wall, 1963 Postmodern photography cut the link to the moment and the index of reality Cindy Sherman, Untitled Film Still, 21. 1978. Gelatin silver print. Staged and shot in studio. No вЂњthere thereвЂќ before or after the shot. A photograph uses the codes of вЂњthe realвЂќ that weвЂ™ve learned from a long history of photographic mediation. Gregory Crewdson, вЂњProduction Still,вЂќ 1991. C-print. Photography is now our projected psyche: images of fantasy, desire and fear Annie Leibovitz / Vanity Fair. The Hollywood issue of Vanity Fair, March, 2006. Keira Knightley, Scarlett Johanssson and Tom Ford. Consequences of the ubiquity of photographic images and video What is the status of the photographic image after digital cameras, cell phone cameras, amateur use of Photoshop, Flickr, MySpace, YouTube? Today a photograph is usually a digital image created to be вЂњreproducedвЂќ (in BenjaminвЂ™s concept) A photograph is made to be copied and distributed with no fixed physical medium (in contrast to film and photopaper) The memory of the earlier вЂњindexicalвЂќ function is still there, but the power of the image as image is more important.