61.Журнал Сибирского федерального университета. Сер. Гуманитарные науки №3 2013код для вставкиСкачать
Copyright ОАО «ЦКБ «БИБКОМ» & ООО «Aгентство Kнига-Cервис» Æóðíàë Ñèáèðñêîãî ôåäåðàëüíîãî óíèâåðñèòåòà 2013 Journal of Siberian Federal University 6 (3) Ãóìàíèòàðíûå íàóêè Humanities & Social Sciences Редакционный совет: академик РАН Е.А. Ваганов академик РАН И.И. Гительзон академик РАН А.Г. Дегерменджи академик РАН В.Ф. Шабанов чл.-корр. РАН, д-р физ.-мат. наук В.Л. Миронов чл.-корр. РАН, д-р техн. наук Г.Л. Пашков чл.-корр. РАН, д-р физ.-мат. наук В.В. Шайдуров чл.-корр. РАН, д-р физ.-мат. наук В.В. Зуев Editorial Advisory Board Chairman Eugene A. Vaganov Members: Josef J. Gitelzon Vasily F. Shabanov Andrey G. Degermendzhy Valery L. Mironov Gennady L. Pashkov Vladimir V. Shaidurov Vladimir V. Zuev Editorial Board: Editor-in-Chief Mikhail I. Gladyshev Founding Editor Vladimir I. Kolmakov Managing Editor Olga F. Alexandrova Executive Editor for Humanities & Social Sciences Natalia P. Koptseva CONTENTS / ÑÎÄÅÐÆÀÍÈÅ Gennadiy V. Boldyguin On the Meaning of History – 325 – Vladimir I. Zhukovsky and Daniil V. Pivovarov Istina-Truth and Pravda-Truth: Alienating and Assimilating Knowledge – 334 – Yekaterina A. Batiuta, Aleksandr V. Pertsev and Yekaterina S. Cherepanova Back to Kant? (on the topicality of the ideas of philosophical anthropology) – 346 – Roman K. Omelchuk Religious and Political Philosophy of the Social Education in Ancient China – 357 – Petr L. Popov On Significance of Religion Factors in Forming Civilization Identities in Northeast Asia, West Asia and Europe – 369 – Yury F. Abramov, Pavel V. Ushakov and Sergey V. Khomuttsov The Utmost Reality in Philosophy, Mysticism and Informology: the Knowledge-Studying Method – 375 – Elena V. Orel and Maria V. Semenova Renaissance and European Classical Painting as Two Types of Artistic Creativity – 394 – Компьютерная верстка Е.В. Гревцовой Подписано в печать 25.03.2013 г. Формат 84x108/16. Усл. печ. л. 12,5. Уч.-изд. л. 12,0. Бумага тип. Печать офсетная. Тираж 1000 экз. Заказ 0970. Отпечатано в ПЦ БИК. 660041 Красноярск, пр. Свободный, 82а. Copyright ОАО «ЦКБ «БИБКОМ» & ООО «Aгентство Kнига-Cервис» Consulting Editors for Humanities & Social Sciences: Gershon M. Breslavs Sergey V. Deviatkin Sergey A. Drobyshevsky Sergey M. Geraschenko Oleg M. Gotlib Boris I. Khasan Galina A. Kopnina Natalia V. Kovtun Aleksandr A. Kronik Pavel V. Mandryka Boris V. Markov Valentin G. Nemirovsky Daniel V. Pivovarov Andrey V. Smirnov Viktor I. Suslov Evgeniya V. Zander Igor S. Pyzhev Vladimir I. Suprun Liudmila V. Kulikova Olga G. Smolyaninova Nicolai N. Petro Dr. Suneel Kumar Nadezhda K. Barsukova Some Aspects of the Idea of God in the World Religions: an Attempt to Make a Comparative Analysis – 399 – Oleg I. Kulagin Workers in Forests: Social Identity and Labour Motivation in Timber Industry of Karelia in 1917-1928 – 406 – Alexei V. Nesteruk A œParticipatory UniverseB of J. A. Wheeler as an Intentional Correlate of Embodied Subjects and an Example of Purposiveness in Physics – 415 – Alexandr G. Kislov and Ol’ga V. Shmurygina Forthcoming Plans for Institutional Transformation of Russian Higher Education – 438 – Oksana A. Gavriliuk and Anastasiya V. Lakhno Professional Autonomy of a University Teacher in the USA and Russia: Freedom from Control or Freedom for Development? – 455 – Свидетельство о регистрации СМИ ПИ № ФС77-28-723 от 29.06.2007 г. Серия включена в «Перечень ведущих рецензируемых научных журналов и изданий, в которых должны быть опубликованы основные научные результаты диссертации на соискание ученой степени доктора и кандидата наук» (редакция 2010 г.) Ludmila A. Ivanova and Olga. M. Verbitskaya Media Education in Foreign Languages Teaching $ Tribute to Fashion or Requirement of the Time? – 468 – Copyright ОАО «ЦКБ «БИБКОМ» & ООО «Aгентство Kнига-Cервис» Journal of Siberian Federal University. Humanities & Social Sciences 3 (2013 6) 325-333 ~~~ УДК 930.1 On the Meaning of History Gennadiy V. Boldyguin* University for Humanities 19 Student Str., Ekaterinburg, 620049 Russia Received 11.03.2013, received in revised form 18.03.2013, accepted 25.03.2013 The article is devoted to historical knowledge that the author, by analogy with “the meaning of life” calls “the meaning of history”. This aim cannot be the idea of history as a tool useful for unhistorical purposes. The meaning of history is in establishing the truth and in participation in the intellectual process, called “the court of history”. Keywords: the meaning of history, the court of history, the necessity and inevitability, historical reconstruction, purpose, motive. The problem of the meaning of history is one of the most complex issues of the European science tradition. Its foundation dates back from the cult of truth which was formed in the Ancient Hellas, and which was supposed to be reached and proved regardless of whether genuine knowledge complied to the beliefs of the majority or it contradicted them, whether it was pleasant to an individual, people or the mankind or this knowledge was bitter and disgusting, whether it was useful or useless. Such a cult was not familiar to the great ancient oriental civilizations that were deprived of humiliating (as it was regarded then) requirement for a guru, a teacher, a sensei to prove to everybody and especially to the gosling pupils the verity of his statements. Even in the second half of the 19th century the cult of truth for truth sake was unknown to the Chinese, who decided to deprive the translation of the Euclidian geometry schoolbook into Chinese of all the proofs, considering them practically useless, as * problems could be solved with the knowledge of theorems without the knowledge of their proving. Apparently, they considered mathematical proving as a certain intellectual decoration, a certain European ceremony. Herodotus, who came from Hellenic world, was not a zealous adept of the cult of truth, which become very popular in Attic and Italic periods of his life, though he was critical about authenticity of the certain sources of his spoken stories that were published later by his followers. Those published stories were called History, and this title was given either by himself or by his followers. Properly speaking, Herodotus was not a historian. Hellenes called the genre of his stories logography – word description of geographic, ethnographic and historical data provided by travelers who came back home. Many centuries after, retired soldiers from Suvorov’s army used similar stories to broaden the mind of their fellow villagers. The first historian in today’s meaning of this word was Thucydides, and his History of © Siberian Federal University. All rights reserved Corresponding author E-mail address: [email protected] # 325 # Copyright ОАО «ЦКБ «БИБКОМ» & ООО «Aгентство Kнига-Cервис» Gennadiy V. Boldyguin. On the Meaning of History Peloponnesian War even in today’s standards is an example of historical reconstruction of what, where and when it had happened, without having the goal of edification and without any other practical goal. Thucydides’ book has become for his contemporaries an example of the scrupulous reconstruction of the past, and for us – the main source of knowledge about the war between Sparta and Athens. But why do we need this knowledge about the battles, heroic deeds, alliances and betrayal that took place about two thousand years ago? What are we looking for in those descriptions? And what were Thucydides’ contemporaries looking there for? What made him describe the events that ended up nowhere and that will never happen again? All these and the similar questions excited even those who were involved in the cult of theoretical (contemplative)1 knowledge, which (unlike practical knowledge about the acts that make it possible to achieve the required results) only gave useless truth to the cognizer. Indeed, what was the use for barbers and poorly educated craftsmen who put into practice the Industrial revolution of the 18th and19th centuries in theoretical mechanics (that they ignored) and in thermal technology (that only emerged after the invention of the steam engine)? Why do we need the knowledge of the laws of nature that we cannot change and that similarly to the legal laws, to authorize everything that is not prohibited, without saying a word on what does all this mean? The problem of the use of knowledge about what is existing without saying how this existing can be changed, or how it can be used in personal purposes, emerged in parallel with formation of the basis of theoretical cognition. Even Plato, who was the first to describe disinterested love for knowledge, without which love for wisdom that he admired so much was impossible, tells an anecdote about Thales, who proved the use of astronomical observations, due to which he predicted a good harvest of olives and made good money on creameries. Many times European thinkers raised an issue of the use of history: particularly the issue of goals, to achieve which the history could be used as a tool, and the issue of ways of using it. F. Nietzsche in his work ‘Use and Abuse of History for Life’ gave the best answer to this question. Nietzsche, who believed creation (creation of the new) to be the major attribute of life, and who opposed it to death, considered history with its inclination for archaic extremely harmful. In his opinion, creation was possible only in dusky atmosphere of ignorance, and hence it required the oblivion of the past, as it distracted life from creating the new. Leaders of the Soviet state had similar opinions, and for this reason they struggled against relics of the past and even forbade in the mid-twenties of the 20th century teaching of history at school and faculties of history in higher schools. Both were rehabilitated only ten years later, apparently for the same reasons that guided Nietzsche, who acknowledged that cognition of the past which was the product of life itself, could be used as a mean to achieve 3 of its goals in the form of 3 types of history, though under strict control over them. Firstly, monumental history can give motivation for imitation and development. Secondly, antiquarian history – due to the veneration of the past – helps to preserve life. Thirdly, critical history is useful as it helps to break the bonds of the past and destroys it in order to be able to live further. Apparently, after Nietzsche nothing new was said about history as a useful mean. Obviously, since then the area of exploiting history has considerably broadened. There emerged subject areas for which reconstruction of the old and recent past (for instance, polls that became history # 326 # Copyright ОАО «ЦКБ «БИБКОМ» & ООО «Aгентство Kнига-Cервис» Gennadiy V. Boldyguin. On the Meaning of History immediately after holding them) serves the basis for creating various sociologic, economic and historiosophic concepts. But history as knowledge about the past represents for many people not a mean, but a purpose, the achievement of which justifies their efforts. This fact makes it possible to raise an issue of the meaning of historical cognition. Maybe, the answer to this question will help to understand why history is necessary for historians and for us, its readers who are not going to use it in political or any other practical purposes. The problem of the meaning of history is not a matter of the goal towards achievement of which the mankind moves consciously or unconsciously. First of all, it is a question of the meanings of the word history, but also of the meaning of historical cognition, that is the goal that makes historians look in the past for unknown events or to present in a new way the well-known ones. The term the meaning of history implies clarification of the purpose of those who together with historians investigate the events of bygone times. In spite of the likeness of the goals of historians and their readers and listeners, they are still different. In the Russian language the word meaning in logical-semantic analysis of judgments is used as the synonym of the term sense. But when it’s about the meaning of the act or the meaning of life, this word is used as a purpose of the act committed in the first case, and a thought inseparably associated with our life in the second case. It supports our determination to live further with clear understanding of the fact that death is inevitable. The purpose of an act is not the same with different people; it is hidden from the others and is not always clear to the one who commits the act; but if it is clear, the meaning of the act equals motive. At most the meaning of life is not clear to a human being. And these two elements – meaning and life – are knitted together so strongly, that efforts to treat meaning separately, to make it distinct are successful extremely rarely. Most commonly, the purpose of one’s own life is found out when it is achieved or when we’re disappointed in it, as well as when we understand that it is impossible to achieve it. And then life that becomes useless finishes, unless we find immediately a decent alternative to the previous meaning. The word history as well as its analogues deriving from the Greek “historia”, has two main meanings in all the European languages. The first, and, as many believe, the most important one, is the events of the past. The second important meaning of the word history is description of the events of the past, in most cases a scientific one. All other ways of using this word are variations of the two most important ones. For instance, various common life stories representing events of private life of the recent past, translated verbally by a storyteller who regards them indicative. The memory of them is not reliable and durable unless it is documented in writing or in printed format – in the form of historical anecdotes which characters are celebrities of their time, who, due to their extraordinary acts really or supposedly influenced their contemporary life and thus, influenced further history. Common life stories include scandalous stories, in which, according to N.V. Gogol, Nozdryov, whom the writer, for this reason, called the story man, landed permanently. Using the word story to denote a scandal is absolutely justified, at least in Russian. Scandal is an event of the past, though recent (and therefore, it becomes history in the first meaning of the word), that became public due to its personal touch, and consequently became one of the stories (the second meaning), that are told and discussed for some time. And what is strange: if nobody speaks about the scandal, thus, making its historical description that becomes public, then there is no scandal. # 327 # Copyright ОАО «ЦКБ «БИБКОМ» & ООО «Aгентство Kнига-Cервис» Gennadiy V. Boldyguin. On the Meaning of History Scandalous event that is usually perceived as an out of the ordinary breach of decency, in itself does not make the event a scandal. Stories that should be avoided to be shared, that are scandalous events of the past, become such as soon as they are spoken about, become public due to their historical reconstruction that became known to close, remote or even unfamiliar people. No publicity, no scandal, no story – such was the fact that another Gogol’s character – lieutenant Pirogov from “Nevsky Prospekt”, who first got into a huff and then forgot the humiliation, stated with pleasure. But isn’t it the same with all the events of the past that are described by multiple scientific histories – political, social and cultural ones? We do not know anything about those events apart from what is said about them by the corresponding histories, as if without them the events of the past would not happen at all. But why as if ? They do not exist in the real life: they disappeared in the old or recent past. They only exist in the form of historical reconstructions, which solely make them interconnected with existence (in other words, make them events). That is why the same word history means both events of the past, and their description. But did those events of the past happen and did they happen in such a way that they were described by the historical reconstructions? The solution of these problems depends on the mastership of historians and on many other factors influencing the perception of their research by contemporaries and descendants. Nobody managed to compare an irretrievably disappeared event with its description. There are several more science disciplines in which their names and subject matters coincide partly or totally, for instance, geography and geology. Their subject matters are single objects – the Earth surface in the first example and its internal structure in the second example. Single objects are also subjects of historical reconstructions, though their singularity is not determined by the unique character of the researched object, but, according to new Kantians V. Vindelbandt and H. Rickert, by a specific method, requiring from historians to describe a rather ordinary (from the point of view of the natural science method, unifying its objects) event as a unique one, having its own feature, different from anyone or anything else. According to them, there were two methods that formed in us two different images of reality: one of them was the world of nature that excluded anything radically different from another, but put everything under control of perpetual and permanent laws; and cultural and historical world where everything was single and unique. In the world of history, according to O. Spengler, who emphasized the uniqueness of the events that it describes, they use ordinal numbers, banning to change places of summands, making – when added up – a historical date, which, however, was easily allowed for cardinal numbers, creating the foundation of the image of perpetual nature repeating itself. One can argue the fact that the opposition nature-history determines the horizon of thinking of any people in any time. However, it is difficult to argue that for a historian there is no more honorable task and more joyful result than to discover in everyday life routine of the past an outstanding event that is either completely unknown to the most of his contemporaries, which for this reason was not described by anyone, or a radical change in its image that was formed by the previous descriptions. An unmatched, unique, singular, whether it is an act of a single person or a movement of big masses of people, legal system of a disappeared state or a religious cult of a small tribe, scientific mentality of a certain era or its predominant prejudices – all these and many more that have certain influence, are interesting both for historians and us, their readers and listeners. # 328 # Copyright ОАО «ЦКБ «БИБКОМ» & ООО «Aгентство Kнига-Cервис» Gennadiy V. Boldyguin. On the Meaning of History The unique character of the events of the past reconstructed by historians predetermines their isolation from each other and presence of the gaps between them, which makes it possible for social and political scientists, science and religion theorists to advance various speculations about the reasons of those events and their consequences, about orientation of historical process and its driving forces. It happens that historians build such hypotheses themselves, abandoning subject matter of their science – singular and unique. Becoming quasi-politologists, quasisociologists, quasi-science theorists etc., they see in reconstructions not the final purpose of historical studies, not their meaning, but only an intermediate stage, a useful mean to achieve another higher purpose, for example, to illustrate and verify philosophical anthropology, social or any other summarizing theory, using historical facts. Verification capacities of the so-called historical facts in humanology and social science are not less not more than empirical data in natural sciences. The goal and the limits of verification capacities in natural sciences consist in delimitation of the scientific language as compared to the other languages. Facts of history are considered by authors of sociological, politological, economic, anthropologic and other similar theories as analogues of the empirical data in natural sciences, collected to persuade the readers in their correctness. Not in the verity, but on a bigger level of verification than that of other competing authors, and therefore, with a more scientific approach of their own theories. But historical description of a single event is not empirical and moreover, is not a fact, but the result of historian’s conclusions about something that does not exist any longer, and possibly, has never existed. Certainly, the reference to historical reconstructions verifies scientific scrupulosity of the authors of theories, who studied a variety of statements about the past and the present eluding in this past, but in no way their verity and correctness in arguments with competitors. The past which is known to us is a starting point for humanitarian and social science concepts. It is a summation of historians’ thoughts about the unique events that are interlinked and interconnected only by a chronological sequence that does not necessarily mean that the preceding event caused the following one. The world of history is a world of purposes, where every preceding event does not necessarily cause the following acts of people, but only the ones that came in field of their view. But even in this case such an event is not a reason inevitably causing certain acts, but a cause of completely different acts. Summer rain is not the reason, but a cause: to come into the shop for certain people; to show out a new umbrella for the others; to jump across warm puddles for children, etc. A cause is a preceding event, which passed through the prism of human purposes. As for the motive, it represents a justification of an act initiated by the cause of an act, a proof of a person to him/ herself of the meaningfulness of his/her acts, of their rational viability. However, a human being, Homo sapiens, is reasonable only in part. When a person shapes goals, this process is influenced not only by a person’s mind, but also by a person’s passions (affects) that a person controls only to a certain extent, and which occasionally make a person plunge into adventures. And because of irrational origin of a person’s own purposes he/ she cannot always explain their meaning. Is a historian capable of identifying all these purposes without the knowledge of what reconstructions of the events of the past will not be comprehensive and veracious? What is interesting and useful there for us in stating single, inimitable and not quite reasonable acts of historical personalities? Do we care whether Aleksandr Menshikov was a descendant of Polish # 329 # Copyright ОАО «ЦКБ «БИБКОМ» & ООО «Aгентство Kнига-Cервис» Gennadiy V. Boldyguin. On the Meaning of History nobles, as he assured himself, or a plebian, as his enemies said? What can the accurate knowledge of his origin give us? How can this knowledge about the person who lived 300 years ago serve us after his death? The answer is known for a long timei: history teaches only the fact that it cannot teach anything. But historians are not embarrassed by the uselessness of their work for those who want to use their reconstructions as a mean to achieve their own practical purposes. No reasons turn them away from their favorite activity – retrieving single events from the dark of the past. What moves them apart from the cult of love of knowledge for knowledge sake, typical for European science? Is it really a matter of love of laurels and glory? What is the meaning of historical studies? What real objective do they pursue? What is the reason of historians’ and their readers’ curiosity for the purposes that caused actions of the people who disappeared long ago, or at least for the motives justifying their actions? A historical reconstruction has to describe real events, and not fantasies of their authors. L. Ranke and his great followers J.G. Droysen and J. Burckhardt, working in the 19th century on terms of validity of historical essays, made the conclusion that all the single events of the past cannot be their objects, but only those that can be reconstructed on the basis of the written sources. All other evidences of the past are either prehistoric or unhistorical. The elaboration of the concept of historical made it possible to draw a line between scientific history and the myths, legends and common life stories, on the one hand, but also sciences about the past that were actively formed in the 19th century, such as paleontology and archeology, on the other hand. A written source requires critical reading and comparison with other written documents, as their direct or indirect evidences of the events are conditioned with personal purposes and motives of their authors, often hidden by them, but occasionally non-conscious. It turned out that without studying the motives of both participants of the events, and the authors of such evidences, a reliable historical reconstruction is not possible. Without regarding real opportunities that emerged in the 19th and 20th centuries due to multiple techniques of understanding the motives that guided people of other disappeared cultures, let us ask ourselves a question about the meaning of such understanding. What does it give to the historians? What does it give to us, the readers? Do we really care which motives guided a historical character when he/she committed the actions? It is widely thought that history does not have subjunctive mood, and thus, it is useless to ask such questions as: what would happen under different circumstances. Historians should speak exclusively about something that really happened, and not about something that could have happened. The event of the past has no alternatives. And no one can know this. It is such an obstacle for fantasies and speculations that nobody can avoid or overcome in any other way. It is thought that the meaning of history, its main mission and its purpose consist in coming to know such necessities. However, the action, which is becoming the past and thus, becoming a necessary event, still isn’t becoming inevitable. It could be different. And we know that. Still, we do not know what it could have been. But people who became historical characters due to the writings of researchers of the past knew that they could have acted in a different way, not in the way that they acted. They knew that in the given circumstances they were free enough to choose a different goal and different means to achieve it. But the important thing they did not know was a distant consequence of their free choice. Instead, it is known to their descendants, who are able to judge, whether their ancestors were right # 330 # Copyright ОАО «ЦКБ «БИБКОМ» & ООО «Aгентство Kнига-Cервис» Gennadiy V. Boldyguin. On the Meaning of History or wrong in their choice, and whether their acts made or did not make an irreparable harm to the following generations. Ancestors are defendants of the descendants. Every new generation makes its own judgment of history. And historians and readers of their reconstructions play different roles in this judgment. Some historians stands for prosecution, others – for defense. The first reconstruct the event due to different evidences and proofs, trying to prove the malicious intent of a historical character or his/her criminal negligence. Historians-lawyers on the same or newly discovered grounds draw the picture of the same event, which, however, demonstrates the lack of criminal intents (and it is known that without them there is no crime). Instead, they depict careful precaution and good cause for descendants of the act committed by the defendant historical character or the group of people. Two images of the event are taken to our judgment, judgment of the readers of historical works who deliver a verdict, which, however, will never be unanimous and definitive. And it means, that historians’ work will never stop, and its meaning consists in the fact that both they are and we are, their readers, respond to the last silent (and sometimes written in the memoirs) request of the ancestors to study thoroughly all the circumstances preceding and accompanying their actions, including their motives. We are, the readers, playing the role of the jury of our generation, make judgments on those who are gone. It is impossible for us not to judge them. Like they did in their own time, we are afraid of the judgment of history, and we yearn it, as we know: there is no worst punishment both for us and for them, than oblivion by the indifferent descendants who are not able and not even willing to see the difference between our face and someone else’s. Let there be eternal damnation according to the verdict of the Last Judgment, let there be tarnation of the descendants pronounced by the judgment of history, but not the complete disappearance of my Self in the dehumanizing darkness of the past, thinks Ibsen’s Peer Gynt. And this approach is shared by all those who grew up under the influence of Jewish, Christian and Islamic cults. Buddhists, for example, do not aspire that. For them isolated existence, even in paradise, is not the meaning of life, but a punishment. The aim of a Buddhist, making his life meaningful is different – to stop reincarnations and to get rid of the isolation by dissolving in Nirvana with the whole world. Therefore, Buddhism has no interest for history which values only single events and accuses or defends ancestors. There is no history in Hinduism either. It is absent in all the religions. Instead, there are myths – stories that set examples of right and wrong acts in the form of common life stories. Occasionally myths include details of the past documented in other sources. However, the meaning of myths is not to establish whether any of the inimitable events of the past took place, whether they happened in a certain place at a certain time. Their task is to encourage a person to reproduce on a permanent basis the norms of behavior approved by religions and to prevent something that is not approved. Religious stories are always useful: they are used as means to achieve certain unhistorical purposes, but they are never regarded as a final goal in itself. Historians have nothing to do with myths. The most efficient way of delivering them was and remains an oral and ideally cadenced narration of the stories. And most important, the judgment of their characters was already made, and the final verdict was delivered not by the humans, and for this reason cannot be contested. In ancient and medieval China and other countries of the Far East and South-East with influential Chinese traditions that have not disappeared completely by now the education # 331 # Copyright ОАО «ЦКБ «БИБКОМ» & ООО «Aгентство Kнига-Cервис» Gennadiy V. Boldyguin. On the Meaning of History was basically historical. An applicant became a student, and for a long time thoroughly studied certain approved essay, which exposed the history of ruling class by the famous administrators of a certain rank or victories of the commanders. Teaching was based on a precedent that guided officials and military commanders in case of similar situations. The interest for the past here, as well as in myths, is absolutely practical, and therefore excludes the concept of history, as studies of inimitable events of the past are valuable in themselves. European historians who thought that the meaning of their activity was to serve the judgment of history in the process of hearing the arguments of the parties, create more and more detailed images of the events of the past that have already influenced their contemporary life, and in terms of distant and not always apparent consequences influenced our lives as well. What do these ghosts of the past that revived in historical reconstructions do amongst us? Do they influence us again? What does this influence consist in? Is it possible to use purposefully these ghost images whose power after taking them out of the dark of oblivion may surpass their former strength? We should be careful when dealing with them. Let’s remember Renaissance era with unprecedented immorality of its giants and with further cataclysms starting with an innocent, at first sight, liquidation of white spots in history. The most important of them were establishing the forgery of Donation of Constantine and translation of the Bible into different languages. Let us also remember the ghosts that became apparent in white spots of history of the USSR and the CPSU that escaped from the arms of those who initiated perestroika. Those ghosts were supposed to be used for the sake of acceleration and democratization and largely contributed to the crash of the USSR, the CPSU and the whole global socialist system. The efficiency of historical reconstructions may be extremely high, and its consequences may be even darker than the grave dark of the past. The future that comes as the result of our decisions is different from the one that is propelled by the laws of nature. Halley’s Comet will always approach Earth with regular periodicity. And we know when it happens next time. Unless the mankind invents new means capable of changing the orbit of notorious comet for its own purposes. The future caused by our free acts, including historical reconstructions, is not predictable, but is just assumed. It is impossible to know it. We may only believe in it, believe that our acts that we may commit or not commit will bring us to the expected purpose. The duty of historians is to remember about that. Similarly to the medieval alchemists who wanted to change the nature of things (celestial, according to them) and to cleanse their souls from all the sinful thoughts before they start their mighty works, historians should cleanse from temptation to serve self-seeking interests of one or another political party, of one or another theory, promising the knowledge of human existence laws or causa fi nalis of historical process. Historians have a more important and honorable task – to encourage the judgment of history, disclosing minor circumstances of the studied matters, including reasonable motives of defendants and their unreasonable purposes. These studies represent a response to the plea of those who are gone to arbitrate them. They constitute the meaning of historical science, its goal that its servants do not always realize. We should remember that the phrase truth is born in arguments appeared in dicasteries (civil courts) of ancient Greece, where disinterested dikasts (judges, and earlier – fair people who shared trophy and community lands) facilitated hearing the arguments of the parties in order to fi nd aletheia (truth), thoroughly hidden from the # 332 # Copyright ОАО «ЦКБ «БИБКОМ» & ООО «Aгентство Kнига-Cервис» Gennadiy V. Boldyguin. On the Meaning of History others, and sometimes hidden from themselves. The expression scientific discovery dates back from that time. But historians are human beings, and nothing human is strange to them, including irrational passions making some people to support the position of accusation and the others to play for the defense team. Affection and antipathy do not emerge in mind which cannot always control the acts, but are caused by passions. Is the question: “whether historians’ preferences prevent impartial investigation of the events that they are interested in” appropriate? No, it is not. Only voluntary fakers of history are always reasonable and cold-blooded, and they mercenarily tempt politicians with their useful goods. Without passionate attitude to their work, without love for truth, its scrupulous studies are not possible. C. Helvetius once said that dispassion is a sign of imbecility. And F. Stepun, explaining exposure by O. Spengler of the finest shades of ‘Apollo’s soul’ with his love for ancient Greece, wrote that love does not make the enamored person blind, but on the contrary, makes it possible to see in the object 1 of his/her affection something, that indifference could never see there. However, disaffection also adds to the sight of the person who hates, who looks for and, most importantly, finds in the object of his/her dislike signs of ugliness, that he/she does not notice or easily forgives in close people or in those he likes, or even in strange and unknown people. Readers of the historical essays, jury of the judgment of history – are not dispassionate either. They love, they hate, and therefore they will never let the proceedings stop, as they will never be unanimous in pronouncing a sentence to their ancestors. As for the latter, they will not allow it either, as, in compliance with the unvoiced pact of the parties, they have a right of calling on the judgment of the new generations of indifferent descendants. And so it will continue till the end of time, if this end happens, but in this case, history in both meanings of this word will lose any meaning, and will stop its existence. And nobody will care about the genuine authorship of Shakespeare’s plays and sonnets, or whether Lenin was a German spy. The word theōria means observation, contemplation. Ancient Hellenes divided it into sensuous and speculation. О смысле истории Г.В. Болдыгин Гуманитарный университет Россия 620049, Екатеринбург, ул. Студенческая, 19 Статья посвящена исследованию цели исторического познания, которое автор по аналогии со «смыслом жизни» называет «смыслом истории». Этой целью не может быть мысль об истории как средстве, полезном для неисторических целей. Смысл истории в установлении истины и участии в интеллектуальном процессе, который называется «суд истории». Ключевые слова: смысл, история, суд истории, необходимость и неизбежность, историческая реконструкция, цель, мотив. Copyright ОАО «ЦКБ «БИБКОМ» & ООО «Aгентство Kнига-Cервис» Journal of Siberian Federal University. Humanities & Social Sciences 3 (2013 6) 334-345 ~~~ УДК 111.83 Istina-Truth and Pravda-Truth: Alienating and Assimilating Knowledge Vladimir I. Zhukovskya* and Daniil V. Pivovarovb a Siberian Federal University 79 Svobodny, Krasnoyarsk, 660041 Russia b Ural Federal University named after B.N. Yeltsin 51 Lenina, Ekaterinburg, 620083 Russia Received 11.03.2013, received in revised form 18.03.2013, accepted 25.03.2013 The authors aim to determine the differences between the categories of istina-truth and pravda-truth. It is shown in this article that istina-truth and pravda-truth are differently bound with each other, and contradictions between them are frequent. It is proposed to apply in gnosiology such new concepts, as “alienating cognition” and “assimilating cognition”, “epistemic truth” and “existential truth”. Technical and natural-science cognition are examples of knowledge with a dominant of the alienating beginning. On the contrary, religious and philosophical cognition – are mainly “assimilating cognition”; they are interfaced not so much with the search of epistemic truth, but, first and foremost, they try to find the ontological truth of life. Keywords: istina-truth, pravda-truth, alienating cognition, assimilating cognition, epistemic truth, existential truth. Hegel has somehow told that “istina-truth” is a great word and a greater subject; if spirit and soul of the person are still healthy, his breast should be raised above when listening to the sounds of this word. But what is istina-truth? There is no unequivocal answer to this question, and the term “istina-truth” is initially multiplevalued. Hebrew “( “ ןֵמאָamen; so be it; verily, truly) designates: 1) opposite to lie or non-pravdatruth; 2) reliability, trust, fidelity. Ancient Greek “άληφεια” (aletheya) is translated as: 1) true; 2) opened and fair; 3) an original reality; 4) a real object, instead of its copy. Latin “verus” means: 1) true; 2) truthful, and “veritas” – istina-truth. * Istina-truths are subdivided into necessary and casual, analytical and synthetic. Plato speaks in his dialogue “Theaetetus”, that it is possible to own some istina-truth, not owning knowledge. Not being cognized, this istina-truth somehow is present in thinking. But knowledge is impossible without Logos, without any reasonable-verbal report. Limited istina-truths should be such istina-truths which are realized and designated by names. According to Plato, the uttered ideas are incomplete and false, and the uppermost truths about life are inexpressible. Nevertheless, it is necessary to think about life, even if it is incomprehensible. According to Descartes, clear istina-truths are from the God; © Siberian Federal University. All rights reserved Corresponding author E-mail address: [email protected] # 334 # Copyright ОАО «ЦКБ «БИБКОМ» & ООО «Aгентство Kнига-Cервис» Vladimir I. Zhukovsky and Daniil V. Pivovarov. Istina-Truth and Pravda-Truth: Alienating and Assimilating Knowledge according to Spinoza, the unconditional istinatruth is how the God sees the world; therefore, the genuine istina-truth is an attribute of full and exact knowledge. Some philosophers-pragmatists stipulated: “Even if the God actually does not exist, but the person needs the God very much and believes, that the God exists, then the God certainly will appear as a real force”. The utopian function of philosophy justifies itself when the force of people`s belief substantiates a utopia, inhaling a life into it. We remember that in Russia, the testing area of utopias, in XX century the communistic ideal took the shape of the Soviet power, gave birth to a rich culture and existed for more than half of a century. So, the concept of utopian illusion is quite compatible to the concept of real feasibility. Not only the epistemic-true knowledge is capable of being materialized, but subjectiveillusory knowledge, which maintenance does not possess objectivity and which is not adequate to the external world, can be materialized as well. Atheists-materialists are inclined to consider religion to be one of the forms of powerless utopian delusion. But is it fair that such embodiments of faith in the Absolute, as cultures of Buddhism, Christianity and Islam are claimed to be illusions?! Is the difference between the substantiated ideas of science and religion so great? Generally speaking, it is not too important, whether the initial idea is adequate or inadequate to laws of the protogenic nature (whether such a portrait, type of furniture, a facade of this house “is realistic”, etc.?). The ability of an idea to be materialized, to find separate real existence to satisfy human needs, to develop society is much more important. Philosophers-pragmatists revealed an enormous role of will and belief in the process of materialization of ideas which were invented by the consciousness: the stronger the will and belief are, the sooner and more successfully the imagined world becomes the valid world. Two types of philosophy always compete with each other in the West-European philosophy: theoretical and practical. The first is guided by the concept of istina-truth, and the world of istinatruths rather reminds the transcendent domain of Plato’s ideas, opposite to the sphere of the fluid material phenomena. M. Heidegger named such a type of philosophizing “an eidetic discourse”. On the contrary, the practical philosophy is aimed at concept of the Good (benefit), on human needs and consequently prefers another – an axiological method of analysis. At the beginning of XX century theoretical philosophy rigidly demanded to release the knowledge, which declares itself as istinatruth, to set it free from any sort of axiological formulations. In its turn, philosophersaxiologists imposed a veto upon building their reasoning as an image and similarity of theoretical scientific knowledge. Unlike theoretical and practical versions of philosophy, the religious discourse, as a rule, aspires to harmonization of istina-truth and the good – in conformity with the standard of kalokagathia of divine essence. In eastern doctrines (Hinduism, Buddhism, Taoism, Confucianism) istina-truth is understood as saving knowledge: 1) as the word of the Teacher specifying the true way to rescue; 2) as overcoming of illusion in favor of an original image of reality; 3) as a way of restoration of world harmony (for example, through reverence of traditions in Confucianism, laws of Empire in Legalism). In theistic doctrines istina-truth is defined as conformity of some statement to divine revelation. So, in Judaism and Islam truth is a saving Law, fidelity to precepts of the God, transferred to people through Moses or Mohammad. For Christians istina-truth is not a certain universal # 335 # Copyright ОАО «ЦКБ «БИБКОМ» & ООО «Aгентство Kнига-Cервис» Vladimir I. Zhukovsky and Daniil V. Pivovarov. Istina-Truth and Pravda-Truth: Alienating and Assimilating Knowledge abstraction, but it is the alive and saving person – Jesus Christ – who once uttered: “I am the way, truth and life” (John. 14, 6). Lie is an antipode of istina-truth, pravdatruth and honesty. In formal logic the term “lie” designates “not-true” in the most abstract sense. In philosophical and religious texts a lie and slyness are distinguished from mistakes and errors and are defined as the purposeful distortion of fact of the matter. From the religious point of view, a lie is a sin, a moral harm, a vain attempt to deceive the God. First of all a man who tells a lie harms to himself because he spoils his relations with the God. A lie can have different scales and degrees of danger, possesses destructive force and causes sharp conflicts between people. Christians consider Devil as “the father of any lie” and as the most unmitigated liar who tempts people and induces to lie those who have weak spirit. Jean Baudrillard regards our modern civilization as a product of total simulation (conscious or not realized); our life is filled with simulacrums – by crafty fakes of lie under istina-truth, disgraces under beauty. As it is known, in classical philosophy there were three different interpretations of the istina-truth in which istina-truth was understood as coincidence of knowledge with objective reality (in Latin: veritas est adaequatio rei et intellectus): • t h e o r y o f c o r r e s p o n d e n c e rests on the principle of conformity of knowledge to a piece of material world (Aristotle writes in “Metaphysics”: “To speak about real, that it does not exist, or about not real, that it exists, means to speak false. And to speak, that real exists and not real does not exist, means to speak true”); • e s s e n t i a l i s t d o c t r i n e leans on a principle of conformity of things to its nonmaterial originals – to transcendent ideas (Plato, etc.) or immanent essences (Hegel); • c o h e r e n c e t h e o r y o f t r u t h is based on a principle of conformity of knowledge to some form of human consciousness: - to congenital cognitive structures (Descartes); - to conventions of social groups (Poincare). - to purposes of persons (James); - to aprioristic forms of thinking (Kant); - to self-evidence of intuition (Bergson); - to sensations (Hume). Any theory of “conformity” stumbles at a question “conformity to that?”. It cannot express exactly in an obvious form that an object to which the knowledge is presumably being put in is conformity. For example, to what object the statement “My hand hurts” corresponds? In fact the pain is subjective. It is not registered by devices, and an actor is able to simulate it on a stage quite plausibly. Suhotra Svāmī explains the specified gnosiological difficulty by the means of an ancient Indian parable about the scapegrace, the ascetic person and homeless dog: each of them sees the same – a woman. However each of them sees her in a different way: as an object of pleasure, a clot of flesh and food. “If the correspondence is istinatrue, to whose istina-truth the utterance “Here is the woman” corresponds? <…> the scapegrace, the ascetic and the homeless dog, looking at the evident sample of the woman, will pay attention to different properties, attitudes and aspects of the defined object. Everyone <…> will understand the word “the woman” and its value in a different way.” (Svāmī, 1998, p. 60-61). As a rule, scientific and unscientific istina-truths do not reject each other, but act as supplements for each other. D.A. Tsyplakov illustrates this rule by means of the following example. “We see a student running towards a bus-stop following the bus. It is possible to give two answers to the question “why is he running?”: # 336 # Copyright ОАО «ЦКБ «БИБКОМ» & ООО «Aгентство Kнига-Cервис» Vladimir I. Zhukovsky and Daniil V. Pivovarov. Istina-Truth and Pravda-Truth: Alienating and Assimilating Knowledge “because of the contraction of his muscles” and “because he is late to the lecture”. Both of these answers can be istina-true, and they do not contradict and supplement each other. Similarly, religious istina-truths speak about the good, beauty, the moral pravda-truth, and scientific istina-truths describe the world in the practical plan” (Tsyplakov, 2011, p. 71). Irrationalism in understanding of istinatruth amplifies in philosophy since XX century. Nietzsche connects istina-truth with ideas of eternal returning and reassessment of values. Existentialism contrasts the objective istina-truth and representation about personal istina-truth as an intuitive appearance of original being to some individual. Sartre sees the essence of istinatruth in freedom. J. Maritain and N. Hartmann declare that istina-truth is a special ideal object in structure of transcendental being. Theorists of Postmodernism speak about knowledge as about a process of eternal and unsuccessful “quest” for istina-truth. Is istina-truth objective really or not? Sometimes this question should be answered with an aphorism: “We tolerantly treat other people’s opinions, as long as we do not have our own opinion”. According to Heidegger, who continues the antique tradition, in order to find out istinatruth, it is necessary to use pro-duc-tivity, that is to withdraw istina-truth from its hidden place using a technology; and technique itself is a kind of truth-making. The attribute of objectivity is no longer ascribed to istina-truth in non-classical philosophy; istina-truth is identified either with specific conditions of soul (Kierkegaard), or with value (Rickert), or with language interpretation (Gadamer). The istina-truth and value become more and more closely connected. The concept of value began to affirm in gnosiology in the second half of XIX century. Lotze introduced it to philosophy. He believed that value occurs exclusively in situations of its significance to a subject, but it is not the product of arbitrary treatment. Value is objective because it is a mutual intersubjective form of volition and human behavior. In postnonclassical philosophy the problem of istina-truth turns to be one of aspects of a game subordinated to those rules, which are randomly chosen by that or other subject (Foucault). The Russian language marks the ontological attribute in the word “istina-truth” – the existing, original, real. Two sorts of istina-truths are distinguished in the Russian spiritually-academic philosophy of XIX century: the ontological istinatruth (it has objective character and it is stored in the very being) and the logical istina-truth (it is subordinated to ontological truth, and it is subjective and expressed in human judgments about being). The judgment is considered to be istinatrue, when it corresponds to things created by the God. Cognition and life, ontological and logical truths coincide in the God. Divine Reason is considered in orthodox gnosiology to be the main criterion of istina-truth (Tsvyk, 2004 p. 14-30). In particular, Kudryavtsev-Platonov (18281891) proved, that there are two opposite parts in any cognizable thing – 1) ideal, possessing more true life; 2) phenomenal, caused by accidental modifications. The ideal world is the objective maintenance of istina-truth. Top of hierarchy of ideas – the absolute idea summarizing in all of property of ideal life and possessing the absolute istina-truth. This idea is perfect, and the form of its being is individually-concrete. It is inexhaustible. The God possesses it only, it is not allowed to a human being to learn it completely. According to Kudryavtsev-Platonov, the establishment of istina-truth of a thing is tied with reference of this thing to values-samples: it is necessary to compare the empirical aspect of a thing with # 337 # Copyright ОАО «ЦКБ «БИБКОМ» & ООО «Aгентство Kнига-Cервис» Vladimir I. Zhukovsky and Daniil V. Pivovarov. Istina-Truth and Pravda-Truth: Alienating and Assimilating Knowledge what this thing should be (Kudryavtsev-Platonov, 1893) It is proved by Kant: in order to learn a thing it is necessary to operate with this thing and our operations change cognizable objects. As a result, a human being learns not that originally exists as primordial nature, but that is recreated by him under schemes of his concepts and creative imagination. According to Hegel, there, where there is mutual reflection of the subject and object, measurement of force of creativity needs a special notion of istina-truth as a measure of conformity real with ideal (that is as a degree of coordination emergent (new quality) with the original-essence). Therefore Hegel often defined istina-truth as harmonization (conformity) of a thing with its notion. So, the constructed house is evaluated as “true” when there is adequacy between this house and previously approved architectural project. It is logical to apply nonclassical notion of istina-truth of Plato and Hegel to processes of mastering knowledge. We shall name this notion “existential truth” (in Russian – “Pravda”). The existential istina-truth is some correspondence between the human existence and a proper ideal of being. The criterion of justification of ideas and ideals of a person is completeness of assimilation of vital space and a degree of satisfaction with this assimilation. It is not necessary to search, with persistence of a naive realist, only epistemic istina-truth in the knowledge displaying the world together with human relationship to the external world [D.V. Pivovarov, 2012]. Knowledge by all means includes individual understanding. To “understand” means: 1) to express cognizable objects in concepts; 2) to imagine these objects with a help of evident models – in forms of secondary sensuality; 3) to allocate the comprehended object with the sense contained in a personal semantic context of the subject. Sense-meaning, which an individual attributes to the cognizable object, either is creatively invented, or taken from already old habitual senses. To understand the physical world in religious sense means to imagine this world as: 1) a product of divine creation; 2) object of Providence; 3) the medium among people and the Absolute. It is necessary to consider virtual division in spiritual processes of two maintenances of an ideal image-emergent: one of them is consciousness, and the second – self-consciousness. Consciousness is not able to distinguish fully, what in emergent was exclusively “mine”, and what was put into it from outside, from «alien being». At least, it demands great existential efforts and theoretical reflections. Some part of “my-other” (in Russian – “своеиное”) enters into the maintenance of an image of self-consciousness, while there is «my” in the content of image of consciousness. And in the latter case this addition of “my” is not so harmless, so far as the ideal image of consciousness, being extrapolated through objectification of subjective goals on the external world, is materialized in things and also in processes of artificial nature which significantly differs from protogenic nature. The classical notion of istina-truth does not measure adequacy of images of consciousness and self-consciousness in their entirety. Is it possible to estimate our subjective experience of assimilation of external world as true or false? Whether the predicate “true” is applied to images of self-consciousness and what are the images of self-consciousness in general – what is a proportion of “picturesqueness” (imitation) and “expressiveness” in such images? I think that there are no unequivocal answers to such questions. The concept of vital pravda-truth (existential istina-truth) is applicable not so much to designation # 338 # Copyright ОАО «ЦКБ «БИБКОМ» & ООО «Aгентство Kнига-Cервис» Vladimir I. Zhukovsky and Daniil V. Pivovarov. Istina-Truth and Pravda-Truth: Alienating and Assimilating Knowledge of the objective maintenance of natural, social and mental processes (though it assumes partial reproduction of such maintenance in the removed kind), how many it is interfaced to uniqueness of personal experience of internalization of the world – to harmony of individual relationship to objective world. Generally speaking, how many people there are, so many are vital pravda-truths. Collision of mutually exclusive vital pravdatruths can be fine and ugly, tragic and comical, ennobled or low. Unsurprisingly, philosophy of pragmatism identified istina-truth with the property of idea to give the constructive character to our activity, to lead to practical successes, to bring vital advantage. Philosophers-pragmatists, debunking the claims of Marxists in the possession of the absolute epistemic criterion of truth (the criterion of practice), turned philosophical thinking to a theme of vital pravda-truth. The vital pravda-truth is a syncretic alloy of the removed objective contents (it makes it related with an objective istina-truth) and of subjective-personal moments in worldview (this distinguishes it from epistemic istina-truth). Often similarity is taken for its criterion: to prove pravda-truth means to establish subjectively the similarity between discussed situations and previously estimated circumstances. When the person, painfully solving his conflict with the world, searches for new milestones of own sense of life – he searches for a new pravda-truth for himself. Having found this pravda-truth, he subjectively accepts it for universal epistemic istina-truth, true for all people, and sometimes is indignant, why others do not accept his vital position. The conflict of different vital pravda-truths (both inside of a person and between people) is always inevitable. There is a close communication between pravdatruth and belief (for example, some people say: “To be faithful to his own pravda-truth”). The typical vital pravda-truth, the basis for the allocation of which common human moments of outlook serve, is the criterion for comparison and an estimation of diverse vital pravda-truths (Zhukovsky, Pivovarov, 1998) The thought about any being always contains any subjectively-anthropic component. The intensive thought about being is similar to the fused metal filling of the melting form – becoming anthropomorphic it seizes the subject. The person materializing his ideas and ideals creates a new reality, which to a large extent did not coincide and conflicts with the world of wild nature. Substances of this new world are the alive activity, expanded reproduction and realization of ideas and ideals (Zhukovsky, Pivovarov, 1991, p. 44–84). The “second nature” comes back spontaneously into a condition of the protogenic nature there, where this alive activity stops. (Certainly, there are not only distinctions, but also a generality between the wild nature and the human world, otherwise they could not coexist and cooperate physically. Laws of a noosphere are primary factors of social totality and of all social concreteness.) Let’s strengthen the acuteness of the notion of existential istina-truth with the help of one “tricky” example. Let’s admit that we look at clouds and we observe a set of pictures replacing each other. Points, lines and volumes, visible in clouds and taken by themselves, are firstly absolutely senseless – they are some uncertain events. But if only to organize illusory these events in connection with any setting, and they immediately become “facts” for us. These “facts” are selected and developed into a picture of a cloudy reality (images of a sea, mountains, military units, people, animals and so forth). “Facts” vary when we change our setting and shift our attention to other configurations, and another picture of the same part of heavenly # 339 # Copyright ОАО «ЦКБ «БИБКОМ» & ООО «Aгентство Kнига-Cервис» Vladimir I. Zhukovsky and Daniil V. Pivovarov. Istina-Truth and Pravda-Truth: Alienating and Assimilating Knowledge space there appears already. Cloudy pictures are emergents, resulting in the merger of external optics with cognitive stereotypes of a man. Not only consciousness, but also subconsciousness are involved in its production. If to extrapolate this example on any cognitive process (religious, scientific, technical, art, etc.) the existential istina-truth becomes noticeably commensurable with epistemic istinatruth. Let’s say, this cloud is a real thing, and our contemplation of it just as the cloud is probably true in the epistemic sense. However it is difficult to recognize a set of pictures which we see in clouds as true from epistemic point of view. Nevertheless, it is easy to embody these picturesillusions into material components of the social world. Isn’t that the same as in the cases of scientific, technical and any other kind of creativity in general? Some critics may say that a cloud and whimsical freak of imagination is one matter, but quite another matter – science and technics where materialization of ideas, invented or devised by scientists and engineers, is tied with regular experimental verification of knowledge. However, is the difference between a cloud and, say, an object of scientific knowledge so essential? Instead of the example with clouds we shall try to realize other project. Take a piece of drawing paper, a pencil, a penknife and an elastic band. Begin to grind down the pencil with a knife, arbitrarily drive it over the paper, and graphite dust forms chaotic heterogeneity on your paper. Then chaotically drive on the settled graphite with a sharp end of the other – repeatedly rolled-up – paper. Different scrawl, crossed lines, geometrical configurations are formed on the drawing paper. Turning this drawing paper in different sides, we comprehend the “seen” images and select the most beautiful among them. It is possible to imagine such pictures as many as necessary, but each spectator “beholds” something his own, personal. Now it is necessary to fix mentally the liked picture and, keeping it in our memory, to erase all superfluous by means of elastic band. It happens that the result deserves an art exhibition. Materialization of illusions is reached in this case by elimination unnecessary graphs from objectively real uniformity – according to known analogy about a sculptor which eliminates all superfluous from a block of marble and takes the perfect statue from it. It is asked, whether there was an objectively real original which copy became our picture? Whether it is possible to consider chaos of configurations of a graphite dust (cloud) as the initial original? Or the original is covered in “egoism” of the author of the picture? It is difficult to answer this question. The cloud or leaf of a drawing paper with graphite graphs is a hint on plenitude of being with an incalculable set of potential opportunities; we create something separate while limiting this plenitude of being. It is hardly possible to check up epistemic validity of the copy of this “something” through our practice or external experience. It is difficult to be kept from a temptation to draw an analogy between a picture in clouds, a statue in a block of marble and the scientific theory about experimental object. Why a row of equally plausible but alternative reviews of the same objective domains always compete among each other in any science? Probably because we see the world as such, what we want to see and understand it, and we understand it, in final analysis, how we are able to operate with it, to act practically with the world. Classical rationalism started with the firm belief that: 1) the external world is one and continuous; 2) there is only one istina-truth about this world, and all people have the same uniform istina-truth; 3) the scientific istina-truth is # 340 # Copyright ОАО «ЦКБ «БИБКОМ» & ООО «Aгентство Kнига-Cервис» Vladimir I. Zhukovsky and Daniil V. Pivovarov. Istina-Truth and Pravda-Truth: Alienating and Assimilating Knowledge universal and general for all of us; it is necessary, uncontradictory, self-evident. Irrationalism and critical rationalism expose to this opinion its radical doubt. If to believe, that the God is capable of creating any possible world, and a human being is similar to the God, then the world surrounding us is not one and common for all, and people are able to create any original worlds and imagestheories of these worlds. For example, the sphere of fine arts is made by the sum of alternative art worlds and consists of “strange” art istina-truths competing among themselves. Science and technics have skillfully created a set of different new realities which are subordinated to the special independent laws which have been thought up by scientists and engineers. Hence, it is logically true to match against classical principles of uniqueness, universality and uncontradiction of scientific istina-truth the non-classical concept of pluralism of paradoxical scientific istina-truths about the possible worlds. For instance, L.I. Shestov pulled out against rationalism of classic science absurd istina-truths of faith (say, faith of Christians in the crucified God) – he provided istina-truth with properties of non-self-evidence, paradoxicality, freedom and existential uniqueness. Considering pluralism of representations about the notion of istina-truth, it is expedient to enter two new terms into the general theory of knowledge: “assimilating cognition” and “alienating cognition” (Pivovarov, 2009, p. 3038) The term “assimilation” (also “internalization”; in Russian – “освоение”, “усвоение”, etc.) designates the process of receiving new facts or of responding to new situations in conformity with what is already available to consciousness. Internalization is also often associated with learning ideas or skills and making use of it generally. Internalization is the long-term process of consolidation and embedding one’s own beliefs, attitudes, and values, when it comes to moral behavior. The opposite of “assimilation” is the term “alienation” (in Russian – “отчуждение”) translates two distinct German terms: “Entfremdung” (“estrangement”) and Entauberung (“externalization”). Both terms originated in Hegel’s philosophy, specifically in his Phenomenology of Spirit (1807). “Externalization” (also – embodiment, incarnation, manifestation, materialization, objectification, substantiation, etc.) means to put something outside of its original borders. Alienation is often a harmful separation, disruption or fragmentation which sunders things that properly belong together. To be alienated is to be separated from one’s own essence or nature. However, Hegel talked about alienation not only as the painful loss of oneself, slavery, social disease; and he understood assimilation not only as the exploration of positive growth of maintenances of itself. Being in this regard a consistent dialectic (in opposition to Marx), Hegel singled out the positive and negative points both in alienation and assimilation. In his opinion, there are two types of alienation: slavish and free. Assimilation also can either increase the freedom of the subject, or, on the contrary, enslave it (Pivovarov, 2009, p. 63-72). Assimilating cognition (gnosis) unites the subject and object so, that cognizable thing becomes subjective and vitally valuable to the learning person. Thus, the object can be not only external (even transcendent) in relation to its subject, but also immanent (sometimes transcendental); therefore it is necessary to allocate in assimilating knowledge, in its turn, its externally-transcendent and immanentlytranscendental versions. Assimilating cognition is emotional, frank and intimate relations of a person to perceived life; it can be characterized as an existential attraction # 341 # Copyright ОАО «ЦКБ «БИБКОМ» & ООО «Aгентство Kнига-Cервис» Vladimir I. Zhukovsky and Daniil V. Pivovarov. Istina-Truth and Pravda-Truth: Alienating and Assimilating Knowledge of the subject to his object in such forms of love, as storge, eros, agape, mania, philio. Assimilating cognition is integrally connected with axiology of hearts, with spiritual fideism and belief; and istina-truth can be found out due to its beauty. The object is anthropomorphized and cosmounified by the learning subject in the process of assimilating cognition. Anthropomorphism is the identification of human being with non-human “other-being”, description of natural things by means of human properties. I suggest to use the term “cosmounification” to refer to the process of the speculative thinking about all possible universes in exactly the same way as thinking only about one (our) universe; all the other are “standardized” and are seen only through the lens of a single monistic point of view. Absolute reality is anthropomorphized and cosmounified in the process of its religious development. Philosophers always care about “anthropic paradox”: the world is huge and old, but the mankind has arisen recently on Earth and beholds the world from the tiny observation post. Nevertheless, all properties of the world known to us are shown only through attitudes of Universe to a human back street – no one, except us, observes attributes of the Universe (its size, age, etc.). And though all we well know, that the world existed long before us and it is not dependent on our existence, nevertheless those properties which we attribute to it, come to light only through our touch to this world (Frayn , 2006). The same paradox can be applied also to the theme of God’s being: divine attributes, anyhow, are relative to human existence. Alienating cognition (επιστεμη, episteme), on the contrary, separates learning and cognizable, transforms the subject into the discharged, passionless and objective observer, and object – into something “absolutely other». Not only external (including transcendent) things but also immanent (sometimes transcendental) things can be objects of such cognition; therefore alienating cognition can be subdivided into exterior and interior alienating cognition. Alienating cognition aims to the «objective istina-truth»; it is defined, according to Stagirit, as correspondence among knowledge and objective reality and it is verified by neutral criteria (by external experience and reasonable self-evidence – through any experiment and “figures of logic”). This kind of istina-truth is external istina-truth. Assimilating cognition is focused on another – on that what in Russian you can designate by the term “pravda-truth” which is bad translatable, for example, into English. International analogue of “pravda” can be “existential truth” – immanent truth. Epistemic istina-truth is one for everybody, it is intersubjective and neutral in axiological sense. On the contrary, the existential istinatruth-aletheia is each person's own; it is soldered to principles of an individual internal life and it has personal and valuable character obviously expressed. It is difficult to verify pravda-truth with a help of criteria of material practice or rational consistency. People prefer to verify pravda-truth by using spiritual criteria – with criterions of faith, conscience and intuition. A.L. Kazin said in one of his speeches: “Pravda-truth is such a beginning which is more likely silent about itself, than speaks about itself. And, in general, it is necessary to treat pravda-truth cautiously. Pravda-truth does not cry out loud that it’s pravda-truth.”. In S.F. Denisov’s opinion, non-pravda-truth relates in the narrow sense to the choice of nonexistence (with trends towards Thanatos) and with influence of destiny (blind fatal cases). Denisov enumerates among the basic modes of modern non-pravda-truth such forms as callousness, indifference and aestheticism, and he sees the main reason of boredom that people stay in non-pravda-truth though remember the former # 342 # Copyright ОАО «ЦКБ «БИБКОМ» & ООО «Aгентство Kнига-Cервис» Vladimir I. Zhukovsky and Daniil V. Pivovarov. Istina-Truth and Pravda-Truth: Alienating and Assimilating Knowledge pravda-truth. Pravda-truth is a conscience that is a joint message about life in accordance with representations of goods and benevolence. “In a broad sense pravda-truth is a hierarchical system of values on the basis of which the vital tendency of human life is formed. <…> Pravda-truth is, perhaps, the basic determinant of human life, but alongside with this factor destiny has enormous pressure on human activity. Pravda-truth and Destiny – here are two most widespread concepts by means of which people are trying to explain their life“ (Denisov, 2001, p. 49-50). In Ancient Russia almost all fields of human activity were defined by pravda-truth and nonpravda-truth. “A man could live under “pravdatruth”, because it is the Divine precepts and church rules. Also he can be judged in accordance with it, because “pravda-truth” is the court, as well as court trials and even the fee for appeal of the witness in the court” (Yurganov, 1998, p. 46). I.S. Peresvetov, the original Russian thinker of XVI century, wrote that pravda-truth is a set of the God’s commandments which have the status of laws both for sovereign, and for its citizens. Being norm of a life, pravda-truth results from a unique divine source – from Bible. The orthodox belief helps people to execute and understand pravda-truth, but spiritual persons have the fullest knowledge of divine precepts (Yurganov, 1998, p. 46). Istina-truth and Pravda-truth are differently weaved with each other, just as interrelations of objective knowledge with subjective belief are various. Contradictions between them (istinatruth and pravda-truth, belief and knowledge) are frequent. There are: true pravda-truth and false pravda-truth; pravda-lie and non-pravdatruth; rescue lie and murderous pravda-truth. For example, our national fairy tales express the deep truth of life, but contradict truth of facts (a Russian proverb says: “This fairy tale is a lie, but there is a hint in it – it’s a lesson for a good guy!). Certainly, the named kinds of cognition – assimilating and alienating – are abstractions torn off from each other. In objective reality (in everyone separate cognitive action) they are jointed in this or that proportion, and contradictions between them are possible. Finally assimilating and alienating kinds of cognition grow from the same roots, namely from the process of interaction among “mine” and “alien” – from controversial experience of assimilation and alienation. Examples of cognition with a dominant of the alienating beginning are technical and natural-science cognition. On the contrary, religious and philosophical cognition are examples of assimilating cognition mainly; they are associated not so much with the search for epistemic istina-truth, as with the search for ontological pravda-truth of life. For this reason religious and philosophical systems continue to render powerful influence on minds of people even then when “rational-scientific criticism» rejects its by means of objective criteria of epistemic istina-truth. Any of great philosophical doctrines, unlike scientific theories, never becomes outdated, and this fact probably reflects the fundamental difference of wisdom (sapientia) from scientific quality (scientia). “Revelation is a display of the basis of Being in human knowledge” (P. Tillich). Seeing kalokagathia in the absolute personal Being (i.e. unity of the absolute goodness, truth and beauty in the God), theologians approve, that Being resists alienating cognition, and Being opens to a person internally through the spiritual part of his soul – through his conscience and inner synthesis of his heart, that is through mystical communication of the person with the Absolute. Existentialism is a branch of modern philosophy, aspiring to reunite and counterbalance gnosis and episteme – assimilating and alienating cognition. Sometimes researchers (in particular in Christianity) prefer to designate religion using # 343 # Copyright ОАО «ЦКБ «БИБКОМ» & ООО «Aгентство Kнига-Cервис» Vladimir I. Zhukovsky and Daniil V. Pivovarov. Istina-Truth and Pravda-Truth: Alienating and Assimilating Knowledge the term “faith”, and in other cases religion is defined as a special “saving knowledge”. Many atheists, confusing pravda-truth and istina-truth, estimate religion as the “blind” and empty belief which does not have its objective analogue in reality, and they oppose religion to the cold educated reasoning. Theologians argue amongst themselves trying to describe human cognition of the Absolute through the faith. For example, pantheists believe that direct faith is sufficient to know the God. Theists demand to add empirical evidences of the Epiphany and logical proofs of being of the God to religious faith. It is much told by Apostle Paul, Tertullian, Pascal, Kierkegaard, Karl Barth etc. about an incommensurability of belief and reason. Religious belief is often focused on something transcendent, physically impossible, wonderful, therefore its istina-truths seem to our reason paradoxical, senseless and even absurd. The contradiction between absurdity of belief and logicality of understanding is reflected in Kierkegaard’s formula: “to trust, means not to understand”. It is impossible to prove belief, but it is possible to clarify it. As a rule, it is impossible to force someone to believe, – faith can be found only through our free choice; “slave is not the one who prays to God“. If the istina-truth, via its own light, is not able to attract someone’s mind, then external force will not help to do this” (J. Lock). The true belief is spread in heart by the God (R. Niebuhr). At the dawn of Christianity philosophers-Gnostics identified the specificity of assimilating cognition with the term “gnosis”. References (all in Russian) 1. 2. 3. 4. 5. Denisov S.F. Vital and anthropological senses of Pravda and Non-Pravda [Dziznennie i antropologicheskie smisli pravdi i nepravdi]. Omsk, 2001. – 205 p. Frayn M. The human touch: our part in the creation of Universe. Cambridge, Faber, 2006. – 704 p. Kudryavtsev-Platonov. Collected works. Vol. 1. Issue 1 [Sochinenia]. Sergiev Posad, 1893. – 457 p. Pivovarov D.V. Gnosiology of religion [Gnoseologia religii]. Ekaterinburg, 2009, 380 p. Pivovarov D.V. Two conceptions of alienation: religious alienation, Religious Studies, 2 (Moscow, 2009), 63-72. 6. Svāmī Suhotra. Shadow and Reality [Ten i Realnost]. Moscow, Philosophical Book, 1998. – 331p. 7. Tsvyk I.V. The Problem of truth in Russian spiritually-academic philosophy of XIX century, Bulletin of the Moscow University, 2, series 7, Philosophy (Moscow, 2004), 14-30. 8. Tsyplakov D.A. Religious and scientific truth: aspects of secularization, Religious studies, 1 (Moscow, 2011), 71. 9. Yurganov A.L. Categories of medieval culture [Kategorii srednevekovoi kulturi], Moscow, 1998. – 468 p. 10. Zhukovsky V.I., Pivovarov D.V. Intellectual visualization of essence [Intellektualnaia vizualizatsia sushchnosti]. Krasnoyarsk, 1998. – 223. 11. Zhukovsky V.I., Pivovarov D.V. Visible essence [Zrimaia sushchnost]. Sverdlovsk, 1991, – 284 p. Copyright ОАО «ЦКБ «БИБКОМ» & ООО «Aгентство Kнига-Cервис» Vladimir I. Zhukovsky and Daniil V. Pivovarov. Istina-Truth and Pravda-Truth: Alienating and Assimilating Knowledge Истина и правда: познание отчуждающее и осваивающее В.И. Жуковскийа, Д.В. Пивоваровб а Сибирский федеральный университет Россия 660041, Красноярск, пр. Свободный, 79 б Уральский федеральный университет им. Б.Н. Ельцина Россия 620083, Екатеринбург, пр. Ленина, 51 В статье делается попытка определить различия между категориями истины и правды. Показывается, что истина и правда по-разному переплетены друг с другом и между ними нередки противоречия. Авторы вводят в гносеологию такие новые понятия, как «отчуждающее познание» и «осваивающее познание», «эпистемическая истина» и «экзистенциальная истина». Пример познания с доминантой отчуждающего начала – техническое и естественнонаучное познание. Напротив, религиозное и философское познание суть по преимуществу познание осваивающее, сопряженное не столько с поиском эпистемической истины, сколько с постижением онтологической правды жизни. Ключевые слова: истина, правда, отчуждающее познание, осваивающее познание, эпистемическая истина, экзистенциальная истина. Copyright ОАО «ЦКБ «БИБКОМ» & ООО «Aгентство Kнига-Cервис» Journal of Siberian Federal University. Humanities & Social Sciences 3 (2013 6) 346-356 ~~~ УДК 141.319.8 Back to Kant? (on the Topicality of the Ideas of Philosophical Anthropology) Yekaterina A. Batiuta*, Aleksandr V. Pertsev and Yekaterina S. Cherepanova Ural Federal University named after B.N. Yeltsin 51 Lenina, Ekaterinburg, 620083 Russia Received 11.03.2013, received in revised form 18.03.2013, accepted 25.03.2013 The importance of philosophy in people’s lives is still a very topical issue in terms of philosophical anthropology; moreover, this field of philosophical knowledge has brought a vital perspective to the problem. The authors raise the question of transformations in philosophy and philosophical education in Russia. Contemporary philosophy should return to the anthropological ideas of I. Kant about free mind and criticism. The contemplations presented in the article also include polemic points of complex relationship between philosophical world-outlook, religion and everyday worldviews and their influence on modern education. During the Soviet era, the Russian people have accumulated some painful experience of dealing with philosophical and ethical prescriptions, and it is anthropology that could replace normative approach in education with a new outlook of humanism and tolerance. Keywords: philosophy, philosophical anthropology, society, world outlook, religion, meaning of life, state and society, philosophical education About two decades ago, the authors of this article forwarded an initiative to enroll Philosophical Anthropology in the list of majors for the Philosophy departments of the country. It is time to contemplate on where we have come to. Here, however, some clarification is required, especially for our overseas readers. In the year 1991, CPSU was labeled as an organization involved in attempting a coup d’état (establishment notoriously known as SCEG). Alongside with it, the entire Marxist-Leninist philosophy based on dialectical materialist philosophy and scientific communism was * banned. Thus, philosophy of dialectical and historical materialism elapsed “de jure”, not in the least “de facto”. Since people who taught this philosophy throughout the country, from schools to universities, still kept carrying out their activity, delivering their knowledge. At present, Russia enjoys about 6 thousand professional philosophers (this figure corresponds to the number of the Russian Philosophic Society members registered in the “Bulletin”, the annual list of the society members; there is every reason to believe that it is the members of the professional community and newcomers who © Siberian Federal University. All rights reserved Corresponding author E-mail address: [email protected] # 346 # Copyright ОАО «ЦКБ «БИБКОМ» & ООО «Aгентство Kнига-Cервис» Yekaterina A. Batiuta, Aleksandr V. Pertsev… Back to Kant? (on the Topicality of the Ideas of Philosophical Anthropology) constitute the RPS with the desire to participate in the association’s congresses and conferences and publish their papers in the ‘Bulletin”). After the repeal of mandatory all-state philosophy in the year 1991, these professionals officially stopped teaching so-called “diamat” (dialectical materialism) and “histmat” (historical materialism). Since then they have delivered “general philosophy”. But the division of the former Soviet philosophers has preserved their general notions of philosophy, the subjects and challenges, structure, etc., and it is quite natural. People cannot change their views overnight while others see it as dishonourable. Dialectical and materialist philosophy at that time was presented as a science. In addition, any science is knowledge that does not change at any rate under any social cataclysms. That is why, a post-soviet philosopher takes themselves as a researcher who cannot and does not have to give up their science. They should carefully observe all the alterations going on in the country, analyze them and form their own scientific judgment about the topic. If Russian modernity does not match their ideas of truth, goodness and beauty, a scholar must call for its modification in the proper direction. Perceiving themselves as an arbiter of changes, a modern Russian professional philosopher still believes that philosophy is a scientific world outlook. The essence of it lies in the opinion according to which scholars representing some “specialized” fields see the world in a one-sided, one-angle, incomplete and a single-aspect manner. This is why these sciences are called “specialisms”, and all sciences, except for philosophy, belong to this type. Only a philosopher, apart from a physicist or a biologist, can consider our world as a whole in all its fullness and diversity. The challenges of other scientists (chemists, economists) do not stretch to creation of Weltanschauung. They are engaged in their specific fields of study, whereas a philosopher’s task is to bring the results of all sciences together. This is how a national philosophic community of many thousands takes its mission. Of course, they do not consider themselves a community of retrograde or conservative persons. They are ready to consider everything that is occurring in the world and the country, in science and in culture, in politics and economy. However, one has to order this new knowledge with respect to existing one and distribute it tropically among pre-arranged files. A philosopher possesses three of such files. He or she is accustomed to defining their science as a science of nature, society and cognition. So, due to the definition, philosophy can have just this very structure. And, vice versa, everything that has another structure is not considered as philosophy. This is the reason why only two specialties for future philosophy pros were customary for university and academic philosophers. One of them was former “dialectic materialism” which now sounds as “ontology and epistemology”, i.e. study of the world on the whole and its cognition. The second one is former “historic materialism” – today’s “social philosophy”. These old wineskins, i.e. catalog’s sections, need to be filled with the new wine of modern philosophy. But what if the ferments of young wine could burst the old wineskin? Would a certain contemporary address use containers in search for the things necessary for a new life, even if these old wineskins were full of new contents? After the year 1991, sciences in Russia felt somewhat liberated from philosophy (their representatives were secretly offended for some time that philosophers tagged their sciences as “specialisms”, denying their abilities to generalize and to see the world as a whole). At the beginning, the academic community tried to abolish philosophy in general: at least as a compulsory exam for the future candidates of science. The decision was made by the Russian Academy # 347 # Copyright ОАО «ЦКБ «БИБКОМ» & ООО «Aгентство Kнига-Cервис» Yekaterina A. Batiuta, Aleksandr V. Pertsev… Back to Kant? (on the Topicality of the Ideas of Philosophical Anthropology) of Sciences. Nowadays they a bit soothed their stand and admitted that the Vienna Circle had been right: each science has its own philosophy which must be taken as a exam by all the future candidates of science. In parallel, the community of “specialism” sciences established good relationships with the Russian Orthodox Church which used to come under fire by philosophers. Quite recently, on September 28, 2012 Moscow State University awarded His Holiness Patriarch of Moscow and all the Rus’ Kirill with the title of an Honoured Doctor. It is worth noticing, that the church as well as philosophy cannot be considered a competitor of “specialism” sciences, but still it offers the general worldview, “converges” the results obtained by specific studies into one picture. Therefore, the public of positive sciences preferred to disown of philosophers’ “scientific world outlook” and allied with the Church. Thus, common notions of the role philosophy plays in society are wrecking spectacularly. Scientists are against any alliances with philosophy. And the society, the unenlightened majority in particular, is not willing to ally with the scientists. The sentiments and the frame of mind of the silent majority are perfectly indicated by the TV ratings. These ratings go up dramatically when the public is shown the things classified as fraudulent by the science, such as wizards, folk healers, shamans, mediums of all kinds. A scholar today is brought down to the position of an enlightened servant for an uneducated ruler (in modern terminology they are called experts). At a breathtaking speed prehistoric and pagan forms of the world outlook which seem to have been totally ruined by Christianity and enlightenment are rising from the dead. Shamans tour across Russia gathering full stadiums of audience. In this situation the government goes on cutting budget students vacancies at the universities’ Philosophy departments. This number has been gradually decreasing by about 10 % for 5 years, which means that it has decreased by more than a half. The official pretext is abundance of human science graduates. It is true regarding the great number of lawyers and economists who are trained by both state and non-state educational institutions. Nevertheless, non-state universities do not provide education for philosophers! It seems like it is time when it is sufficient to clarify what role in society philosophy is to accomplish. Does it need to play its previous role of the “general theory of everything” (S. Lem), i.e. critically general study of the world, cognition and society? “Specialism” sciences apprehend the world, and philosophy even if it wished to, cannot compete with them in this respect. Then, perhaps, philosophy should deal with cognition of cognition or with the analysis of scholars’ cognitive activity? There is no order for this activity among scientists. Even government appeared not to be interested in this sort of research, though there might be lots of promising findings. Sociologists and political studies researchers are far more successful in the society cognition, primarily due to the fact that theoretical level of these fields can ensure good understanding between these sciences and the modern society. What is left for philosophy? First and foremost, it is philosophical anthropology. This is not just a philosophical study of a human being. This is something different. It is a look at all the knowledge acquired by human beings as human knowledge. It is a specific way to perceive processes going on in the world, the way when any piece of information about a tiny happening in the Great World structure or in the Little World structure immediately awakes the question, what it may mean for people. Is it possible that we came very close to an anthropological turn in philosophy made in Europe by I. Kant and are now standing face to face with it? # 348 # Copyright ОАО «ЦКБ «БИБКОМ» & ООО «Aгентство Kнига-Cервис» Yekaterina A. Batiuta, Aleksandr V. Pertsev… Back to Kant? (on the Topicality of the Ideas of Philosophical Anthropology) The gist of this turn should be seen in the fact that philosophy is recognized as a field of knowledge and activity that is non-natural for a science, but vital for a man. The advanced philosophy theses that lie beyond empirical sciences and cannot be refuted or confirmed by experience. But these theses set a meaning to human life and without this knowledge a person falls into neurosis and cannot survive under modern conditions (though the meaning of life issue looks absurd from the point of view of empirical sciences). All mentioned above is typical philosophical anthropology reasoning. Its urge is witnessed by the following famous joke: A patient asks: “Doc, will I live?” The doctor answers: “What’s the sense of it?” A person who is terminally ill does not expect a representative of the “positive” science of medicine to philosophize over the meaning of life. But a doctor seems to have lost it while experiencing an emotional upheaval. Thus, scholars need to have critically general (not specifically scientific) world outlook. It is necessary not only for the prospects it opens for a man. The absence of such anthropology-oriented outlook is the absolute evil for human beings. The greater evil is when this outlook exists but it is not in line with positive sciences. The lesser evil is when the existing outlook agrees with their results, with everyday life and political, economic and cultural life collisions. A philosopher, unlike a geologist, can presumably tie up everything that is psychologically vital to a man but remains unclaimed as long as they are involved in “particularly scientific” cognition, into one integrated world view. Let us define the position of I. Kant who had been precisely calling for the anthropologic turn. The Konigsberg thinker wrote: «The fact that the human mind may ever give up metaphysical researches is as little to be expected as that we may prefer to give up breathing, to avoid inhaling impure air. Metaphysics will always exist in the world; nay, everyone, especially every man of reflection, will have it, and in case of need of a recognized standard, they will shape it for themselves according to their own pattern. What has hitherto been called metaphysics, cannot satisfy any critical mind, but it is impossible to forego it entirely; therefore the Critique of Pure Reason itself must now be attempted or, if one exists, investigated, and brought to the full test, because there is no other means of supplying this pressing need, which is something more than mere thirst for knowledge»1. Note several key points of this quotation. First, each person, not only an intellectual, has their own philosophy. Speaking about such individual philosophy Kant does not mean one or two profound wisdoms any person can sometimes come up with. He speaks about metaphysics, i.e. proceeding from the meaning of this notion in his philosophy, he infers thoughts of the world as a whole, of a soul, of the transcendent that is beyond experience (experiment) and, eventually, of a man’s freedom. All these ideas are typical of every person irrespective to the fact whether they have read at least one philosophy book or not, whether they can express these notions using the cultural language accepted in the given society or not. (Mayakovsky used to describe this inability by apt formula “aglossus avenue is twisting”). In other words, if a person is regularly asked some questions, they will give quite adequate answers. They will be able to explain what their world is like, their capabilities in this world, their ideas of the soul or (in modern terms of philosophy, of consciousness) and finally, their idea of the invisible forces able to assist or hinder their efforts to freely realize their life aspirations. # 349 # Copyright ОАО «ЦКБ «БИБКОМ» & ООО «Aгентство Kнига-Cервис» Yekaterina A. Batiuta, Aleksandr V. Pertsev… Back to Kant? (on the Topicality of the Ideas of Philosophical Anthropology) Second, I. Kant says, that each person’s metaphysics is tailored “in the absence of general standard … in his own way”. In other words, I. Kant supposes that any individual should possess their own personal life philosophy, which allows them to make the most important decisions. It is of interest to note the thesis of individual philosophic thinking, which is characteristic of everyone. Third, I. Kant proposes that the need for life philosophy is for no evident reasons ineradicable. It will persist forever. A professional philosopher can strain every nerve trying to prove such philosophy to be imperfect, controversial and inconsistent but it will be beyond their capabilities to make this person give up philosophizing. “It is as unbelievable as if we stopped breathing completely in the fear of inhaling unclean air”. Consequently, the person’s need for life philosophy is vital: they cannot live without it in the same way as they cannot live without air. Fourth, I. Kant confines his task only to criticism against hitherto existed and still existing life philosophies. “What has been considered metaphysics so far cannot satisfy any inquisitive mind”. By the latter one must imply the mind of Kant. This is he who is not satisfied with either extensive doctrines of the greatest metaphysicians, or, to even greater extent, simpleminded life philosophies of the rest of people. What results from this dissatisfaction? I. Kant finds himself at the cross-roads: his thesis leads to three roads, and it is necessary to select one of them. The first way is the following. Admittedly, a person’s aspiration to have their own life philosophy is irresistible. Let it be far from satisfactory for my searching mind; it is enough that its author feels pleased with it. My task can just entail why this very philosophy meets the needs of this particular person, becoming vital for him or her. Why cannot this person do without it? What biographic clashes were interpreted in this unique way? What sources did he or she derive the phrasing to express the stance from? What words did he or she add, editing the sources according to their fundamental needs? As a result, a more general question arises. How and in what way can such life philosophy help this person live? Why is craving for philosophizing so insuperable and vital? Later on, this way selected by representatives of existentialism and philosophy of life had an influence on the corresponding fields in psychology. The second way can be put as follows. Admittedly, in this life every person is governed by a certain life philosophy. However, the principal thing is not the comprehension of a separate individual but facilitation of mutual understanding between people, provision of free thought and intellectual tolerance in the society. In case everyone goes into the shell of their own philosophy, one will not be able to hear others. If one sees it as the only truth, it results in denying the other people’s right to create their own life philosophies. If such a person possesses enough charisma to paralyze a great number of people’s abilities to independent thinking and make them “co-thinkers” (more precisely “co-not-thinkers’), they can found a party of authoritarian type. If this party manages to come to power, democracy will be over. Repressive state apparatus chastises those who deviate from the solely true and immortal doctrine forced in the society as a “common” world outlook. So, for the sake of democracy, equality, tolerance, for the sake of human rights observance one has to ruin, constantly and sustainably, each person’s individual faith in exceptional rightness of their own life philosophy. It is necessary to devote oneself to devastating criticism against each separate life philosophy and, as a tendency, to criticizing the metaphysical thinking itself. Metaphysics is dangerous owing to its potential to # 350 # Copyright ОАО «ЦКБ «БИБКОМ» & ООО «Aгентство Kнига-Cервис» Yekaterina A. Batiuta, Aleksandr V. Pertsev… Back to Kant? (on the Topicality of the Ideas of Philosophical Anthropology) generate dictators and totalitarian regimes. This threat is in its very essence. Experience brings knowledge about particulars. A person is right when they speak about things they witnessed in person. However, “generalization” in “notions”, which is characteristic of metaphysics, allows a person to acquire the firm belief that they are always right. Hence, people should break the thinking in “absolute” philosophic concepts. Criticism leveled at metaphysics in general, and at each individual life philosophy, in particular, will permit, once and forever, to deprive all and everyone of arrogance and confidence in absolute correctness. In this case, we will be engaged in therapy of both scientific and everyday languages to ensure that everything that does not match experience is discarded and nip metaphysics in the bud. Then, people will realize that the truth is a result of a fair agreement between persons equal in rights, when each of them obeys the conventionally accepted rules of logics with all the responsibility and honesty, shares their own experience and vision of their part without pretending of seeing the whole. If rationalism and scholasticism procreate dictators, then empiricism produces constitutions and parliaments. Long live criticism at metaphysics! This way was later chosen by positivism, logic and linguistic analysis exponents. There is, at last, the third way. In this case it is necessary to start with criticism in metaphysics. We can ruin an individual’s faith in their own life philosophy. We can destroy a dominated societywide “ideology”, a system of metaphysical or theological notions which “cannot satisfy any inquisitive mind”. But criticism in its pure form is like acid. It can only erode. It can give rise to universal impiety and nihilism. AngloSaxon empiricists may feel at ease; their world enjoys a developed specialization of labour with a perceived need of people in each other, and a market, which in contrast to bazaar, teaches to reach agreement, establish strong relationships, both act as independent from philosophy constructive force in its own right. With this state of things one can be an empiricist for the given in practice and observation is progress. There it is enough to be an empiricist (while putting metaphysics to an end) in order to readjust those who move in the right direction and stop them from sinking into intolerance and arrogance, irreconcilable idea-driven discord. In Kant and Hegel’s times in Germany, as well as later in Russia where observation could not give anything but experience of standstill, philosophy was not allowed to just criticize. It had to act as a cementing basis in absence of other creative nation-wide principles. There is no time to wait until in Germany, separated into tiny principalities, or in the feudal “Pre-Perestroyka” Russian empire there emerges a developed economy which, in its turn, generates a market under which people can learn how to negotiate, tolerate and understand each other. Critically shattering the wrongness and confusion of the individual life metaphysics comprised in traditional society, one should propose a new national philosophy of freedom which is worth becoming universal. It is sure to be created by me as an individual but it is not individual for I sacrifice my own for the mankind. One should always confine themselves to peremptory imperative and think of themselves as of all-human embodiment of reason. They kill everything private in themselves and become the Voice of humankind heralding universal values and ideals. And at that they will appear (being classic German philosophy or the exponent of Russian Orthodox Church) completely intolerant to everything not deserving to be all-human. From now on philosophy has to be as it were an all-state matter with the help of which an enlightened monarch and his academic armed force sets up a power exemplary for a mankind; # 351 # Copyright ОАО «ЦКБ «БИБКОМ» & ООО «Aгентство Kнига-Cервис» Yekaterina A. Batiuta, Aleksandr V. Pertsev… Back to Kant? (on the Topicality of the Ideas of Philosophical Anthropology) philosophic culture imposed from the top through education has to haul the left-behind economy. This can occur only when all purposeful citizens do away with their own private philosophies in the same free manner as with luxury that can be afforded sometime in the future. One must think of motherland first and then of himself! In Kantian-Hegelian times in Germany and in Russia, since Peter the Great till perestroika, philosophy was considered to be a State affair. A philosopher saw themselves as a citizen and a servant for a will-be ideal state. Later, after enveloping all the people this state will disappear to everyone’s satisfaction and delegate all its functions to morale. That is why a thinker should engross their whole attention in universal human ideas which temporarily present the ideas of the most enlightened, bringing- knowledge- to-theworld state. They, indeed, can come across a private thought. Nobody is protected from it. This specific idea should be thought of at home, in free time. A philosopher can share it with a friend, tet-a-tet. Though it is not worth publishing since publication of any philosophic thought is an act that cannot help being pro- or contra-state. We are perishing in the world under the moon Our life is a blink of an eye, while oblivion is eternal The globe rolls in the Universe And people live and disappear2. As I. Raskin states, these lines belongs to the ex-leader of KGB, later Secretary General of the CPSU, Y.V. Andropov. The reading public could read them only after perestroika in a book that combines cynicism with the manifestation of loyalty. The appearance of the poem in this very book is quite explicable. A “decadent” thought about the caducity of human existence could surely come across the governing Marxist’s mind. It had remained private until it was not published. If it had come out, it would have been taken as a state philosophic affair, or rather an assault on the ideology of optimistic power, an attempt to substitute dialectical and historic materialism for desperate existentialist ideas. In Russia both state and private ideas have always been strictly differentiated. The very supposition that philosophy might express the own thoughts of a person, that it can be of private use, that philosophy could voice a thinker’s individuality, their unique and unmatchable sensations and product of their life reflections, seemed absolutely impossible. However, honestly speaking, it should be noted that the notion of philosophy as a state affair appeared, indeed, not in Soviet Russia, but was originated by “classic German” philosophers highly respected by the Marxists. It was not the Marxists who elaborated two different philosophies: one for oneself and the other for the prosperity of the state. If we go back to Kant, we will find: «The public use of one’s reason must always be free, and it alone can bring enlightenment among human beings; the private use of one’s reason may, however, often be very narrowly restricted without this particularly hindering the progress of enlightenment. But by the public use of one’s own reason I understand that use which someone makes of it as a scholar before the entire public of the world of readers. What I call the private use of reason is that which one may make of it in a certain civil post or office with which they are entrusted. Now, for many affairs conducted in the interest of the commonwealth a certain mechanism is necessary, so that some members of the commonwealth must behave merely passively, so as to be directed by the government, through an artful unanimity, to public ends (or at least prevented from destroying such ends). Here it is, certainly, impermissible to argue; instead, one must obey. But insofar as this part of the machine also regards themselves # 352 # Copyright ОАО «ЦКБ «БИБКОМ» & ООО «Aгентство Kнига-Cервис» Yekaterina A. Batiuta, Aleksandr V. Pertsev… Back to Kant? (on the Topicality of the Ideas of Philosophical Anthropology) as a member of the whole commonwealth, even of the society of citizens of the world, and so in their capacity of a scholar who by their writings addresses the public in the proper sense of the word, they can certainly argue without thereby harming the affairs assigned to them in part as a passive member. Thus it would be ruinous if an officer, receiving an order from the superiors, wanted while on duty to engage openly in subtle reasoning about its appropriateness or utility; one must obey»3. This thesis illustrates the very core of enlightenment which never outgrew the project stage in Germany and was spectacularly and miserably implemented in the practice of Russia. To put it simple, it implies that only such a philosopher who edifies a government and a nation has the right to use reason publicly. Having been enlightened itself, the government has grasped the philosopher’ stand, it starts to put its wise plans for achieving all-humanness into effect in one particular country. The government functions as a mechanism ( → organon → body → bodies) which prevents even the state officials from taking their own way: no free philosophizing or improvising are not allowed, otherwise no plan for mankind’s precepting will be realized! But if even the statesmen’s intellectual pursuits “should be occasionally limited”, what is left to common subjects? Moreover, the state does not require “private application of reasoning” by “pure mortals”, and this “mechanism through which these or those members of society could behave in a passive way” must phase down every attempt to think on one’s own in an enlightened and enlightening country. Though the trouble is that every person in the pride interprets the principles of Enlightenment too freely: they believe that under enlightenment an individual is free to muse whereas, as a matter of fact, this privilege is given solely to the lecturer. Kant did have such an appeal: “One should have the courage to make their mind work!” And this courage is unlikely to be needed for pondering over in one’s mind on one’s own! A person should use their mental ability to wave aside old religion and metaphysics in order to be capable of perceiving Kant’s arguments, form up in a column and march after him. However, there are people impertinent enough not to see it. Thanks to the critics who have dethroned the former idols, these brave hearts demonstrate an impulse to reflect on what God is, what freedom is, what immortality of a soul is, i.e. to solve “those tasks towards whose resolution as the ultimate and only goal all metaphysics means are directed” in their own individual manner4. Certainly, nothing good or wise can come out of it, no matter how emphatically they could be persuaded not to inhale impure air of personal philosophy. In Russia, the very way of raising the issue of tolerance towards private thinking is an indirect evidence of the fact that the most grandeur endeavor to teach peoples of the world through developing a single all-human philosophy in an isolated country collapses in the same way as any other less ambitious attempts. Thus, our results can be summarized as follows. Irrespective of evident developments in the modern Russian philosophical thought (that has undergone significant evolution since the year1991), the general idea of the nature of philosophy, its objectives, structure and basic topics remains an unchanged vestige of the Soviet era. In fact, this vision dates back to F. Engels “Anti-Dühring” structures, where the author, in his turn, discussed the book by Eugen Dühring book, part by part. And all this gave rise to the scientific image of philosophy as of “a science studying the universal laws of Nature, Cognition and Society”. This definition was canonical and mandatory in the USSR. We cannot see even a mention of a man among the “subject matters” # 353 # Copyright ОАО «ЦКБ «БИБКОМ» & ООО «Aгентство Kнига-Cервис» Yekaterina A. Batiuta, Aleksandr V. Pertsev… Back to Kant? (on the Topicality of the Ideas of Philosophical Anthropology) of this philosophy. Soviet philosophy was antianthropological from its very nature, and all that corresponded to the general communist idea: “an individual is nothing; Society (Nation or Party) is everything”. There is no “state” world outlook in contemporary Russia. The state attempts to substitute dialectical and materialistic worldview for mandatory religion, but this process feels very uncertain. The results of the survey conducted among the parents of 4-grade schoolchildren (they had to choose between the fundamentals of religious culture or secular ethics for their children to study) served as a sort of a test in this respect. It was secular ethics that three thirds of the parents preferred. It could be interpreted as follows: modern Russian nation still likes to build its way of life guided by secular values. Another fact was added by Ms. O. Gredina, the Rector for Educational Development of Sverdlovsk Regional Institute, and it is instructive, too. 11 % of those who chose secular ethics later refused their choice because of ‘insufficient educational quality’ and transferred their children to the groups dealing with religious culture. The reasons are quite easy to understand; secular ethics was taught by available schoolmasters, many of them had never taught humanities. If you are a teacher of geography, drawing or the like and you have to read ethics to 4-grade schoolchildren, that is to explain the meaning of Duty, Honour, Conscious to ten-year-old children, you should be either as talented as Lev Tolstoy or have a proper professional training and proper training manuals. There are neither such manuals considering age-dependent characteristics and the role of plays in a 4-grade schoolchild’s life, nor appropriate professional training system nowadays. But the main point is that ethics presents normative knowledge. It prescribes required human relationships. No discussions are allowed. The previously existing ethics did not include the plurality of opinions either. That is why ethics is highly unpopular in the democratic era with its established freedom of thought, freedom of actions, freedom of speech, etc. The teaching of humanities has turned into “provision of paid educational service” mainly for the customer’s payment. Now there are not many people who are ready to pay for sermons or instructions. The customers themselves would rather instruct the others to get the right and successful living. Russians have accumulated some painful experience of dealing with various ethical prescriptions through the Soviet years, recall that the Moral Code of the Communism Builder that had been inscribed on the walls of every respectable organization; so the older generations connect ethics with the CPSU dictates. Taking all this into account, philosophy should return to schools, however, not as a ‘theory of everything” duplicating positive sciences in a rather perfunctory way, but as philosophical anthropology. It is manifested in the fact that it avoids dictates and allows discussions, contemplations and interpretations; it is different from the previous ethics. Philosophical anthropology does not resemble descriptive factcollecting psychology either. Modern psychology seems more like physics striving to study individual to find the general. It does not admit the concept of “values”. It treats feelings of people as a sort of psychological crises or neurosis which people should overcome. Finally it could lead to the “medical” approach considering philosophy as “superficial ideas” which people must get rid of, even using medicines. In this respect the advantages of German philosophy are very valuable. Germans are famous for their high-level philosophy to have rejected teaching “pure metaphysics” at schools and universities. They introduced ethics instead. But this ethics is not normative. It comprises # 354 # Copyright ОАО «ЦКБ «БИБКОМ» & ООО «Aгентство Kнига-Cервис» Yekaterina A. Batiuta, Aleksandr V. Pertsev… Back to Kant? (on the Topicality of the Ideas of Philosophical Anthropology) skills of discussing and reasoning of a person’s moral state. The Head of Ethics Programme D. Benner from Humboldt University once told to this article’s authors that his philosophical and pedagogical objective was to stimulate schoolchildren’s thought. A present-day child comes to school with one and the only conception of his Duty, and these ideas are inspired by their religious parents of relatives. Modern Berlin is characterized by the fact that a great amount of Turkish people has been living and working there since 1945. Numerous builders, cleaners, traders from Somali to Vietnam have overcrowded Berlin. Finally, children of different or even opposite cultures and values find themselves together in the same classroom. Prof. Benner said that he felt as if he were a successor of I. Kant, following the idea “Have the manliness to use your reason!” It is not necessary to have courage being simply guided by ‘the elders’ repeating 1 2 3 4 their words without a trace of a doubt. But the challenge of contemporary teacher is to establish and to maintain the dialogue of cultures where people can reason and defend their values in peaceful discussions, but not in military battles. D. Benner’s research group elaborated teaching materials for discussions at ethics class. They present mainly slices of life (extracted from fiction and arts) and the questions to stimulate children to define their life values and to reason them. Here it is important to mention the difference between “value” and “assessment” distinguished by a neo-Kantian Geo Rikkert. Individuals can assess everything subjectively, and philosophers, analyzing and reasoning these assessments, are able to estimate human values. It is the space for dialogue that philosophical anthropology can provide for modern society, but the honour of being the founder of anthropology belongs to I. Kant. Kant I. Prolegomeny ko vsiakoy budushchey metafizike, mogushchey poiavit’sia kak nauka [Prolegomena to Any Future Metaphysics That Will Be Able to Present Itself as a Science], Kant I. Collected Works, Moscow, 1963-1966, Vol. 4, p.192 Raskin I.Z. Entsiklopediya huliganstvuyushchego ortodoksa [The Rampageous Orthodox Encyclopedia], Moscow, Gamma, 1996, p.38 Kant I. Collected works, Moscow, 1963-1966, Vol.6, p.25, 29 Kant I. Collected works, Moscow, 1963-1966, Vol.5, p.512 Copyright ОАО «ЦКБ «БИБКОМ» & ООО «Aгентство Kнига-Cервис» Yekaterina A. Batiuta, Aleksandr V. Pertsev… Back to Kant? (on the Topicality of the Ideas of Philosophical Anthropology) Назад к Канту? (Об актуальности идеи философской антропологии) Е.А. Батюта, А.В. Перцев, Е.С. Черепанова Уральский федеральный университет им. Б.Н. Ельцина, Россия 620083, Екатеринбург, пр. Ленина, 51 В статье поднимается вопрос о развитии философии и философского образования в России. Авторы в полемическом контексте представляют современную судьбу философского знания и предлагают обратиться к философии Канта в попытке ответить на этот вопрос. Также обсуждается проблема отношения философского и религиозного знания в современном образовании. В статье подчеркивается актуализация философско-антропологического подхода в понимании роли философии в жизни человека. Ключевые слова: философская антропология, философия, общество, религиозное мировоззрение, смысл жизни, государство и общество, философское образование. Copyright ОАО «ЦКБ «БИБКОМ» & ООО «Aгентство Kнига-Cервис» Journal of Siberian Federal University. Humanities & Social Sciences 3 (2013 6) 357-368 ~~~ УДК 141.201(315) Religious and Political Philosophy of the Social Education in Ancient China Roman K. Omelchuk* The East-Siberian State Academy of Education 6 Nizhnyaya Naberezhnaya St., Irkutsk, 664011 Russia Received 11.03.2013, received in revised form 18.03.2013, accepted 25.03.2013 In this paper we attempt to make the value assessment of the ancient Chinese philosophy in the context of the concept of the faith ontology. The creeds of Taoism, Confucianism and the most influential philosophical concepts are analyzed. It is proved that transformation of values from the tradition to ideology determines the priorities of personal identity through the rationalization of human consciousness. The given article will be interesting not only for philosophers, but also for all people interested in current problems of human and society. Keywords: faith ontology, ancient Chinese philosophy, continuity of values, rationality, ideology, creed. The given article is prepared with the support of the Council for grants of the President of the Russian Federation (project “Faith ontology: personal and socio-cultural mechanisms of value continuity”, grant No. МК-2493.2011.6). Character education in ancient China through the conscious influence on the human nature is one of the most important tasks of the Chinese classical philosophy. Despite the fact that these ideas were expressed by the teachers of all schools, the greatest impact was made by the ideas of Taoism, Confucianism and Buddhism that agree in the fact that knowledge is not immanent, but is comprehended in studying. In addition, the distinctive feature of philosophical pedagogy of ancient China is the prevalence of socio-centrist tendencies over personallycentrists ones. In “Shi Ji” (“Historical Records”) by Sima Qian (145/135 BC-90 BC) there is the first classification of the philosophical schools in * ancient China that after additions made by Liu Xin (46 BC – 23 AD) has gained the following form: 1) natural philosophical doctrine or school of Yin-Yang (Yin Yang Jia), 2) the teaching of Lao-Zi (Dao Jia), 3) the teaching of Kong-Zi, or a school of scholars (Ru Jia) 4) the teachings of Mo Zi, or a school of Mohism (Mo Jia), 5) the teaching of lawyers, or a school of Legalism (Fa Jia) 6) the teaching of nominalists, or a school of names (Ming Jia) and also the school of eclectics-lexicographers (Za Jia), the school of diplomacy (Zong Heng Jia), the school of agrarians (Nong Jia) and the school of narrators (Xiao Shuo Jia)1. Already in the early period of philosophy development in ancient China, there were so many different directions that the very © Siberian Federal University. All rights reserved Corresponding author E-mail address: [email protected] # 357 # Copyright ОАО «ЦКБ «БИБКОМ» & ООО «Aгентство Kнига-Cервис» Roman K. Omelchuk. Religious and Political Philosophy of the Social Education in Ancient China ancient Chinese spoke about the existence of “a hundred schools”. Opinions about the education and training of representatives of different schools differed mainly in the understanding of what is their starting point. Thus, the Confucianist Meng Zi (372/389-289/305 BC) saw the task of education in the cultivation of the natural qualities, and Xun Zi who was close to the ideas of Mohism and Legalism (313/290-238/215 BC) though about combining education with practical activities that promote the elimination of natural defects. It is clear that in this case the orientation of education and training was determined by the understanding of the human nature, his place in the world. N.E. Borevskaia notes that “to the beginning of the Zhou era (XI-III centuries BC) the concept of Heaven has been gradually separated from the idea of the Supreme emperor: in the early Taoist and Confucian monuments it is already impersonal and appears as the carrier of nature concept as the universe, the force that engages everything in the world in a legal way, but not purposefully”2. Natural (i.e., inherent) personal qualities xing, including vision, hearing, speech, appearance and thinking, are the basis by which humans exist between the Heaven and Earth. However, education presupposed the improvement of its nature (xing) that in fact was implemented through the development of value relations between the ruler and the ruled, between father and son, between husband and wife, between older and younger, between friends. Devotion to the emperor, filial piety and brotherly love were those qualities the development of which was the purpose of education in ancient China. Comprehension of the deep concepts such as philanthropy (ren), duty (yi), ritual (li), loyalty (zhong) has lead to the finding of identity (de) that was embodied not only in the intellectual features of a person, but in her morality. One can only imagine the qualities of the ancients admired by Confucius who said about it in his treatise “Lun Yu”: “In ancient times, people studied to become better than themselves: but now they study to become better than others”. The tendency to the value degradation even in the time of Confucius was so obvious that it was not possible to not notice it. However, such a tendency is also taking place today. Thus, the researcher of the early Confucianism A.S. Martynov points out: “They [Confucianists] believed that for this purpose [to create a society for people – author’s note] it is necessary to turn the cognitive social activities primarily into the “cognition of humans” (zhi ren) and cover the society with the self-perfection process (xiu shen). We are still at the lower stage of development than ancient Chinese society of the “axial age”, because we continue to believe without any grounds that solution of economic problems will automatically solve all other problems”3. Generally these ideas can be expressed in a single thought of Confucius: “You should overcome yourself in order to return to li”. Such kind of overcoming is a complete rejection or transformation of selfish desires that prevent conscientious performance of duty that is so necessary for the maintenance of the social balance. Playing musical instruments, calligraphy, poetry, ceremonies in this case was the important pedagogical methods that could unnoticeably but deeply cultivate cultural values in humans. For Confucius and his followers the culture is acquired in the process of education through inclusion into the spiritual culture of their ancestors. Diametrically opposite position was belonged to Lao Zi and his followers, for whom training and education were the free realization of their nature and did not allow any form of compulsion. It should be noted that for philosophical pedagogy of ancient China the most important # 358 # Copyright ОАО «ЦКБ «БИБКОМ» & ООО «Aгентство Kнига-Cервис» Roman K. Omelchuk. Religious and Political Philosophy of the Social Education in Ancient China category is the category of Dao (from ancient Chinese – “way”). Marcel Granet (1884-1940) observed that “on the basis of any interpretation of Dao there is the concept of order, universality, accountability and efficiency”4. In a sense, Dao serves as the ideal way of life, and therefore, despite the differences in the understanding of this category, all philosophers in ancient China used it for educational purposes. Individual realization of Dao was expressed in De. Lao-Zi: to balance the opposites within yourself Lao-Zi (about 604-517 BC) is considered as the author of the famous treatise “Dao De Jing”5. His personality is both legendary and mythological that does not deny the reality of Lao-Zi existence in the past. Famous Russian Sinologist V.V. Maliavin noted that “there is no “doctrine of Lao-zi”: the book of the “dark” wise man expresses not a particular objective sense, but the pure life breakthrough, pulsation of the living body of life, accident, surpassing every rule”6. Perhaps that is why Lao Zi so often turned to the concept of all-embracing emptiness, interpreted as the “mirror emptiness” that does not exist apart from reflects images, and is not reducible to them. There are no truths that should be known, but there is only the desire to implement the values of life. “All philosophical schools in ancient China taught about the continuity of human and heavenly being, but Taoists with particular depth and consistency were developing the idea of not just relationships between humans and the universe, but of the internal continuity of the human heart, on the one hand, and the transcendent emptiness, from the other hand, the idea that eliminates the opposition between subject and object, and all the attendant difficulties and inconsistencies of speculative thought. In the human heart, as it was taught by Lao-Zi, there is the hidden inhuman, truly heavenly glory, and it is something that is the promise of humanity”7. We will try to reproduce the value content of religious and philosophical teachings of the ancient Chinese thinker using several theses. For Lao Zi the world consists in the fact that opposites not only balance, but also complement each other, so a person’s position in the world is simultaneously the biggest challenge and the greatest gift. Ritual for Lao Zi is that the imperfect is brought as the sacrifice to the perfect, but the full does not require the complement. Omission for Lao Zi is that harmony does not need improvement or enhancement, so, on the one hand, inharmonious actions will only cause new problems, and, on the other hand, all actions must be harmonious. Emptiness for Lao Zi is the space for such activity that is fundamentally different from mercenary or forced one. Human for Lao Zi is the qualities that are implemented in a perfect way even in small things, and therefore are attractive for sophisticated and asylum people. Dao for Lao Zi is the way that should be chosen, but not the idea of the way, that is why the naturalness for him is greater than the ritual, the practice is above the theory, and the action is louder than words. Knowledge for Lao Zi is to know not only life but death, so the person who has known himself is eternal. We will turn to the text of several chapters that can be very valuable for teachers: “The person who knows others is smart. The person who knows himself is enlightened. The person who defeated others is strong. The person who has won himself is mighty. The person who knows what is the prosperity, is rich. The person who acts decisively, has the will. The person who does not lose what he has is everlasting And the person who does not die in the death, lives forever”8. “In ancient times, those who were able to incarnate the way, did not want to use it to educate # 359 # Copyright ОАО «ЦКБ «БИБКОМ» & ООО «Aгентство Kнига-Cервис» Roman K. Omelchuk. Religious and Political Philosophy of the Social Education in Ancient China people, but used it to make simple-minded people. Because it is difficult to manage people due to their multiply knowledge. So the person who controls the realm with the knowledge, is a thief of the kingdom. And who controls the realm of ignorance, the benefactor of the kingdom. Who knows these two things, he is the sample for everybody. To always know this sample is called “the hidden perfection’”9. “To know, but to seem ignorant is the perfection. To not know, but to think that you know is a disease. Only someone who knows his disease cannot be sick. Wise people do not have the disease. He knows what is the disease and therefore he is not sick”10. It should be noted that if the ontological orientation of philosophy is typical for Thaosism, for Confucianism this is the ethical one. Even in this fact it is possible to see the fundamental difference that affect the continuity of values. In our opinion, legendary Lao Zi is one of those “ancient” people who experienced in an absolutely different way things that we understand as the being of humans. Today, it can only be imagined how and about there was communication with each other of such persons, about whom Lao Zi and Confucius spoke as about “ancient” people. In the scientific literature can be found mention of a meeting of Lao Tzu and Confucius. Words of Lao Zi addressed to Confucius were about the need to change oneself, but not about the proud and moralistic aspirations to change others through the teachings and instructions. Kong-Zi: to be or to teach? Kong-Zi (about 551-479 BC), known as Confucius, at the age of just over twenty years, became famous as the first professional educator in China. In his philosophy the true nobility arises only in the harmony of the naturalness (spontaneity) and culture, since the prevalence of the first over the second is rude, and the prevalence of the second over the first is pedantry: “When under heaven there are the ways, be in sight, but there is no way – you have to hide. Be ashamed to be poor and humble, when there is a way in the country, be ashamed to be noble and rich, when there is no way”11. It should be noted that if Dao for philosophers acted as the ubiquitous natural law of nature, Confucius used this concept as a set of ideas, principles, and methods by which he was going to send a man to the right way, manage him, influence on him12. Dao, anyway, is not the truth, but is only a true way to it. We have to note that the views of Confucius and Lao-Zi on the relationships of heaven and Dao were different: if Lao Zi believed that the sky should follow Dao, and Dao naturally follows itself, so for Confucius Dao is based on the heaven. Word for Confucius usually has the semantic core and features some notional direction. Researchers of the philosophical legacy of Confucius are studying traditions in understanding and translating into other languages of the main terms of his legacy, but despite of the scholar’s qualification, the accurate and specific meaning of the word is lost in translation to some extent13. For example, Ren is the most important category in the teachings of Confucius and it is translated in different ways, “the highest virtue”, “kindness”, “humanity”, “philanthropy”, “humanism”, “truly human origin”, “mercy,” etc. One thing is certain: ren primarily involves the value attitude of one person to another. In the treatise “Lun Yu” (“Conversations and judgments”) Confucius defines ren as a commandment: “Do not do to others what you do not wish for yourself”14. The treatise “Lun Yu” was composed by Confucius’ students after his death. For drafting of the treatise that is the main book of Confucianism and has fixed statements, actions and dialogues of the teacher with his participation students have spent from 30 to 50 years. Curiously, the knowledge of the book by heart was the # 360 # Copyright ОАО «ЦКБ «БИБКОМ» & ООО «Aгентство Kнига-Cервис» Roman K. Omelchuk. Religious and Political Philosophy of the Social Education in Ancient China compulsory requirement of classical Chinese education, although Confucius and his closest students believed that the educated person is not someone who knows a lot, but someone who acts in a right way. The social philosophy of Confucius opposes li (ritual) as the basis of high moral qualities and fa (laws) as the basis of rigid obedience and strict regulation. The qualities of the ruler’s individuality are exactly the only reason for successful management. The ideal of a noble man (jun zi) involves not only the origin, but the qualities (moral and cultural human image), so the achievement of such an ideal is becoming available for everybody, regardless of his origin. A The noble person is a mentor of the ruler, but he should be an autonomous, moral, and original personality (for example, “the noble men in disagreement are in harmony, but the small people cannot have harmony even in agreement”15). However, according to the words of Confucius, the noble man is not a “tool”, “instrument”16, the means of social control, but, on the contrary, he is its purpose. Antipode to the noble man is the “low man” (xiao ren) who is constantly concerned about the material prosperity, benefits and related conceit. “It’s easy to serve, when the noble man rules, but it’s uneasy to please him. He will not be pleased, if you will please, not following the path. When he manages people, it is based on everybody’s talents. It’s difficult to serve, when the little man rules, but it’s easy to please him. He will be pleased, even if you will please, not following the path. When he manages people, he is extremely exacting to them”17. The person who is low by nature had an appropriate social status, so xiao ren is sometimes translated as the “little man”. The noble man always improves himself: such self-fulfillment is carried out through the service to own parents, the knowledge of people in the process of prescribed social relations and ultimately boils down to understanding of the Sky. The motivation of self-improvement in ancient China is fundamentally different from that mood that has defi ned the worldview of the ancient Indians, aspiring not to social stability and harmony, but to release from material existence for the sake of eternal spiritual life. For example, it is clear, if we follow the logic of Confucius: “When you study [something] with love, you will approach the knowledge, when carrying out [something], you show diligence, then you will approach the philanthropy, and when you have a sense of shame, then you will approach the force. [Those who] know it, also know how to improve oneself. [Those who] know how to improve oneself, know how to manage [other] people. [Those who] know how to manage [other] people know how to control the Middle Kingdom and the state”18. Other aspects of the philosophy of Confucius are disclosed in the process of reading of his treatise “Lun Yu”. In general, in order to imagine the style of the treatise, we will cite the example of a few verses from the first chapter, entitled “Studying”: “The teacher said: - Who looks into the aspirations of his father when he is alive and after his death – in the way he acted, and does not change his way for three years, such person can be called the one who honors parents ... Teacher said: - If a noble man during the meal does not think about the satisfying of his stomach, does not think about the comfort, living at home, shows quickness in the business, speaks carefully and corrects himself, drawing closer to those who have their own way, he can be called the one who loves to learn ... Teacher said: - Do not be sad that people do not know you, but be sad that you do not know the people”19. # 361 # Copyright ОАО «ЦКБ «БИБКОМ» & ООО «Aгентство Kнига-Cервис» Roman K. Omelchuk. Religious and Political Philosophy of the Social Education in Ancient China For the noble man Dao is opening naturally, for others – only during the process of education. “Li Ji” (“Book of Requirements”) states: “The thing that is given to [human] by the Heaven is called his nature, [actions] corresponding to this nature are called the [right] way, ordering of [this] way is called education”20. Confucian “Wu Jin” (“Pentateuch”) in I century BC became the basis of Chinese educational system. “When as a result of mental [effort] people acquire sincerity, it’s called education ... Only that person [who] has the greatest sincerity in China is able to fully develop his nature. [Those who] are able to fully develop their nature, are able to fully develop the nature of [all] people, are able to fully develop the nature of [all] things ... Sincerity is the thing [through which human] completes the creation of himself as a person”21. Confucius highly assessed tradition as such, but it does not give the right to consider Confucianism as a conservative ideology. L.S. Perelomov notes that the principle he (“difference of opinion”) as a value criterion of nobility distinguishes the noble man from the small man, with characteristic principle tong: “Having become the bearer of the principle he, the “noble man” acquired the features that were not able to give him any ren, or wen: independent thinking, activity, ability to solve problems, based on the recognition of the right of opposing party to have its own opinion...”22. Tradition in his understanding is closely intertwined with the culture (wen) that cannot exist apart from its transfer and continuity. For Confucius tradition was embodied in the notion of li that is translated into European languages as “rites”, “ceremonies”, “etiquette”, “ritual”, “rules of decency”. “Compliance with le meant not only the fulfillment of certain rules, in the understanding of Confucius it also included the adoption of the values embodied in these rules”23. For example, according to the thinker, the shame, not punishment is the only valid method for people changing. Xun Zi (abour 313-238 BC) revised ethical and political teachings of Confucius, in accordance with the new trends of the Chinese society in the social, economic and political areas. The thinker came from the fact that humans by nature are evil and greedy, envious and lustful, “so it is necessary to influence humans through education and law: you have to make him abide the ritual norms and to do their duty, and only then the person will acquire compliance and will become the cultural one, that will to the order”24. It should be noted that even after 350 years after the death of Confucius, his teachings acquired the status of a state ideology. The substantial transformation was undergone by the concept of noble person who has ceased to be a knighterrant of humanity, but was ready for a blind and unquestioning obedience to the instructions of his superiors25. Mo Zi: substitution of concepts for the sake of changes Mo Zi (about 479/470-391/381 BC) is the founder of the philosophical doctrine called the school of Mohism. In the IV-III centuries BC the teachings of Mo Zi26 had popularity in China, as it followed the line of renewal of ideas and was focused on social changes. Mo Zi, like Confucius, believed that the ideology is essential, but his position was not that ideology should be aimed at the improvement of the lives of citizens, but that the satisfaction of the needs of the maximum number of people is possible while improving the mechanisms of the state machine. The teaching of Mo-Zi was largely directed against such reactionary aspects of Confucianism, as the hierarchical rituality, blind worship of the old days, the justification privileges of the dominant aristocracy. The declared idea of # 362 # Copyright ОАО «ЦКБ «БИБКОМ» & ООО «Aгентство Kнига-Cервис» Roman K. Omelchuk. Religious and Political Philosophy of the Social Education in Ancient China universal love (jian ai), proposed by Mo Zi, often took the form of denial of the family that was the serious threat of conformism and civility cultured by Confucius. “Universal love” was opposed to “biased love” (be ai) to one’s inner circle: if the first one supposed impartiality in the distribution of the benefits and blessings of this world, the second one supposed a passion to keep all the benefits for themselves and their neighbors. We will also note that biased love is used by Mo Zi as a synonym for clannishness, nepotism, domesticity. “Disregard for the feelings of a real person,” that has been noted by V.A. Rubin27, here takes on an entirely different reading: ancient Chinese thinker criticized individualism manifested in clannishness. In an effort to overcome isolation and individualism, Mo Zi offered to convince all people of the benefits of altruism and the rulers of the benefits of universal love. Obviously, the sense of commitment that was so criticized by Confucius is the only method for Mo Zi to overcome disunity that was presented not only in the political fragmentation, but also in the interpersonal fragmentation based on selfishness. The image of the ideal unified state described by Mo Zi is the first Chinese utopia of universal conformity. Identity and uniformity of the citizens, the priority of the public to personal, blind obedience to the will of the ruler – these are the main differences between the views of Mo Zi and the views of Confucius regarded the state as an organism banded by the kindred feelings of one family. Establishment of the system of penalties based on intimidation, and the best conditions for the material and moral incentives, based on the benefits – this is the approach to the management proposed by Mo Zi. The main motive of the noble man for him is material interest, encouraging the faithful implementation of the routine work. However, in the end, Mo Zi tried to protect the interests of the state and its representatives, but not the people. The fact that the thinker inherent provident ationality, can be understood from the following description of Marcel Granet, “the fear that people will lack the means of subsistence, rules the mind of Mo Zi... he condemns hoarding and even more luxury, the development of tax, increase of the military power ... he strongly argues that the war is the robbery that offers no real benefits, it prevents both warring parties to produce useful things ... the general rule should be the hardworking moderation”28. Mo Zi believed that people have the same abilities that are, however, developed in different people in different ways. Fanatical strictness of Mohism implied the possibility of formation of any person through education and ideology. The fourth chapter of the Mo Zi’s treatise “Soran” (“Imitation of sample” or “Effect of example”) set forth the thinker’s idea of the importance of the example and its influence on people: “While carrying out the businesses in China it was not possible to work without the imitation of the model. Without imitating the model no case has been completed. Even the wisest servicemen being generals or advisers of the ruler – they follow a certain method. The most skillful master of all crafts also has a method ... Currently the greatest people managing the Middle Kingdom, as well as those who run the separate kingdoms, if they do not have a method to measure [their cases], they can not even be compared with the masters of hundred crafts...”29 In the answer to the question “what can be taken as a model for management?” the philosopher emphasizes that neither father nor mother, nor a teacher, nor a ruler can be an example, if they do not have humanity ren. The decline of culture is manifested in the fact that the role models are inhuman, because the mother and father, the teacher and the ruler are philanthropic really rare. However, the Sky # 363 # Copyright ОАО «ЦКБ «БИБКОМ» & ООО «Aгентство Kнига-Cервис» Roman K. Omelchuk. Religious and Political Philosophy of the Social Education in Ancient China is always an exemplary model, so “preparing for action, it is necessary to compare own behavior with the [desires] of the Sky”, consisting in the fact that “people mutually love each other and bring each other good”30. The Sky is impartial to the “servants of Heaven” because it feeds everybody, without distinguishing big and small, rich and poor, noble and ignoble. An example as the condition of continuity was so important for the teachings of Mo Zi, that he was ready to show universal love by himself in order to draw the rulers to this idea by his own example. On the one hand, his method may seem traditional and idealistic (in antiquity the authority has always been God or his representative), on the other hand – innovative and rationalist (as we know, the European Enlightened also tried to follow something just to attract the others to it). Mo Zi’s views on the process of learning differ greatly from the teachings of Confucius about the innate knowledge (sheng zhi). The analysis of the position of Mo-Zi makes it possible to say that his view on the object of knowledge in a sense can be considered as scientific: the experience of past generations (history), human relations (sociology), the principles of governance (policy), impressions and observations of his contemporaries (psychology), logical reasoning (philosophy). The philosopher believed that on the basis of the past we can know the future, and on the basis of the evident – the hidden. Moreover, he denied fate and believed in the transformative human power. If Confucius wanted to see the world through the eyes of authoritative books of antiquity, so Mo Zi attached great importance to the opinion of people, based on trust in feelings: “The rule of the knowledge check about whether there is something in China or not, is certainly consists in the situation when you take facts as the sample that have been seen or heard by huge mass of people. If people really have seen something or heard something, [it] should be regarded as actually existing. The things that no one has ever seen or heard, should be considered as really non-existent”31. Perhaps, in such a position of the thinker we can see both the desire to adapt the ancient truth to the modern conditions and scientific approach to the analysis of human and the world on the basis of specific concepts. Shang Yang: the law as a method of control Shang Yang (about 390-338 BC) is the founder of the school of legalism (“legalists”), known not only as a thinker, but also as a statesman, reformer. At that time, in China there was not any opportunity for existence of equal and independent states, as each ruler chose between domination and subordination. According to the opinion of V.A. Rubin, “the specifics of the theory of Shang Yang is in the fact that, rejecting the idea of serving the people of the state machine as the ridiculous naivete, he openly states that the state is needed not for the people, but for the ruler, and he needs it primarily for submission of the people, and then for usage in order to gain hegemony in the available world – in the Middle Kingdom”32. Legalism doctrine set forth in the book “Shang-jun-shu”33 (“Book of the ruler of the Shang district”), fully overcomes the personality, regarding it only as the means. Even the ruler is considered not as having personal qualities, but as occupying the position and having the will to power over the impersonal mass. The law as Shang Yang argued it, is the essential means of management and achievement of absolute power by the ruler, but this law is not restricted by morality or religion. In the understanding of ancient Indian, antique, Christian and Muslim cultures the law has the divine origin, but in China, no law has ever been described that way. This law did not only rewarded for denunciations, but punished for # 364 # Copyright ОАО «ЦКБ «БИБКОМ» & ООО «Aгентство Kнига-Cервис» Roman K. Omelchuk. Religious and Political Philosophy of the Social Education in Ancient China non-information. If the traditional understanding brings the law and the high level of education of citizens together, so Shang Yang saw the law as the means to control the uneducated people. Shang Yang paid great attention to the socalled “unification of people” (“concentration people’s desires on the one”): specialization of citizens on agriculture and war takes the total character. Aiming at the development of vacant lands (“new ground breaking”), the used measures such as the ban on trade and travel, because in the first case, the peasants will not be tempted by the beautiful clothing and will be occupied only by work, and in the second case, they will not know about how things are going on in other parts of the country. This policy, although it stimulated the achievement of the ruler’s purposes, was incompatible with education and could only lead to the degradation of values. Shang Yang argued that ignorant people, who are able to work are the great force, and therefore education only distracts people from their work. Shang Yang relied on the following understanding of the history: “In ancient times people loved their families and honored greed, in the Middle Ages people honored the wise and enjoyed philanthropy, and in the later centuries people began to appreciate those who are on high positions, and honour these positions”34. However, the understanding of the tendency of values degradation encouraged him to the very extremist methods of control: “If manage people by punishment, they become fearful, do not dare to do evil deeds, and when people do not do evil deeds, they will be happy with what they love. If we teach people with justice, it spoils them, and when people are spoiled, the order is collapsing, and where there is no order, people are suffering from what they hate. That’s what I call punishment, it is the basis of justice, it is so-called justice in our century – it is the path to violence. Indeed, one who tries to correct people using what they hate, will definitely achieve what they love, but one who tries to correct people using what they love, will definitely stir to life what they hate”35. The attitude of legists to education, taking the form of an open struggle, is clear from the following lines of “Shang-jun-shi”: “When education becomes a habit, people give up agriculture and start talking, using pompous words and false arguments ... So people are moving away from the ruler and forming the mass of unruly subjects. Education, therefore, leads to the fact that the country is impoverished and the army is weakened... The eloquence and wit are the rebellion assistants, rules of decency and music are the evidence of debauchery and idleness; kindness and humanity are the supporters of violations, the appointment and promotion of virtuous people are the loophole for theft and embezzlement ... Under the unification of education, I mean that admirers of vast learning, debates, intelligence, honesty, unselfishness, rules of decency, music and moral behavior, regardless of whether they are clean or dirty, should not be rewarded with wealth and the ranks of nobility, they should not criticize punishment, develop their own private views and on the basis of them give advices to the higher people”36. “Unification” of education, expressed in its pursuit and destruction was caused by the fact that it promotes independence in thought and criticism of the state’s politics, so Shang Yang advised to force scientists to use farming. Shang Yang summarized the ancient poetry, history, etiquette, music and also the humanity, kindness, education, faith, eloquence and wit in the concept of “lice” (“parasites”), antagonistically perceiving the culture (wen) as a whole. So, the music that could contribute to the unity of related groups, was also banned, and the outbreak of wars and steeped in them were promoted as the only method of destruction of culture and education. # 365 # Copyright ОАО «ЦКБ «БИБКОМ» & ООО «Aгентство Kнига-Cервис» Roman K. Omelchuk. Religious and Political Philosophy of the Social Education in Ancient China But this system of punishment and awards proposed by the thinker is called “education”, the effectiveness of which is determined by the ability to use the features and imperfections of the human psyche. Thus, given the attitude of his contemporaries to the funeral ceremony, Shang Yang developed the special conditions (participation in the war, giving of the surplus grain to the state, denunciations, etc.), the fulfi llment of which allows its conduction. Despite the utopian ideas of the ancient Chinese philosopher, his teaching was applied by the rulers of China in practice. Conclusion In contrast to the religious orientation of the philosophy of ancient India that considers human life through the prism of the suffering of the soul imprisoned in the body and directing it to the release from material bondage, the philosophy of ancient China is focused on education of the perfect human, or the ruler, the happiness of whom can be attained already in this life. The ideas of ancient Chinese religious and philosophical thought can not be considered 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10 11 12 13 14 15 16 as similar to the ancient Indian thought to the full extent. Orientalist E.A. Torchinov gave the example of the ancient Chinese model describing the historical process that he calls a linear regressive model: “The chapter “Li Yun” of Confucian canonical text “Records about Ritual” (“Li Ji”) describes the order of the degradation of humanity: from the era of the Great Unity (da tong) people have moved to the era of the Great Prosperity (tai kang), then – to the Small Prosperity (xiao kang), then it has been the time of revolt (Luan)” 37. From the example it is clear that the ancient Chinese considered the story in a regressive way, but for them it was linear. Compared to the Vedic approach this view, though it reflects a real tendency towards the degradation of values, is pessimistic. Only in the possibility to put the clock back you can find the roots of the deification of the oldest wise people known today. In the “Dao De Jing” by Lao Zi and “Lun Yu” by Confucius there are several references to the “ancient people”, on whom these legendary, mythical philosophers were focused. See Feng Yu-Lan (1998) Short History of Chinese Philosophy. Moscow, Eurasia, 1998. Pp.50-53. Borevskaia N.E., Toroptsev S.A. (2010). Chinese culture over time and space. 50 and 50 – the century in Sinology. Moscow, Publishing House Forum, 2010. Pp.46-47. Martynov A.S. (2001) Confucianism. Lun Yu. Saint-Petersburg, Petersburg Oriental Studies, 2001. Vol. 2. P.163. Granet M. Chinese thought, translated from French by V.B. Iordanskiy; general editor I.I. Semenenko. Moscow, Republic, 2004. P.209. See Lao Zi. Dao De Jing. Translated and commented by V.V. Maliavin. Moscow, Feoria, 2010. 704 p. Maliavin V.V. Dao De Jing. Text and meaning. Lao Zi Dao De Jing. Translated and commented by V.V. Maliavin. Moscow, Feoria, 2010. P.38 Maliavin V.V. Dao De Jing. Text and meaning. Lao Zi Dao De Jing. Translated and commented by V.V. Maliavin. Moscow, Feoria, 2010. Pp. 73-74. Lao Zi. Dao De Jing. Translated and commented by V.V. Maliavin. Moscow, Feoria, 2010. P.326. Lao Zi. Dao De Jing. Translated and commented by V.V. Maliavin. Moscow, Feoria, 2010. P.504. Lao Zi. Dao De Jing. Translated and commented by V.V. Maliavin. Moscow, Feoria, 2010. P.534. Confucius. Sayings. The Book of Songs and hymns. Translated from Chinese and commented by I. Semenenko, A. Shtukin. Moscow, AST, Guardian, 2007. P.53. Perelomov L.S. (2007) Confucianism and modern strategic policy of the PRC. Moscow, LKI, 2007. Pp.45-46. See, for example: Conversations and judgments of Confucius, Originated, prepared, comments and general editing R.V. Grischenkov; foreword by L.S. Perelomov. Saint-Petersburg, Crystal, 1999. 1120 p. See, Confucius. Sayings. The Book of Songs and hymns. Translated from Chinese and commented by I. Semenenko, A. Shtukin. Moscow, AST, Guardian, 2007. P.73. Confucius. Sayings. The Book of Songs and hymns. Translated from Chinese and commented by I. Semenenko, A. Shtukin. Moscow, AST, Guardian, 2007. P.83. See, Confucius. Sayings. The Book of Songs and hymns. Translated from Chinese and commented by I. Semenenko, A. Shtukin. Moscow, AST, Guardian, 2007. P.19. # 366 # Copyright ОАО «ЦКБ «БИБКОМ» & ООО «Aгентство Kнига-Cервис» Roman K. Omelchuk. Religious and Political Philosophy of the Social Education in Ancient China 17 18 19 20 21 22 23 24 25 26 27 28 29 30 31 32 33 34 35 36 37 Confucius. Sayings. The Book of Songs and hymns. Translated from Chinese and commented by I. Semenenko, A. Shtukin. Moscow, AST, Guardian, 2007. P.83. Ancient Chinese Philosophy: in 2 volumes. Vol. 2, Originated by Yang Xing Shun. Moscow, Print, 1994. Pp.126-127. Confucius. Sayings. The Book of Songs and hymns. Translated from Chinese and commented by I. Semenenko, A. Shtukin. Moscow, AST, Guardian, 2007. Pp.14-16. Li Jin. Ancient Chinese Philosophy: in 2 volumes. Vol. 2, Originated by Yang Xing Shun. Moscow, Print, 1994. P.119. Li Jin. Ancient Chinese Philosophy: in 2 volumes. Vol. 2, Originated by Yang Xing Shun. Moscow, Print, 1994. P.129. Perelomov L.S. (2007) Confucianism and modern strategic policy of the PRC. Moscow, LKI, 2007. P.55. Rubin V.A. (1999) Personality and power in ancient China: A collection of papers. Edited and foreword by A.I. Kobzev. Moscow, Oriental Literature, 1999. P.15. Xun Zi. Ancient Chinese Philosophy: in 2 volumes. Vol. 2, Originated by Yang Xing Shun. Moscow, Print, 1994. P.200. See Rubin V.A. (1999) Personality and power in ancient China: A collection of papers. Edited and foreword by A.I. Kobzev. Moscow, Oriental Literature, 1999. P.25. See Mo Zi. Ancient Chinese Philosophy: in 2 volumes. Vol. 1, Originated by Yang Xing Shun. Moscow, Print, 1994. Pp.175-200. See Rubin V.A. (1999) Personality and power in ancient China: A collection of papers. Edited and foreword by A.I. Kobzev. Moscow, Oriental Literature, 1999. P.29. Granet M. Chinese thought, translated from French by V.B. Iordanskiy; general editor I.I. Semenenko. Moscow, Republic, 2004. P.335. Mo Zi. Ancient Chinese Philosophy: in 2 volumes. Vol. 1, Originated by Yang Xing Shun. Moscow, Print, 1994. Pp.178179. Mo Zi. Ancient Chinese Philosophy: in 2 volumes. Vol. 1, Originated by Yang Xing Shun. Moscow, Print, 1994. P.180. Titarenko M.L. (1985) Ancient Chinese philosopher Mo Di, his school and the teaching. Moscow, Nauka, 1985. P.166. Rubin V.A. (1999) Personality and power in ancient China: A collection of papers. Edited and foreword by A.I. Kobzev. Moscow, Oriental Literature, 1999. P.44. See Shang-jun-shu. Ancient Chinese Philosophy: in 2 volumes. Vol. 2, Originated by Yang Xing Shun. Moscow, Print, 1994. Pp.211-223. Shang-jun-shu. Ancient Chinese Philosophy: in 2 volumes. Vol. 2, Originated by Yang Xing Shun. Moscow, Print, 1994. P.220. Shang-jun-shu. Ancient Chinese Philosophy: in 2 volumes. Vol. 2, Originated by Yang Xing Shun. Moscow, Print, 1994. P.222. Rubin V.A. (1999) Personality and power in ancient China: A collection of papers. Edited and foreword by A.I. Kobzev. Moscow, Oriental Literature, 1999. Pp.50,51. Torchinov E.A. (2005) The ways of philosophy of the East and the West: understanding the beyond. Saint-Petersburg, ABC-classic, Petersburg Oriental Studies, 2005. P.82. References 1. 2. 3. 4. 5. Ancient Chinese Philosophy: in 2 volumes. Vol. 1. Originated by Yang Xing Shun. Moscow, Print, 1994. 363 p. Ancient Chinese Philosophy: in 2 volumes. Vol. 2. Originated by Yang Xing Shun. Moscow, Print, 1994. 383 p. Borevskaia N.E., Toroptsev S.A. (2010). Chinese culture over time and space. 50 and 50 – the century in Sinology. Moscow, Publishing House Forum, 2010. 480 p. Confucius. Sayings. The Book of Songs and hymns. Translated from Chinese and commented by I. Semenenko, A. Shtukin. Moscow, AST, Guardian, 2007. 400 p. Conversations and judgments of Confucius, Originated, prepared, comments and general editing R.V. Grischenkov; foreword by L.S. Perelomov. Saint-Petersburg, Crystal, 1999. 1120 p. 6. 7. Feng Yu-Lan (1998) Short History of Chinese Philosophy. Moscow, Eurasia, 1998. 374 p. Granet M. Chinese thought, translated from French by V.B. Iordanskiy; general editor I.I. Semenenko. Moscow, Republic, 2004. 526 p. 8. Lao Zi. Dao De Jing. Translated and commented by V.V. Maliavin. Moscow, Feoria, 2010. 704 p. 9. Martynov A.S. (2001) Confucianism. Lun Yu. Saint-Petersburg, Petersburg Oriental Studies, 2001. Vol. 2. 384 p. 10. Perelomov L.S. (2007) Confucianism and modern strategic policy of the PRC. Moscow, LKI, 2007. 256 p. # 367 # Copyright ОАО «ЦКБ «БИБКОМ» & ООО «Aгентство Kнига-Cервис» Roman K. Omelchuk. Religious and Political Philosophy of the Social Education in Ancient China 11. Rubin V.A. (1999) Personality and power in ancient China: A collection of papers. Edited and foreword by A.I. Kobzev. Moscow, Oriental Literature, 1999. 384 p. 12. Titarenko M.L. (1985) Ancient Chinese philosopher Mo Di, his school and the teaching. Moscow, Nauka, 1985. 245 p. 13. Torchinov E.A. (2005) The ways of philosophy of the East and the West: understanding the beyond. Saint-Petersburg, ABC-classic, Petersburg Oriental Studies, 2005. 480 p. Религиозная и политическая философия социального воспитания в Древнем Китае Р.К. Омельчук Восточно-Сибирская государственная академия образования Россия 664011, Иркутск, Нижняя Набережная, 6 В статье предпринята попытка ценностного переосмысления древнекитайской философии в контексте концепции онтологии веры. Рассмотрены символы веры даосизма, конфуцианства и некоторых наиболее влиятельных философских концепций. Обосновано, что трансформация ценностей от традиции к идеологии определяет приоритеты личностной самоидентификации посредством рационализации человеческого сознания. Данная статья будет интересна не только философам, но и всем интересующимся актуальными проблемами человека и общества. Ключевые слова: онтология веры, древнекитайская философия, преемственность ценностей, рациональность, идеология, символ веры. Статья подготовлена при поддержке Совета по грантам Президента Российской Федерации (проект «Онтология веры: личностные и социокультурные механизмы преемственности ценностей», грант № МК-2493.2011.6). Copyright ОАО «ЦКБ «БИБКОМ» & ООО «Aгентство Kнига-Cервис» Journal of Siberian Federal University. Humanities & Social Sciences 3 (2013 6) 369-374 ~~~ УДК 20:308 On Significance of Religion Factors in Forming Civilization Identities in Northeast Asia, West Asia and Europe Petr L. Popov* Irkutsk State University 1 Karl Marx Str., Irkutsk, 664003 Russia Received 11.03.2013, received in revised form 18.03.2013, accepted 25.03.2013 This article considers the issue of factors that determined lower significance of religion in formation the civilization of the Northeast Asia vs. civilizations of Europe and West Asia. The weakness of political influence of religion in NorthEast Asia is related to specific features of Buddhism and profound ethnolinguistic heterogeneity of this region of the world. Keywords: variability of content and uncertainty of volume of the notion “civilization”, political influence of religion, Christianity, Islam, Buddhism, ethnolinguistic heterogeneity. Introduction The problems of civilization remain critical in the modern cultural and social studies. This is due to the fact that in the present-day world the interaction in economic and political domains is successful when it unites countries that are considerably close in respect of civilization. Examples are NATO (a military-political block), European Union (an above-state structure that has certain features of a federative state and potentially is being such), and the Organization of the Islamic Cooperation (an above-state political structure carrying out basically consultative functions). The notion of civilization bears a considerable share of uncertainty in terms of its scope and content. However, despite this circumstance, the analysis of publications undertaken by the author (following Huntington, 2003) infers that * there is a “reasonable agreement” on existence of 5 civilizations in the present-day world – Chinese, Japanese, Hindu, Islamist and Western. Enumeration of these names raises the question if there is a particular logical inconsistency or incorrectness in the fact that some of the civilizations are named by the religious indicator (Islamist, Hindu), while others (Japanese, Chinese) are named based on the ethnicity. Does not this constitute a mixture unities classified as civilizations that are indeed consolidated on the basis of different types – religious and ethnic? And if there is no such incorrectness and these unities do appear as civilizations, then what could constitute the explanation for differences in religious and ethnic phenomena in their development? Among the 5 main civilizations two appeared in Northeast Asia (Chinese and Japanese), two – in West Asia (Islamist, © Siberian Federal University. All rights reserved Corresponding author E-mail address: [email protected] # 369 # Copyright ОАО «ЦКБ «БИБКОМ» & ООО «Aгентство Kнига-Cервис» Petr L. Popov. On Significance of Religion Factors in Forming Civilization Identities in Northeast Asia… Hindu), and one – in Europe (Western). Often the Western civilization is referred to as the Christian civilization (specifically so in the past when its basics were founded). In other words, Northeast Asia developed civilizations that are least related to religion in their genesis. What features of the development of civilizations in Northeast Asia is this due to? Let us attempt to consider this issues without claiming, naturally, to be able to provide a comprehensive solution (the latter of the questions raised appears to have the most immediate significance to the presence conference), but in the expectation of a particular advance in their representation and analysis. particular phenomenon (e.g. a confessional unity) as the integrator of a multitude of civilization phenomena may be higher or lower, depending on the case. In certain cases, the ethnic factor may step forward as such an integrator. Accordingly, the content of the notion of “civilization” carries certain variability. Similar variability was typical for notions reflecting social realia. The mechanisms forming the notions of variable contents and fuzzy scope were reviewed by the author in detail in previous publications (Popov, 2006). The notion of “civilization” It is known that the contemporary Western civilization was formed in the early Medieval Age when the level of culture (in the broadest sense) of the peoples of Western and Eastern Europe acquired the new meaning. The importance of Christianity was high in the development of this new environment. It became the important intermediary between the semi-barbarian tribes (Germanic, Romanized Celtic and Slavonic tribes) and the ancient culture in its decline. Although literacy was penetrating to peoples of Western and Eastern Europe even before the spread of Christianity, it is quite evident that formation of written culture began in Christian monasteries. The church quickly grew into an influential social institution civil leaders had to cooperate with. The peoples of the Western and Eastern Europe beyond doubt had ethnic state self-consciousness, and there is no doubt that they had a strong religious self-consciousness – making them feel themselves not only Catholic or Orthodox in particular, but Christian in general. Wars of Medieval Europe were mainly conducted under the religious banners (Crusades against heretical movements, such as Albigenses in Europe). In the Medieval age the church was the driving intellectual force of the Christian world, Let us depart from the first question. Can unities identified on the basis of ethnic attribute, as well as unities identified on the basis of religion be referred to as civilizations? In our view, yes, they can. The notion “civilization” implies a group of countries that are consolidated and set apart by a systemic similarity, i.e. a similarity based on a complex of correlated indicators. In this respect, this is the notion of civilization by its content, e.g. from the notion of “confessional unity of countries”, which implies a group of countries united and identifiable under a single attribute – a religious one. Nevertheless, the notions that may be different by the content of the notion may coincide or virtually coincide in terms of their volume. In particular, the notion of the “country that traditionally practices Christianity”, although having confessional content, in terms of its volume coincides with the notion of “western civilization” that includes a multitude of various attributes. The correlation of attributes-phenomena that motivate to think in the notion of their complex as a particular unity does not appear rigid. This means that in certain cases the notion of the Religion in the History of Europe # 370 # Copyright ОАО «ЦКБ «БИБКОМ» & ООО «Aгентство Kнига-Cервис» Petr L. Popov. On Significance of Religion Factors in Forming Civilization Identities in Northeast Asia… and it was specifically in the realm of religiousphilosophic activity (in Western Europe) when the decisive steps in the direction of contemporary science were made (for more details see Popov, 2010). The turnaround to the New Time, with its different ideological and social guidelines, was also associated with the religious conflict (between Catholics and Protestants) sometimes being extremely fierce. Attenuation of religious enthusiasm in the New Time, especially during the Age of Enlightenment, also caused the attenuation of the religion’s political significance. Wars were now fought under the flag of national and state interests, sometimes along with the flag of chauvinism and racism. Alongside with that, at least starting from the late 19th century, the European philosophy turned its attention to civilization unities of countries. Many of these unities, including the European one, were formed under the influence of religion. Therefore, the growth of attention to civilization problems may, potentially, be related to the trend of religion strengthening in the present-day world, which is inconsistently combined with the trend of further secularization. The notion of “civilization”, as integrity of related, mentally close country states, has grown exactly on the basis of Europe. Military conflicts may occur at present time, which cause is to recollect the military-political situation of the medieval age – countries of one branch of the Western civilization acting together (not separately as in the colonial age) against the civilizationdifferent countries, mainly Islamic countries. Religion in the History of Western Asia There are two unities in Western Asia that are referred to as civilizations: Islamist and Hindu. Islam appeared as a relation linked with heritage of Judaism and Christianity, but also polemically directed at them. Religious selfidentification in the Islamic world is traditionally strong, comparable to ethnic self-identification. In accordance with an Islamic tradition, all Muslims are a particular community. Islam is the religion that grants a powerful sanction to military, and therefore, political activity. Wars led by Islamic nations were traditionally perceived by them as having a religious side to them. The processes of attenuation of the religious power in the Islamic world were generally weaker than in Europe. Starting from the second half of the 20th century, political influence of Islam has grown. For example, during the governing of Ataturk (1920-1930) the attitude of the state power authorities to Islam was negative. In the spirit of many countries, Ataturk relied on ethnic and state consciousness. It seemed that Turkey was experiencing secularization following the French type of the late 18th century and almost following the Soviet type, too. However, already under the governing of the nearest successors of Ataturk, the style of attitude to religion has changed, although the Turkish government did preserve the secular character. At present, a party of Islamic nature is at the power in Turkey, for the first time. The relations of religion and policy in India were developing somewhat differently in certain respects. Although in India the traditional religion is closely related to self-consciousness of Indians as the super-ethnicity, Hinduism was less present on flags of warfare than Islam. This may be related to the unwarlike character of Indians as a nation. However, the ideas of non-violent resistant of Mahatma Gandhi had connections with local religious traditions. Inter-religious conflicts in India were less fierce than in Europe or in the Islamic world. Buddhism appeared in India in the 5-6 centuries BC, being a religion that is closely related to Hindu traditions, although # 371 # Copyright ОАО «ЦКБ «БИБКОМ» & ООО «Aгентство Kнига-Cервис» Petr L. Popov. On Significance of Religion Factors in Forming Civilization Identities in Northeast Asia… being somewhat polemical vs. Hindi. The increase followed by attenuation of the impact of Buddhism in India was less dramatic than the change of religions in Europe or the Islamic world. Mutual penetration of Hinduism and Buddhism reached a scale in ancient India when, according to opinions of present-day researchers, the difference between the two virtually eroded in perception of the regular believers (Kochetov, 1984). This reminds little of the relation of religions in Europe and Islamic world. Religion in the History of Northeast Asia At present, the following territories are a considered part of this region of the world: Asian part of Russia, Mongolia, China, Japan, North Korea, South Korea, and Taiwan. The Asian part of Russia and particular areas of Western China carry religious heritage related to other regions of the world (Europe and West Asia). In South Korea Christianity became one of the major religions in the 20th century. In the course of further consideration, as we refer to religious history of Northeast Asia, we will consider Mongolia, China, Korea and Japan, in their traditional state, approximately till the end of the 19th century, so that to reflect the specific feature of religious traditions of this region of the world. Political significance of religion (especially in case of the religion not being the unique feature of the country, as Shintoism for Japan) was considerably lower here than in Europe or in Western Asia. Conquests (e.g. of Mongols) were not under the religious flags (on the contrary to the conquests by the Arabs); religious differences between the countries did not cause clashes comparable in size to religious wars in Europe in the Medieval Ages during the Reformation. Buddhism spreading in India was assimilating and including into its pantheon deities from other religious traditions. Beyond doubt, this is related to features of Buddhism as an outlook, in particular, with polytheistic traditions inherited from Hinduism. Ethnic and state selfidentification in Northeast Asia was traditionally stronger than confessional identification. Religious organizations, priest orders were never as powerful as in India, Islamic world or in Europe. The specific feature of Northeast Asia, as opposed to Europe and Western Asia, in terms of civilization, is not only that it carries other civilizations, but also that the notion of civilization here, as a typological unity of countries, has a unique somewhat different sense. The meaning of religion as a notion integrating not only the ethnicity, but also the civilization, is lower here. The dominant features become factors of ethnolinguistic alliance and state belonging. Ethnolinguistic diversity of Northeast Asia is very large, considerably larger than in Europe, and comparable to that of Western Asia. By all appearance, profound ethnolinguistic dissociation of the region is the factor that prevents the transformation of the above-nation religion (provided that it is flexible enough – just the feature typical of Buddhism) in accordance with various local traditions. Europe is clearly dominated by peoples of the Indo-European language family (Roman, Germanic, Slavonic languages). Western Asia is represented by large population of several language families – Hamito-Semitic, IndoEuropean, Dravidian. In Northeast Asia there are large peoples of Chinese-Tibetan, Altai, Indo-European language families. Meanwhile, the Altai language family is heterogeneous and is not recognized by all linguists (Languages of Asia and Africa, 1994); Korean and Japanese languages are especially separated, both from each other and other languages of the same family (ibid). Chinese-Tibetan languages have nothing in common with the Altai by origin. # 372 # Copyright ОАО «ЦКБ «БИБКОМ» & ООО «Aгентство Kнига-Cервис» Petr L. Popov. On Significance of Religion Factors in Forming Civilization Identities in Northeast Asia… It is probable that the success of integration in the economic domain achieved in Europe may be linked to considerable heterogeneity of this region of the world in a religious and ethnolinguistic respect (plus enormous effect of religion in this region in the medieval age, traces of which are noticeable in the present-day secularized culture). It has been observed (Arin, 2003) that apart from the European Union there are no considerable large international integration structures in the economic domain. Alongside with that profound heterogeneity in the ethnolinguistic respect of such regions of the world as West Asia and Northeast Asia is seemingly a strong factor preventing the development of European-style integration processes in these regions. In certain parts of West Asia, however, ethnolinguistic heterogeneity is partly compensated by the religious homogeneity (e.g. a group of Islamic countries of Sunnite belief), given the traditionally high value of religion in politics. However in Northeast Asia in general, there is no religious heterogeneity and in cases when countries are bound by a specific religious unity (e.g. in Japan, China, Mongolia one of the major religions or the principal religion is Buddhism), this circumstance if smaller importance, since the political value of religion (especially above-national religion), is considerably weak in this part of the world. It is clear that economic and political integration of countries depends on numerous factors; but, at any rate, religious traditions in Northeast Asia do not promote the integration processes within this region of the world to the same extent as in Europe or West Asia. This is true for Eastern Asia in general, including Southeast Asia. The significance of religions here, in the majority of countries, is weak, but the value of the ethnolinguistic factors is high, however, they seem to divide Asia more than to unite it. This circumstance, in our view, needs to be accounted for in the analysis of the integration prospects of Eastern Asia. In this way, we may suppose that the formation of civilizations in Northeast Asia, the genesis of which will be more linked with ethnic (super-ethnic), rather than religious phenomena, is due to the two following circumstances: specific features of Buddhism, as an outlook, and the profound ethnolinguistic heterogeneity of this region of the world. References 1. 2. 3. 4. 5. 6. Arin, O.A. Russia: not a step further (M. EKSMO, 2003), in Russian. Huntington S. The clash of civilizations (M. AST, 2003), in Russian. Kochetov, A.N. Buddhism ( M.: Science, 1983), in Russian. Languages of Asia and Africa (M. Science, 1993 v.5), in Russian. Popov, P.L. Elements of the theory of regions (Novosibirsk, SD RAS, 2005), in Russian. Popov, P.L. Relationships of Religion and Science: historical and methodological essay (Irkutsk, IGU, 2010), in Russian. Copyright ОАО «ЦКБ «БИБКОМ» & ООО «Aгентство Kнига-Cервис» Petr L. Popov. On Significance of Religion Factors in Forming Civilization Identities in Northeast Asia… О значении религиозных факторов в формировании цивилизационных идентичностей в Северо-Восточной Азии, Западной Азии и Европе П.Л. Попов Иркутский государственный университет, Россия 664003, Иркутск, ул. Карла Маркса, 1 В статье рассматривается вопрос о факторах формирования в Северо-Восточной Азии цивилизаций, имеющих в их генезисе более слабые связи с религиозными явлениями в сравнении с цивилизациями Европы и Западной Азии. Слабость политического влияния религии в СевероВосточной Азии связывается с особенностями буддизма и глубокой этнолингвистической разнородностью этого региона мира. Ключевые слова: вариативность содержания и нечеткость объема понятия «цивилизация», политическое значение религии, буддизм, христианство, ислам, этнолингвистическая разнородность. Copyright ОАО «ЦКБ «БИБКОМ» & ООО «Aгентство Kнига-Cервис» Journal of Siberian Federal University. Humanities & Social Sciences 3 (2013 6) 375-393 ~~~ УДК 111.3:2-184:2-58:002.6 The Utmost Reality in Philosophy, Mysticism and Informology: the Knowledge-Studying Method Yury F. Abramova*, Pavel V. Ushakov and Sergey V. Khomuttsov c a Irkutsk State University 1, Karl Marx Str., Irkutsk, 664003 Russia b Altai Academy of Economics and Law, 86 Komsomol, Barnaul, 656038 Russia c Altai State Pedagogical Academy, Barnaul 55 Youth, Barnaul, 656031 Russia b Received 11.03.2013, received in revised form 18.03.2013, accepted 25.03.2013 The article presents the research of one of the most diffi cult and insuffi ciently studied problems. This is the problem of existence and the main point of the objective reality’s resolute substance (modern terms for this substance are energy-informational substance, informational-virtual reality, etc.). It had been considered the main world’s reality, soteriological aim of existence for a great number of adherents in many religious-mystic doctrines since ancient times. The adherents regarded it as the utmost reality of objective reality and aim of a human’s life. A lot of possibilities to study this amazing world’s phenomenon emerge on a new cultural, religious and scientific-andphilosophical background nowadays. Keywords: religion, mysticism, philosophy, science, the utmost reality, God, theosubstance, transsubstance, energy-informational substance, information-virtual reality. The problem of the world’s immaterial, or energy-informational substance has been widely discussed in various fields of philosophy and science (in ontology, epistemology, physics, cosmology, psychology, energy informatics, etc.). Its research focuses on various aspects – the world’s fundamental principles, physical vacuum, energy-informational reality, super mind, higher substance, etc. The object of this article is a study of interconnections between philosophicand-scientific and philosophic-and-religious * approaches to the research of the world’s energyinformational substance. We’ll focus on several epistemological, axiological and praxiological aspects of comprehension of the world’s immaterial forms attracting a human’s soul and mind at all times of his existence – from primitive states to life in the informational society being a result of scientific and technical progress. The main material of the article is connected with P.V. Ushakov’s research of the so-called © Siberian Federal University. All rights reserved Corresponding author E-mail address: [email protected] # 375 # Copyright ОАО «ЦКБ «БИБКОМ» & ООО «Aгентство Kнига-Cервис» Yury F. Abramov, Pavel V. Ushakov… The Utmost Reality in Philosophy, Mysticism and Informology… utmost reality gaining its significant importance in practically all human’s religious-mystic, ascetic-mystic practices. However, it is differently termed and defined in mysticism, theological and philosophical doctrines notwithstanding its absoluteness and uniqueness (Ushakov, 2008, 2009). Iu.F. Abramov’s research is devoted to the problems of the informational picture of the world, informational substance, ecologicalinformational reality, information-virtual reality and civilization of XXI century. But at bottom of fact it aims to disclose the utmost reality as well but reflected in scientific-and-philosophic categories of cognition. Moreover, taking into account the achievements of various forms of the human culture, the author is in search for the ways of philosophic integration of knowledge about informational substance in basic categories of the main question of philosophy (Abramov,1988; Abramov, Kuibar’, 2010, 2011). S.V. Khomuttsov’s research covers the problems of spirituality and considers the reality which constitutes the Spirit of the World and a human, the society’s spirituality, which is the utmost reality per se, but does it in the focus of the human spiritual culture (Khomuttsov, 2004, 2009). Starting our reasoning with “analyticaland-inductive” material of human religious and mystical knowledge in ancient times, we should refer to specific ascetic-mystical religious practices (AMRP) existing in almost all human cultures. The experience of various interactions between mystics-practitioners and later theorists and a specific immaterial utmost reality, regarded as the human’s soteriological aim (the aim of spiritual rescue) in those practices, had been perfected for centuries. The integral philosophical research of such mystical practices makes it possible to single out the following levels of a mystic’s and adherentpractitioner’s understanding of the utmost reality: 1) a practitioner’s own sense of new mystical states, non-verbalized yet; 2) the ability to verbally describe a mystical state; 3) a mystic’s individual interpretation of his own experience from some general positions; 4) interpretation of mystical experience by another person which is possible when an adherent’s personal verbalized experience becomes the public heritage and the subject of the appropriate specialists’ research; 5) cognition of mystical experience, mysticism, AMRP, etc., being a specific problem of research in various, more wider spheres, such as: 6) a religious confessional cognition of the problem; 7) religious non-confessional, meta-confessional cognition; 8) religious-philosophical (in its general aspect) cognition; 9) general philosophical cognition of the problem as a specific sociocultural phenomenon (repeated, reproduced phenomenon) in social life. In the typology mentioned above levels 7, 8, 9 can be considered to be “proper philosophic” levels of mystical reality understanding as it is here where “the knowledge over knowledge” of a philosophical character is formed. In cases when the utmost reality is comprehended by a definite mystic-practitioner, these could be processes and results of cognitive levels 4, 5 and 6. That’s why the mystical reality in mystics-practitioners’, ascetics-mystics’ mind is supplemented with the richness of imagination and thus it is defined differently in comparison with the definitions given by mystics-theorists and philosophers of a mystical area of research in particular. Having briefly reviewed a multiform “view” of the utmost reality, we’ll turn to a philosophical analysis of possible approaches to its content and the main point. For this it will be designated by the initial term “mystical reality” (from Latin term mystika – mystery). First, we’ll regard this reality from religious, mystical, philosophical points of view. Then we’ll refer to the contemporary ideas of this # 376 # Copyright ОАО «ЦКБ «БИБКОМ» & ООО «Aгентство Kнига-Cервис» Yury F. Abramov, Pavel V. Ushakov… The Utmost Reality in Philosophy, Mysticism and Informology… reality from the points of view characteristic to culturology and then scientific philosophy, considering energy, energy-informational reality of the world. According to core philosophical ideas, the main point of this reality can be reflected in the universal objective world in the form of the transcendent reality; in a subjective form – in the form of the transcendental reality; and also in the form of synthesis of both. At that the description and definition of this higher, utmost, etc. reality turn out to be quite different. Firstly, such reality can be termed differently – the personified (personal) God; the non-personified divine reality; the utmost, higher reality, the absolute idea, the transsubstance, the Absolute, etc., in modern terms – the energyinformational substance. Secondly, it can be differently described. Thirdly, various properties either of a personal, “anthropomorphic” character or an impersonal, “cosmomorphic” character can be attributed to it. These make it very difficult to choose even a general term that can be used in an extended comparative and philosophic research to designate this higher reality, revealed and defined in various kinds of AMRP. Considering the level of this reality understanding by religious mystics (levels 4, 5, 6), it is possible to speak of the Divine substance of a personified or non-personified character. At this level it can be defined as Theosubstance (transcendent or immanent). The process of its cognition and methods applied can be designated as theoepistemology and theomethodology (Andreev, 2005; Florensky, 2001; Khomuttsov, 2009; Oldak, 1993; et al.). But when cognition moves to more abstract philosophical levels (levels 7, 8, 9) the main subject of epistemological analysis turns out to be a more abstract term Transsubstance – transcendent and transcendental substance (the Absolute, the Absolute Idea, the utmost reality, the energy substance of the World, the world virtual energy-informational substance, etc.), including Theosubstance (a narrower category, if the substance is regarded as the Divine substance of objective reality). In this cognitive general philosophic aspect transepistemology and transmethodology can be spoken about. Therefore, at various levels of understanding the mystical we face the categories of different degree of universality which are represented by analogous but not identical concepts and meanings. Hence, the utmost mystical reality is differently defined in different types of mysticism, especially with due account taken of nonverbalized or hardly verbalized states of mysticspractitioners of 1, 2, 3 levels of understanding the reality in the course of their senses and feelings. We’ll try to dwell upon this most complicated problem “of all centuries and peoples” in a form of a brief summary at least, though we realize that its final solution won’t be possible. However, the attempts to solve this set of problems to this or that extent play a significant role due to a number of reasons, and namely they make it possible to: 1) understand the meaning of life concepts peculiar for numerous generations; 2) turn to the problems of understanding universal fundamentals of objective reality; 3) find “the bridges” across the main achievements in the key spheres of human knowledge – science and religion. The latter area in cognition seems to be actively used by P.G. Oldak at the beginning of the 90-s of XX century. He called it “theoepistemology”, or cognition of the universal divine point of the world both by means of religious philosophy and mysticism as well as science (Oldak, 1993). It should be emphasized that modern universal and scientific-and-philosophic pictures # 377 # Copyright ОАО «ЦКБ «БИБКОМ» & ООО «Aгентство Kнига-Cервис» Yury F. Abramov, Pavel V. Ushakov… The Utmost Reality in Philosophy, Mysticism and Informology… of the world have also turned to cognition of this universal energy substance, power and main point of the world but use other terms, such as the world laws, the laws of the Universe, fundamental interactions, etc. However, as it is stated above, we have termed this immaterial (energy) constituent part of the world as “transsubstance” at the most abstract general philosophic level (but not at “lower” religious-and-philosophic and scientificand-philosophic levels). It is this most general form that can make the term be the basis for comparison, analysis, integration and, probably, conceptual synthesis of similar knowledge from various areas. Such angle of view makes it possible to integrate relevant knowledge from the areas of religion, mysticism, esoterism, nonreligious, scientific knowledge, various forms of philosophic doctrines, etc., summarize the achievements in research of both subjective reality (in transpersonal psychology, for example) and objective reality (for example, in the study of physical vacuum, information world reality, world space ontology in science). Due to the complexity of the problem under study we’ll consider the primary, less general (other) concepts and only after that we’ll try to bring them to the concept of Transsubstance. According to the research, in all the cases an adherent strove for some higher out-of-limit substance with its specific, utmost and best properties that served a leading light and limit of his moral aspirations. These main properties can be generally defined the following way: I. The impersonal variant is Universal Harmony (substantive characteristics which can be revealed in various variants – a “cavitated” or a “physically filled” world), Universal coherence of phenomena, Universal Power, Universal Activity (power, determinantal characteristics). II. The impersonal variant, or the reflected out-of-limit substance being a universal bond between a human and the world, a human’s inner harmony, gains a full-scale colouring in its energy forms and manifests itself in supreme feelings characteristic to a human – Universal Good, Love, Beauty, Truth, Fairness (in a substantive aspect), Universal Aim and Universal Will (for its implementation) – in a determinantal form. Both variants of describing the utmost reality can co-exist and be defined in: a) transcendental and b) transcendent forms. This substance might be sensed and defined (both in impersonal and personal variants) in the subjective form, in the form of searching for it in one’s soul, in the transcendental (Ia, IIa) or in the objective (universal) form as the out-of-limit (for ordinary humans’ senses) transcendent reality (Ib, IIb). But practically in all cases and variants it is a superior ideal of the objective reality for a comprehending human. It is also the best aim of existence caused by it and determining the wish to aspire to It in the course of life and try various forms of interaction with It. As stated above, this universal substance (in a broader meaning of the word) with its main features (in personal and impersonal, subjective and objective forms) can be termed with the words of broader synonymic semantics such as Transsubstance, Theosubstance or God according to its main feature being Its supreme perfection and a human’s aspiration to It. In comparison with such concepts as “Transcendent (universal objective) reality” and “Transcendental (deep subjective) reality” the concept “Transsubstance” is broader in its meaning as it simultaneously covers transcendent and transcendental (immanent) worlds, the universal and the subjective-andpersonal, the religious, the mystical, the nonreligious, the esoteric, etc. It should be emphasized that understanding the word “God” as Transsubstance, we regard it in its general meaning denoting various forms of its awareness by a human: both the personal # 378 # Copyright ОАО «ЦКБ «БИБКОМ» & ООО «Aгентство Kнига-Cервис» Yury F. Abramov, Pavel V. Ushakov… The Utmost Reality in Philosophy, Mysticism and Informology… God, personified in poly- and monotheistic forms of religion and the impersonal, non-personified Father-God, the Absolute, Brahman, Absolute Idea, etc. In this case theosophy, the term for general philosophic understanding of God which was quite widely used in Russian philosophy at the turn of XIX-XX centuries, turns out to be quite correct (Mitrokhin, 1993; Filosofy Rossii XIXXX stoletii. Biogrfii, idei, trudy, 2003). Theosophy here is a supreme wisdom of cognition, possible (for a certain person, society, etc. at a definite stage of their development) interpretation of Theosubstance. In order not to mix religious and nonreligious meanings put into one and the same term and knowledge area the mentioned above Transsubstance term should be used. What might be supposed in connection with it is the possibility of its philosophic understanding in a specific area of general philosophy which could be termed as transsophy. Proceeding from this terminology and its specific status, we’ll try to discuss Transsubstance from a theosophical point of view. This discussion, as we consider it, can’t be regarded as “the universal truth” as there is no unique judgment on this issue. But a proper reasoning characteristic to the subject of cognition is possible and necessary in a philosophic research. That’s why we’ll set forth some results of our reasoning. Apparently, in various forms of a human’s reflection of Transsubstance there can be singled out its main variants with various transitional zones between them. These are: Cosmomorphic and Anthropomorphic transsubstance being energy substances of the World and the Human that determine the existence of the latter. It is regarded here at a general philosophic level. This substance can be further regarded at such levels as: А) theistic (religious-and- philosophic and religious) and B) non-theistic (including science-and-philosophic, scientific, and esoteric). Let’s refer to the level that is of a greater interest for us. It is a more ancient theistic level which can have either a broader understanding (religious and mystical philosophy) or a less broad understanding (religion, religious mysticism). А. The “Theosubstance” concept is quite applicable, to our mind, at the theistic concept level, especially in its religious-and-philosophic variant in the course of a comparative research. It can manifest itself here in two different forms: 1. Cosmomorphic non-personified Theosubstance is an impersonal God in “nonpersonified” forms of religion. It corresponds to an impersonal variant of a human’s reflection of the out-of-limit substance in either a transcendent or a transcendental form mentioned above (I, Iа, Ib). 2. Anthropomorphic personified Theosubstance is a personal God in “nonpersonified” (poly- or monotheistic) forms of religion (for example, Shiva, Krishna and other gods in Hinduism, the pantheon of Ancient Greek gods, the pantheon of Slavic gods, Jesus Christ as God-man). This corresponds to a personal variant of a human’s reflection of the out-of-limit substance in a transcendent or transcendental form (II, IIа, IIb). (It should be emphasized once again that we regard the terms “Theosubstance” and “God” in a broader, general philosophic meaning of the Absolute Universe). Pursuant to the way a human reflected Theosubstance in his religious faith in it there appeared “non-theistic” and “theistic” forms of religion in which either a non-personified or a personified God kept the main place. For further reasoning the term “religion” should be given a more detailed definition. The meaning of this term, in which we regard it, determines our reasoning and its result which can # 379 # Copyright ОАО «ЦКБ «БИБКОМ» & ООО «Aгентство Kнига-Cервис» Yury F. Abramov, Pavel V. Ushakov… The Utmost Reality in Philosophy, Mysticism and Informology… differ greatly. The emphasis on the meaning of the term “religion” is ambiguous. Several different aspects can be singled out, and namely: – religion as a process of cognition of something superior like Knowledge of God, Reflection of God (epistemological aspect); – religion as a movement to a higher perfection, God-co-authorship, creation of oneself on the way to God and the forms of interaction with God (mysticism-and-praxiological aspect, at-divine being as a “near to God”-state; – religion as practice, life in compliance with religious doctrines and norms – obedience to God (praxiological, theurgy aspect in faith and obedience); – religion as a specific form of authority and supreme power – authority of God (theocratic aspect), – atheistic Theomachism (as a resultant denial of God in the states of extreme egoism, infinite arrogance, utmost rationalism). Religion can have various forms in cognition of God and reflection of Theosubstance (these forms are regarded as the most important in our research): 1) belief in supernatural forces (emphasis on the supernatural as non-natural, mysterious, fabulous); 2) belief in a divine being, gods or God (emphasis on the Divine, usually personified, but superior), 3) belief in supreme justice, love, truth, harmony, beauty, etc. in the person of God or Theosubstance (emphasis on supreme natural harmony and world power manifesting themselves in the world in a certain form, in a human in both personified and non-personified forms). In the first case the real world is categorized into natural, real and unnatural, unreal. In the second case the whole world is natural, real but existing in supreme (Divine) and lower (full of creatures, created) forms, both in a perceptible (full of creatures) form and a specific transcendent state, some physical contact with which is possible to some extent only. This real transcendent here is somewhere “behind” or “above” a human. In the third case (variant) the real (natural) transcendent in some form and properties is contained in the world “as it is” and a human “as he is”. Apparently, many АМ practices, especially in their higher forms, embrace epistemological and mysticism-and-praxiological aspects, while in Reflection of God they are mostly connected with the third variant of Theosubstance understanding. That’s why, proceeding with the description of Theosubstance reflection by a human, we’ll base upon these very positions of a superior reflection of Theosubstance. Thus, Theosubstance (in its form reflected by a human) appears either cosmomorphically or anthropomorphically. This depends on who becomes similar to whom. Keeping on our reasoning, it is worth while mentioning that theosophical cosmomorphism (a human is equally significant to the cosmic, universal Theosubstance, or a superior subjective world becomes similar to a superior objective world) and theosophical anthropomorphism (Theosubstance becomes similar to a human, or a superior objective world becomes similar to a superior subjective world) can be distinguished in theosophy. It can be supposed that theosophical cosmomorphism initially based upon the cognition of the objective, universal out-of-limit substance, or the transcendent, while theosophical anthropomorphism initially departed from the cognition of a subjective out-of-limit substance in a human himself, from transcendental. But further on, the objectively reflected entered the subjective (a Human) in cosmomorphism, while the subjectively reflected came into the objective (the World) in anthropomorphism. In other words, two initial centres of cognition and two main # 380 # Copyright ОАО «ЦКБ «БИБКОМ» & ООО «Aгентство Kнига-Cервис» Yury F. Abramov, Pavel V. Ushakov… The Utmost Reality in Philosophy, Mysticism and Informology… ways of dissemination of the knowledge gained are subject to denotation. Theosophical cosmomorphism regards the centre to be the objective World, the way is pathed from the World to a Human (his subjective world) and into a Human. That’s why Theosubstance is described here with the help of the main characteristics of the objective world. Theosophical anthropomorphism regards the centre to be a Human (his subjective world), the way is pathed from a Human to the World. That’s why Theosubstance is described with the help of the main characteristics of the subjective world. 1. Cosmomorphic way: God in the World, from the World to a Human and into a Human. Theosubstance with “supreme universal (objective) properties” and characteristics. 2. Anthropomorphic way: God in a Human, from a Human to the World and into the World. Theosubstance with “supreme human’s (subjective) properties” and characteristics. These are two ways of theoepistemology and two main methods of theomethodology per se. They are opposite to each other (like analysis and synthesis, induction and deduction, etc.). But as we know from epistemology and methodology, opposite substances turn out to be incomparable and destruct each other only in extreme variants of the simplest alternative-and-double-valued logic: “either this … or the other”. However, there are always cross-transitions between opposite substances in more complex forms of dialectics, logic of cycles and self-movement, logic of life. The same is true for theoepistemology and theomethodology. Thus, there are various transitions between opposite substances both in non-personified and personified religions. But the following transition is mainly reflected in the following forms: a Human (as he is) – a human with God (the personified Theosubstance) – God (Theosubstance) – the World with God (the nonpersonified Theosubstance). It’s very hard for an ordinary human with naïve cognition to understand and admit the supreme Theosubstance in its abstract nonpersonified form. That’s why it is embodied in a transitional, easy for understanding anthropic form – Gods in Hinduism, Buddha in Buddhism, Brahman in Brahmanism, Dao and wise men in Daoism, etc. On the other hand, it’s well known that God is represented in a personality form in personified religions (for example, Jesus Christ in Christianity). However, even in supreme forms of mystical insight God is also non-personified and there exist several transitions in theosubstance understanding. For example, it’s triplicity of Theosubstance in Christianity: Jesus Christ as the Son of God, God-man; God as Holy Spirit; Father God leading to the statement that God is Light. Relying on the works of such theologians, mystics, scientists, philosophers as St. Maxim, St. Gregory Palamas, St. Isaac the Syrian, St. John Cassian the Roman, St. Symeon the New Theologian, Sophronius, Plato, Plotinus, Archbishop Basil (Krivoshein), L.P. Krasavin, V.N. Lossky, and others, S.S. Khoruzhiy in his fundamental “Analytical Dictionary of Hesychast Anthropology” made a significant research of the “mysticism of the light” problem as “deification of an adherent”, a process and result of a subjective-and-personality dialogue with God, communion with God (Sinergiia. Problemy asketiki I mistiki v pravoslavii, 1995; Khoruzhii, 1991). The author writes: “Divine Light doctrine is characteristic to the orthodox thought: as for its composition and type, it’s not exactly “the learning”, theological doctrine, but “mysticism of light” when mysticism is not a speculative practice but a spiritual one which causes chiefly “practical” texts, evidences of experience and # 381 # Copyright ОАО «ЦКБ «БИБКОМ» & ООО «Aгентство Kнига-Cервис» Yury F. Abramov, Pavel V. Ushakov… The Utmost Reality in Philosophy, Mysticism and Informology… sometimes, because of outward necessity and for the sake of defense from attacks and perversion it turns to analysis and introspection, working out of theoretical formulae” (Sinergiia. Problemy asketiki I mistiki v pravoslavii, 1995: 133). Relying on St. Gregory Palamas’ quotations, S.S. Khoruzhiy thinks of several main propositions about Divine light (Sinergiia. Problemy asketiki I mistiki v pravoslavii, 1995: 134-135): 1. The Light of Jesus Christ’s Transfiguration, the Tabor Light is neither physically percepted nor intellectual (knowledge, gnosis). It is a different type of light. It is special as it is divine and belongs to this world. It is without the starting point, infinite, running through every creature. It’s a special non-visible light which can be contemplated differently and up to the highest stages of vision at which a contemplating being “turns to being the light himself”. It can be differently described, and namely infinite, devoid of shape and form; resembling a cloud; spherical, calm and divine light, etc. 2. Divine light is unique. It is one and the only Divine light, limited by neither time nor space. It appears in all the phenomena of light, mentioned in Holy Writ, and other light phenomena to be seen by Christian righteous men and saints. 3. Divine light isn’t God’s main point but the energy inherent to (existing with) God which is consequently divine. The light possesses all the features of Divine energies. It is common for everyone. God is contemplated not in his supreme nature but in his energy. 4. Divine energy circulating in the world is bliss. Yet bliss, though in its numerous forms, can be revealed in non-light manifestations. Reasoning further on, it is worth while mentioning that the terms “theistic” and “nontheistic religions”, widely used in philosophy of religion and religious studies, seem to be inappropriate. If “theos” to be understood as “God”, then these terms can be interpreted as “religions of God” and “godless religions”. Thus, firstly, the main point of religion being convictions and belief in supreme Divine substance loses its meaning (because according to the mentioned above semantics religion turns out to be both that of “God” and “godless” = atheistic!?). Consequently, we face the logic violation of the determined and the determiner. Secondly, the initial guideline, aim of this terminological antithesis is to show the form of the reflection of God by a human and by the definite religion – a personality one or an impersonality one. As a matter of fact, as per the result we have come to and the meaning, one of the terms (according to its meaning) denies God (non-theistic religion). So, we face the violation of a logical procedure here. However, as these categories are often basic in the ideas of philosophy of religion they cause a chain of further violations of logic, nonsense meanings. That’s why, as it is mentioned above, we tend to use other terms for the same aims. These are “personified” and “non-personified” (as per the form of the reflection of God as a universal attribute) religions. Both religions are theistic as they would lose their main axiological meaning without God (in his universal understanding), the meaning being belief in God. In this case the suggested terms can be specified as “theo-personified” and “theo-non-personified religions”. Consequently, in theosophical cosmomorphism a human diverts away from what is inherent in him and becomes similar to Theosubstance as the universal transcendence. Cosmomorphic theosophy with the non-personified God and “non-theistic” (that means the absence of the personality God), or, to be more exact, theonon-personified religion (Buddhism, for example) is formed. At that in the process of Reflection of God and God-co-authorship a human turns away from subjective “human proper” characteristics in accordance with a primary cosmomorphic # 382 # Copyright ОАО «ЦКБ «БИБКОМ» & ООО «Aгентство Kнига-Cервис» Yury F. Abramov, Pavel V. Ushakov… The Utmost Reality in Philosophy, Mysticism and Informology… idea, if necessary. His feelings and thoughts are “renouncing” and getting calmer. His nature, spiritual substance, spirit start “leaving his human capsule” for the eternal Divine universe of Theosubstance (in eastern AMRP there is the ‘travel of consciousness” expression and that is not without reason). A human leaves himself for God, Theosubstance. This form of theoepistemology shows that God is pre-energy, śūnyatā, nirvanaeternity (and other similar terms) – “emptiness” – but not universal, almighty, giving birth to everything, constantly creating everything (Dalai Lama, Bohm, D., Weber, R., 1989; Grigorieva, 1992; Kastrubin, 1995; Maliavin, 1997; Sinergiia. Problemy asketiki I mistiki v pravoslavii, 1995; Tainy sziznennoi energii, 1997; et al.). Describing Mahāmudrā’s Tibetan yoga everyday practice in their “The Dawn of Tantra” book, H. Guenther and Ch. Trungpa mention that its main point and aim are transition from habitual perception of the world to primary inner vision and understanding things as they are, without prejudices and subjective-andpsychological layers. As a result of such prevision a meditator’s consciousness sort of mingles with all the processes in the world and the initial creation’s energy-emptiness opens to him. At that all substances and events, including phenomena of consciousness, unveil as fluctuations of this initial creation’s energy-emptiness, pre-energy. In H. Guenther and Ch. Trungpa’s point of view, śūnyatā can be interpreted not as “emptiness” but an immutable originative “bosom-field” giving birth to and serving the background of a variety of material and psychic processes. At page 30 of their book the authors state: “Speaking about śūnyatā, we speak about openness of objective reality” (citation from (Ivanov, 1999: 100)). A.V. Ivanov in his comparative research of the state of consciousness and psychics in the process of a meditational cognition of the world in various АМ yoga practices and analysis of their understanding in the works of contemporary researchers and adherents – D. Brown, D.T. Suzuki, W. Evans-Wents, lama Govinda Anagarik, and others – came to the following conclusions. Firstly, the aim of yoga practice (Mahamudra, one of the most ancient forms of Indian yoga, described as long ago as in the 1st century B.C.) “is in an adherent’s getting the knowledge of a unique energy reality being the base of existence of all the substances and his own consciousness” (Ivanov, 1999: 99). Secondly, “śūnyatā can be interpreted as some rationally indefinable presubstance of the world – its creative but immutable energy basis. In yoga texts it is unalterably stated that when a human cognizes śūnyatā he feels his inseparable ties with Cosmos” (Ibid., p.100101). Thirdly, the author shows the relationship between ancient intuitive knowledge with modern physical knowledge of cosmic energies: “It’s not inconceivable that it is the attempts of working out of a single physical theory of the field … that will give the key to a scientific understanding of this single pre-energy basis of objective reality” ” (Ibid., p. 101). Fourthly, in an adherent’s AM practice “the stages of concentration-and-plunge in pre-structures of psychics are reverse to those informational processes which are gradually getting more complex in the course of ontogenesis of consciousness” (Ibid., p.102). Thus, we can say that cognition of Theosubstance in numerous meditative AM practices of the East represents a spiritual substance’s “going out” of its “usual” rational and sensible-and-emotional boundaries. As a result, a specific interaction or even mergence with the energy pre-basis of Cosmos takes place. At that Theosubstance’s characteristics reflected in the Knowledge of God are represented in a general non-personified form. At the general philosophic level of a unique Transsubstance analysis in modern terms the most adequate concepts are Universal Energy, # 383 # Copyright ОАО «ЦКБ «БИБКОМ» & ООО «Aгентство Kнига-Cервис» Yury F. Abramov, Pavel V. Ushakov… The Utmost Reality in Philosophy, Mysticism and Informology… Universal Power, Universal Movement, Universal Cycles, Universal Unity, Entirety, Universal Harmony. In theosophical anthropomorphism, on the contrary, Theosubstance appears like a human with his main features. There appears anthropomorphic theosophy, the personified God and “theistic” religion, or theopersonified religion which is a more precise term. Anthropomorphic assimilation of partially cognizable and reflected God (Theosubstance) to a Human’s feelings and thoughts takes place. That’s why in this Description of God there is a full spectrum of supreme and perfect human feelings and moral qualities (Good Will, Kindness, Love, Beauty, Justice, Equality, Fraternity, Fellowship, Collegiality, Truth, etc.). The understanding here is that it is Theosubstance itself, the Personality God that penetrates into a Human, or in other words a Human is given the grace of God. It burns up in him in a specific inner light. God is Light! Modern synthesis of knowledge and doctrines of Divine light carried out by S.S. Khoruzhiy shows a fundamental position of patristics according to which communication with God, communion with God neither belittles nor destroys humaneness, a human’s personality quality. On the contrary, it enriches them (Sinergiia. Problemy asketiki I mistiki v pravoslavii, 1995: 128). The author singles out three main points. 1. The fathers constantly emphasize that coupling together with God preserves identity of a human’s personality, his self-consciousness. A human doesn’t remain the same but remains himself. At that every human’s personality manifests itself, but does it individually, in his own way. 2. Coupling together with God preserves a human’s integrity, both his many-sided psychophysical nature and corporality: “The body and soul couple together with God” (Gregory Palamas). 3. Coupling together with God results from the synergy, a concordant cooperation of a human’s freedom and God’s grace. This means that personalities are not involved in some physical and unconscious process of coupling together with God which abolishes freedom and personalities but, on the contrary, spiritualizes and develops them (Ibid., p. 128-129). The phenomenon of Divine light, discussed with Seraphim of Sarov, a Russian saint of XIX century, is described by N.A. Motovilov (Chelovek. Mysliteli proshlogo i nastoiashchego o ego zhizni, smerti i bessmertii. XX v., 1995: 367-386). When asked to define the grace of God, monastic elder Seraphim said: “The grace of Holy Spirit is light enlightening a human…” (Ibid., p. 379). He also said: “Actually, many eyewitnesses were shown by God how Holy Spirit’s grace affected those humans whom He sanctified and enlightened with His inspirations. Think of Moses after his conversation with God on the Mount Sinai. People couldn’t look at him – the light around his face was unbearably striking. He even had to appear in front of the people only under the mantling” (Ibid., p. 380). When N.A. Motovilov wanted to make sure in Holy Spirit’s descent with his own “eyes of a human” the monastic elder said: “Why aren’t you, my dear fellow, looking in my eyes? Look straight and without fear – God is with us!” And the pleader saw the mysterious: “After these words I looked in his face and was seized by a most awesome fear. Just imagine a face of a human talking to you which is in the centre of the sun in the brightest light of its midday beams. You see the movement of his lips and changing expression of his eyes, hear his voice, feel somebody holding your shoulders with his hands but see neither these hands nor yourself even nor his figure. What you see is only light which is # 384 # Copyright ОАО «ЦКБ «БИБКОМ» & ООО «Aгентство Kнига-Cервис» Yury F. Abramov, Pavel V. Ushakov… The Utmost Reality in Philosophy, Mysticism and Informology… dazzling, stretching far (several sazhens around) and illuminating everything (the mantle of snow covering the glade and snowy sleet showering on me and the monastic elder from above) with its bright glitter. Is it possible to imagine my feelings then? – What are you feeling now? – the father Seraphim asked me. – Incredibly fine! – I replied”. (Ibid., p. 381). Thus, the reflection of Theosubstance in cosmomorphic and anthropomorphic theosophy is different and carried out differently but it eventually means the Entire substance. As for anthropomorphic theosophical cognition, it will be subject to a brief but deeper research which shows that various ways of evolution of the Reflection of God, Obedience to God, Power of God, etc. actually take place here. It turns out that this evolution can evolve in quite opposite directions. In fact, two lines of reflection are formed. These are constructive (a god-like, god-man one) and destructive (a theomachist like, “superhuman”, “post-human” one). On the one hand, the supreme harmony of feelings and mind, soul and spirit of anthropomorphic theosophy gives birth to the ideal of God-man and highly spiritual humans’ real aspiration for him (that is reflected in the works by religious philosophers at the turn of XIX-XX centuries, for example) (Filosofskii slovar’ Vladimira Solovieva, 1997; Filosofy Rossii XIX-XX stoletii. Biogrfii, idei, trudy, 2003; Florensky, 2001; Khomutsov, 2009; et al.). This line of the reflection of God evolution is constructive. However, there is a different way which is clearly seen at a more intent dialectic consideration of the ways of cognition in anthropomorphic theosophy (a destructive line). As it is shown, cognition of God starts in it from a human and his higher spiritual characteristics and values. And then the whole Theosubstance of the Universe is subject to anthropomorphic interpretation in common with a human’s higher subjective world. That is to say that the way of Theosubstance understanding is the following one: a human’s higher subjectivity is a centre of cognition. The subjective world then leads to the transcendence of the objective world. Very significant transformations of the cognition of God (right up to the transformation to its opposition) can happen further on. They are concealed first of all in the main initial level of cognition which is a centre of a human’s subjectivity and then spreads to the whole way of cognition and getting the sought-for knowledge. The main point of this process is in the following. A human himself, his subjective world logically change in the course of social evolution. The differentiation of society into different social layers, classes, etc. leads to a greater difference in social conditions of the humans’ lives. On the one hand, the most part of the society is constituted by working people to whom the most numerous part of the population belongs. They live rather poor but mainly in compliance with their conscience; they are guided by main virtues, the law of God. On the other hand, there are layers and classes limited in number but represented by the richest and most powerful members of society who really seize all power. Collectivism which is vitally necessary for the people to survive in difficult conditions predominates in working classes. Moreover, they believe in social equity and better life. The basis of their life is predominantly spiritual and moral. They are guided by religious and cultural-and-historical moral norms and forms of moral behavior. All this harmonizes a human’s spiritual world even in difficult circumstances of life, determines religious and social belief in the best, higher ideals, fills life with a positive aim, directed forward and high. On the contrary, super-rich and superpowerful people concentrate in higher ruling circles. They secure their grip not only on all # 385 # Copyright ОАО «ЦКБ «БИБКОМ» & ООО «Aгентство Kнига-Cервис» Yury F. Abramov, Pavel V. Ushakov… The Utmost Reality in Philosophy, Mysticism and Informology… social riches but on almost all the power in society. However, as it is known appetite comes with eating. That’s why all creature comforts and power do not satisfy them already. So, the super-rich and super-powerful are getting eager for appropriation of the power of God. As a result a higher form of arrogance, egoism, extreme individualism is growing. The soul of many “mighty people of the world” which is oriented towards material welfare and power only as well as towards satisfaction of the body’s demands becomes more and more deformed. It gets disharmonious due to growing hardheartedness, immorality, dissoluteness, injustice, insidiousness, malice, jealousy, passion for bodily pleasures, lies, hypocrisy against other layers of society, people, etc. As for anthropomorphic theosophy, deformations of a human’s personality cause logical shifts and deformations of the centre of a subjective cognition of God. Egoistic aspirations aimed at getting the power and becoming rich as well as a growing arrogance but not divine virtues become higher subjective values. An extreme deformed form of anthropomorphic state leads to the assimilation of Theosubstance with subjective characteristics of a soul. The assimilation concerns not a harmonious human but just subjective perverted characteristics of egoistic personalities from ruling social structures. Super-rich and super-powerful people start calling themselves gods, as they naively suppose that they rise higher than God in their arrogance. Thus, a disharmonious human is growing further and further. He hypertrophies to the extent when God is not needed to him anymore; God is even dangerous and harmful. Firstly, God is the higher Harmony of the Universe and a super-man is the greatest disharmony of a human. Secondly, God and people’s belief in real God prevent a superman from wielding power over people. As a result real God himself turns out to be a super-person’s rival, competitor. A superperson becomes similar to an insatiable old woman from a fairy-tale about a fisherman and a fish. This is the reason why “a super-person” rejects God. Nietzsche exclaimed: “God has died!” and not without reason. This is a superperson’s “dreamboat”. Thus, a disharmonious form of theoanthropocentrism turns into theoindividualism (a disharmonious human starts calling himself god) and then in a-theism and theomachism of “super-humans” who do not tolerate those who are equal to them among people, on Earth, the whole Universe and those who are higher than they, even God. A disharmonious human starts denying God and fighting with Theosubstance that is with the forces of Universal Harmony. The fight with the church is fierce and goes in various ways. This is how a human conflict of a degenerative soul logically pushes harmony and disharmony away, cooperation with God turns into theomachism, a believing Human becomes an unbelieving one and then an atheist, atheistic super-human, theomachist who can turn into a post-human, devoid of higher human qualities, in modern life (Frolov, 1999; Kagirov, 2006, Book 2; Nietzsche, 1990). Thus, it can be concluded that religion in its main feature is neither belief in something especially fantastic which is unreal (supernatural) nor belief in God (as a special real substance) only. More exactly, religion is belief in natural but special transcendent, higher Divine substance of the universe, in Theosubstance which can manifest itself in various forms of its understanding (cosmomorphic – non-personified and anthropomorphic – personified). One more issue – that of new, unconventional approaches to the problem of substantiation of God and Theosubstance in philosophic cognition # 386 # Copyright ОАО «ЦКБ «БИБКОМ» & ООО «Aгентство Kнига-Cервис» Yury F. Abramov, Pavel V. Ushakov… The Utmost Reality in Philosophy, Mysticism and Informology… of God – should be considered in the conclusion part of the article. We have undertaken such an attempt (in the focus of unconventional approaches). For this we based upon modern systemic-synthetic modeling of a general picture of the world. It should be emphasized once again that the concept of “God” is understood not in a specialreligious (confessional, etc.), but a general, metaconfessional, religious-and-philosophic and axiological meaning. At that “God” is considered a universal “Theosubstance”, “Divine substance” (in its various manifestations, ways of reflection and representation – personified and nonpersonified, in various forms of its understanding by the subjects of cognition). In a broader, general philosophic meaning it is regarded as Theosubstance. This issue was dwelt upon in the previous part of the article. On account of this it won’t be subject to a special analysis here. The peculiarity of our philosophic research of this fundamental philosophic-and-theological problem is in distinguishing and a further more detailed analysis of different approaches to the understanding of God, and namely a substantive approach and a determinantal one. It’s worth while pointing out that we suggest only one of possible variants of a general philosophic solution of the problem which can be either reasonably rejected or supported, or critically supplemented, creatively modified. We do realize that this is an extremely complicated topic in which absolute truth is hardly possible. “God “in Himself” as an Object of cognition can be cognized by Himself only. His Absolute truth as well as the Absolute truth of the Universe is accessible to Him only. It’s clear that any particular truth, nevertheless how minor an object of cognition could be, is accessible to us in its relative variant only. Such agnosticism, however, mustn’t be understood as indisputable… So, strictly speaking, all our truths are only approximations to truths” (Oldak, 1994: 23). Getting nearer to the Universal Truth can be carried out in various ways. However, “he who makes no mistakes makes nothing”. As for a cognoscitive mind, it puts questions and tries to find possible answers to them by no means. The research has made it possible to suggest that there, probably, can be two approaches to God, divine substance understanding. They are historically and logically determined but different in their essence. For convenience they can be designated as I – substantive and II – determinantal (causal), the latter manifesting itself in two different variants. Both approaches have something in common. They admit the Unity and universality of the Divine reality, God. Their difference lies in different forms of the Divine understanding by different people and at different social-andhistoric time. It’s well known that a Human’s and the Humanity’s intrinsic feature is development. One and the same natural, social and universal laws were differently defined at different stages of the society’s social-historical development (for example, thunder and lightning were differently construed in pagan, religious-and-mythological and scientific interpretation). In the course of a human’s and society’s development the cognition of one and the same universal law led to a gradual transition from phenomena to substances, from substances of the first rank to deeper ones. This explains different versions, interpretations and special forms of Macrocosm understanding. Culturaland-historical, national-and-historical specificity of Macrocosm understanding were naturally formed. As for the disputes about different interpretations of understanding the Divine, they often grew into fierce personality and social conflicts. Similarly, one and the same human can regard the problem through various focuses when the main point of Macrocosm unveils to a greater extent. It is determined by different stages of his # 387 # Copyright ОАО «ЦКБ «БИБКОМ» & ООО «Aгентство Kнига-Cервис» Yury F. Abramov, Pavel V. Ushakov… The Utmost Reality in Philosophy, Mysticism and Informology… individual development, different age periods, personal experience gained in the course of life. That’s why different approaches to understanding God are natural. At that historical and logical forms of a gradual, deeper penetration into the main point of Macrocosm can be singled out (the main types of arguments for the existence of God are mentioned in the previous part of the article). Apparently, the possibility of a more humane consolidation of people and humanity without conflicts and on the basis of God’s Common Universal laws is an outer indicator of a correctly chosen way of understanding the Divine. A broad social-and-historical transformation of a religious understanding took the direction from a vindictive God to a loving God (i.e. uniting in Harmony – in Love, Truth, Kindness and Beauty) not without reason. Thus, they are dynamics and variability of the subjects’ cognitive possibilities that make it possible to consider 1) substantive and 2) determinantal approaches to understanding of God. Firstly, substantive understanding has the following logic. It was originally thought that body and soul coexist in a human; the corporal and the spiritual (immaterial) coexist in the Universe. At that an active, creative origin, God related to the soul and later to the Spirit. Thus, the concept of God was first and foremost connected with substantial characteristics of the Universe, its spiritual or, in other words, immaterial, incorporeal, energy substance. In this case God turns out to be only in one part of the Universe. He is connected with a specific form of substance. Search for this substance and finding it mean the phenomenon of God. Numerous different views on whether God is in everybody’s soul or in the souls of individuals (subjects), in the other world (in the object), in the sky, in outer space are being formed. Questions arise naturally due to, for example, the fact that cosmonauts were in space but saw God neither in the sky nor in space, etc. In the whole, this substantive understanding of God is partial. It connects his presence with definite forms of immaterial unflashy substance and logically directs towards the search for this divine (pervasive – synergy) substance and their merging. Impossibility to find such a definite substance in a number of cases means disappointment in the search for God and refusal from it. This approach can be designated as God’s partial presence. The second, determinantal understanding of God has the following logical line. The focus here is directed not towards substantive, but power, causal (determinantal), original characteristics of God. God gives life, invigorates, has a vivifying (generating, harmonizing) power. God is Universal Force and Universal Cause of the whole substance, of everything real – the Universe as a System in all its forms and representations (material and unfleshy in perpetual changes). Moreover, the second approach also presupposes two variants of determination: II.1 – final (partial) and II.2 – endless (universal both regarding cause and content). In the first, partial variant God acted as a primary cause and a primary impulse that initiated the Universe. Hence, there is the problem of creation by God regarded as the beginning of the Universe. Consequently, all the ideas of the universal are divided into two parts: before the creation and after it. There was nothing before the creation. Spatial and temporal characteristics were zero. Only pure divine Nothing (immaterial Absolute) existed which then created the Universe as a System. The moment of creation meant the appearance of space, time and substance, the appearance of the Universe of creatures. “After the creation” starts from this moment. From these positions, God’s being itself includes three different phases. “Before the creation” is the period of rest. “The moment of creation” is the culmination of activity, the # 388 # Copyright ОАО «ЦКБ «БИБКОМ» & ООО «Aгентство Kнига-Cервис» Yury F. Abramov, Pavel V. Ushakov… The Utmost Reality in Philosophy, Mysticism and Informology… main universal mission. “After the creation” is the pause of activity (“God had a rest”). That is why within the period of “after the creation” God can both manifest himself as well as not to. In connection with this the conceptions of religious materialism are formed in science. They include the first divine impulse but then study natural forces which are far from being divine (from these positions) and interactions – mechanical, chemical, etc. In the variant mentioned God’s Activity is different at different stages. In the whole it is inherent in the second stage – Creation. The first stage is Inactivity or Partial Activity (in other forms). The third stage manifests itself as either inactivity (“rest”) or partial Activity. In the whole it can be stated that a final (partial) variant of determination represents neither universal nor everlasting, but partial Divine Activity. The second, universal variant of determination is connected with the idea that Activity is eternally characteristic of endless Universe in the whole. Consequently, God as a general Activity of the Universe is inherently present and acts in both any definite thing (material or unfleshy) and whole areas of the World and the whole Universe. He acts endlessly in space and eternally in time. He manifests himself in infinitely varied definite types of forces and interactions as well as in chief fundamental interactions and forces, revealed by science and other human knowledge areas. Operation of this Divine Activity, as it is mentioned, is endless in space. It is also eternal in time. No matter how deeply in time the knowledge (history, archeology, paleontology, astronomy, etc.) penetrated, never-ending changes and transformations were revealed everywhere. This means that active forces are Divine Activity. This variant of divine determination is general. So far as forces, activities are characteristic of any area, any spot of the World, so far forth God is universal substantively – in material and immaterial World (God is in everything, endless in space). So far as modern knowledge displays everlasting changes, transformations in all the objects and events of the past, present and foreseeable future, so far forth the Force of the World, Interaction acts and causes the World movement. Consequently, God is always everlasting in time. God is a Harmonious Force of the World in every concrete thing if it is with relations, system, harmony, development, positive meaning, kindness, love, beauty, creative force, goodwill, etc. He is also in a universal substance (material and unfleshy, material and energy one). He is pervasive – Active and Vivifying – in the whole world. In the whole it can be stated that the second variant of the second approach is about the following: understanding of God as General determination of the World-System means not a partial (substantive or determinantal) but universal substantial (substantive-procedural) and determinantal understanding of Divine substance as indestructible, everlasting in time and endless in space. But no matter how paradoxical it may seem at the first glance, such understanding of God harmoniously matches the conclusions of modern science about the ideas of the World-System with its determination due to the Universal Interaction as the Universal Interaction per se is a category, synonymic to Divine Activity or God being the result of the humanity’s enlightened knowledge in the sphere of religion, religious philosophy and specific religious-and-mystical and asceticand-mystical religious practices existing in these or those forms of great insights since ancient times. In other words, theology and scientific epistemology (as well as truth understanding in ethics, aesthetics, anthropology, etc.) do not contradict each other at higher stages of the World cognition. They are mutually complementary, integrating and synthesizing sides of the Macrocosm in the World. This entire knowledge # 389 # Copyright ОАО «ЦКБ «БИБКОМ» & ООО «Aгентство Kнига-Cервис» Yury F. Abramov, Pavel V. Ushakov… The Utmost Reality in Philosophy, Mysticism and Informology… moves to the same point – the Utmost active energy-and-informational reality and substance of the World. Proceeding with the analysis in modern scientific-and-philosophic focus, we’ll base upon the modern life fact that from the second half of XX century and especially from its end the society entered the period of its development which is called informational society (Abdeev, 1994; Abramov, 1988). The name speaks for itself. It registers the meaningfulness of energy-andinformational constituent part not only for the World understanding in the whole but the society in its present and future states of existence. Whether we like it or not, but we move from predominant corporality (with a certain extent of spirituality) to growing energy of being. Information becomes the world’s fourth power. And the future of the humanity greatly depends on how the power is executed. Unfortunately, a human’s world has varied manifestation but it manifests itself not only in optimal but in non-optimal states and acts as well. In the course of humans’ activity spirituality may develop its similar and antipodal forms (Khomuttsov, 2009). This is reflected in various vectors of social activity of both optimal and non-optimal character. That’s why informational civilization can also develop in different ways – conflict like and optimum like. One way – conflict like – presupposes seizure of information and power, extreme concentration of wealth in a global “nucleus” of the humanity (at the cost of super-developed direct centripetal processes) with subsequent collapse of interaction and uncontrollable social outburst similar to a general type of chain nuclear reactions of a disastrous scale (according to the synergetic theory of catastrophes). On the contrary, the other, optimum like, way should be controllable, with the balance of direct and indirect relations, preservation of informational and substantial-and-material (natural and social) wealth of the regions, on the basis of a balanced management in a poly-cultural world. This way of informational civilization development takes into account the specific character and demands of the regions, paramount rank of energy-and-informational component part in managing the regions, substantiality of the aim to preserve the regions’ natural potential as a natural and necessary basis of the people’s life, formation of a high educational level of the population capable to implement the greatest large-scale tasks of the civil progress. This type of social development is designated as ecologicaland-informational society which should be provided with necessary technological attributes. Such a safe and stable development of ecological-and-informational society considers the importance of ideal substances coordination in the life of the humanity. It presents itself as synchronization of processes of structuring and functioning of natural, social (ecologicaland-informational environment) and spiritual, intellectual (informational-and-virtual environment) subsystems of ecological-andinformational system. All this in aggregate ensures an optimal mode of ecological-andinformational society development by means of self-organization and adaptive management mechanisms, i.e. the mechanisms described by synergy and homeostatics accordingly. The analysis of ecological-and-informational civilization (Abramov, 1988; Abramov, Kuibar’, 2010), spiritual-and-ecological civilization (Kastrubin, 1995) in this focus leads to the necessity of a deeper consideration of not only applied social-and-natural problems, but of deep theoretical, philosophic fundamental problems. In a conceptual focus the issue of understanding the main point and specific character of “informational-and-virtual reality” existence that nowadays has presented itself to the humanity as # 390 # Copyright ОАО «ЦКБ «БИБКОМ» & ООО «Aгентство Kнига-Cервис» Yury F. Abramov, Pavel V. Ushakov… The Utmost Reality in Philosophy, Mysticism and Informology… both a specific form of social reality and a universal form of objective reality’s existence (Abramov, Kuibar’, 2010; 2011). The research of this reality in its universal manifestation makes us refer to eternal ontological problems of philosophy – to the World’s fundamental principles. At the end of XX century those doctrines that couldn’t develop within the frame of a stiff dialectic materialism doctrine about the basic nature of the matter (the material) and the secondary nature of mind (the ideal) started to be revived in Russian philosophy. But the practice of a deepening scientific-and philosophic cognition of the world and integration of knowledge from different spheres of the humanity’s culture necessarily lead us to new, more integral and optimal setting of the main problems of objective reality (existence) and their solutions. Surely, if the matter (objective reality) were understood as an atomic-and-molecular material world only (that corresponds to the level of the scientific knowledge of the New time), all energy-and-informational reality would turn out to be “overboard” the materialistic philosophic consideration. But if the objective reality were considered from the positions of contemporary knowledge, it would be in principle impossible not to include objectively existing and cognizable energy-and-informational world of Cosmos, the planet and people in it. At that the concept of the substance as an objective reality broadens and includes two worlds – atomic-and-molecular (material) and energy-and-informational (energy one). Thus, a conflict like approach to materialistic and idealistic views is withdrawn; the World presents itself as a harmonious integrity of its equally significant and equally valuable parts. Similar approaches have been developed in a set of works by Russian philosophers since the end of XX century. Different authors single out such an integrated reality of the world, and correspondent schools call it differently – spiritual materialism, dialectical materialism, synthetic dualism, etc. The main point here is that in contrast to partialand-conflict-like approaches to the explanation of the world’s fundamentals on the basis of the knowledge of XVII-XVIII centuries these approaches are invariant and, to our mind, the most prospective regarding the study of the world’s fundamentals. Regarded from the ontological focus, informational-and-virtual reality in the meaning mentioned reflects the same utmost reality which ancient mystics, wise men, visionaries interacted with but at the same time it makes it possible to consider this subtle world from modern scientific-and-philosophic view. According to epistemological aspect this category enables to attract the newest arsenal of scientific, philosophic and culturological cognition for understanding the world’s energy substances. This also makes it possible to put the question about the possible change of a categorial structure of the main philosophic issue conception and introduce a new epistemological doctrine – a dialectical realism as an instrument of rational understanding of any reality – into the methodology of cognition. As a result it is worth while emphasizing that our conclusion about the possibility of a noncontradictory interaction between religion and science in the issues of understanding and interpretation of utmost energy bases of the Universe wasn’t at all unambiguous in the history of different cultures of humanity. It is not solved even at present. But it is the peculiarity of humans’ points of view on the interaction of science and religion in modern world, understanding and a more complete description of substantial foundations of the world that determine the practice of interpersonal, cross-cultural and intergovernmental relations. This explains not only philosophic and religious but also evident social practical value of the issue dwelt upon in this article. # 391 # Copyright ОАО «ЦКБ «БИБКОМ» & ООО «Aгентство Kнига-Cервис» Yury F. Abramov, Pavel V. Ushakov… The Utmost Reality in Philosophy, Mysticism and Informology… References 1. 2. 3. 4. 5. 6. 7. 8. 9. 10. 11. 12. 13. 14. 15. 16. 17. 18. 19. 20. 21. Abdeev, R.F. Filosofiia informatsionnoi tsivilizatsii [Philosophy of Information Civilization]. Moscow, 1994. 336 p. Abramov, Iu. F. Kartina mira i informatsia [The Picture of the World and Information]. Irkutsk, 1988. 192 p. Abramov, Iu. F., Kuibar’, V. I. (2010). The Category of “Information-Virtual Reality” as a Factor of Scientific and Philosophical Knowledge Development (Theoretical and Methodological Aspects). Vestnik Buriatskogo gosudarstvennogo universiteta, (6). Abramov, Iu. F., Kuybar’, V. I. (2011). Cognition of Information Reality and the Conception of Dialectical Realism (Theoretico-Methodological Aspect). Vestnik irkutckogo gosudarctvennogo universiteta, 5(52). Andreev, D. Roza mira [The Rose of the World]. Moscow, 2005. 606 p. Chelovek. Mysliteli proshlogo i nastoiashchego o ego zhizni, smerti i bessmertii. XX v. [The Man. TheTthinkers of the Past and Present on His Life, Death and Immortality. ХIХ century]. Moscow, 1995. 528 p. Dalai Lama, Bohm, D., Weber, R. (1989). Delicate Matter and Dense Matter: the Dialogue of His Holiness Dalai Lama, Physicist D. Bohm and R. Weber. Nauka I religiia (10). Filosofskii slovar’ Vladimira Solov’eva [Vladimir Solovyov’s Philosophical Dictionary]. Moscow, 1997. 462 p. Filosofy Rossii XIX-XX stoletii. Biografii, idei, trudy [Russian Philosophers of XIX-XX Centuries. Biographies, Ideas, Works]. Moscow, 2003. 1152 p. Florenskii, P.A. Pravoslavie [Orthodoxy]. Florenskii, P.A. Khristianstvo i kul’tura [Christianity and Culture]. Moscow, 2001. 384 p. Frolov, A.S. (1999). The Light of Pushkin in the Darkness of Postmodernism. Polzunovskii al’manakh, (2). Grigor’eva, T. P. Dao i logos (Vstrecha kul’tur) [Dao and Logos (Meeting of Cultures)]. Мoscow, 1992. 424 p. Ivanov, A.V. Mir soznaniia [The World of Consciousness]. Barnaul, 1999. 240 p. Kagirov, B.N., Koliuzhov, Iu,I., Ushakov, P.V., Ushakova, E.V., et al. Znanievedenie i upravlenie [The Study of Knowledge and Management]. In 3 books. Barnaul, 2006. 203 p.; 160 p.; 194 p. Kastrubin, E.M. Transovye sostoiania I pole smysla [Trance States and the “Field of Raison d’Etre”]. Moscow, 1995. 288 p. Khomuttsov, S.V. Dukhovnost’ i dukhovnye traditsii [Spirituality and Spiritual Traditions]. Barnaul, 2004. 179 p. Khomuttsov, S.V. Dukhovnost’ i ee podobiia i antipody v kul’ture [Spirituality and Its Similarities and Antipodes in Culture. Thesis … PhD]. Barnaul, 2009. 278 p. Khoruzhii, S. S. Diptikh bezmolviia [Diptych of Silence]. Moscow, 1991. 136 p. Maliavin, V.V. Molniia v serdtse. Dukhovnoe probuzhdenie v kitaickoi trditsii [Lightning in the Heart. Spiritual Awakening in the Chinese Tradition]. Moscow, 1997. 367 p. Mitrokhin, L. N. Filosofiia religii [The Philosophy of Religion]. Мoscow, 1993. 415 p. Nietzsche, F. Sochineniia v dvukh tomakh [The Works in Two Books]. Book 2. Moscow, 1990. 829 p. # 392 # Copyright ОАО «ЦКБ «БИБКОМ» & ООО «Aгентство Kнига-Cервис» Yury F. Abramov, Pavel V. Ushakov… The Utmost Reality in Philosophy, Mysticism and Informology… 22. Oldak, P. G. Teognoseologiia: miropostizhenie v ramkakh edineniia nauki I very [Theoepistemology: Cognition of the World in the Frame of Science and Faith]. Novosibirsk, 1994. 182 p. 23. Sinergiia. Problemy asketiki I mistiki v pravoslavii [Synergy. The Problems of Asceticism and Mysticism in Orthodoxy]. Moscow, 1995. 366 p. 24. Tainy zhiznennoi energii [The Secrets of Vital Energy]. Minsk, 1997. 608 p. 25. Ushakov, P. V. Chelovek v sovremennom znanii I misticheskikh praktikakh [The Man in Modern Knowledge and Mystical Practices]. In 2 Books. Barnaul, 2008, 2009. 148 p.; 240 p. Предельная реальность в философии, мистицизме и информологии: знаниеведческий подход Ю.Ф. Абрамова, П.В. Ушаковб, С.В. Хомутцов в а Иркутский государственный университет, Россия 664003, Иркутск, ул. Карла Маркса, 1 б Алтайская академия экономики и права, Россия 656038, Барнаул, пр. Комсомольский, 86 в Алтайская государственная педагогическая академия, Россия 656031, Барнаул, ул. Молодежная, 55 Статья посвящена исследованию весьма сложной и мало изученной проблемы – существования и сущности энергийной субстанции бытия (в современных терминах – энергоинформационной субстанции, информационно-виртуальной реальности и т.п.), которая с древнейших времен признавалась как главная реальность мира, сотериологическая цель существования адептов многих религиозно-мистических учений и часто обозначавшаяся ими как Предельная реальность: бытия и цели жизни человека. В настоящее время появляется возможность на новой культурфилософской, религиоведческой и научно-философской основе исследовать этот удивительной мировой феномен. Ключевые слова: религия, мистика, философия, наука, Предельная реальность, Бог, теосубстанция, транссубстанция, энергоинформационная реальность, информационновиртуальная реальность. Copyright ОАО «ЦКБ «БИБКОМ» & ООО «Aгентство Kнига-Cервис» Journal of Siberian Federal University. Humanities & Social Sciences 3 (2013 6) 394-398 ~~~ УДК 750.1|715| Renaissance and European Classical Painting as Two Types of Artistic Creativity Elena V. Orela* and Maria V. Semenovab Ural Federal University named after B.N. Yeltsin 51 Lenina, Ekaterinburg, 620083 Russia b Russian State Professional Pedagogical University, 19 Mira, Ekaterinburg, 620002 Russia a Received 11.03.2013, received in revised form 18.03.2013, accepted 25.03.2013 This paper presents some points for the study of painting as an activity (artistic creativity) such as: concept of the artists community what the “absolute art” is; the technology of training creative skills; an algorithm of creative drawing; subordination of figurative and poetic components of artistic drawing; practices, bordering with art, that are “a priori” of the artistic process. These points are used for the analysis and comparison of the Renaissance and European classical arts. It is justified that these types of art are produced by two heterogeneous forms of artistic activity. The Renaissance type is defined as an ontological one, where nature is a model of art, where creative elements performs figurative tasks, which uses magic and some elements of a classical creativity to create the effect of artistic painting. The Classical type of artistic creativity is characterized as a cultural-artistic one, where artistic figurative masterpieces are the model of art; the figurative element is subjected to creative tasks. The enlightened taste and national artistic tradition plays a role of an “a priori” of this type of creativity. Keywords: Renaissance art; European classical art; artistic creativity. Current researches which compare Renaissance painting and Modern European classics in terms of results – the specific works – despite all their differences agree on one thing: this painting belongs to the same artistic tradition and the same type of art, which originated in Antiquity. But is this true? Does formal resemblance always shows real relationship? Is it not the case that sometimes children of the same parents are not similar in appearance, and a stranger is somebody’s similar? This simple example made us doubt in the objectiveness of the common judgments and start a comparison of the * Renaissance painting and the European classics of painting, in terms of cause which produces this painting – artistic creativity. This research tries to find the answer to the question whether the Renaissance art of painting and the modern European classics belong to the same type of artistic creativity or these are two different types and has the following tasks: (1) to identify the parameters of artistic creativity using which one could study its type, (2) to study the Renaissance art and the European classics in accordance with these parameters, and (3) to characterize each type of artistic creativity. © Siberian Federal University. All rights reserved Corresponding author E-mail address: [email protected] # 394 # Copyright ОАО «ЦКБ «БИБКОМ» & ООО «Aгентство Kнига-Cервис» Elena V. Orel and Maria V. Semenova. Renaissance and European Classical Painting as Two Types of Artistic Creativity The results of the study are important because of the following reasons: firstly, they can either confirm validity of the existing opinions or dispose the myths from the history of art; secondly, if the study is successful, its principles can be applied to test other obviousness: for example, that the ancient and medieval art belong to different types; and thirdly, when applied to the contemporary art, its principles will help to identify the type of art. The interest in art is great. The mere listing of the names of the authors involved in its study would take a dozen pages. However, most of these authors support the idea of the timeless nature of artistic creativity. Only few studies raise the question of the existence of different types of art. One of them is the monograph by the Russian musicologist and cultural studies expert Tatyana Vasilievna Cherednichenko “Music in the Cultural History”. The Russian art historian Svetlana Petrovna Batrakova in the monograph “An Artists of the XX Century and the Language of Painting From Cezanne to Picasso” admits the existence of different types of painting. These studies, anyway, confirm the guess of the American philosopher and aesthetics Susan Catherine Langer, that art in a form that we understand it is an exclusively new European phenomenon [see 3, chapter 9]. Except the studies of the aforenamed authors the theoretical legacy of Leonardo da Vinci; the works by Giorgio Vasari and Giovanni Pietro Bellori; the studies of the modern theorists and art historians: Max Dvorjak, Erwin Panofsky, Sergei Mikhailovich Daniel, Olga Borisovna Dubova; the studies of the cultural experts: Leonid Mikhailovich Batkin, Vladimir Solomonovich Bibler; and philosophers: Immanuel Kant, Edmund Husserl, etc. were used in this research. The first question which we should answer in this research – what are the “external” factors of artistic creativity that determine its specific type? It was assumed, that these factors are: firstly, the concept of the “absolute” art that exist in artistic community, and secondly, the technologies of “appropriation” of the “absolute” art as a type of creativity. The second question of this research – what “internal” components of artistic creativity determine its type? It was assumed, that such factors of artistic creativity are its algorithms, subordination and interrelation of descriptivemimetic and expressively-poetic components in its “primary” product – in a picture. The third question of this research – how to identify the subject “a priori” of artistic creativity, which determine characteristics of a subject of creativity. It was assumed, that cultural practices, bordering with art may be such an “a priori”. There were three stages of the research. The first two stages included the study of artistic creativity of the Renaissance and the European classics. The third stage was devoted to the comparison of these types of creativity and making conclusions about their artistic type. (The research has limits – only the material connected with the history and theory of painting was used.) The results we got in this research were the following: 1. In the period of European Renaissance a universal prototype of art was nature, i.e. – the world, which is perceived to the eye, given to a man in his sensuous experience. Nature was not an ordinary term, but significant cultural concept, perceived pantheistically: the real incarnation of the divine. Science, art and magic of the Renaissance took part in the formation of this concept. The original form of development of the techniques that are used by nature as a universal artist is experience. The experience, first of all, is a very thorough process, which includes a set of procedures. The first, the initial and the # 395 # Copyright ОАО «ЦКБ «БИБКОМ» & ООО «Aгентство Kнига-Cервис» Elena V. Orel and Maria V. Semenova. Renaissance and European Classical Painting as Two Types of Artistic Creativity observation. According to Leonardo da Vinci “The mind of the painter, should be like a mirror, which always takes the color of the object, which it reflects, and is filled with the images of so many objects, which are situated in front of it” (Mastera Iskusstva, 1966, p.118). The second procedure is measuring. As for nature, where every event is very valuable, the measurement was not a mathematical, but metaphysical task of identifying the divine in nature. The third procedure is to model the experience, which takes two forms: images and inventions. Modeling by images is the third procedure of the experience and at the same time the fi rst procedure of art. As a kind of art, modeling required a combination of pure mathematical calculation with a purity of perspective spatial modeling, multiplied by the purity of the highest skill of chiaroscuro. It was necessary to synthesize all knowledge of perspectives, theories of light and vision, to master all the known methods of its practical application, in order to get the necessary effect, when the image was more correspondent with the idea of the object than the object itself. The examples of such image-models are the technical and anatomical drawings by Leonardo da Vinci, which have all the characteristics of technical perfection. We called these images “pure empirical models.” “Pure” – because they represent rather an idea of an object than any object from the real life. “Empirical” – because they are taken from the experience, and are not imaginary symbols of nature. In “pure empirical models” expressivepoetic component is subjected to figurativemimetic component and implemented as a technical task. Despite the technical perfection, “pure empirical” models are not works of art. In order to become works of art, the specific content of the individual events should be returned to them. Artistic “a priori” can help here, as it allows to “adjust” an artist to the task he has. Such an “a priori” was subjective magic that the Renaissance artists actively practiced, improving visual sensitivity (Yates, 2000, p.99). Magic allowed an artist to see in a body an action performed by the soul (“Mona Lisa” by Leonardo da Vinci). The second artistic “a priori” in relation to the Renaissance art was new, forming at that period type of artistic creativity, which later became the basis for the European classics. Hypersensitivity to the new, implemented at the level of an artist’s ability to break a bond with the current type of artistic creativity and, “overrunning” time act according to the rules of a new type, – Genius – enables artists to create images of the Renaissance Madonnas, which in their naturality compete with a picture of the Girl with a Pearl Earring by Johannes Vermeer. A good example is the Sistine Madonna by Raphael. The ancient art is the universal prototype for the modern European classics, and the “absolute” art is a number of masterpieces created in the tradition of figurative painting that originated in antiquity and was adapted by the Renaissance to the conditions of the New Age. The form of “appropriation” of the method of the “absolute art” is its study: the theoretical (contribute to understanding and meaningful actions) and the practical. The first stage of the practical study is copying of the “originals”: the antiques, works of art of the Renaissance period and the later works by the artists who followed the Renaissance tradition (in fact – gesso and copies). The second stage of the analysis is decomposition of an image into individual elements and the subsequent development of each element. The perspective construction of the space, images of the geometric shapes, elements of architectural orbs, images of the human body were mastered in this way. The third procedure is a synthesis of all the skills obtained in the process of reconstruction of objects on the canvas by the image. # 396 # Copyright ОАО «ЦКБ «БИБКОМ» & ООО «Aгентство Kнига-Cервис» Elena V. Orel and Maria V. Semenova. Renaissance and European Classical Painting as Two Types of Artistic Creativity In case of the Renaissance art, the last preparatory procedure becomes the fi rst actually creative task recreating the object as it is “by itself” beyond the boundaries of our sensory experience. To solve this problem a graduate of the Academy was to use all the skills that he had acquired solving technical problems, and all the history of art, which he learned by copying the “originals.” The result of this synthesis is an academic drawing – “a pure object of art”: “pure” because in the mind it represents the image, but not an object, “art” because it is literally woven from the fabric of the art, “object” – because it has its own value, independent of the significance of images. In an academic drawing visual tasks are subordinated to the artistic and creative tasks because academic drawing is always “above” the nature, always levitates above it, as a mental image of nature, valuable by itself. Academic drawing – is also art (meaning “artistic skill”), but not a work of art. In order to become a work of art it should not be a selfsufficient image and become an image where nature is given not only as a conceivable image, i.e. objectively, but as an image perceived by senses, i.e. subjectively, according to the new aesthetic taste of the European audience. The new artistic “a priori” helped to achieve this goal: on the one hand, it was new artistic taste and the system of aesthetic education, which formed a new sensibility of the European person, and on the other – the people’s artistic tradition, which an artist received as a legacy from the generation in the form of talent. There is no mystery in the talent, except an artist’s ability to “deactivate” temporary everything that an artist got through learning, and act spontaneously, as any people’s artist acts, i.e. according to the unique “artistic” habit. 2. The Renaissance art of painting and the New European Classics of painting are different types of artistic creativity. The first type we conditionally identified as an ontologicallyoriented, striving to fit into the rhythm of the existential process, to “grasp” and to show what belongs to existence. The second type was identified as culturally and artistically oriented which is striving to “grasp” and continue the line of art. These two types of artistic creativity are different (1) at the level of what is considered by the artistic community as its model and how it is “appropriated”; (2) at the level of the algorithm of an action, and (3) the nature of its “primary product” – a drawing; (4) at the level of social practices which are used to achieve the final result of artistic painting. The results of the study made us to reconsider some of our former opinions. For example, we supported the statement of the famous art critic Max Dvorak about the world of “artistic concept”, which in the era of Renaissance, according to his opinion, was attached to the world of “the limited spiritual existence and eternal spirituality” (Dvorak, 2001, p.149-150). According to our research, it happened later: the world which “followed its own laws, found its mission, objectives and scope in itself” (Dvorak, 2001, p.148) is the New European Classics. In the course of the study we collected materials, confirming our hypothesis that the paintings of the Renaissance and the New European Classics, although belong to the same tradition of the figural painting but are fundamentally different types of artistic creativity. We have also suggested a number of new hypotheses and ideas. Firstly, some ideas of the methodology we applied and the conclusion regarding the possible existence of the different types of artistic creativity (art of painting), made us to assume the existence of a kind of “artistic paradigms”, similar to the scientific paradigms. Secondly, the intention to avoid psychologism in determining the qualities of the subject of artistic # 397 # Copyright ОАО «ЦКБ «БИБКОМ» & ООО «Aгентство Kнига-Cервис» Elena V. Orel and Maria V. Semenova. Renaissance and European Classical Painting as Two Types of Artistic Creativity creativity, led us to the idea of “the art habit”, and this idea gives our research in a different direction. However, these ideas are to be tested in a separate study. References 1. 2. 3. 4. Dvorak, M. Istoriia Iskusstva Kak Istoria Duha [The History of Art as the History of Ideas]. Saint Petersburg, Academic project, 2001. 331 p. Yates, F. A. Dzhordano Bruno and Hermeticheskaia Traditsia [Giordano Bruno and the Hermetic tradition]. Moscow, New Literary Review, 2000. 528 p. Langer, S. Filosofia V Novom Kluche. Issledovania Simvoliki Razuma, Ritual I Iskusstvo [Philosophy in a New Key: A Study in the Symbolism of Reason, Rite, and Art]. Moscow, Ripublica, 2000. 287 p. Mastera Iskusstva Ob Iskusstve: Izbrannye Otryvki Iz Pisem, Dnevnikov, Rechei I Traktatov V Semi Tomah. T.2 [The Masters of Art About Art: Selections From Letters, Diaries, Speeches and Tracts in Seven Volumes. V.2] Moscow, Art, 1966. 397 p. Живопись Ренессанса и европейская классика как типы художественной деятельности Е.В. Орела, М.В. Семеноваб Уральский федеральный университет им. Б.Н. Ельцина, Россия 620083, Екатеринбург, пр. Ленина, 51 б Российский государственный профессионально-педагогический университет, Россия 620012, Екатеринбург, ул. Машиностроителей, 11 а В статье представлены результаты сравнительного исследования живописи Ренессанса и европейской классики с точки зрения характера производящей ее художественной деятельности. Определены параметры изучения художественной деятельности, к которым отнесены разделяемое художественным сообществом представление об “абсолютном”искусстве и технология “присвоения”данного искусства как деятельности; алгоритм деятельности и субординация изобразительно-миметических и образно-поэтических компонентов в ее “первичном продукте” – рисунке; пограничные с искусством практики, составляющие субъектное “априори” творческого процесса. Обосновано различие художественной деятельности ренессансного и классического типов. Ренессансный тип художественной деятельности охарактеризован как онтологически-ориентированный, избирающий природу в качестве образца, использующий творческие элементы для выполнения изобразительных задач, привлекающий магию и приемы только формирующегося классического искусства в качестве субъектного ”априори”. Классический тип художественной деятельности представлен как культурно-художественно-ориентированный, признающий в качестве искусства череду шедевров, исполненных в традиции предметной живописи; превращающий рисунок в искусство и имеющий в качестве своего “априори”новый просвещенный вкус и народную художественную традицию. Ключевые слова: искусство Возрождения; художественная деятельность. # 398 # европейское классическое искусство, Copyright ОАО «ЦКБ «БИБКОМ» & ООО «Aгентство Kнига-Cервис» Journal of Siberian Federal University. Humanities & Social Sciences 3 (2013 6) 399-405 ~~~ УДК 2 (077) 24, 27, 28 Some Aspects of the Idea of God in the World Religions: an Attempt to Make a Comparative Analysis Nadezhda K. Barsukova* Irkutsk State University 1 Karl Marx Str., Irkutsk, 664003 Russia Received 11.03.2013, received in revised form 18.03.2013, accepted 25.03.2013 This article discusses some aspects of the idea of God in the world religions – Christianity, Islam and Buddhism. It is shown that in Christianity God is presented as it follows from the doctrine of the Holy Trinity and is revealed to humans through the system of His attributes by which He exposes Himself in the world. According to the religious doctrine of Islam, Allah is the one and indivisible, and it is possible to approach His understanding, among other things, through the study of the whole range of His attributes. The idea of God is presented in Buddhism – the third world religion – in a very special way. The given paper shows a comparative analysis of the properties of God (from the orthodox positions) and the attributes of Allah (from the position of classical Islam), and identifies a number of parallels that we offer students-theologians to study. Keywords: Christianity, Islam, Buddhism, properties of God, attributes of Allah. Two world religions – Christianity and Islam are monotheistic religions (monotheism is the recognition of one God), but the essence of monotheism is revealed in different ways. From the Orthodox Christian position, according to the doctrine of the Holy Trinity: 1. God is triune, and this trinity is that God is a perichoresis of three persons or hypostases: the Father, the Son and the Holy Spirit. 2. Each Person of the Trinity is God, but He is not the essence of three Gods, but a single divine essence, being. 3. All the Persons of the Trinity are distinguished by personal properties. In respect of God Christianity takes the view that He is not comprehensible for the humans to a full degree. However, it is possible * to form a concept of God based on the study of His properties by which He exposes Himself in the world. Properties of God are those properties that belong to God Himself, and distinguish Him from all other creatures. These properties belong to all integrated Persons of the Holy Trinity, so they are called common properties, in contrast to personal properties belonging individually to each person of God, and distinguishing them. Orthodox Christianity theologizes God as the all-perfect being, free from defects and limitations. His general properties are the following: I. Boundless fullness of being and II. Spirituality. Properties of God applying to the perfection of His existence in general, are called the ontological properties, and properties of God © Siberian Federal University. All rights reserved Corresponding author E-mail address: [email protected] # 399 # Copyright ОАО «ЦКБ «БИБКОМ» & ООО «Aгентство Kнига-Cервис» Nadezhda K. Barsukova. Some Aspects of the Idea of God in the World Religions… as the all-perfect Spirit are spiritual. Ontological properties of God are the following: 1. Uniqueness 2. Immutability 3. Eternity 4. Immensity and ubiquity. On the basis of the New Testament, God is presented as the purest and all-perfect Spirit: “God is a spirit” (John 4:24). Orthodox Christianity specifies the following spiritual attributes of God: 1. Reason of God 2. Will of God 3. Senses or feelings of God. The properties of the reason of God: 1) the omniscience of God, and 2) the wisdom of God. Properties of the will of God: 1) highly free 2) all-holy 3) omnipotent 4) all-sainly. Properties of the senses of God: 1) all-beatification of God, and 2) the infinite goodness or love for all living beings. In addition to the general properties belonging to all persons of the Holy Trinity, each of Them has its own features that distinguish Them from each other. These features are called personal qualities of God. From the Orthodox position, the distinctive properties of the Holy Trinity are the following: Father is not born from anyone and does not descend from any other origin – He is absolutely without origin, but He is the origin Himself of the fault for the personal existence of the Son and the Holy Spirit, the Son – through the birth of His own Being, the Spirit – through the procession; the Son is always born from the Father and the Holy Spirit is always proceeded from the Father (Bible, 2006; Fakhrudin, 2011). Now we will consider the interpretation of monotheism in classical Islam. According to Tawhid (the science of monotheism), the man himself cannot fully understand the Almighty Allah. It is believed that the awareness of the fact that humans cannot understand God fully and completely, is the beginning of knowing Him. As it follows from the doctrine of Islam, Allah is the Only One, “Allah – there is no God but He...” (Quran, 2/255), and approaching to His understanding is possible through the study, including the whole range of His attributes that are owned by Him . Attributes of Allah are classified into five categories: I. Personal attribute of existence (al-Wujud) II. Attributes that describe God and are necessarily inherented by Him are called mandatory (As-Subuti) III. Attributes denying the impossible that are extrinsic to the nature of Allah, are called denying unworthy (As-Selbi) IV. Attributes that describe the actions of Allah that are not necessary for Allah, that is, He can either have them or do not have, are called possible or attributes of God’s deeds (Al-Dzhaizi) V. Attributes that are present in the Quran or Hadiths literally perception of which (based on the external form of the words), can provoke the delusion, for example, likening of Allah to the created, attribution of the body to Him, etc. There are informative attributes (Al-Khabar) (Gospel story, 2007). In our work, we performed a comparative analysis of the properties of God in Orthodox Christianity (Bible, 2006; Fakhrudin, 2011), and attributes of Allah in classical Islam (Gospel story, 2007; Kylavuz, 2010; Maksimov, 2005), and have found a number of similarities. There are the results of our study below. 1. In Christianity, the “uniqueness” property of God means that God does not descent from anything else, does not depend by His own existence on any other being, He has the reason of His existence and the conditions of His existence only in Himself, and He is the first and only single reason for all existing things. God Himself defines His existence as the unique existence, “I am who I am” (Exodus 3:14). In Islam, the closest attribute to the Christian property of “uniqueness” is the attribute of “existence” (attribute of being), the meaning of which is that Allah exists and His existence is different from the others. The attribute of # 400 # Copyright ОАО «ЦКБ «БИБКОМ» & ООО «Aгентство Kнига-Cервис» Nadezhda K. Barsukova. Some Aspects of the Idea of God in the World Religions… existence – the existence of Allah – is eternal attribute without beginning describing His essence. The attribute of being is the fundamental and essence of all of the attributes of Allah. Being is not the descriptive attribute, but own attribute of Allah essence. “(All) faces shall be humbled before (Him) --the Living, the Self-Subsisting, Eternal...” (Qur’an, 20/111). 2. “Immutability” of God is His property by which He is always constant in his powers, perfections and definitions. This property is inseparably combined in God with His uniqueness, i.e. independence from any other factors. God says about Himself: “For I am the Lord, I change not” (Malachi 3:6). It is clearly seen that God is always the same, or unchanged, whereas, on the contrary, the sky and the earth, the creation of His hands, are changeable, transient, temporary, finite. In Islam, the closest attribute to Christian property of immutability can be called “life essence” (“life”), which means that Allah is eternally alive, that He has no beginning and no end, He does not inherent youth or old age. Time does not change Him, and time does not change for Him. All the attributes of Allah, as He Himself, have no beginning and no end. 3. Christianity calls the “omniscience” as the property of reason of God, implying that God knows all things in the best, most perfect way. He knows everything external: the actual and the possible, necessary and accidental, past, present and future. God knows the order of the physical world and the world of morality. God knows the inner being and life of every person. God knows the reasons unknown to human, and therefore all the unexpected phenomena for Him seems sudden, random just for Him, but in reality there are not accidental, but appears on the predestination of God. God foresees free human actions and predicts them as known for Him, because there is no time for God, and for Him the future is the same as the present. “Neither is there any creature that is not manifest in His sight, but all things are naked and opened unto the eyes of Him” (Hebrew 4:13). Similar to Christian property of “omniscience” in Islam is an attribute of Allah “omniscience”, meaning that Allah is the One who knows absolutely everything. He knows the past and the future, the hidden and explicit. He knows everything that is necessary, possible, and even absurd. Knowledge of God does not change and is not updated. It is constant and everlasting. “With Him are the keys of the Unseen, the treasures that none knoweth but He. He knoweth whatever there is on the earth and in the sea. Not a leaf doth fall but with His knowledge” (Qur’an, 6/59). 4. Christianity says about the “will” of God that it is: 1) highly free (relating to its essence), 2) all-holy (relating to its moral direction), 3) omnipotent (relating to the force or power), 4) all-sainly (relating to the freely reasonable creatures – requiring from them holiness, and therefore punishing evil and rewarding the good.) “The truth of the will” of God is manifested in two activities: the truth, providing the law of holiness (legal truth), and the truth, rendering moral beings – everyone gets his just deserts (rewarding truth or justice). Islamic doctrine also speaks about the “will” of God, specifying two types of His will: 1) creating will and 2) legislature will. The creating will bears the relation to the good and evil, obedience and disobedience. Legislature will applies only to the good and obedience. 5. Christianity defines the “omnipotence” of God’s will as a property by which God carries out everything acceptable for Him, without any difficulties and obstacles, so that any extraneous force cannot hold or constrain His actions. In the Old Testament we can find the following words: “I am the Almighty God” (Genesis 17:1). # 401 # Copyright ОАО «ЦКБ «БИБКОМ» & ООО «Aгентство Kнига-Cервис» Nadezhda K. Barsukova. Some Aspects of the Idea of God in the World Religions… “Omnipotence” is also one of the attributes of Allah. He is not overtaken by any weaknesses or difficulties, He does not inherent any weakness in committing anything. He is the one and unique in creation. He has created this world, humans and their deeds and thoughts, predestined their fates. “...for verily Allah has power over all things” (Quran 24/44-45). 6. The meaning of “the highest free of will” of God is that it is determined solely by the ideas of the all-perfect reason of God. Here’s how this idea is expressed by the Psalmist: “Our God is on heaven [and earth], does whatever he wants” (Psalms 113:11). Allah has the attribute of “creation”. In the Quran it is said: “Allah createth what He willeth” (Qur’an, 3/47). 7. The property of God “ubiquity” means that God is omnipresent, that is, He is everywhere, always and entirely. There is no place, no creature, and no condition or the forces in all beings in the world, where God is not present. “ Can any hide himself in secret places that I shall not see him? said the LORD. Do not I fi ll heaven and earth?” (Jeremiah 23:24). The closest attributes to Christian property of “ubiquity” of God in the Islamic doctrine are two attributes – “all-hearing” and “all-seeing” of Allah. “(Allah) knows of (the tricks) that deceive with the eyes, and all that the hearts (of men) conceal… Verily it is Allah (alone) Who hears and sees (all things).” (Quran 40/19-20). 8. “Eternity” is one of the properties of God in Christianity. Since God is immutable, so He is not dependent on time. For God there is no beginning and no end, no past, no future. The thought of God’s eternity expresses the words of the Psalmist addressed to God: “Before the mountains were born, and you created the earth and the world, even from everlasting to everlasting, thou you are God” (Psalms 89:3). Similar attributes of Allah are “eternity without beginning” and “eternity without end”. Eternal existence of the Almighty means that Allah is the One who has no beginning. He is eternal. The meaning of the attribute “eternity without end” is that for God there is no death, disappearance, He remains forever, for Him there is no end. “He is the First and the Last, the Evident and the Immanent...” (Qur’an, 57/3), “All that is on earth will perish... But will abide (forever) the Face of thy Lord”(Quran 55/26-27). 9. “Wisdom” of God means such His property, which shows that God has the knowledge of the most perfect goals and the best means of achievement of these goals. God’s wisdom is also reflected in the ability to use the necessary means to the set goals in the most perfect way, and is found in the works of creation and support. Actions of God’s wisdom are manifested in time. The Psalmist David, looking at the wise arrangement of the world, has said, “How many are your works, O Lord! All wisdom hast thou made “(Psalms 103:24). In Islam, one of the essential attributes of Allah is an attribute of “creation”, which implies that He is the only one Creator. There is nothing in the world that has not been created by Him. Having this attribute, God creates, shapes, gives food, mercy and goods, gives and takes life, sends suffering. – “He is Allah, the creator, the Evolver...” (Qur’an, 59/24). In addition to the attributes mentioned above, the classical Islam endows Allah with other attributes, and Orthodox Christianity points to the other properties of God that we present separately, without comparison with each other. Islam. “Speech” of Allah does not have the start, it does not look like the speech of His creations. It is believed that all the sacred Scriptures – Gospel (Injil), Torah (Tavrat), Psalms (Zabur), the Quran, and others are the speech # 402 # Copyright ОАО «ЦКБ «БИБКОМ» & ООО «Aгентство Kнига-Cервис» Nadezhda K. Barsukova. Some Aspects of the Idea of God in the World Religions… of Allah. They are eternal. In other words, the speech of the Almighty is uncreated and eternal. The attribute of Allah “incomparability” means that God does not resemble any of His creatures, and nothing of the things created by Him do not resemble Him. Likening of Allah to anything is disbelief. Islam understands “self-sufficiency” as the situation when the Almighty Allah is self-reliant, independent. It means that everybody needs Him, while He does not need anybody and anything. And finally, one more attribute is “unicity”. It means that Allah is the one and indivisible and has no associates. – “He is Allah. the One and Only. Allah, the Eternal, Absolute. He begetteth not, nor is He begotten”(Quran, 112/1-4”) “No son did Allah begat, nor is there any god along with Him...”(Qur’an, 23/91). As for Christianity, in addition to those properties that have been mentioned before, God is enjoined several more special, spiritual properties. “Holiness of will” of God is that in Revelation God appears to us as the all-holy being. He says about Himself: “Ye shall be holy: for I the LORD your God am holy” (Leviticus 19:2), “because it is written, “You shall be holy; for I am holy.” (1 Peter 1:16). “All-beatitude” of God means love for His own good and the feeling of beatitude felt because of the possession of this good that do not match in humans, but in God. The fact that this property is inherent by God, follows from the Holy Scriptures, God is called the blessed (1 Timothy 1:11, 6:15), “... the blessed God” (1 Timothy 1:11), “blessed ... the Lord “(1 Timothy 6:15), etc. “Infinite goodness” or “God’s love for all living beings” means that being the all-blessed Being, i.e. loving supreme good and possessing it, God reveals Himself as the all-loving and allmerciful Being, “God is love” (1 John 4:8), “ God is love, and he who remains in love remains in God, and God remains in him.” (1 John 4:16). But the most supreme manifestation and evidence of the infinite goodness of God to human is presented in the Scriptures by our redemption of the only begotten Son of God: “ For God so loved the world, that he gave his one and only Son, that whoever believes in him should not perish, but have eternal life.”(John 3:16). This fact is explained by the apostle John as follows: “ In this is love, not that we loved God, but that he loved us, and sent his Son as the atoning sacrifice for our sins.” (1 John 4:10). Now we will consider the idea of God in the third world religion, Buddhism. First, it should be noted that Buddhism is historically represented as various trends and directions that are very different from each other. Nevertheless, their rallying point is a set of provisions that, anyway, are presented in all branches of Buddhism. These are the following: the Four Noble Truths, the doctrine of cause and dependent origination and karma, the doctrine anatmavada (“not soul”) and kshanikavada (doctrine of momentariness), and Buddhist cosmology. All Buddhists hold the opinion that these ideas have been proclaimed by Buddha himself. Unlike Christianity and Islam, scientists do not have the common opinion about the essence of Buddhism: is it the religion, philosophical system or ethical teaching built on psychophysical practices. The complexity of Buddhism correlation to religion is that Buddhism in general has no idea of the Uncreated Divinity. However, at the same time, because of its tolerance, Buddhism easily fit into their teaching of various deities from the territories where it has been penetrated. Due to its flexibility and ability to adapt to cults and customs of the local population, it processed teachings inherent in a particular region according to its core provisions and declared local gods as incarnations or manifestations of the Buddhas forces. The unique feature of such deities’ fate is their susceptibility to the cause- # 403 # Copyright ОАО «ЦКБ «БИБКОМ» & ООО «Aгентство Kнига-Cервис» Nadezhda K. Barsukova. Some Aspects of the Idea of God in the World Religions… effect cycling, so they have to be born and die, like other living things. As for the reverence of Buddha, this phenomenon can be called as an exceptionally religious reverence, because Buddha is considered, above all, as a teacher who showed a way out of suffering. The idea of God in Buddhism is rather speculative idea of the Supreme Being who created the external world that includes humans who are the subject of Buddhism adept experience. Buddhists say that they cannot say with precision what is beyond their perception. For Buddhists, God, who is outside of their being, is not the subject of their experience (Quran, 1986). In conclusion, we will summarize our research relating to the interpretation of the idea of God in world religions. Monotheism is the guiding principle of the monotheistic religions of Christianity and Islam. We have found, firstly, that these religions do not only qualitatively proclaim the idea of monotheism, but reveal it in different ways. In Christianity, we can tell about God, relying on the doctrine of the Holy Trinity that is based on the statement that God is the one in His essence and ternary in Persons. According to Islamic teachings, Allah is the One, He has no similarity and no associate, He is indivisible. Secondly, each of these religions endows God (Christianity) and Allah (in Islam) as a unique being, with a complex of special properties (attributes). Taking the example of Orthodox Christianity and classical Islam, we have compared them, and identified a number of parallels. As for Buddhism, it occupies a special place among the world’s religions, as having its own attitude to the idea of God. In order to gain nirvana that is the key goal of the Buddhist program, the existence of God is not of decisive importance. References 1. 2. 3. 4. 5. 6. Bible. Holy Scriptures of the Old and New Testament, canonical: in Russian translation with the parallel passages and attachments. Moscow, Russian Bible Society, 2006. 1328 p. Fakhrudin Muhammad (2011), Available at: http://www.islam.ru/content/veroeshenie/chto_mi_ doljni_znat_o_vsevishnem (accessed 13 September 2012). Chto my obiazany znat’ o Vsevyshnem (What we should know about the Almighty). Available at: http://www.islam.ru/content/veroeshenie/ chto_mi_doljni_znat_o_vsevishnem (accessed 13 September 2012). Gospel story. Moscow, “Sibirskaya blagozvonnitsa” LLC, “Yaroslavl Polygraph” OJSC, 2007. 1160 p. Kylavuz Ahmed Saim. Islam doctrine. Translated from Turkish. Moscow, “Publishing Group “SAD” LLC, 2010. 224 p. Maksimov Yu., Smoliar K. (2005). Orthodox Religious Study: Islam, Buddhism, Judaism. Moscow, Publishing House of the temple of the prophet Daniel on Kantemirovskaya, 2005. 304 p. Quran. Academy of Sciences of the USSR, Institute of Oriental Studies, commentator I.Yu. Krachkovsky, editor V.I. Belyaev. 2nd ed. Moscow, Nauka, 1986. 727 p. Copyright ОАО «ЦКБ «БИБКОМ» & ООО «Aгентство Kнига-Cервис» Nadezhda K. Barsukova. Some Aspects of the Idea of God in the World Religions… Некоторые аспекты идеи Бога в мировых религиях: попытка сравнительного анализа Н.К. Барсукова Иркутский государственный университет Россия 664003, Иркутск, ул. К. Маркса, 1 В статье рассматриваются некоторые аспекты идеи Бога в мировых религиях. Показано, что Единобожие является ведущим принципом христианства и ислама, которые хоть и провозглашают идею монотеизма, но при этом раскрывают ее по-разному. Кроме того, каждая из них наделяет Бога (в христианстве) и Аллаха (в исламе), как уникального существа, комплексом особых свойств (атрибутов). В третьей мировой религии - буддизме существование Бога не имеет решающего значения. В работе сделан сравнительный анализ свойств Бога (с православных позиций) и атрибутов Аллаха (с позиций классического ислама) и выявлен ряд соответствий, которые мы предлагаем для изучения студентам-религиоведам. Ключевые слова: христианство, ислам, буддизм, свойства Бога, атрибуты Аллаха. Copyright ОАО «ЦКБ «БИБКОМ» & ООО «Aгентство Kнига-Cервис» Journal of Siberian Federal University. Humanities & Social Sciences 3 (2013 6) 406-414 ~~~ УДК 94(47) “1917-1991” Workers in Forests: Social Identity and Labour Motivation in Timber Industry of Karelia in 1917-1928 Oleg I. Kulagin* Petrozavodsk State University 33 Lenina, Petrozavodsk, 185910 Russia Received 11.03.2013, received in revised form 18.03.2013, accepted 25.03.2013 Nowadays Russian historical science tries to find new methods and research fields in the process of overcoming problems of the Soviet-Marxist historical heritage. One of these attempts is concerned with elaborating some alternative research approaches for changing stereotypes of Soviet Marxism in the field of working class history. One of such changes consists in the attempt to use socio-cultural reconstruction of Soviet social being. This article is dedicated to studying labor relations during the first decade of the Soviet period (1917-1928) on the example of timber industry of Northwestern Russia and Karelia. The main problem for researching is: what was a real social image and labour motivation among first Soviet timber workers? The article was created mainly based on the archive documents from the National Archive of Republic of Karelia. Keywords: timber industry in Karelia, working class history, social self-identification, labour motivation. The research is done as a part of the grant of the Russian State Humanitarian Fund “The nation divided by the boundary” No. 10-01-00631 a/F. This article has been published within the framework of fulfilling the Programme of Strategic Development for 2012-2016 “The Petrozavodsk State University Complex in the Research and Education Space of the European North: the Strategy of Innovative Development”. Introduction The social-economic and political processes occurred during the last decades in Russia effected the process of studying working class history. And one of the most important problems of the research is the question about the social nature of workers in the Soviet State and disputes about its nature after revolution, about the place of working class in a social structure of the soviet society. One of the total debate progresses was * the understanding of complexity and diversity of the object. And nowadays historians in Russia have some expectations for using socio-cultural “reconstruction” of a social being by means of cultural practices. And the main problem here for researchers also abroad is to show how subjective presentations, thoughts, abilities, intentions of individuals are realized in the space of the possibilities, which is limited by © Siberian Federal University. All rights reserved Corresponding author E-mail address: [email protected] # 406 # Copyright ОАО «ЦКБ «БИБКОМ» & ООО «Aгентство Kнига-Cервис» Oleg I. Kulagin. Workers in Forests: Social Identity and Labour Motivation in Timber Industry of Karelia in 1917-1928 the objective conditions (Brained E., 2010). It is especially important to understand it while one tries to interpret the achievements in the field of working history, which now includes many unexpected aspects of labor activity and positions of workers. At the same time probably the most important problem among these aspects is the labour morality of society that has a great importance for economic progress increasing to capacity of the labour and well-being of the population. Some economists believe that labour morality is a fourth factor of production after the known three – land, labour and capital. In modern foreign historiography this aspect is also one of the most popular subjects for dispute (Bessen J., 2012). The regulations of labour morality usually include motives and satisfaction of a worker in a labour process. Materials and Methods The motivation for a labour consists of two basic components: a level of labour discipline and some element of creativity in the working process. The attitude to the labour, as any complex notion, includes many different aspects. The empirical signs allowing to give it operational interpretation could be: absences, coming late to work, breaches of the labour agreement and rules of the internal routine, faulty work, drunkenness and larceny during working process. U. Chase has defined the labour discipline as “a broad variety of production peculiarities and relations to the working process such as: well-timed receipts on a work, honest execution of work, valid attitude to equipment, materials and products of the labour; accurate execution of controlling personnel’s instructions; the minimum absence on the work”. One should also remember that it is not so easy to shift any clear boundary between free and unfree labour in the context of Soviet reality of the 1920-1930-s (Brown C., 2010). And a female aspect of such kind of labour could be a separate subject for research (Weinstein B., 2006) but in this paper it was only chalked out. Results The European North of Russia was always one of the largest regions of the country with timber resources. For the local population who lived in the stern natural and climatic conditions timber very often was the main source of the existence: place for living, the source of building materials, firewood and food. Although some modern authors abroad think that history of relations between people and woods could be interpreted more complicated (Kirby K., 2012). According to the traditional way of life local rural population the European North of Russia for a long time had here some necessary skills for logging and floating. Before the revolution in 1917 lumbering was realized seasonally and by recruiting of workers occurred by conclusions of contracts between logging organizations and businessman from one side and artels of woodsman from the other. The chronological frames chosen for the current project cover the period of the first Soviet decade and include such historical events as the advent to power of Bolshevik Party, Civil war, New Economic Policy. With beginning of realization of the first five-year plan in the period of Industrialization also began the formation of the Soviet logging enterprises in 1929. Since that time, equally with attraction of the seasonal workers in the timber industry constant personnel of workers was created and one could name this period like a Soviet proto-industrialization though this term is still polemized (Marfany U., 2010). It means that a new type of a Soviet worker appeared with new solely “Soviet” motivation to the labour. The most specific feature of this period was that in 1917-1928 the main labour force in the process # 407 # Copyright ОАО «ЦКБ «БИБКОМ» & ООО «Aгентство Kнига-Cервис» Oleg I. Kulagin. Workers in Forests: Social Identity and Labour Motivation in Timber Industry of Karelia in 1917-1928 of logging was a local peasantr, that had their own “rural” relation to the forests having little common with presentations of Soviet authorities about the rates and directions of the development of timber resources in the region. The first economic actions of the Soviet authorities were connected with the Decree-law “On the land”, in which was proclaimed that “all resources of the earth: ore, oil, coal…, as well as wood and water are national property and could be used only for exclusive use state”. According to this Decree the private property for forests was annulled and also was declared that forestry must be realized “in the interests of the commonwealth” (Decree-laws of Soviet authorities, 1957, P. 1720). Actually for new authorities at this moment the exploitation of forests was the problem of economic survival, because they need to solve the problem fuel crisis in the situation of Civil war. Though for Russian peasant understood that the definition of “commonwealth” itself was connected with a notion of “communal interest” implied the natural right of peasants for forests that were used by them for economic survival during long times. As a result the annulling of private property for forests was perceived by peasantry as a possibility for uncontrolled logging wood for selling. Thereby at this period the labour motivation was concerned with communal needs of Karelian peasantry in wood. However these labour motives of peasantry for felling wood were not acceptable for new authorities. In January 17-28, 1918 in Petrograd the All-Russian congress of land committees was held and it debated the Main law about socialization of land. This law stipulated equalizing using of land among peasants, including woods. The 5th article of Soviet Decree “On socialization of land” (February 19, 1918) runs: “The disposal of subsoil, woods, waters and natural forces are given, according to their ranks, to district, regional and federal Soviet authorities under control of the latter…” (NARK. F. R-249. Inv. 1. F. 1/22. L. 15). In March of 1918 the Land Committee of Olonetskaja provine (Gubzemelkom) began to realize these decisions and pointed that all private woods must be taken under guard to prevent self-willed chopping of peasants. All the moneys previously earned by peasants in the process of logging wood also must be given to Gubzemelkom. These resolutions met protests among peasantry of Olonetskaja province. During the period of March-April 1918 they decided to defeat the nationalization of peasant’s plots of wood lands, which was, actually, imposed upon by new authorities. Peasants demanded money brought for logging wood and also marked that they could not agree with the Law on abolition of private property for peasantry woods, because these woods were the only treasure for them. Moreover, when in Autumn in 1918 the labour conscription for wood harvesting was started, peasants of Avdeevskaja volost decided not to recognize Soviet rule and declared the following: “…Soviet rule, as treat us against our will and as leading us to death, we could not recognize and also will not obey all its directions that are not good for our interests…” (NARK. F. R-249. Inv. 1. F. 1/7). Thus, during this period in conditions of general famine and devastation the main labour motive for Karelian peasantry was material incentive (reception of “timber’ money) as the only one clear labour motivation for local rural population who for a long time lived and survived due to wood trade. Following realizing the labour conscription for wood harvesting among local population did not give any positive result, because people, actually, were not concerned with forced labour without economic interest. The problem was not solved even when in 1918-1919 the Interim rules for distribution of wood for local needs were realized, which simplified getting timber # 408 # Copyright ОАО «ЦКБ «БИБКОМ» & ООО «Aгентство Kнига-Cервис» Oleg I. Kulagin. Workers in Forests: Social Identity and Labour Motivation in Timber Industry of Karelia in 1917-1928 raw materials for locals their own terms and mitigated punishments for logging timber without permission. Moreover, in the conditions of devastation fuel wood crisis worsen relations between townspeople and rural population. Peasants who had supplies of firewood refused to sell it to town dwellers. According to the opinion of the head of the Pudozhskiy wood committee in December 1919 this situation was deplorable, because firewood were stocked mainly by welloff peasantry who did not want anything from the town that could be exchanged for firewood, but working-class from towns had to sell the last cloth just to buy firewood. At that time the only one motive for successful labour was providing with foodstuffs. From the report of a woodward of Kenozerskoe forestry in May 24, 1919 follows that in Kenozerskoe and Pochezerskoe forestry abject poverty and need of bread resulted in starvation of local population when people had to eat only straw. Then after the conclusion of the Civil war Soviet authorities began to pay more attention to timber concession. However, this form of economic measures was not so effective, because foreign businessmen and Soviet authorities could not very often come to an agreement. At the same time the interference of foreign concessionaires in the sphere of the economic relations between Soviet power and workers of timber industry created the field for competition between a traditional model of Soviet labour “motivationenforcement” and a model of material incentive. These apprehensions somewhat were justified and about them in its report “About timber concession on the north of the European Russia” spoke V. I. Lenin: “We were spoken that concessionaries will create exclusive conditions for their own workers. They will bring for them best cloth, best footwear and best provision. This will be their propaganda amongst our workers that must endure a lot of deprivations and will endure it for a long time” (The Soviet timber economy, 2005, P. 42). At the same time Lenin considered the policy of concessions as a policy of continuation of a war between socialist and capitalist camps. In this war Soviet rule continued traditionally to resort to the forced types of labour motivation. One of such kinds of methods of labour “stipulation was “penalized timber squads” that began to form in February 1921 according to the regulation of the Olonetskiy executive committee. Under the regulation nationals who did not fulfill the State plan of stocking wood must be assigned to the Committee of labour deserters. That is extremely significant that for the purpose of convoy and supervision of these “deserts” the Committee assigned 20 Red Army soldiers. So, one could see that on this stage of economic development of Soviet State an inefficiency of militarization of labour in the timber industry became obvious. In 1920-1921 the main problem of social, economic and political life in Karelia was fulfillment of plans of food and timber allocations. The attempts of resolving these problems by means of punishments and intimidation only worsened the situation. Since the beginning of 1921 in a connection with a provision crisis in Soviet Russia transportation of food to Karelia actually ceased. Local population, who did not earn anything in lumbering, left this work. Important changes in stipulating labour motivation of timber workers must be realized in the result of resolutions of the 10th Congress of Russian Communist Party that considered abnormality of a form of relationships between town and country existed in that period when peasantry (the main labour force in lumbering) was in unprofitable conditions of life and working in comparing with town workers. In the Soviet history this was the beginning of, so called, New Economic Policy (NEP), which implicated some elements of capitalism in Soviet economic policy # 409 # Copyright ОАО «ЦКБ «БИБКОМ» & ООО «Aгентство Kнига-Cервис» Oleg I. Kulagin. Workers in Forests: Social Identity and Labour Motivation in Timber Industry of Karelia in 1917-1928 and of course should have produced new forms of labour stipulation. However, practically the main incentive for intensification of production sphere in timber industry was remained compulsion and frightening, which hardly could be called as an effective method of labour motivation. According to the sentence of Olonetskiy revolutionary tribunal in December 22, 1921: nationals of Povenetskiy uyezd shirked working in State lumbering during Winter of 1921 must be taken to work in Povenetskiy regional timber enterprise. In a case of evasion from this work they must be sent to compulsory working to the railway station Segezha (Murmanskaja railway) at the disposal of the Timber department of Povenetskiy regional Committee for the period of three months. Such kind of measures, various mobilizations and assessment of peasants and workers of Karelia with special labour tax revolted population. Slender income forced peasants to leave work in lumbering. The following development of new economical relations effected forming of new self-perception of timber workers of Karelia and construction of new elements of their labour motivation. From the information report of Karelian regional department of SPA (State Political Agency – in 1922-1923 Soviet intelligence service) in July 23, 1923 about the situation in timber industry: “… The attitude of workers to the Soviet rule and RKP(b) (Communist party) is benevolent, to the policy of NEP – is strained and to merchants – is hostile, because of rise of market prices…” (NARK. F. P-3. Inv. 1. F. 266. L. 7-9). From this report one could learned that workers were displeased with scanty earnings and its belated delivery. As a result workers tried to leave work. It is obvious that in this period workers in timber industry began to realize themselves as a separate social force with specific interests and means of its realization. The system of material stipulation that was formed in lumbering at that time along with positive moments more and more emphasized social antagonism between proletariat and peasantry who worked in timber industry. In sawmills delivery of wages for workers was timely and in terms of money. At the same time in lumbering peasants in maximum could earn only 30-35 pounds of flour. As a result peasantry got payment with delay (NARK. F. P-3. Inv. 1. F. 494. L. 57-60). These circumstances affected labour motivation and general political feeling of peasants. From reports of SPA about anti-Soviet attitudes among workers of the timber industry one could learn that Soviet intelligence service stressed that such kind of attitude was typical not for “the main proletariat of Karelia”, but for seasonal workers and peasants (NARK. F. P-3. Inv. 2. F. 178. L. 18-19). Unequal social and economical conditions between workers and peasants working in one industry repeatedly underlined on nonpartisan peasant conferences held during that period. Particularly, peasants very often complained about better housing conditions, social security (social insurance, eight-hour working day) and material welfare of workers. From their point of view, peasants had nothing of it: “…If a peasant went to lumbering and then got ill, he would never be provided with anything, if he was killed or disabled by a tree, he would also get nothing…” (NARK. F. P-3. Inv. 1. F. 630. L. 5). Duality of social image of timber workers at that period was determined also by different vision of labour motivation for proletarians and peasants. On peasantry conferences well-off peasants stressed that the Soviet rule is a rule only for proletarians, because peasants were oppressed during all the period of Soviet rule: “…a proletarian do not pay duties, but a peasant pays it on penalty of arm. The State creates timber trusts only to press peasants and to give # 410 # Copyright ОАО «ЦКБ «БИБКОМ» & ООО «Aгентство Kнига-Cервис» Oleg I. Kulagin. Workers in Forests: Social Identity and Labour Motivation in Timber Industry of Karelia in 1917-1928 them low salaries, etc…” (NARK. F. P-3. Inv. 1. F. 630. L. 5). Karelian peasants also pointed that before the Revolution it was easier to negotiate with separated manufacturers and contractors than with new authorities. They traditionally complained about administration of timber enterprises that had higher salaries and consisted of contractors of the old regime who were “skilled” in red tape. Peasants also lamented low salaries in lumbering, which was delivered belated and therewith was paid in kind (expensive, inferior and useless goods for peasants). Proletarians’ salaries in sawing production were paid although more stably, but in general figures were rather low. In 1924-1925 an average earning in sawing production in Karelia was: in January, 1924 – 31 rubles, in February – respectively 36, in March – 40, in April – 33, in May – 33, in June – 38, in July – 38 (NARK. F. P-3. Inv. 1. F. 489. L. 15). It is remarkable, that comparing with other industries (mining, food industries), with Onezhskiy plant etc. an average earning in timber industry was lower. It may sound ironic, but the number of timber workers was much bigger than in other industries and the importance of timber industry was essential for the economical development of the region. We should also remember that scantiness of salaries in lumbering was aggravated by the growth of prices for foodstuffs. For example, in 1925 in lumbering of the State steamship company in Kemskiy uyezd bucking of 1 sazhen (measure of length = 2.34 metres) of firewood cost 60 kopecks and in the pre-revolutionary period it cost 60-70 kopecks. As a result, with a glance of eight-hour working day, two workers had time to buck only 2 sazhens of firewood. So, the earnings of a worker was equal to the same in pre-revolutionary period, but prices for food were increased in Soviet time for 200 per cent in comparing to the previous period. It is especially deplorable fact if we will take in the account that this scanty earnings were given to women and youngster girls who were mainly engaged in bucking wood, because men worked in shipment, where they had higher earnings (NARK. F. P-3. Inv. 1. F. 632. L. 62-63). Low earnings and obvious disinterestedness of timber workers in the results of their labour resulted in the increase of worker’s absences. The administration of timber enterprises tried to struggle against it with rigorous measures (penalties, removals from plants etc.), but it did not give any positive effect. Moreover, workers considered it as “punitive measures” of administration that consisted of “the old-regime specialists”. Low salaries and hard living conditions led not only to absences, but also to systematic drunkenness among workers. For example, in April, 1925 at timber enterprises Nb. 37 and 38 workers’ celebration of Easter resulted in carousal that ended in knifing and severe wound of one of the workers (NARK. F. P-3. Inv. 1. F. 632. L. 8). Such kinds of incidents occurred at other timber enterprises as well. Worker’s disinterest in the results of their labour also resulted in sloppy work, in overly attitude to subjects of labour and even in cases of stealing. Social contradictions were exhibited not only between peasants who were previously worked in lumbering and proletarians who worked in sawmills in relatively better conditions. Conflict situations in labour relations were also observed between workers and administration of timber enterprises. For the social self-perception of timber workers at that period it was typical to be in opposition to administration of enterprises, which was taken as antagonistic class for proletarians. Therewith, difference in material stipulation of workers and office employees became the main reason of a social conflict. In Informational summary of SPA and governing body of Karelia # 411 # Copyright ОАО «ЦКБ «БИБКОМ» & ООО «Aгентство Kнига-Cервис» Oleg I. Kulagin. Workers in Forests: Social Identity and Labour Motivation in Timber Industry of Karelia in 1917-1928 about the situation in timber industry February 15, 1924 pointed to low salaries of workers who were paid with a delay, had bad living conditions and rude administration’s treatment. The hardest financial position was for workers in lumbering who had scanty salary and it incited them to advancement of categorical demands: to rise salaries for 50-60 % under the threat of strike (NARK. F. P-3. Inv. 1. F. 494. L. 42-44). Discussion This problem was repeatedly discussed at conferences of Communist Party. In materials of the Third Karelian Party conference it was marked that, for example, from 150 employees of Kemskiy branch of Severoles it was hard to find 5 proletarians. It was also marked that among employees one could find big bureaucrats and former (old regime) policemen. It was also mentioned that so called “specialists” could not be considered as so, because “they could not distinguish deal board from firry board. Meanwhile, conflicts between administration and workers could be eliminated with supreme effort (NARK. F. P-3. Inv. 1. F. 211. L. 11). The situation was complicated by following: workers had no trust in “old” specialists, because of their “classism” and also did not believe in “new” specialists for the reason of their theoretical and practical incompetence. At the same time specialist’s salary was significantly bigger than workers had and delivered without delays. Employees of timber enterprises had also some benefits workers did not have. This conflict situation became sharper especially when the administration turned out those who worked at enterprises for a long period and then became invalid (NARK. F. P-3. Inv. 1. F. 675. L. 25). It is interesting that such kind of contradictions between workers and administration were explained in documents of SPA. In memorandum of Karelian SPA about the situation in timber industry in Autumn, 1927 pointed, that during 1927 totally 96 cases of worker’s resentment were fixed and 76 of them (79.2%) were referred exactly to complains to the administration. The main reason for such a situation, form SPA’s point of view “…was concealed in the fact that social composition of administration was mainly qualified (specialists) who officially contact with workers and in overwhelming majority are alien element for proletarians…” (NARK. F. P-3. Inv. 2. F. 178. L. 18-19). However, timber worker’s attitude to their labour environment was basically not “proletarian”, but “peasant” because in majority they were rural people. For example, according to the documents, in January, 1925 there was discontent among workers of all timber enterprises for the reason of accordance of some advantages to kulaks (wealthy peasants) in a situation of distribution of plots woods. The same peasant consciousness became apparent also in labour motivation of timber workers in Olonetskiy uyezd. They expressed their resentment about low salary and delays in its pay-out and said the following: “…We work only because authorities demand taxes and seed loan, but considering absence of other earnings and in case of appearance of other jons we will leave this work and move to another place…” (NARK. F. П-3. Inv. 1. F. 675. L. 25). That is extremely significant that the interpretation of the social image of timber workers from local authorities’ point of view was also contradictory. For example, in survey of political, economical and social situation in Pogotskaja volost in May, 1925 particularly pointed: “… population considers themselves as peasantry, but solely lives on lumbering and a peasantry farm depend on earnings from lumbering and floating. As a result this population could not be considered as peasants in complete sense of this notion…” (NARK. F. P-3. Inv. 1. F. 632. L. 14). # 412 # Copyright ОАО «ЦКБ «БИБКОМ» & ООО «Aгентство Kнига-Cервис» Oleg I. Kulagin. Workers in Forests: Social Identity and Labour Motivation in Timber Industry of Karelia in 1917-1928 The peasant nature of timber industry of Karelia in the middle of the 1920s was also reflected in seasonality of worker’s occupation on timber enterprises. The report of Karelian regional Committee of Communist Party in MayJune, 1924 marked the lack of labour force on wood floating works resulted in 60 percent of local timber floaters and 40 per cent of those arrived from Onezhskiy uyezd of Archangelsk province. At the same time importation of floating workers from Karelia was necessary, because during the period of haymaking the local peasantry did not worked in wood floating. Conclusion However, at this period the process of forming constantly working personnel of timber industry enterprises began, but this process was realized rather slowly. So, during the period of New Economical Policy the social image and labour motivation of timber workers started to change, but this historical experiment was interrupted by Stalin’s industrialization when the economical motivation for efficient labour was replaced in a definitive way by the system of social emulations and State pressure. References 1. 2. 3. 4. 5. 6. 7. 8. 9. 10. 11. 12. 13. 14. 15. 16. Bessen J. More Machines, Better Machines…or Better Workers? (2012) The Journal of Economic History, 72(1), pp. 44-74. doi: 10.1017/S0022050711002439 Brained E. Reassessing the Standard of Living in the Soviet Union: An Analysis Using Archival and Anthropometric Data (2010) The Journal of Economic History, 70(1). pp. 83-117. doi: 10.1017/S0022050710000069 Brown C. Shifting Boundaries between Free and Unfree Labor (2010) International labor and working-class history, 1(78), pp. 4-11. doi: 10.1017/S0147547910000086 Dekrety Sovetskoi vlasti. Tom. 1. 25 oktiabria 1917g. – 16 marta 1918 g. [Decree-laws of Soviet authorities. Vol. 1. October 25 1917 – March 16 1918], Moscow, State Publishing House of Political Literature, 1957. pp. 17-20. Kirby K. Woods and people: putting forests on the map – By David Foot (2012) The economic history review, (65), pp. 389-390. doi: 10.1111/j.1468 0289.2011.00622_11.x Marfany U. Is it still helpful to talk about proto-industrialization? Some suggestions from a Catalan case study (2010) The economic history review, (63), pp. 942-973. doi: 10.1111/j.14680289.2008.00466.x Natsional’nyi arhiv Respuliki Karelia [National Archive of Republic of Karelia – then NARK]. Fund (then – F.). P-3. Inventory (then – Inv.). 1. File (then – F.). 211. List (then – L.). 11. NARK. F. P-3. Inv. 1. F. 266. NARK. F. P-3. Inv. 1. F. 489. NARK. F. P-3. Inv. 1. F. 494. NARK. F. P-3. Inv. 1. F. 630. NARK. F. P-3. Inv. 1. F. 632. NARK. F. P-3. Inv. 1. F. 675. NARK. F. P-3. Inv. 2. F. 178. NARK. F. R-249. Inv. 1. F. 1/22. NARK. F. R-249. Inv. 1. F. 1/7. # 413 # Copyright ОАО «ЦКБ «БИБКОМ» & ООО «Aгентство Kнига-Cервис» Oleg I. Kulagin. Workers in Forests: Social Identity and Labour Motivation in Timber Industry of Karelia in 1917-1928 17. Sovetskaja lesnaia ekonomika: Moskva-Sever, 1917-1941 gg. [The Soviet timber economy: Moscow-North, 1917-1941, collection of documents], Petrozavodsk, Karelian science centre of Russian Academy of science, 2005. 442 p. 18. Weinstein B. “They don’t even look like women workers”: Femininity and Class in TwentiethCentury Latin America (2006) International labor and working-class history, 1(69), pp. 161176. doi: 10.1017/S0147547906000093 Рабочие в лесах: социальная самоидентификация и трудовая мотивация в лесной промышленности Карелии в 1917-1928 годах О. И. Кулагин Петрозаводский государственный университет Россия 185910, Петрозаводск, пр. Ленина, 33 Сегодня российская историческая наука находится в поиске новых методов и исследовательских полей, преодолевая проблемы исторического наследия советского исторического наследия. В частности, выработка неких альтернативных исследовательских подоходов для преодоления стереотипов советского марксизма в области истории рабочего класса. Одно из таковых изменений заключается в попытке использования социальнокультурной реконструкции советского общественного бытия. Данная статья посвящена изучению трудовых отношений на протяжении первого десятилетия советской власти (1917-1928) на примере лесной промышленности Карелии. Основная исследовательская проблема заключается в следующем: какова была реальная самоидентификация и трудовая мотивация среди советских лесных рабочих? Статья создана преимущественно на базе архивных документов Национального архива Республики Карелия. Ключевые слова: лесная промышленность Карелии, история рабочего класса, социальная самоидентификация, трудовая мотивация. Данное исследование было подготовлено при поддержке гранта РГНФ№ 10-01-00631 a/F «Народ, разделенный границей». «Статья опубликована в рамках реализации Программы стратегического развития на 20122016 годы «Университетский комплекс ПетрГУ в научно-образовательном пространстве Европейского Севера: стратегия инновационного развития»». Copyright ОАО «ЦКБ «БИБКОМ» & ООО «Aгентство Kнига-Cервис» Journal of Siberian Federal University. Humanities & Social Sciences 3 (2013 6) 415-437 ~~~ УДК 124 A “Participatory Universe” of J. A. Wheeler as an Intentional Correlate of Embodied Subjects and an Example of Purposiveness in Physics Alexei V. Nesteruk* University of Portsmouth, Lion Gate Building, PORTSMOUTH, PO1 3HF, UK Received 11.03.2013, received in revised form 18.03.2013, accepted 25.03.2013 This paper continues to investigate the role of human subjectivity and its delimiters in articulating the universe in physics and cosmology. As a case study, we reflect upon the complex of ideas of the so called Participatory universe by later J. A. Wheeler. The objective of the paper is to explicate the role of the human agency as a centre of disclosure and manifestation of the universe as well the as teleology of scientific representation of the world implied by the intrinsic purposiveness of human actions. Keywords: universe, participation, subject, observer, existence, purposiveness. A metaphysical interpretation and understanding of the world is neither scientifically attainable nor scientifically excluded. It is another mode of cognitive approach to the world, a transition from the (as much as possible) neutral observation of the world to a personal relationship with the world. It is a product of the freedom of humankind, and therefore interpretation and understanding define its entire stance towards the world, its mode of use of the world. Scientific observation does not simply affirm the reality of the cosmos; it constitutes it as an existential fact…, then every reality is recapitulated in the relationship of humanity with an active reason (logos) as an invitationto-relationship, which is directed towards humanity alone. Christos Yannaras, Postmodern Metaphysics, pp. 114, 118, 137 Introduction In a recent paper (Nesteruk, 2012 ) the issue of delimiters in cosmological research which originate in the structure of the human knower was addressed, in particular, how the * purposiveness of human actions cascades towards the purposiveness of cosmological research (Nesteruk, 2012). The latter paper dealt with a “formal” purposiveness in cosmology related to the explicability of the universe. This explicability © Siberian Federal University. All rights reserved Corresponding author E-mail address: [email protected] # 415 # Copyright ОАО «ЦКБ «БИБКОМ» & ООО «Aгентство Kнига-Cервис» Alexei V. Nesteruk. A “Participatory Universe” of J. A. Wheeler as an Intentional Correlate of Embodied Subjects… is linked to the human intentional search for the sense of its own existence in the universe, so that the purpose of explanation in cosmology is related to the explication of the human condition. It was argued, in particular, that the theoretical representations of the “universe as a whole” and “the Big Bang” (as the encapsulated origin of the universe) act as the telos of cosmological explanation and, hence, as well, as the telos of anthropological explanation related to the origin of individual persons at birth (Nesteruk 2012). In this paper we would like to discuss, as a case study, an interesting example of how scientific development in the 20th century led a famous physicist John Archibald Wheeler to extend the naturalistic methodology together with classical ideal of rationality (where subject and object are entirely separated and the world is supposed to pre-exist independently of human insight and its activity) towards that which can be described as a phenomenological stance portraying man as the centre of disclosure and manifestation of the world. It is of interest that this extension has some teleological connotations, bringing teleology into the heart of scientific explicability of the universe. Wheeler, after a long intellectual evolution working in physics, attempted to approach physical reality not as something “out there”, which is passively described by observers, but to see it as a genesis through conscious dialogue between observers-participants and physical reality, so that the universe emerges as a special articulation of the relationship between human intelligence and physical reality (Wheeler 1994 , p. 128). This approach, challenging the natural scientific attitude, was not appreciated by physicists who found Wheeler’s ideas “unpalatable in view of its rather mystical overtones” (Carr 1998, p. 158), and hence has not received any further attention and development. A sceptical reaction of physicists to Wheeler’s ideas can be understood because his ideas represent a metaphysical extension of physics which physicists do not consider as a part of their vocation and duty. However, seen historically and in particular in conjunction with philosophical developments in the 20th century, this was not an entirely arbitrary attempt for it manifested a certain inevitability of sliding towards a transcendental or phenomenological appropriation of physics if the latter were to be to tackle the issue of its own foundation and its very facticity. A simple question which must be posed by any physicist who is interested to know the truth would be this: why is physics possible at all? And here the question is not only about the intelligibility of the world, but rather of the very basic existential premises of physics related to humanity as its agent. Physics, as a science and social activity, is a product and a certain accomplishment of human beings who are themselves a part of the physical world. In this sense the facticity of physics is related to a particular position of human beings in the world, such that this world allows them to produce its own explication and description. On purely philosophical grounds, this explicability and description has an absolutely contingent character related, speaking in Heideggerian terms, to that fragment of the unconcealed being which is associated to a specific living presence, that is human persons. Still, for physicists, prone to reductionism, there remains a question as to whether physics itself can explicate its own existence, or, in a slightly different parlance, can some simple initial rules of interaction with the world (which, in fact, presuppose the world’s explicability from the beginning) lead with necessity to that picture of the world which we have here and now. In this sense the case of Wheeler’s thought (in spite of deviating from the established stream of physics) represents an example, in the history of scientific ideas, of how a naturalistic epistemology in science # 416 # Copyright ОАО «ЦКБ «БИБКОМ» & ООО «Aгентство Kнига-Cервис» Alexei V. Nesteruk. A “Participatory Universe” of J. A. Wheeler as an Intentional Correlate of Embodied Subjects… in attempting to make a certain self-correction, through the search for its own facticity, leads to a transcendental problematic (remarkably with teleological overtones), that is to the view that the complete picture of physical reality must include the conditions of its explicability and constitution. Wheeler develops his own transcendental argument basing himself in Einstein’s theory of Relativity and Quantum Mechanics which, according to him, changed the vision of the human position in the universe by making human beings co-creators of physical reality in a very non trivial sense. He reformulates de facto the famous paradox of human subjectivity in the world1 which states, on the one hand, that humanity communicates some palpability and sense to the physical world, and, on the other hand, the fact that human incarnate subjectivity is a finite accomplishment of this world: “The brain is small. The universe is large. In what way, if any, is it, the observed, affected by man, the observer? Is the universe deprived of all meaningful existence in the absence of mind? Is it governed in its structure by the requirement that it gives birth to life and consciousness? Or is man merely an unimportant speck of dust in a remote corner of space? In brief, are life and mind irrelevant to the structure of the universe – or are they central to it?”(Wheeler 1975, p. 270).2 Let us comment on this passage from the point of view of the already existing insights which came before Wheeler in philosophy and theology. “The brain is small. The universe is large.” Indeed the size of the physical organ, which is responsible for mental articulation of the whole universe, is incommensurable with the spatial size of the visible universe. Still, and this is an existential fact, it is from within this spatial scale that the articulation of microscopic realities of particles and fields, as well as huge astronomical formations is possible by this organ. There is something in this incommensurability, which is not physical, or, at least is not based on physical interactions. The very idea of a continuum of the universe as a single and united whole, although inaccessible to the empirical grasp, reflects a non-local and non-physical property of the world which is detected by consciousness through the power of intuition.3 “In what way, if any, is it, the observed [the universe], affected by man, the observer? Is the universe deprived of all meaningful existence in the absence of mind?” Physics teaches us that, through our own spatial and temporal insignificance in the whole grandeur of the universe, we are just late newcomers into this world who only recently started to interfere with the physical environment on this planet. Our ability to affect the cosmos at large is only a matter of science fiction and some futuristic prophecies.4 However the question of Wheeler has another, much more serious dimension related to epistemology: will the universe as we observe it, that is see it in its particular contingent appearance as intricately related to our physiological and psychological constitution, be unconcealed to us in a different way, related to that measure, which man will be, in relation to that which can be unconcealed. Responding to the second half of a question formulated in the beginning of this paragraph, the question of the universe in absence of the human mind is an ontic question: indeed one can build, so to speak onto-cosmology (in analogy with ontotheology criticized by Heidegger), in which the universe will be an impersonal being allegedly existing independently of the human grasp, to which one can attribute many intellectually imposed properties. The question then is what is the value of this universe for human beings. Rephrasing Heidegger, “can one dance and sing in front of such a universe”? (Heidegger 1969, # 417 # Copyright ОАО «ЦКБ «БИБКОМ» & ООО «Aгентство Kнига-Cервис» Alexei V. Nesteruk. A “Participatory Universe” of J. A. Wheeler as an Intentional Correlate of Embodied Subjects… p. 72). The answer has been given long before by the proponents of theological insights, that the universe without human beings is dumb and it is humanity which is the “voice” (hypostasis) of the universe (See, for example, (Torrance 2001, p. 4), (Clément1976, p. 91)). The question of Wheeler is exactly about this: can one predicate the universe as existent without regarding humanity in measure of interaction with which this universe comes to its unconcelment? The development of physics in the 20th century with its increasing understanding that its results depend on the contexts which are not strictly objective and detached from us, but are set up by us through experiments and measurements, led Wheeler to an intuition that the mechanistically constructed representation of the universe remains no more than an idea, a mental accomplishment. Correspondingly the “meaningful existence of the universe in the absence of the mind” is a contradiction in terms, for the very word meaning has strictly human connotations (if we avoid any references to theology, which can suggest that the meaning of the universe originates in the creative and willing activity of the divine agency, which or who sustains this universe through creation out of nothing). In view of this, Wheeler attempts to address the issue of meaning: where the meaning comes from and whether it can come from some underlying physics, initially free from human insight. Wheeler’s enquiry into the foundations of the historical contingent facticity of physics came to its explicit manifestation in his train of thought after a long period in his scientific activity when he was following a scientific programme of Einstein, who believed that it was possible to unify different physical forces reducing them to some geometrical effects. Wheeler spent a considerable effort to advance the so called “geometrodynamics” whose essence was also to explain the genesis of macroscopic space and time by appealing to some underlying structures which follow the rules of quantum physics (Wheeler 1968). Wheeler argued that space-time is a classical concept, an approximation, which is incompatible with the quantum principle (Wheeler 1973, p. 227). This meant to Wheeler that the basic ingredients of classical physical theories, such as space and time, cannot survive their extrapolation into the microscopic world where quantum principle rules, so that space and time are not basics and are subject to change and further explication. Generalising this observation Wheeler makes a much more radical conclusion about the mutability of physics, which implies that all classical physical concepts, while they loose their sense in the limiting case of microscopic scales, and, in particular, in a context of gravitational collapse predicted by general relativity, are subject to genesis from the realm which has no obvious and visual physical characteristics at all. In other words, physics which is usually associated with some immutable laws, constants of nature and harmonies in the world ceases to function in extreme cases such as gravitational collapse corresponding to the origin of the universe, so that, according to Wheeler, “there is no law except the law that there is no law” or “ultimate mutability is the central feature of physics” (Wheeler 1973, p. 242). One must reflect upon this last assertion with a grain of a philosophical scepticism, for the ultimate mutability of physics cannot serve as its transcendental delimiter: physics is impossible if mutability reigns in the universe simply because experience cannot then be ordered. Mutability excludes any identity in time for, according to Wheeler, there is no time, so that the mutability implies an infinite degree of differentiation in being, which cannot be stabilised even hypothetically in any reflecting thought. Still this mutability has a limit: the world of existences with human observers must be produced from # 418 # Copyright ОАО «ЦКБ «БИБКОМ» & ООО «Aгентство Kнига-Cервис» Alexei V. Nesteruk. A “Participatory Universe” of J. A. Wheeler as an Intentional Correlate of Embodied Subjects… it and retrospectively constituted. Thus from the beginning the mutability affirmed has its limits originating in the counterfactual causality towards this mutability following from the actuality of the empirically present (and immutable to some extent) physical world. This causality is linked to the human agency which constitutes the world. And this human agency enters Wheeler’s scheme through the “quantum principle” by which he means an epistemological, as well as ontological claim originating in the extreme version of the so called Copenhagen interpretation of quantum mechanics that quantum phenomenon is phenomenon as long as it is observed and articulated by some intelligible agency. This implies that what physics calls “nature” is not just something “out there”, in itself, but that which is constituted through the interaction of intelligible beings (who are capable of asking questions and receiving the responses) with that “something” which is initially inarticulate and which is being questioned. Wheeler writes: “Nothing is more astonishing about quantum mechanics than its allowing one to consider seriously the view that the universe would be nothing without observership as surely as a motor would be dead without electricity” (Wheeler 1994, p. 39). Then he comments on observership, referring to the views of Bohr and Wigner who advocated that observation and measurement are complete when they enter consciousness of an observer and then can be communicated to another observer in a plain language; “.. an experiment is only an experiment when the outcome is expressed in the form of communicable knowledge, knowledge which can be shared” (Wheeler 1994, p. 26). But “observership” is not a simple term, it cannot be defined prior to the act of observation and establishing its meaning: “What is ‘observership’? It is too early to answer. [..] The main point here is to have a word that is not defined and never will be defined until that day when one sees much more clearly [..] how the observations of all the participators, past, present and future, join together to define what we call ‘reality’ ” (Wheeler 1994, p. 26). By employing a phenomenological language, reality, according to Wheeler, is defined as an intentional correlate of cumulative acts of observation and as a communal accomplishment along a particular, historically contingent, but, perhaps, teleologically driven ways. The meaning of reality can only be established if there is a field of intersubjectivity with some trans-empirical features, which transcend physical past, present and future. It is in the framework of this intersubjectivity through its continuous embodiment through observershipparticipation that the truth and meaning of things is established. Being a physicist, Wheeler does not pretend to provide any sophisticated theory of how to derive the meaning of physical concepts such as space, time, particles etc. from a deep level of human subjectivity, that is the outline of their constitution. This is the work of phenomenologists who do not appeal to any vague physical analogies. Instead of this Wheeler traces the logic which is inherent in physical thought which makes the genesis of these concepts plausible through their consistency with each other. On the basis of this he conjectures that we enter now a “third era of physics”, which should explain the genesis of such concepts: “we have to account for all the structure that makes physics what it is” (Wheeler 1983, p. 404).5 Wheleer believes that the question “What makes meaning?” applied to physics, is an existential question, for it also addresses the issue of the existence of human beings and the universe. But unlike existential philosophers, who were sceptical about science’s capacity to deal with this issue6, he believes that physics itself can address the issue of the facticity of existence: “Tomorrow, will it not be existence itself that comes under the purview of physics?” (Wheeler 1983, p. 404). # 419 # Copyright ОАО «ЦКБ «БИБКОМ» & ООО «Aгентство Kнига-Cервис» Alexei V. Nesteruk. A “Participatory Universe” of J. A. Wheeler as an Intentional Correlate of Embodied Subjects… The more radical, metaphysically oriented conclusion of Wheeler is that the overall reality, that is the totality of the world, is constituted through the interaction between the inarticulate “out there” with human intelligent agencies who create the network of questions and answers directed to and received from what they intend to call “reality”. It is interesting that this trend of Wheeler’s thought is similar to phenomenology which asserts nature, as articulated worldly reality, as having sense only in the context of the dialogue between human consciousness and that which is posited by consciousness. It is the dialogue with the unarticulated otherness of consciousness that ultimately reveals the meaning. J. Kockelmans, a philosopher and commentator of Husserl, writes with respect to this dialogue that the meaning of the world arises in the encounter between man and the world and “exists only in an interplay of question and answer. We find the question in the world but it is still implicit and vague. Through my reply, which itself is a question, the first question becomes sharper so that a more accurate answer becomes possible. Meaning arises in a dialectic relationship between man and the world, but it is not possible to say which of the two first begins the ‘interplay’ and which of the two first gives meaning to the other” (Kockelmans 1966, p. 53). This passage is strikingly similar to Wheeler’s ideas that physical reality reveals itself as an evolving complex of meanings in the course of the interplay between questions and answers which the human subject addresses to and receives from that “out there” which is eventually constituted by human observers as the physical reality and nature. Wheeler writes: “Physics gives light and pressure-tools to query and to communicate. Physics also gives chemistry and biology and, through them, observer-participators. They, by way of the devices they employ, the questions they ask, and the registrations they communicate… develop all they know or ever can know about the world” (Wheeler 1988, p. 5). Elsewhere he develops a simple analogy with a game of twenty questions which aims to recognise a word preconceived and hidden by a person through a simple process of interrogation of this person subjected to a single rule that it must be consistent with all previous questions and responses. In fact, if this word was not preconceived in advance, it will inevitably be constituted through the logic of the game simply because there must be answers “yes” or “no” which through a certain logic and questions’ content, constitute the sought word (Wheeler 1979). Similarly, he claims, in nature, by asking questions we initiate the process of nature’s response, which, in the course of enquiry leads us to the constitution of that which we intuitively aimed. Phenomenology described this process as a mental accomplishment of what is understood by nature: “nature”, which science aims at through idealization and mathematisation, is not something a-priori given to human observers and thinkers, but something which is constructed and evolved towards an indefinite telos. “Nature”, thus constructed, becomes exteriorised as an ideal (Gurwitsch 1974, p. 46) which is subject to accomplishment in a historical movement of scientific research because mathematics as human science is far from being static and accomplished,7 and its advance creates more space for physicists to invade the realm of the yet unknown (although, perhaps, intelligible and invisible). In this sense, in analogy with phenomenology which makes a distinction between nature as it appears in primary perceptual experience (the inarticulate out there in Wheeler’s scheme) and nature-for-physicists (that is “nature” as constituted through questions and answers), which is a mental accomplishment, as an ideal limit of convergent sequences of “images of nature” which are constructed by physicists in the course of history, one should treat Wheeler’s genesis of meaning as an evergoing mental completion of the concept of nature. # 420 # Copyright ОАО «ЦКБ «БИБКОМ» & ООО «Aгентство Kнига-Cервис» Alexei V. Nesteruk. A “Participatory Universe” of J. A. Wheeler as an Intentional Correlate of Embodied Subjects… In the words of another phenomenologist, A. Gurwitsch, “nature” appears to be a “hypostasis of mental creations”8: this terminology resembles an old philosophical and theological notion of the so called en-hypostasization (personification, or human articulation) of nature or the universe.9 Seen in this perspective, Wheeler’s treatment of physical reality through quantum and computational synthesis makes it clear that the notion of physical reality, nature, or the universe has sense only in the context of humanity, which is in a position to relate it to the commonalities of perceptual experience, that is to put it in the context of incarnate existence-in-situation, as well as recapitulate them through an intelligible representation. It is in this sense that one can suggest that all images of the mathematised nature manifest the presence of the immutable dualistic constitution of things in the world, namely a fundamental differentiation (Gr.: diaphora) between the empirical and intelligible. When we have pointed out that the construct of “physical nature” in Wheeler’s scheme represents an ideal, which can only be accomplished in the whole of the historical process, we assumed this as a philosophical hypothesis about hidden teleology in the scientific advance. Correspondingly, the progress of articulation of nature through its computational synthesis has meaning only as one particular tendency of the human spirit under which scientific knowledge and technology advance. The universe then is to be constructed along some particular path of knowledge corresponding to the human condition. Indeed Wheeler’s questions and answers create a particular way forward in bringing reality to unconcelament, the way which in its historical concreteness is contingent and non-generic. However, one must recognise together with a phenomenological critique of the mathematisation of nature10, that the universe constructed along the lines of Wheeler’s scheme represents characteristically the fragmentation of the primary existential link between humanity and the world, considered through a particular discursive function of the human intellect which is based on abstraction and idealisation. “Nature” in the thus understood scientific sense, being a particular human accomplishment, does not exhaust the totality of reality. On the one hand the constructed “nature” is exteriorised by human subjectivity and is intended as being devoid of its inward existence in the hypostasis of human beings, on the other hand the same “nature”, as being constructed, still entails some traces of its hypostatic origin. In different words, “nature” appears in a mode of intentional immanence related to those aspects of the overall reality which are not hypostatic in themselves, but enhypostasised by human obsrervers-participants. By taking de facto a phenomenological stance, Wheeler proclaims that the world is not a clocklike machine which has been pre-constructed and then discovered by human observers; it is a self-synthesized system, coming into existence through the constitution of reality via questions and answers processed by a collective of personsobservers who are capable of establishing the meaning and interpretation of their observationparticipancy ultimately leading to an integral view of nature. Participatory universe and human agency As we mentioned above the main ambition of Wheeler’s concept is to approach the issue of genesis of “meaning” and hence “reality” of the universe in strictly physical terms. He attempts to explicate this genesis by employing as its primary elements observations and measurements as certain intentional acts of consciousness with respect to the world. The physical happenings which are assumed in a naively realistic view as taking place contingently # 421 # Copyright ОАО «ЦКБ «БИБКОМ» & ООО «Aгентство Kнига-Cервис» Alexei V. Nesteruk. A “Participatory Universe” of J. A. Wheeler as an Intentional Correlate of Embodied Subjects… without being observed and measured, are contraposed to those events which were brought irreversibly into being by conscious intentions expressed through observations, so that the traces of presence of these intentions in being cannot be erased (Wheeler 1987, p. 311). These events can be called existential events because they involve human presence and it is in these events that the meaning of what is observed is established. The most difficult philosophical issue is exactly where and how this meaning comes from. Here Wheeler needs to give more precise defi nition of the human agency as that centre of disclosure and manifestation which provides this meaning. The human agency is portrayed by Wheeler as a network of observers, who by means of communication establish the meaning of what is called physical reality. Wheeler’s thought follows a kind of a reductionist emergent philosophy, by asserting that consciousness is a product of blind physical forces and myriads of particles in the universe. However, the reference to blind physical forces and chance prior to the established human articulation is made as a matter of rhetoric because the universe as the “world of existences” did not exist “prior” to human subjectivity: “observers are necessary to bring the universe into being.”11 The universe thus is a participatory universe; its existence is relational upon the existence of intelligent observers whereas the existence of observers is being relational upon the ingredients of the universe. There is a certain reciprocity between the universe and observers: one cannot exist without the other (DeLaguna 1966, p. 82). As to the origin of reflecting and articulating consciousness in the universe, Wheeler sincerely believes that science will be able to provide an explanation of the origins of human intelligence in the future (Wheeler 1994, p. 307). This corresponds to his implicit desire to treat both intelligence as well as the intelligible image of the universe as emergent properties. The human phenomenon , then, would be an inevitable result grounded in purely natural factors, and the “tangible reality of the universe” would be just natural as well, although of a different, animated or self-reflected order. In one of his famous diagrams, illustrating the transition from the view of the dead mechanical universe to the universe as the world of existences, Wheeler represents the universe as a self-excited circuit, that is as developing through a cycle (closed loop) which excludes reference to any preexistent foundation outside this circuit (Wheeler 1994, p. 293) (see a more sophisticated diagram in, for example, (Wheeler 1988, p. 5)). In both diagrams the self-awareness of the universe through human intelligence, represented by Wheeler as the network of observers- participants, completes the “evolution” of the universe in Wheeler’s sense as the movement along the closed circuit. In fact, this so called “evolution” cannot be seriously treated as related to the objective pole in the universe, that is as physical or biological evolution as if it were devoid of the human insight. The “evolution” is itself a construction in the course of observer-participancy, whose completion is represented by the intelligent agency explicated by means of the same intelligence which is supposed to be a part of the diagram. Correspondingly there is no way out from this circuit, that is there is no foundation of the circuit outside itself. From a philosophical point of view this means that since the circuit is closed, and the universe receives its explanation from within it, no question on the purpose of the universe and its end can be posed in the sense of the material of the nexus finalis (that is, as if they existed in objects independently of the human intelligence): purpose and end are just the emergent attributes of the world of existences which pertain to the observer-participancy as human activity. The world’s existence and its # 422 # Copyright ОАО «ЦКБ «БИБКОМ» & ООО «Aгентство Kнига-Cервис» Alexei V. Nesteruk. A “Participatory Universe” of J. A. Wheeler as an Intentional Correlate of Embodied Subjects… history according to humanity is explained from within its particular formation and, in reflection, results in a monistic view which does not require any appeal to trans-worldly factors. Wheeler argues that his model of a closed circuit escapes the danger of an infi nite regress of causations towards the ultimate substance similar to that of the ancient Greek philosophy (Wheeler 1987, p. 313; 1994, p. 300). 12 However it is not difficult to realise that the notion of underlying physical substance to which one can make an ultimate reference is replaced by the network (community) of human observers who “create” the physical world as constituted reality. In similarity with existential philosophy and theology Wheeler gives priority to human persons who produce meaning, rather than impersonal substance which is an abstract and impersonal notion. This entails a tacit anthropological assumption about embodiment, which is present in Wheeler’s theory of the universe, namely the constitution of intelligent hypostatic observers as unities of sensible bodies and soul which produce the coherent view of the universe: there is no explanation as to why this particular composite was brought into being. The logic of explanation is different, that is, the universe has a dual structure: as an undifferentiated stuff with no meaning (before observers developed) on the one hand, and as sensible agencies and objects with meaning on the other (or, in different words, as the sensible and intelligible) after the network of observers developed the intersubjective meaning of what was observed. This is the reason why the “observers are necessary to bring the universe into being”, that is, to transform something initially undifferentiated and non-articulated to things which are sensible and intelligible.13 This implies, according to Wheeler’s logic that the intelligibility of the universe is rooted in the ability of human beings to establish its structures and patterns through communication, starting from some elementary observationsmeasurements which are described by quantum theory. It is clear that the deposit of intelligibility has been tacitly present in Wheeler’s scheme of being from the very beginning. Human observers who explain the universe and their own place in it are already there even if the very scheme of being does not introduce them at a given stage yet. This also makes it clear that in spite of man’s “central” position in Wheeler’s meaning circuit it is not central enough, for the very existence of this circuit is possible because mankind can transcend its particular place in it and integrate the whole circuit in a single consciousness. This implies that while being a part of the meaning circuit human beings transcend it in the sense that they have an a-priori ability to contemplate the universe as a whole and position themselves in it before they consciously account for their position through the abovementioned diagram. In other words, there is an inherent consubstantiality between human observers and the universe which is not articulated at the initial parts of Wheeler’s scheme, but which is tacitly present through the very possibility of depicting those parts of physical reality which have not yet produced humanity. But this consubstantiality has, so to speak, a transcendental character; for it is detected by human consciousness through the next order of reflection. In this humanity exhibits itself as metaphysically infinite creatures, living in the conditions of a physical finitude, the finitude which is constituted by humanity itself from the perspective of the infinite. Here the analogy with transcendental philosophy can be invoked. Indeed, if Wheeler claims that the observers bring the universe into being, including its space, time, etc. (Wheeler 1988), then one can reasonably ask: where do human observers do this from, if there is no preexistent space and time? This question is # 423 # Copyright ОАО «ЦКБ «БИБКОМ» & ООО «Aгентство Kнига-Cервис» Alexei V. Nesteruk. A “Participatory Universe” of J. A. Wheeler as an Intentional Correlate of Embodied Subjects… reminiscent of the famous Kantian affirmation that human being is phenomenon and noumenon at the same time. On the one hand human beings as biological organisms are in space and time. On the other hand, according to Kant, space and time represent transcendental forms of sensibility as the necessary conditions for human perception of the physical bodies. This means that because human beings constitute space and time from the depths of their transcendental ego which is eidetically “prior” to any particular form of physical embodiment, one can conjecture that they inhere in “something” which is beyond and prior to space and time and which, at the same time, contains in itself the potentiality of being explicated in terms of space and time. Wheeler attempts to claim that the meaning of space and time, as well as all other attributes of the universe, is constructed through observership-participation in acts of cognition resembling quantum measurements. A philosopher, in the style of Kant, would object to this by saying that the sense-data alone can not constitute the notions of space and time and that, vice versa, the ordering of the sense-data can only be done in rubrics of space and time which are a-priori forms of sensibility. Whereas a phenomenological stance would be that space is not pre-existent and objective “out there”, originating from subject’s passive contemplation of it, but in terms of subject’s comportment “in” it. This, so called, attuned space becomes an initial instant and a medium of disclosure of that “objective” space through relation to which this subject is constituted as a corporeal existent in space. However, this relationship is manifest of a paradox similar to that of the container and of the contained put in an interrogative form: how can one grasp the relationship of a particular being (subject) as if ‘in’ space when this being is essentially constituted by being ‘over against’, and hence beyond space? (Ströker 1965, p. 15). This once again brings us to the Kantian stance on human being, as being simultaneously phenomenon and noumenon: on the one hand space is an a-priori form of sensibility which allows a subject to order its experience; on the other hand this form of sensibility is unfolded not from within that space which is depicted by it, that is it comes from beyond any possible spatial presentation of experience. What is obvious, however, is that the constitution of space, first of all of the attuned space, is intertwined and not detachable from the fundamental aspect of human embodiment or corporeity. Embodiment or corporeity manifests itself not as a system of some biological processes nor as simply a body animated by the soul, nor even a simple unity of both of them. It is not also a lived body (corps-sujet in a sense of G. Marcel); it is a living being in relation to other beings and to the world, in whom this relation is announced and articulated by the way of its sense-reaction and its comportment, or its action in situation. In this sense the constitution of space in all its varieties (from attuned space of immediate indwelling to mathematical space of the universe) represents the modes of explication of embodiment or corporeity of humanity through which it interacts with the world. Thus the lived body entails a kind of lived space which bears the character of self-givenness “in the flesh”. In other words, the initial point of any discourse on corporeity and associated spatiality implies knowledge as presence “in person” or “in the flesh” as a mode of givenness of an object in its standing in front of the functioning corporeity. The question of embodiment becomes acutely important in Wheeler’s scheme of origin of the universe as the world of existences. Indeed, what is important is that the network of observers is the community of embodied creatures, and this embodiment per se reflects the pre-existing physical conditions which are # 424 # Copyright ОАО «ЦКБ «БИБКОМ» & ООО «Aгентство Kнига-Cервис» Alexei V. Nesteruk. A “Participatory Universe” of J. A. Wheeler as an Intentional Correlate of Embodied Subjects… not subject to considerable change during the span of the human civilisation. In other words, one can assume together with Wheeler that these conditions of embodiment as statements of physics have not been always articulated, but they have been implied, so that any physics which follows from a cognitive acquisition of the world is prone to contain the conditions of embodiment as transcendental conditions for the explicability of nature. It is in this sense that the famous Weak Anthropic Principle (Weak AP) can be taken into account: what we observe may be restricted by the conditions necessary for our embodied existence as observers. Then the unfolding process of Wheeler’s articulation of the world contains in itself the very possibility of existence of those creatures who articulate this world. In spite of a contingent path of articulation of nature, which is related to the history of the sciences, this contingency contains an element of necessity: this articulation and constitution takes place only in relation to that bulk of being which is unconcelad through the conditions of embodiment. The famous thesis of Protagoras that man is the measure of all things, seen through the eyes of Heidegger (Heidegger 1987, p.91-95), gives strength to our assertion that the constitution of reality according to Wheeler, being an open-ended process, is still humancentred because the very explicability of the world through the chain of questions and answers is subjected to the condition of its origination in embodiment. It is important to realise that neither the Weak AP, nor the participatory genesis of Wheeler make an explicit link of the limits of embodiment expressed in physical terms to the limits of cognitive methods of exploration of reality (as was famously proposed by Kant through reference to Euclidian Geometry and Newtonian physics). In terms of exploration of physical reality one can either gain access to processes beyond the scales of embodiment through technology, or even transport the very conditions of embodiment on spaceships to some hostile terrain in order to gain knowledge of that which is beyond the Earthly horizon of embodiment. In this sense the Weak AP or the Participatory strategy of Wheeler state nothing of the restrictions on the methodology of research, or in different words, they avoid any commitments to the limits of possible knowledge in the sense of its methods. In this sense they both are more flexible in comparison with the Kantian dogmatic position. However the Kantianism remains in both Weak AP and Participatory AP in a hidden and more subtle way through the implicit teleology which pertains to the very way nature becomes unconcealed and explicable in the conditions of embodiment. In order to make the ambivalent position of the human observer (noumenon/phenomenon) more explicit, one might place our discussion back in the Kantian frame of mind. Space and time as being constituted by intelligible observers in Wheeler’s scheme of things can be said as being brought into being by transcendental observers whose existential centre relates to the physical world but is not exhausted by it. In this sense the genesis of reality, or its constitution as articulated in consciousness, appeals to the realm of the intelligible. Space and time as articulated notions, as well as the whole universe appear as mental images of reality, as ideas which have a precarious relation to physical reality. By learning the lessons from Kant, it can then be anticipated that any attempt to provide a coherent picture of the ‘genesis’ of the concept of the universe, that is to speculate about its ultimate grounds on the physical level, will inevitably lead reason to an antinomian difficulty. This consequently places the notion of the community of observers which gives meaning to the universe in an ambivalent position of being in the world, and at the same time not of the world. # 425 # Copyright ОАО «ЦКБ «БИБКОМ» & ООО «Aгентство Kнига-Cервис» Alexei V. Nesteruk. A “Participatory Universe” of J. A. Wheeler as an Intentional Correlate of Embodied Subjects… Indeed, one can conjecture that the thesis of Wheeler’s Participatory AP, namely that “observers are necessary in order to bring the universe into being”, makes the notion of the network of observers in Wheeler’s concept similar to the idea of an absolutely necessary being that appears in the fourth Kantian antinomy so that Wheeler’s proposition can be reformulated as a participatory anthropic antinomy (See also (Nesteruk 1999, p. 83; 2003, p. 225)): Thesis: The network of intelligent observers understood in a transcendental sense as existing in whatever relation to time and space is absolutely necessary for the visible universe in space and time to be brought into being. Antithesis: The existence of the visible universe with spatiotemporal attributes is not contingent upon the existence of the network of intelligent observers (understood in a transcendental sense) as its cause either in the visible universe or out of it. This antinomy indicates the dichotomy in the ontological status of the network of intelligent observers as having a specific location of their embodiment related to the physical conditions of survival and, at the same time, as transcending these specific places and establishing the sense of space and time out of some originary propensities that define the observers as intelligible and consciously non-local beings. This seeming paradox, which represents a particular reincarnation of the paradox of human subjectivity mentioned above, contributes to the constitution of human observers as composites of the corporeal and intelligible whose contingent facticity cannot be accounted for, remaining thus a primary metaphysical mystery. This cascades up to the mystery of the universe as the constituted World of Existences: since the origin of human personhood can hardly to be reduced to the results of impersonal chances and necessities in physical factors and causality, its presence in the universe can be treated as an event which can be called the humankind-event (Nesteruk 2003, pp. 194-200). This event is indeed formative for the universe to exist, that is to be manifest and disclosed in human personhood. Then the process of constitution of the universe in Wheeler’s participatory scheme reveals itself as the enhypostasization of the universe within the humankind-event, that is the universe itself becomes no more than an event related to the history of humanity, a flash of the universe’s self-consciousness depicted in Wheeler’s writings by a diagram of the human eye emerging in the bold letter U (symbolising the universe) which itself is the formation of this eye (Wheeler 1994, p. 293). Some other philosophers formulated a similar “eventiality” of the universe by referring to a communal character of events of knowing. In P. Heelan’s terms, “the phenomenon takes ‘flesh’ in the world differently because its ‘flesh’ is determined only as a consequence of decisions taken by local and historical communities of expert witnesses”(Heelan 1992, p. 58).14 It is in this sense that the articulation of the past of the universe is an event within the life-world of a particular community loaded with a sense of the community’s lived past and of decisions to be made in the future. As Heelan points out, “it is not the case that every historical event is also an event of a scientific kind…, but when the local community is one of expert witnesses, then the scientific data produced by that community are also historical events in relation to that community” (Heelan 1992, p. 66). H. Margenau argued in a similar way that “physical reality” is best defined as the totality of all valid constructs. In this approach the universe is defined not as a static, but as a dynamic formation: “…the universe grows as valid constructs are being discovered. Physical entities do not exist in a stagnant and immutable sense but are constantly coming into being” (Margenau 1944, p. 278).15 # 426 # Copyright ОАО «ЦКБ «БИБКОМ» & ООО «Aгентство Kнига-Cервис» Alexei V. Nesteruk. A “Participatory Universe” of J. A. Wheeler as an Intentional Correlate of Embodied Subjects… Wheeler, as well as the others, attempts to make a point that the sense of physical reality is not a pregiven compendium of laws and facts and that it originates in the constitution of this reality through formation of meaning of the universe through communication in the network of observers. Wheeler does not give any specific model of how to deduce the meaning from the forms of intersubjectivity, but his “reconstruction” of logical steps involved in making physical theories articulates the fact that in spite of the idealisation and mathematization with which modern physics operates, there is still a level of understanding which itself cannot be described through them. In other words, physics cannot account for its own facticity only through physics itself: one needs to appeal to such an order of reality by reference to which physics at least receives its interpretation. This implicitly points out to the mundane fact that the scientific advance, despite its complex language, is ultimately rooted in the primary experience of the world, in that which phenomenology calls the life-world.16 This implies that the sphere of human subjectivity as immediately given and irreducible to any scientific analysis is assumed by Wheeler to be present in order to develop from within it the articulated picture of the world with a special language and mathematics. Wheeler’s conjecture that the whole edifice of modern physics can be reduced to a simple quantum principle, “it is from bit” (Wheeler 1994, p. 295), shows that there is still a certain level of reality behind these “bits”, which constitutes the meaning of any sequence of those bits and this reality is the mystery of embodied human consciousness which endows reality with meaning. However, the observers who possess the ability to articulate the external world, are incapable of comprehending the very possibility of acts of consciousness which are responsible for the articulation of the world. Can physics explain them in naturalistic terms? In spite of a heroic attempt of Wheeler to propose a scheme for elucidating this problem, his intellectual construction of the participatory universe demonstrated with a new force that the main philosophical mystery of human intentional consciousness and its engagement with the world still remains (Cf. Marcel 1965, p. 24). In spite of a philosophical scepticism with respect to Wheeler’s attempts to give a physicalistic model for the genesis of meaning of the universe as a process of mutual interaction between the network of observers and their physical environment one should admit that they contributed in a non-obvious way to the rearticulation of the life-world as that primary existential milieu which lies in the foundation of scientific articulatiuons of reality. The search for the foundations of the universe, as well as the foundations of physics leads inevitably to the recognition of the centrality of existential “immediate here” and “immediate now” from which the whole grandeur of the universe (as the world of existences) comes into existence by “contracting its existing” in life of human observers (Cf. (Levinas 1978, pp. 82-85; 1987, pp. 42-44). This confirms a general philosophical conviction that science contributes to the understanding of life and humanity, for “the whole universe of science is built upon the world as directly experienced, and if we want to subject science itself to rigorous scrutiny and arrive at a precise assessment of its meaning and scope, we must begin by reawakening the basic experience of the world of which science is the second-order expression” (Merleau-Ponty 1962, p. ix (emphasis added)). That which was formulated by M. Merleau-Ponty in the context of existential philosophy has been renewed in Wheeler’s metaphysical extension of physics: namely to remind physicists that all their notions are ultimately inherent in the very specific place human beings occupy in the world which they # 427 # Copyright ОАО «ЦКБ «БИБКОМ» & ООО «Aгентство Kнига-Cервис» Alexei V. Nesteruk. A “Participatory Universe” of J. A. Wheeler as an Intentional Correlate of Embodied Subjects… attempt to articulate. However, the nature of human subjectivity and intersubjectivity, for obvious philosophical reasons17, did not enter as a constitutive principle of physical explanation. The mystery of human intelligence was recognised as pivotal for developing an articulated picture of the world, but, at the same time consciousness and intelligence were treated in a reductionist sense as products of physical and biological evolution. If Wheeler’s model of the participatory universe is assessed through the eyes of an existential stance on the primacy of the sphere of human subjectivity, expressed, for example, in the words of Merleau-Ponty, quoted above, then obviously the universe as a self-exited circuit must require for its ontological assessment one crucial element: the presence of conscious insight overlooking this universe from above and beyond. In order to make the latter thought clear, one can suggest a graphical interpretation of three typical cosmological diagrams which pretend to catch the unity of physical reality at different spatial scales and other physical parameters. Indeed at the figure in the Appendix we have three different representations of such a unity: in the upper left corner there is an image of the so called Uroboros, symbolising the interconnectedness of physical entities at different spatial scales of the universe (Primack 2006, p. 160). Humanity’s consubstantiality with the universe is depicted at the bottom centre of this diagram. In the second diagram, below, there is a display of various objects in the universe according to their sizes and masses (Barrow 1999, p. 32). Once again humanity is positioned as a mediocre physical formation at the centre of this diagram. Both these diagrams are presented as static formations which do not reflect any processes or genesis of these diagrams, that is their epistemological constitution. Correspondingly, any attempt to predicate on their basis that humanity is physically insignificant in the universe will be philosophically weak because both diagrams are mental creations and humanity is present in them not only through its insignificant position but above and beyond all its elements as an articulating consciousness. This is depicted by positioning the human subject outside the diagrams while retaining the traces of its physical embodiment. If now one compares the Uroboros and the size/mass diagram with Wheeler’s graphical representations of the participatory universe (the right-hand side of the same figure) presented through a genesis of physical properties of the world towards its intelligibility (Wheeler 1988, p. 5), then the difference is clearly seen: the diagram attempts to encapsulate a temporal aspect in formation of the overall picture of the universe and make manifest that the universe is an accomplishment because the human phenomenon in it is itself an accomplishment. However the presence of human beings as forms of biological life does not entail with any physical necessity the presence of intelligence. Correspondingly the diagram of the closedcircuit universe is not just an accomplishment of physics, it is a mental accomplishment which is contingent upon intelligence, which is, through embodiment, a part of the diagram and, at the same time, something outside of it. In other words Wheeler’s diagram presupposes for its own existence the presence of intelligence which creates this diagram: humanity appears in it as the centre of disclosure and manifestation. The physical genesis depicted in this diagram requires a reflecting consciousness which has propensities which do not simply follow from the chain of physical causations. In this sense the genesis of physical properties leading to the fulfilment of the necessary conditions for observer’s existence does not entail the fulfilment of the sufficient conditions which justify intelligence and the way this intelligence approaches reality through the logic of questions and answers suggested by # 428 # Copyright ОАО «ЦКБ «БИБКОМ» & ООО «Aгентство Kнига-Cервис» Alexei V. Nesteruk. A “Participatory Universe” of J. A. Wheeler as an Intentional Correlate of Embodied Subjects… Wheeler. Once again, what is missing in Wheeler’s diagram is the presence of the subject for whom this diagram makes sense. And this subject is above and beyond this diagram (depicted at the centre), in that directly experienced world, given to humanity in its embodied consubstantial constitution so that the diagram itself, phrasing this in the language of Merleau-Ponty, is the second-order expression of this world. From a philosophical point of view there is a gap in Wheeler’s reasoning on the universe as an emergent meaning circuit, for there is no explanation as to why the intelligent observers, who reveal the intelligibility of the entire universe, are possible at all. In other words, why the universe entails the transcendental conditions of its own explicability. Here Wheeler invokes a kind of a theological reference by affirming that the whole situation in modern science completely changed the problem of creation as the problem of the relationship between man and God. If in the traditional theology human observers were treated as created by God in his image and thus having an innate ability to articulate the whole creation, in contemporary science these observers are treated as a result of the natural development of the world, so that the articulation of the world is part of the ongoing process of development of humankind. To accentuate this contrast Wheeler in one of his texts refers to an old legend of the dialogue between Abraham and God (which manifested the relationship between man and God) and says that “in our time the participants of the dialogue changed. They are the universe and man” (Wheeler 1994, p. 128). In the same passage he imitates the dialogue between the universe and man as an act of personifying the universe through the sequence of questions and answers. The universe acquires a sort of “intelligibility” as its “natural artefact”. In conclusion, the main interesting result of Wheeler’s attempts to sketch the “physics of meaning” was the rediscovery of the issues of the life-world. Physics has sense as long as it has meaning, which was assigned to it by human beings. This means that physics is essentially human, as well as the universe constructed through physics, and represents an intentional correlate of human intersubjectivity, so that it is given to us in so far as it contains us. The world of classical physics which was deprived of its inward existence in subjectivity, receives back its existential meaning through the metaphysical extension of some propositions of quantum physics. In spite of the fact that there is no direct reference to the Divine as the ultimate source of human intelligibility in the world, there is a reference to the otherness of the world which is implicitly made in Wheeler’s models through posing a fundamental question of meaning: why is the universe? Implicit Purposiveness in Wheeler’s Participatory Universe Finally we want to discuss a teleological aspect of Wheeler’s thought. For the universe to become the World of Existence this same universe must have conditions for the emergence of intelligent life and thus its explicability. Correspondingly if the World of Existences, as it seems from Wheeler’s writings, is that high term in the overall chain of transformations in the universe, so to speak its “ontic” goal, then the presence of the human intelligence in the universe is somehow implanted into this goal. When the Participatory AP asserts that observers are necessary for the universe to come into being it effectively states that the development of the universe must have a necessary condition for the emergence of human beings. Here one can ask a question as to whether there is an implied teleology in Wheeler’s view of the universe, where teleology is referred to a definite material pole, that is to that physical state of the universe when human life is possible. # 429 # Copyright ОАО «ЦКБ «БИБКОМ» & ООО «Aгентство Kнига-Cервис» Alexei V. Nesteruk. A “Participatory Universe” of J. A. Wheeler as an Intentional Correlate of Embodied Subjects… Probably one must give a negative answer to this question because the necessary conditions for emergence of biological life in the universe do not automatically guarantee the emergence of intelligence. The sufficient conditions for the emergence of intelligence in the universe are not subject to the physical description. Correspondingly the seeming teleology of Wheeler’s account for the genesis of the World of Existences is not related to the material goal of the universe’s development; it rather relates to another teleology, associated with the explicability of the universe by human agency. In fact, in Wheeler’s case, this explicability is closely connected with the constitution of meaning of the universe: to constitute the universe as the World of Existences one must establish the meaning of things in this universe. Thus the whole pattern of Wheeler’s reasoning when he invokes an analogy with the quantum questions and answers points not to the material pole, or a result of its constitution (for it seems to be an open-ended process) but rather to the strategy or methodology of the scientific quest for meaning of the universe, a particular way of interrogation of nature and its outcome delimited by this way (See (Nesteruk 2012  ). The objective of physics is to explain the universe; the telos of this explanation is not something which pre-exists this explanation, but that remote epistemological ideal, a supposed mental accomplishment, which would correspond to an imagined convergence of different strategies of explanation and correspondence rules. In spite of a principal impossibility of stating even roughly the possible ideal pole of such an explanation, there is one teleological example which makes it possible to elucidate the sense of what Wheeler implied in his idea of the Participatory universe. This example relates to the Big Bang, the ultimate beginning and origin of all things in the universe, including human intelligence itself. The notion of the Big Bang was at the centre of Wheeler’s discussions on the nature of space and time as that epistemological boundary beyond which physics cannot proceed. He also drew the conclusion that since the notions of space and time loose their physical meaning in the singularity of the Big Bang, they must be considered mutable ingredients of physics subject to constitution. Correspondingly the Big Bang itself is not an immutable material pole associated with the origin and beginning of all things, but a construction whose anomalous properties point not so much to the limiting capacities of physicists to deal with the questions of origin, but rather to a specific way in the acquisition of reality (through the logic of questions and answers) which leads to the constitution of what is meant by the Big Bang. It is remarkable, however, that the process of constitution of the universe, as being directed in the future of the historical time associated with observers, encompasses all temporal aeons of the universe, including its allegedly existing past. This means that not only our actual present is subject to constitution, but what is aimed to be the past and future of the universe is constituted by the human observers and thus their ontological status becomes ambiguous. The Big Bang, for example, appears to be also a mental construct dealing with the alleged past of the universe, but only through references to here and now, because its theory is constructed upon observations made here and now and progressing to the future. Correspondingly, for Wheeler, the question of the physical existence of the Big Bang has no sense if it is not placed in the context of how it is constituted and articulated by human observers here and now. He expresses this conviction by posing a question: “Is the term ‘big bang’ merely a shorthand way to describe the cumulative consequence of billions upon billions of elementary acts of observer-participancy reaching back into the past [..] ?” (Wheeler 1994, p. 128; Cf. Wheeler 1985, p. 387). Elsewhere # 430 # Copyright ОАО «ЦКБ «БИБКОМ» & ООО «Aгентство Kнига-Cервис» Alexei V. Nesteruk. A “Participatory Universe” of J. A. Wheeler as an Intentional Correlate of Embodied Subjects… Wheeler generalises this thought applying it to the constructed temporality of the past: “The ‘past’ is theory. The past has no existence except as it is recorded in the present. By detecting what questions our quantum registering equipment shall put in the present, we have an undeniable choice in what we have the right to say about the past” (Wheeler 1985, p. 366; 1988, p. 13). 18 The acts of observer-participancy intend to reach to the past of the universe, whereas their conscious dynamics is constantly directed to the future. Certainly, according to Wheeler, there is no sense to enquire into the “objective” sense of the universe before or beyond the intelligence emerged; as expressed in a philosophical context by Christos Yannaras, “even the formation of the universe “before” the appearance of its human cognition does not destroy the character of being invited-to-relationship of the universe’s referentiality. For the “before” and “after” are by-products of the relationship between humanity and the world, the only relationship that constitutes an existential fact and whatever “pre”required evolutionary process is needed for its realisation” (Yannaras 2004, p. 138) (Cf. (Wheeler 1975, p. 17)). If the Big Bang is constituted in the ongoing process of exploration of the universe, the whole issue of the initial conditions of the universe as if they were once and forever set from the “outside” of the universe looses its objectivistic sense, because the whole history of the universe is constructed by humanity from its present state so that the past of the universe is seen only in the perspective of the ever moving present and the ultimate point in the past, the origin of all, can then be grasped as a limiting point of humanity’s knowledge not only as a boundary of its present state of understanding but as an ideal aspired for through the movement of knowledge to the future, that is as it telos. In this case the notion of the Big Bang functions in human knowledge as a limiting point for any historically given state of knowledge, but, at the same time this limit as being extended through the progress of science becomes the ground of its motivation and aspiration explicating not only the Big Bang as a remote physical pole, but also explicating the evolving epistemology of the enquiry in the foundation of the facticity of all, including the very enquiring consciousness. Here we inevitably come to an interesting and counterintuitive conclusion that the Big Bang, as an allegedly physical pole in the origin of the visible universe, turns out to be the telos of scientific explanation, as its ultimate goal to see the origin of the varied display in the universe in the unity of “all in all”.19 In practically all papers related to the genesis of the World of Existences Wheeler promotes an idea of the cosmological singularity or the Big Bang which has demonstrated to us that all classical laws of physics as well as its basic notions disappear at the singularity, so that the “ultimate, underlying” reality cannot be described in terms of physical laws and categories at all: there is a law, that there is no law. Elsewhere the situation with the impossibility to ascribing to the Big Bang spatio-temporal attributes and at the same time the fact that it is the Big-Bang which supposed to give “beginning” to space and time in their facticity, was qualified as that the Big Bang notifies in theory the “existential” fact of the uniqueness and concreteness of the universe without entailing the materiality of its existence (Yannaras 2004, p. 107). Indeed, if the Big Bang, according to Wheeler is the construction, that is constituted through the relationship between the world and humanity, then what is the objectivistic and material status of this construction: does the phenomenality of the Big Bang falls into the category of the physical “out there”? Yannaras poses a question in an even more radical form: if the Big Bang is the metaphysical concept which presupposes an obligatory exit from succession of before and after, and also from every # 431 # Copyright ОАО «ЦКБ «БИБКОМ» & ООО «Aгентство Kнига-Cервис» Alexei V. Nesteruk. A “Participatory Universe” of J. A. Wheeler as an Intentional Correlate of Embodied Subjects… dimensional location, does it entail the exist from the presupposition of the existent? (Yannaras 2004, p. 105) Wheeler’s answer is that it does not: the Big Bang can be attributed the status of the existent but in a strictly constituted sense in the same way that he advocates that the laws of classical physics are constituted by us. It is not difficult to conjecture that the only “real” law which drives physics is the “law” that the universe must be explicable. It is impossible to deny this requirement for explicability even in Wheeler’s thought, for, in fact, all his edifice of dealing with the genesis of physics is to advocate the explicability of the universe whatever philosophical orientation taken. In this sense it is this explicability which becomes the ultimate telos of the whole complex of human observers – the universe. The maxim of teleology, if one uses Kant’s terminology, ordains in Wheeler’s scheme of things the use of some established physical lawlike strategies for giving more precise details of the genesis of physical objects.20 There is an implicit purposiveness in the closed circuit established between observers and physical reality which ultimately proceeds from the nature of observers as human intelligent beings endowed with the purposiveness of any actions. This purposiveness, in order to avoid any classical and unfashionable teleology related to the physical development of the universe, must presuppose an extra-physical character. Seen theologically, the purposiveness can proceed from the Divine image, set up exactly for the purpose of bringing the universe to union with God through an integrate knowledge of it (Nesteruk 2003, p. 230). If this theological stance seems to be unsatisfactory and one becomes inclined towards a materialistic reductionism, attributing the purposiveness of explanation as being implanted in physical reality, then the alleged purposiveness of the universe brings us to the question of its subject: who is that intentional agent for whom the universe has a purpose? It is not difficult to see that the idea of the Divine subjectivity enters the scheme of things at a different level: the Participatory AP in this case becomes similar to that version of the Strong AP which postulates that the universe must have human agencies as its product at a certain stage of its development. If this is true, then the difference between the Participatory AP and the Strong AP, which was so emphatically advocated by Wheeler become blurred. Our analysis thus unfolds the most important and metaphysical point to be made on Wheeler’s ideas, namely the mystery and precarious status of human agents, observersparticipants in what concerns the origin of their purposive actions which are in the foundation of knowledge of the universe. It seems that Wheeler’s hope that human intelligence and correspondingly purposiveness as such will eventually become a subject of explanation by physics remains in vain, for the basic question of the facticity of the human intelligent agency, in spite of all reductionist hopes, remains unanswered. Purposiveness is a human aspect of existence and one can hardly believe that physics, being purposive activity, can explain the emergence of this purposiveness out of itself. What is important, however, is that the existence of life and intelligence, being an “experiential fact” and determining the lines of scientific enquiry provides “the unlimited informative value for the universe and its laws” (Yannaras 2004, p. 117). Acknowledgements I would like to express my feelings of gratitude to George Horton and Christopher Dewdney for reading the manuscript and making helpful suggestions. This publication was made possible through the support of a grant from the John Templeton Foundation. The opinions expressed in this publication are those of the author and do not necessarily reflect the views of the John Templeton Foundation. # 432 # Copyright ОАО «ЦКБ «БИБКОМ» & ООО «Aгентство Kнига-Cервис» Alexei V. Nesteruk. A “Participatory Universe” of J. A. Wheeler as an Intentional Correlate of Embodied Subjects… Appendix 1: Humanity as the centre of disclosure and manifestation of the universe 1 2 3 4 5 6 This paradox is a perennial problem of philosophy and was anticipated by ancient Greek philosophers and Christian thinkers. It was expressed differently by such philosophers as Kant (see, for example, Kant’s conclusion to his Critique of Practical Reason.) Among phenomenological philosophers who dealt with this paradox one can mention E. Husserl, M. Scheler, M. Merleau-Ponty, E. Fromm and others. The general discussion of this paradox can be found in (Carr, 1999). The role of this paradox in discussions on science and theology can be found in (Nesteruk, 2008, pp. 173-75). Applied to the study of the universe the paradox of human subjectivity can be formulated as follows: on the one hand human beings in the facticity of their embodied condition form the centre of disclosure and manifestation of the universe as a whole, modelling it as overall-space and time which exceeds the limits of the attuned space related to humanity’s comportment on the planet earth (the home place). On the other hand the depicted universe as a vast continuum of space and time positions humanity in an insignificant place in the whole totality making its existence not only contingent (in physical terms) but full of nonsense from the point of view of the actually infi nite universe. Said bluntly the actual infi nity of the universe is attempted to be articulated from an infi nitely small part of its formation. One could express this differently: through its insight humanity is co-present in all points of what it observes in the universe, or imagines, while physically being restricted to an insignificant part of it. Certainly such a questioning on the place of humanity in the universe is not novel in history of thought and philosophy. It is enough to point to Pascal, who compared human being with the “thinking reed” whose position in the universe is ambivalent because of the physical insignificance and epistemological centrality: “Man is a reed, the feeblest in nature; but he is a thinking reed. The whole universe need not take up arms to crush him…But even if the universe should crush him, man would still be more noble than that which kills him, since he knows he is mortal, and knows that the universe is more powerful that he: but the universe itself knows nothing of it” (Pascal 1959, p. 78). See in this respect (Weyl 1994). One of such prophecies was promoted by F. Tipler in his book (Tipler 1995) where he develops an idea of such a large-scale affection of the universe which will guarantee the possibility of an indefi nite information processing, which, according to Tipler mimics the persistence of life in the universe. Wheeler’s appeal is in a way similar to a phenomenological assertion that without taking into account the generating power of human subjectivity, the efficacy of the sciences, either human or natural, remains obscured; see e.g. (Gurwitsch 1966, pp. 399-400). Existentialists considered the fact of life as a primary data for any further philosophising, the fact which as such cannot be placed in any allegedly wider and more general framework of the world’s necessities. The radical metaphysical mystery of existence is expressed in human inability to “look” at this existence from outside. # 433 # Copyright ОАО «ЦКБ «БИБКОМ» & ООО «Aгентство Kнига-Cервис» Alexei V. Nesteruk. A “Participatory Universe” of J. A. Wheeler as an Intentional Correlate of Embodied Subjects… 7 8 9 10 11 12 13 14 15 16 17 18 19 20 See on temporality and mathematics (Davis, Hersch, Descartes’s Dream, 1990, pp. 189-201). This expression, used by (Gurwitsch 1974, p. 44) did not mean “hypostasis” in a theological sense. Elements of nature as “mental creation” also appeared in the terminology of Einstein. See, for example, (Einstein 1973, p. 291). See a careful explanation of the meaning of this term in (Nesteruk 2003, pp. 112-17; 2004). It was his last book, The Crisis of European Sciences (Husserl 1970), where Husserl undertook a critique of the mathematisation of nature whose inception was associated with the name of Galileo. The topic was later discussed and developed in numerous papers. See, for example, (Gurwitsch 1967), (Kvasz 2002). This is a short formulation of the Participatory Anthropic Principle. See (Barrow, Tipler, 1986, p. 22). Wheeler argues that his approach to understanding the place and role of man in the universe contrasts to the selection mechanism of the many worlds (MW) version of the Strong AP (which assumes pre-existence not only of the visible universe, but also the multitude of other universes) in a sense, that the Participatory AP is “founded on construction” (Wheeler 1987, p. 310). He articulates this contrast as an opposition in views on the place of man in the universe as mediocre versus central: “Life, mind, and meaning have only a peripheral and accidental place in the scheme of things in this view [i.e. MW-Strong AP (A.N.)]. In the other view [that is, Participatory AP (A.N.)] they are central. Only by their agency is it even possible to construct the universe or existence, or what we call reality. Those make-believe universes totally devoid of life are (according to this view) totally devoid of physical sense not merely because they cannot be observed, but because there is no way to make them” (Ibid.). The place of observer is not to “create out of nothing” in a theological sense, but to act an ancient god-demiurge who orders the universe from preexistent matter. The metaphor of ‘flesh’ is borrowed from M. Merleau-Ponty. Margenau anticipated that many scientists would disagree with such an attitude because they maintain a faith in the convergence of the system of the entire set of physical explanations which would deliver them an ideal of their aspirations, that is a unique and ultimate set of constructs for which would reserve the name ‘reality’. However he points out that this belief in convergence in question is problematic because it is not capable of scientific proof. ((Ibid). See also (Margenau 1977, p. 76) The situation in modern cosmology, where the ever increasing set of theoretical constructs reveals the components of the matter content of the universe which escape physical description points exactly to the danger of idealisation of the scientific description of the universe: the more details we know the less we understand the entirety. The concept of the life world was introduced in Husserl’s Crisis (Husserl 1974) and was a matter of vast discussion by phenomenological philosophers. See for a recent review (Steinbock 1995). The fundamental problematic character of any philosophical enquiry into the nature of human consciousness is expressed in modern terms through a concept of the so called “negative certitude” meaning that the facticity of consciousness can only be approached with certainty in negative terms, that it is certain that its mystery can only be predicated in terms of that which is not this consciousness (see (Marion 2010, pp. 21-86)). This thought must be placed into an even more general conviction that in the ultimate scheme of things there is no time or temporality at all. Temporality is a human construction: “The word Time came, not from heaven, but from the mouth of man, an early thinker, his name long lost. If problems attend the term, they are of our own making” (Wheeler 1994, p. 6). This point was developed in (Nesteruk 2008, 2012  ). See more details on this issue in (Nesteruk 2012  ). References 1. 2. Barrow, J. D., Tipler, F. The Cosmological Anthropic Principle. Oxford University Press, 1986. Barrow, J. D., Between Inner Space and Outer Space: Essays on Science, Art and Philosophy. New York: Oxford University Press, 1999. 3. Carr, B. J. “On the Origin, Evolution and Purpose of the Physical Universe.” In Modern Cosmology and Philosophy, ed. J. Leslie, 152–57. New York: Prometheus, 1998. 4. Carr, D., Paradox of Subjectivity, Oxford: Oxford University Press, 1999. 5. Clément, O., Le Christ Terre des Vivants. Essais Théologiques. Spiritualite Orientale, n. 17, Abbaye de Bellfontaine, 1976. 6. Davis, P. J., R. Hersh, Descartes’ Dream, London: Penguin, 1990. 7. De Laguna, G., On Existence and the Human World. New Haven and London: Yale University Press, 1966. 8. Einstein, A., Ideas and Opinions. London: Souvenir Press, 1973. 9. Gurwitsch, A. Studies in Phenomenology and Psychology, Evanston: Northwestern University Press, 1966. 10. Gurwitsch, A. ‘Galilean Physics in the light of Husserl’s Phenomenology’ , in E. McMullin (ed), Galileo. Man of Science (New-York, Basic Books, 1967, pp. 388-401). # 434 # Copyright ОАО «ЦКБ «БИБКОМ» & ООО «Aгентство Kнига-Cервис» Alexei V. Nesteruk. A “Participatory Universe” of J. A. Wheeler as an Intentional Correlate of Embodied Subjects… 11. Gurwitsch, A. Phenomenology and the Theory of Science (Evanston: Northwestern University Press, 1974). 12. 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Pittsburgh: Duquesne University Press, 1987. 21. Marcel, G., Being and Having, London: Collins, 1965. 22. Margenau, H., “Phenomenology and Physics”, Philosophy and Phenomenological Research, vol. 5, n. 2, 1944, pp. 269-280. 23. Margenau, H., The Nature of Physical Reality: A Philosophy of Modern Physics. Woodbridge, Conn.: Ox Bow Press, 1977. 24. Marion, J.-L., Certitudes négatives, Paris, Bernard Grasset, 2010. 25. Merleau-Ponty, M., Phenomenology of Perception, London: Routledge, 1962. 26. Nesteruk, A. V., “Temporal Irreversibility: Three Modern Views.” In Time, Creation and WorldOrder, ed. M. Wegener, 62–86. Acta Jutlandica, vol. 74, no. 1; Humanities Series, vol. 72. Aarhus, Denmark: Aarhus University Press, 1999. 27. Nesteruk, A. V., Light from the East: Theology, Science and the Eastern Orthodox Tradition. Minneapolis: Fortress Press, July 2003 28. Nesteruk, A. V., “The Universe as Hypostatic Inherence in the Logos of God”. (Panentheism in the Eastern Orthodox Perspective.) In: In Whom We Live and Move and Have Our Being: Reflections on Panentheism in a Scientific Age. William B. Eerdmans Publishing Company, 2004, pp. 169-183. 29. Nesteruk, A., The Universe as Communion. Towards a Neo-Patristic Synthesis of Theology and Science, London: T&T Clark, 2008. 30. Pascal, B., Pensées. Selections (Martin Jarret-Kerr, C.R. tr. and ed.) London: SCM Press Ltd, 1959. 31. Primack, J., Abrams, N. E., The View from the Centre of the Universe. Discovering our Extraordinary Place in the Cosmos. London: Fourth Estate, 2006. 32. Steinbock, A. J. Home and Beyond. Generative Phenomenology after Husserl. Evanston, 33. Northwestern University Press, 1995. 34. Ströker, E., Investigations in Philosophy of Space, Ohio University Press, 1965. 35. Tipler, F., The Physics of Immortality: Modern Cosmology, God and the Resurrection of the Dead. London: Macmillan, 1995. # 435 # Copyright ОАО «ЦКБ «БИБКОМ» & ООО «Aгентство Kнига-Cервис» Alexei V. Nesteruk. A “Participatory Universe” of J. A. Wheeler as an Intentional Correlate of Embodied Subjects… 36. Torrance, T. F., The Grammar of Theology: Consonance between Theology and Science, Edinburgh and New York, T&T Clark, 2001. 37. Weyl, H., The Continuum, New York, Dover, 1994. 38. Wheeler, J. A., Einstein’s Vision, Springer, Berlin. 1968. 39. Wheeler, J. A., “From Relativity to Mutability.” Physicist’s Conception of Nature 1972, ed. J. Mehra, Dordrecht: Reidel, 1973, pp. 202-47. 40. Wheeler, J. A., “The Universe as Home for Man.” In The Nature of Scientific Discovery, ed. O. Gingerich, Washington, D.C.: Smithsonian Institution Press, 1975, pp. 261-96. 41. Wheeler, J. A., “Genesis and Observership.” In Foundational Problems in the Special Sciences, Eds. R. Butts and J. Hintikka, Dordrecht: Reidel, 1977, pp. 1-33. 42. Wheeler, J. A., “The Quantum and the Universe.” In Relativity, Quanta, and Cosmology in the Development of the Scientific Thought of Albert Einstein, ed. M. Pantaleo and F. de Finis, 807–25. New York: Johnson Reprint, 1979. 43. Wheeler, J. A., “On Recognising Law without Law.” American Journal of Physics 51, 1983 pp. 394–404. 44. Wheeler, J. A., “Bohr’s ‘Phenomenon’ and ‘Law Without Law’”, in G. Casati (ed) Chaotic Behaviour in Quantum Systems. Theory and Applications. Proceedings NATO Achievements, 1985, pp. 363-78. 45. Wheeler, J. A., “How Come the Quantum?” In New Techniques and Ideas in Quantum Measurement Theory, ed. D. M. Greenberger,. New York: New York Academy of Sciences, 1987, pp. 304–16 46. Wheeler, J. A., “World as a System Self-Synthesized by Quantum Networking.” IBM Journal of Research and Development 32, 1988, pp. 4–15. 47. Wheeler, J. A., At Home in the Universe. New York: American Institute of Physics, 1994. 48. Wheeler, J. A., “Time Today”, in J. J. Haliwell, J. Pe’rez-Mercader, W. H. Zurek (Eds.) Physical Origins of Time Asymmetry, Cambridge University Press, 1994, pp. 1-29. 49. Yannaras, C., Postmodern Metaphysics, Brookline, MS: Holy Cross Orthodox Press, 2004. Copyright ОАО «ЦКБ «БИБКОМ» & ООО «Aгентство Kнига-Cервис» Alexei V. Nesteruk. A “Participatory Universe” of J. A. Wheeler as an Intentional Correlate of Embodied Subjects… «Соучаствующая вселенная» Дж. А. Уилера как интенциональный коррелят воплощенных субъектов и как экспликация целесообразности в физике А.В. Нестерук Университет Портсмута Лайон Гэйт Бюлдинг, ПОРТСМУТ, РО1 3НF, Великобритания В этой статье мы продолжаем исследовать роль субъекта и ограничений, связанных с его познавательными способностями, в артикуляции вселенной в физике и космологии. В качестве примера рассматривается комплекс идей о так называемой соучаствующей вселенной, выдвинутых поздним Дж. А. Уилером. Целью статьи является экспликация роли человеческого наблюдателя как центра, из которого paскрывается и манифестируется вселенная, а также телеологии, присущей научному представлению о вселенной, проистекающей из внутренней целесообразности человеческой деятельности. Ключевые слова: целесообразность. вселенная, соучастие, субъект, наблюдатель, существование, Copyright ОАО «ЦКБ «БИБКОМ» & ООО «Aгентство Kнига-Cервис» Journal of Siberian Federal University. Humanities & Social Sciences 3 (2013 6) 438-454 ~~~ УДК 378.014.15 Forthcoming Plans for Institutional Transformation of Russian Higher Education Alexandr G. Kislov* and Ol’ga V. Shmurygina Institute of Sociology and Law, Russian State Professional Pedagogical University 11 Mashinostroiteley Str., Ekaterinburg, 620012 Russia Received 11.03.2013, received in revised form 18.03.2013, accepted 25.03.2013 The article is devoted to the identification (and self-identification) crisis that has been suffered lately in the sphere of higher education, and the prospects for overcoming it. In comparison with some developed countries, in Russia the crisis is more distinctive due to the traditional administrative limitation of higher education system autonomy, and of academic freedom of its employees and students. Firstly, understanding the crisis lead to the necessity to get back to the basics, which is, the history of university education. Secondly, it required to carry out comparative analysis of the philosophical reflection of this situation. Thirdly, a compilation of the research of current state of higher education in various countries and Russia in particular was necessary. As a result, the article demonstrates the exhaustion of higher education institutional capacity, and its increasing non-conformance to the needs and trends of modern society. The obtained results can be applied in the research works dealing with the evolution and development forecasts for higher education, its institutional perspectives, and in the practice of developing education policies at various levels. They can be useful to those who are trying to find their own path in the world of education. Consequently, we may conclude that currently in the world and in Russia in particular, processes of de-institutionalization of higher education are being launched; it is accompanied by the replacement of existing organization forms by the network, interpersonal, mobile and flexible ones. The network organisation of higher education is the power, which can lead it out of the crisis it has been facing. Keywords: high school, university, social institution, social networks. Introduction. The system of Russian higher education has been formed under the influence of European universities, and it is still trying to catch up with them today, which is proved by its official joining the Bologna process in the year 2003. Since the one thousand years of its existence, European higher education system, which is, first * of all, a university network, has become a special social institution, the scope and impact of which is enormous and can be compared to that of the state, church, family, mass media etc. Numerous multidiscipline researches have been devoted to it. An important role in understanding the function the higher education performs in the society © Siberian Federal University. All rights reserved Corresponding author E-mail address: [email protected] # 438 # Copyright ОАО «ЦКБ «БИБКОМ» & ООО «Aгентство Kнига-Cервис» Alexandr G. Kislov and Ol’ga V. Shmurygina. Forthcoming Plans for Institutional Transformation of Russian Higher… development is played by historical analysis of universities’ origin and development, which has been brilliantly carried out by J. Le Goff, J. Verger and others. They are the authors who determined the most essential features of a university: first of all, its institutional autonomy and academic freedom of the university corporation members, its teachers and students. In these works, special attention is paid to the interaction between the universities, the state, municipal (town, community) and religious authorities: the interinstitutional relations of the higher education establishments. Together with the historical research, a philosophic discussion concerning the mission (idea, meaning) of a university has been gaining momentum. It was defined by some authors as conduction of scientific research (W. Von Humboldt, K. Jaspers), and by others as reproduction of the social elite (J. Newman, M. Weber), creation of healthy society (E. Durkheim, N.I. Pirogov), or creation and reproduction of culture (J. Ortega y Gasset), entrepreneurial functions performance (B. Clark), reproduction of the social structure of the community (P. Bourdieu) etc. Theoretical framework. Let us assume that search for the mission (idea, meaning) and further comparison of the higher education realities with its (mission, idea, meaning) various formulations (depends on which term one prefers), is a methodological rudiment of Platonism, which is more useful in conditional theoretical classifications, not in practiceoriented research. We prefer the Anti-Platonism position which is represented by numerous thinkers (S. Kierkegaard, К. Маrx, F. Nietzsche, L. Shestov, К.Popper, E. Levinas, G. Deleuze, М. Foucault, J.-L. Nancy), who could be referred back to the Medieval nominalism. Based on the works of such authors as R. Barnett, J. Derrida, B. Readings, J. Habermas, the analytics and forecasts presented by Russian researchers, and analysis of the process that is going on in the higher education system at the present moment, we come to conclusion that the higher education system is going through a crisis as an institute that does not have any “super-historical” integral mission (idea or meaning), which would be true everywhere and every time. The search for such mission (idea, meaning) itself is a symptom of identification and self-identification crisis. And the way out of the crisis is not about formulating the mission. This is the reason why we are interested not in the Platonic, not idealistic or essencialistic approach, but a historical and relativistic one, which claims that higher education is a flexible historical phenomenon able to adjust for the requirements of a certain epoch; consequently, the declared (not determined by imaginary superhistorical eternity) mission (idea, meaning) of the university or any other higher education establishment varies depending on the current demands of the society. Considering these requirements along with constructing and reconstructing a functional answer of the higher education to the arising questions appear to be a more efficient direction of research than Platonist meditations and speculations on the idea (mission, meaning) of the higher education “itself”, in the style of, for example, E. Husserl phenomenology, which also tendentiously organizes the historical retrospective. All searches for the mission (idea, meaning) of the university bring up one of the numerous socially significant functions of the higher education to the forefront. That is why the theoretical and methodological framework of the research is composed by a combination of structural functional and institutional analysis principle with the network paradigm of a social structure, so the network paradigm is regarded not only as a synchronic accomplishment to the functional paradigm, but also as a dominant that # 439 # Copyright ОАО «ЦКБ «БИБКОМ» & ООО «Aгентство Kнига-Cервис» Alexandr G. Kislov and Ol’ga V. Shmurygina. Forthcoming Plans for Institutional Transformation of Russian Higher… replaces it in the diachronic dimension. The need of turning to the network paradigm as to the dominating one reflects the actual social process but does not cancel the importance of structural functional analysis, including that of the modern social processes. We find it significant that T. Veblen has already made the emphasis on the backlog of the higher education from the present requirements. It is typical for every social institution, especially in the context of increasing social dynamics. Veblen came up with the ideal model for the higher education system, the “academic aristocracy corporation”, based on the idea of “extra-academic organizations”, which means universities united into one network of international organizations. T. Veblen was one of the first people who spoke of the necessity to find a new organizational structure for the higher education which is already falling outside the scope of a social institution and, perhaps, is already forming an alternative to the institutions; basically, he spoke of the network interaction between universities, scientists, teachers and students, that will probably form a new social institution in the future. This offer is logically accompanied by the education revolution conception by T. Parson, who claims that higher education will become one of the most important social institutions influencing the social development as a whole, but for this it should, first of all, conform to the time requirements. R. Merton enriched this picture, having pointed out some latent functions of the higher education, which are primarily aimed at the preservation of the social status quo; this way he gave us a hint on where the mechanisms of the real, not just declared impact of the education on the society, are hidden. M. Foucault paid attention to the fact that all social institutions are bound with various types of interdependence and numerous relations of power (different in the content, intensiveness, the proportion of discountinuity-continuity and other characteristics). M. Foucault put the largest load on the “power-knowledge” concept, noticing that these two terms, usually regarded separately, should be studied together, as they form the base for disciplinary institutions, and the higher education is one of them (here it is much wider that the “knowledge-power” concept” by B. Bacon). A.I. Sosland, following the ideas by M.Foucault, presented the power as something totalitarian, incorporated into not only all social, but also the existential locus, and suggested that it is better use the “potestarity” term for this, as it denotes the capacity of power objects to make the opposite impact on its bearers. A.I. Sosland applied this term in conceptual reflection of psychotherapeutic practice; however, the development of M. Foucault’s ideas produced by him cannot be applied far beyond the borders of psychotherapy. The institutional characteristics of the higher education’s influence on the social reproduction were discovered and described by P. Bourdieu and J.-C. Passeron; moreover, they also operated the terms of symbolic power and symbolic violence. After that, P. Bourdieu paid attention to the extra-institutional mechanisms of education influence made on social processes. He was immediately close to the analysis of the network interaction, which is currently spreading around along with the institutional ones, and are already dominating in many cases. It is typical on the all-world level, too. In Russia and in the countries with similar historical and political fate it looks more complicated, as the processes are less smooth and gradual, often with harsh jerks; they flow under the conditions of a forced slowdown that aggravate and hypertrophy the outdated, and prolongs its life in a sort of “laboratory conditions”. The only thing the researchers can do is to take advantage of it to see the connection between the social # 440 # Copyright ОАО «ЦКБ «БИБКОМ» & ООО «Aгентство Kнига-Cервис» Alexandr G. Kislov and Ol’ga V. Shmurygina. Forthcoming Plans for Institutional Transformation of Russian Higher… processes in various conditions, countries, and their conceptual understanding. The founders of the “Network society” conception, J. Barnes and M. Castelles, paid a lot of attention to the kinds of human interaction that they described as “new”: the kind of interaction that is carried out with the information technologies (IT), due to the domination of information in the society, as its main recourse. They deliberately did not regard higher education as one of the possible net nodes. However, R. Collins conducted a large research of intellectual networks and proved that they had existed since the times of Ancient Greek and Chinese philosophers’ groups. Statement of the problem. So, the existence of the higher education institution has been of special interest and even of some concern, especially in the context of its enormous popularization, that has already leaded to the evident lowering the bar of academic standards (“people from the street came to the university”), harsh differentiating between elite and mass education establishments, which, perhaps, is only proving the ineradicable elitism of the university, as long as this phenomenon exists. But is its further existence guaranteed under the conditions of total pragmatization and commercialization? Does the higher education possess the institutional capacity to neutralize the negative consequences of ultimate popularization and the fall of academic standards, caused by it? Or is this capacity of extra-institutional origin? Or there is no capacity at all? If so, what is the higher education system going to transform into in the nearest future? Can it preserve its succession with the medieval university as a unique creation of the European civilization? After all, why did the higher education system appear at all? What was it like, what will it be like, what was it supposed to be, and why cannot it be another? Speaking of Russian higher education, we cannot and we must not isolate it from the all-European and world history and from the other similar, though not so acute problems of the higher education in the countries with the best economic, political and other indicators. Methods. The methods of our research are all connected to the interpretation and comparative analysis of the works written by those, who, in our opinion, succeeded in “grasping the Zeitgeist” (term by G. Hegel), express its intentions and trends, and also to the attempt of summarizing them in such a way that it would define the tendencies and prospects of the higher education system development. Our own evaluation plays not the last role in the process, due to the participants and experts with officially confirmed qualification who engaged themselves in the research. Discussion. As soon as its isolation within the pattern of social labour division started getting more and more distinct, the education sphere manifested itself as a hierarchized system. The separation of the higher education started back in the ancient times, when only the chosen representatives of the society (as a rule, the social elite) were allowed to acquire the sacral wisdom. This stage of education was the one reproducing the elite of the society and the state, the presence of such education endued – or it is even better to say, confirmed – the high social status. The sacral knowledge had its bearers, the keepers and teachers, whose authority was as undeniable as the sacral wisdom itself. But all this is quite far from the phenomenon the modern humankind called the higher education, and a university in particular. We can speak of its actual emergence after the creation of the medieval universities that were autonomous in the way that they were clearly independent from the external social factors that influenced many kinds of social relations, including the authority relations. After the Middle Ages the higher education got institutionalized # 441 # Copyright ОАО «ЦКБ «БИБКОМ» & ООО «Aгентство Kнига-Cервис» Alexandr G. Kislov and Ol’ga V. Shmurygina. Forthcoming Plans for Institutional Transformation of Russian Higher… and became one of the constituent parts of the institution system that had been complete by that time (consisting of the state, church, family, commune-cities, professional workshops etc.), integrated into it but did not dissolve in it. The interaction between the institutions actualized the need for legal regulation mechanisms, which also covered the sphere on inter-institutional relations. Speaking of social institutions, we traditionally mean the high organized transpersonal unions of people, that are characterized by stable structure, deep integration of its elements, diversity, flexibility and dynamism of its functions, the main purpose of which is to satisfy the main needs of the society in this or that sphere of its activity. This purpose is often declared in a pompous way and formulated with (frequently taken as sacral) rituals, symbols, and signs. Satisfaction of a series of social needs and the performance of some socially significant functions were the purpose for the first universities to appear. Their emergence was spontaneous, and only some time ago their status was officially recognized. The base for the special status of the university is the isolation of intellectuals as a social group, so much demanded by the European community: “If we try to define a European kind of an intellectual, it would be the following: “A person who is not just engaged in mostly intellectual work, but also a person who owes their special social status to this kind of activity”. The society officially issued a certificate confirming the person’s abilities and rights for intellectual work that they can carry out under the conditions of relative freedom. The combination of these features determines the European specificity of this kind of activity. Moreover, the authority issuing the certificate (an academic degree or a diploma) is a community of equals, a corporation of equals (a corporation of scientists) that works in an autonomous regime, though under supervision and with the approval of state authorities. This was the system that formed itself during the Middle Ages, and it became the university system: changeable, but at the same time surprisingly stable” (P. IU. Uvarov, 2010). The history of European universities at the early stages of their formation and development did not compose itself as a long-term project of some declared eternal mission. The ideas that were imagined to be in the base of the social institutions and their missions are already a projective result of historical retrospection. We can try revealing the reasons for universities’ emergence, and finding the explanation of the enormous interest shown to them by the state, church and European society as a whole, and only after that formulate the responsive influence of the universities on everything or on those many things that happen in the society. The first universities appeared as international corporations of teachers and students that formed around some school centres (Bologna, Paris, Montpellier, Oxford, Salamanca etc.) as a result of spontaneous pilgrimage of young people from the strata of city dwellers, knights and the lowest clergy ranks. The mentioned corporations became a special kind of guild (similarly to other craft guilds of a medieval town) which was different from the others with its openness and absence of monopoly. The open corporation of the university animated the life of the city where teachers and students started to gather; it raised the city’s significance by raising the average level of education and, therefore, attracted more foreigners, and increased the available goods’ range, developed and stimulated the market relations. That is why it did not take long before the universities acquired their official status. Attracting the attention of local authorities, they started concluding agreements on the price and amount of apartments for the # 442 # Copyright ОАО «ЦКБ «БИБКОМ» & ООО «Aгентство Kнига-Cервис» Alexandr G. Kislov and Ol’ga V. Shmurygina. Forthcoming Plans for Institutional Transformation of Russian Higher… university members, on meal prices, professor salaries, rector jurisdiction etc. Inside the corporation, a special university lifestyle was developing; among its attributive features, there were strive for knowledge and free communication, which opened the students and teachers’ community to other institutions and personalities, and brought the general cultural significance to the university. The ancient acquisition of the sacral wisdom by the chosen ones assumed only transmission of the wisdom, blocking any free, unlimited interaction with it. M.K. Petrov (1991) connected this fact to the peculiarities of the historically formed European sociality, which, back in antique times, had started to “approve deviations from the norm, made such terms as “talent”, “uniqueness”, “originality”, “author”, “plagiarism” etc. socially significant and transmissible”. M.K. Petrov “extracted” the science and the university institutionally devoted to it from the atomic structure of the archaic European society: the community is losing its totalitarian power over the individuals. The communality began to show the signs of strain, and from the strain new individuals appeared, the creative individuals capable of taking advantage of their liberty… but it is not the sense! The European community (society) eagerly replied the new ideas of these creative upstarts!!! Appearing here and there… Revenging, haunting, destroying them… but still, it replied (because it matched the new trend of social atomization, individualization, overwhelming it), and we can see how the creative upstart conquered almost the whole world!!! Until this time our society has been looking for legal limits and mechanisms to harmonize its interests with the interests of the unique ones, for the benefits of the society itself!!! This is the main peculiarity of our society, the roots of which go back to the antiquity and the middle Ages. R. Nisbet (1970) qualified the modern university as a splinter of the Middle Ages that has remained until today and that is still working not because it managed to adjust itself to the new rules of the total modern corruption of Gesellschaft (the university is able to live only according to the corporate norms and the equality of Gemeinschaft), but because the modern capitalistic society has nothing to do but adjust itself, as it has not succeeded to develop its own “transmutation transmission interior” (term by M.K. Petrov); for having no better alterative and no organic capacity to invent anything else, it is forced to tolerate this Medieval social institution. Under the attempts to subdue the higher education to some speculative models, driving the medieval university spirit out of it, the proposal that was articulated at the Conference of Social Responsibility of Scientists in London back in 1970 does not sound that scary as it first seemed: “It is time to think how to do the dissociation, maybe even total dissociation between the science and the governments of all countries… Separation the science from the state is similar to the process when the church was separated from the state and gained its status of an independent institution… It could have been an efficient measure, and the governments would take it under the threat of total termination of research” (M.K. Petrov, 1991). It is worth noticing that the medieval church and university inherited the antique rhetoric traditions developed by the polis democracy originated from the common gatherings (like “veche” for medieval Russia etc.). But, at such common gatherings not only logic was taken as the main argument; but the power of voice, suggestiveness, and the mystified authority of the speaker could be more relevant. Polis democracy, on the opposite, accustomed the citizens to calm judgement. Reasonable discussion following the rules of logic, without regard to the power # 443 # Copyright ОАО «ЦКБ «БИБКОМ» & ООО «Aгентство Kнига-Cервис» Alexandr G. Kislov and Ol’ga V. Shmurygina. Forthcoming Plans for Institutional Transformation of Russian Higher… of voice, suggestiveness or even the speaker’s authority was considered to be an important method of cognition: and this must be the roots of vitality (relevance) of free intellectuals and the university as their union! Even though it all started from monotonous recording of dictated antique texts, the necessity to comment them emerged quite soon. That is when the dissonance began! Moreover, at different universities the same text could be dictated from various re-writings of the original… And the “original” itself could be not the only one. They competed with each other just like the “originals” of the “unique” sanctities (numerous “heads of John the Baptist”, torn relicts of this or that saint, that, if put together, could form more than dozens or even hundreds of normal human bodies, etc.). So, it required using the intellect and polemic talents again! But the thing needed the most, was the logic. Even though in the Middle Ages authority was the main criterion for the truth (first of all, it was the authority of the Scripture and the Holy Tradition, and later, the authority of Aristotle, Plato, Roman lawyers and some others), the main method used was not the incantation (repeating after the authority), but the logical proof of the conformity of your own thought to the thoughts of the indisputable authority. The habit to provide logical proofs was polished and engrained there. After that the “only” thing left to do was to rain it down the indisputability, which, as you may know, inevitably happened. Why did this habit appear? Why was it necessary in Medieval Europe? – Probably, the military powers of disputing polities and their institutions were frequently equal (and there were many polities at that time!), so it was necessary to search for compromise as an alternative to mutual exhaustion and elimination. Discussion as a method of transferring a battle into the world of words and speculation, and reaching a practical compromise: it is not this or that party who is the winner, but the proved fact (it is not that important who proved it! – the truth is gradually depersonalized, deified and inevitably forced the God out, as an unnecessary alternate). This mind-set is very close to tolerance and freedom of speech, especially within a university auditorium. Despite the department differentiation, the first universities bred a person who would be more than just a professional, but an active bearer, subject of culture, a person with certain social objectives and a corresponding world outlook; a person who is not dissolved in their clan, parish, even the university corporation, but remaining an independent intellectual. That is why they naturally become education establishments “not for everyone”, but for the elite, for the people who in the future will take the highest governmental or church positions, or will take active part in the state administration in any other way. “The knowledge embodied in the Universities very soon transformed into the Strength, the Order itself. It was the Wisdom that ascended equally with Holiness and Power. The university members were striving to define themselves as intellectual aristocracy, possessing their own special ethics and their very own system of values” (J. Le Goff, 1977). But this institutionally independent and free position of the universities, fi rst of all, did not please the church, which was trying to control the whole system of medieval education, starting from the elementary monastery schools and the municipal cathedral schools. It was customary to think that only communion to the church sacraments can educate and breed a person. The church could not get along with the competitor, and independent spiritual authority that the universities fi nally became. For this reason, the church started enforcing its impact on the universities. But even in such situation it was possible to fi nd a small share of mutual # 444 # Copyright ОАО «ЦКБ «БИБКОМ» & ООО «Aгентство Kнига-Cервис» Alexandr G. Kislov and Ol’ga V. Shmurygina. Forthcoming Plans for Institutional Transformation of Russian Higher… profit, as in case of frequent legal disputes with the local authorities who usually turned to the university for intellectual support, and then, in its turn, provided the teachers with material, psychological and administrative assistance. Moreover, the church itself was interested in having some educated people within its hierarchy. The Popes were expecting the universities to create an integrative rational theological doctrine to help them fight against heresy and enforce the Pope’s power against the kings and the feudal lords. The dilemma faced by the medieval university teacher could be formulated as follows: students’ fee or beneficium. The first could make him comparatively free in relation to various forms of secular or spiritual authority, but at the same time extremely sensitive to the demands of the surrounding urban environment. To be demanded, the teacher had to be active in the social life, understand the changeable requirements and moods of the society. On the contrary, the beneficium would relieve the teacher from the necessity to make a living with work: basically, he would live the life of a beneficiary. In the XIII century the university teachers tended to live for the student fees. But gradually the situation started to change. Its reason was not only the desire of the teachers to choose the most reliable and stable income source. Choosing the beneficium as a way to make a living is the urging of the Catholic church, which required some free education, as any knowledge is the Gift of God, and, consequently, selling knowledge is the same as selling sacred things, or a type of simony. Therefore, the university could not avoid the beneficium, the role of which was usually played by the church itself. All in all, the result of the religious patronage is that the only person who can become a university professor is the one who also agrees to be materially dependent on the church. The further development of the university can be described with the words by J. Le Goff who spoke of it as of a long-lasting standstill caused by gradual transformation of the university corporation into a privileged cast living on the expense of a beneficium (or the church, as a rule) and taking less part in the city life. As a result, the universities started losing their role of intellectual centres. Many of them ceased to exist. On the border of the middle ages and the modern age, the universities went through significant changes connected to reinforcement of the national state authorities and the Reformation. Universities did not appear spontaneously any more, they were established by kings and after that they would began their work. The influence of the Catholic church was dramatically decreasing. Licentia docendi was eliminated along with praebenda, and the cleric professoriate was gone. But the state was cutting the autonomy of the university corporation more and more by issuing university and faculty statutes, interfering into the teaching process; governmental commissars strictly criticized and reviewed the curriculum, controlling the behaviour of teachers and students. Professor were turning into government officials. During the modern age, the idea of higher education accountability to the state became complete when, due to the industrial development the society began to feel more and more urge for workers of various professions and qualifications. The education system became oriented at creation and provision of human resources to the professional structures, satisfying the needs of various branches of production and industry. The society and the labour market needed military men, doctors, and technicians educated at the corresponding higher education establishments. The universities regained their status of privileged education establishments accessible only to the # 445 # Copyright ОАО «ЦКБ «БИБКОМ» & ООО «Aгентство Kнига-Cервис» Alexandr G. Kislov and Ol’ga V. Shmurygina. Forthcoming Plans for Institutional Transformation of Russian Higher… chosen representatives of the society, whose future profession is to rule the state. This was the time when, in conformance with the Zeitgeist, the idea that the education contributed a rational element into the state administration, first emerged. This rationality was regarded in various ways. On one hand, the state administration bodies structure and control the education system. On the other hand, the education system (and the higher education in particular) breeds the people who deal with state construction and management, develop the principles, basics and ideologies of state administration. That is how the interdependence of the education system and the state bodies appeared. The universities which were initially created as relatively independent organizations were expected to produce scientific knowledge for bringing rationality into the state administration. However, the state authority structures gradually began to use the university in their own purposes, including their current business interests. Basically speaking, it was not the university forming the state authority, but the authority creating the “university” it needed to produce the knowledge required by the state, on behalf of which the officials, looking out for themselves, usually like to speak. All this leaded to another crisis that manifested itself in oblivion of science, domination of practical knowledge and affordability of the higher education to the people who have no capacity to learn, but some financial capacity and good relations in the society. It was in the modern age, when, due to the reflection on universality or practicality of the knowledge provided by universities, on its capacity and influence made on them by various external (state, church and other) powers, the first research works appeared that dealt with the search or approval of the university idea, which is still being disputed even during the present time, considering that any ideas or missions are always declarative and impossible to verify. The talks and the disputes about them usually bear speculative character but also have a socio-mobilizing significance: idea is an objective, code, password for the chosen ones, connected to a certain social institution. But sometimes conditional things are taken for unconditional. In the beginning of the XX century higher education system was a complete, complicated social institution, the demand for which had been proved, besides many other factors, by considerable increase in the number of students, and, therefore, of universities, too. And the universities themselves began to transform from compact establishments into large organisations with numerous branches and representatives. It seemed like higher education reached the peak of its institutional success. However, the growth of the system leaded to a series of organizational difficulties, which made their impact on many aspects of university life and other life spheres as well. Due to the growing popularity of the higher education, the state began to involve the money paid by the students (their parents, guardians, target funds working on repayable basis, potential employers etc.) into fi nancing the university. This rapid commercialization aggravated the popularization, and lead to the situation of endless egalitarisation of the higher education: the quality of students and colleges could not help decreasing, and the decrease was quite evident. The victims of student quality decrease that the universities were volens nolens adjusting to, were the traditional academic standards (values, norms, rituals), (A.G. Kislov, 2008) and the impact was so big that they required strong administrative assistance, like, for example, state education standards (in Russia, for example). But they did not prevent the frequent replacement # 446 # Copyright ОАО «ЦКБ «БИБКОМ» & ООО «Aгентство Kнига-Cервис» Alexandr G. Kislov and Ol’ga V. Shmurygina. Forthcoming Plans for Institutional Transformation of Russian Higher… of scientists with born accountants in the administration of higher or any other sphere of education (E.A. Yamburg, 2012): commercial interests could not but gained the advantage of the academic once, especially in the cases when the state regularly did not carry out its financial obligations, as it was, for example, in Russia in the 1990s. It means that the academic level of the administrators and the higher education management also decreased. The number of teaching personnel was inevitably growing together with the number of students, was dragging behind the required; they turned into mere “class givers”, with a large share of copycat researchers, which means that the academic level of the teachers and teaching, the scientists (by profession), and the researches carried out by the “scientists” including the research results also dropped. Human resources departments of the universities also lowered the hiring bar; it could not be prevented either by the administrative measures or the certification and accreditation requirements, though regularly toughened, but still dramatically dragging behind the actual situation and bringing nothing but useless complications. It is also proved by the research carried out by the Siberian experts in the years 2010-2012: “The attempts to “fight” all symptoms of crisis in the higher education using only administrative measures without the deep system modifications (that would change the functions performed by the higher education in the society, its connection and interaction with the other institutions, super-tasks of its activity, actual positions and mind-sets of the students, teachers, researchers, administrators) leaded only to the emergence of an additional “layer”, the “layer” of falsification and imitation. It is imitation of reforms and development management: “administrators pretend to be ruling the modernization, research and education processes” (V.S. Efimov, A.V. Lapteva, V.A. Dadasheva, A.V. Efimov, 2012). The struggle of the Russian state, its education authorities and university administrators for the academic degree quality is also prominent: the measures are numerous and diverse, the procedures are complicated, up to video recording of the Thesis Board work during the thesis defence process, which was taken by the Board member as a humiliation: turning public and regulated instead of remaining autonomous and preserving the academic freedom of the expert communities, aggravated by the complains of the “fighters for improvement” and of the dissertation research level decrease. You can also have a look at the story about implementation of the professional and social expertise (“management system”) of quality management systems into the higher education system. The fact that it was initiated by the state (in such a way that the universities could not decline it), not by the universities or by any university organisations (voluntarily), contradicts the meaning of the quality management system itself, and speaks of distrust shown to the higher education as an institution, unable to control its activities on its own. The specialists have been warning us: “The main peculiarity of implementing ISO standards is inefficiency and inexperience of implementing them by directive methods. The base for them is the principle of voluntariness and economic interest” (V.N. Spitsnadel’, 2000). However, the resolution of the Federal Education and Science Supervision Agency dated 30.09.2005 No.1938 “On Introduction of Activity Indicators and Criteria for State Certification Determining the Status of Russian Education Establishments as a “Higher Education Establishment”, and “1.2. Education Quality” Indicator Including “Efficiency of the Inter-University Education Quality Assurance System” in Particular”. The presence of such system became almost # 447 # Copyright ОАО «ЦКБ «БИБКОМ» & ООО «Aгентство Kнига-Cервис» Alexandr G. Kislov and Ol’ga V. Shmurygina. Forthcoming Plans for Institutional Transformation of Russian Higher… obligatory for all the universities willing to be certified by the state. Since the year 2007, even those universities of Russia that did not hurry to implement the innovation, created some structural departments to do the work they had never done before, as they used to follow those clauses on the education quality that were included into the federal and regional legislation, and the bylaws resulting directly from them (like Education Control and Supervision Rules, Clauses for the Federal Education and Science Supervision Agency etc.). Higher education system has institutionally included this strange, foreign control system repeating the state quality management control and supervision systems, which is, honestly speaking, quite expensive for the universities, and not only because it requires providing salaries to the quality control department employees. It is not that much. Payment for the regular external expertise is much higher. As for the additional time and effort required by the QC departments from all the university workers, it is better to describe the situation not with figures, but with a quotation created by the people, and speaking much more of the higher education system problems: “School is gradually turning into a place where students are preventing the administration and the teachers from doing their paperwork” (E. A. Iamburg, 2012). The university situation is more transparent: a student paying the education fee is interesting for the university and its administration as a paying customer, but the teachers have less and less time and capacity for providing this customer with high quality service! Because, first of all, they have to do file and paper work that may be reviewed by experts and inspectors. The review reports will be used for making conclusion on the quality of the service provided by the teacher and the university as a whole. This conclusion (in the form of State Certificate, ISO Certificate or Quality Contest Winner Certificate) will be accessible to the potential clients. Looking at this, the future clients may or may not choose the university. It can be only corrected with “the word of mouth” and rumours, the only source of the information on how the university works with its direct customers (students). That is why the universities also open PR Departments: the social institution only reacts to other institutions (the state as a customer and, first of all, as a supervising authority, and to the families as their main customers). The question that arises is: who gets the profit of such situation in the Russian higher education system? Who needs the double control and reports? For sure, it is not the students, as the teachers sometimes do not have the time to deal with them due to the necessity to write a heap of reports. It is not the professors as well, as according to their education and mission they are teachers, not clerks (managers, administrators, bureaucrats, writers of long self-audition reports, corrective and preventive action plans, and other “masterpieces”). Besides the reports, the modern Russian university teachers have to produce numerous texts of education programs, working programs and their courseware, besides normal pedagogical, methodological and research activity. Multiply it by enforced search for additional work, as the salary paid to the teachers does not let them have any free time (which is the major condition for creation, scientific and pedagogical research). The word “quality” sounds like mockery in such a situation. However, the frequency of mentioning “education quality” is stunning. This word combination is being recited like a mantra in numerous scientific articles, administrative documents and mass media. We get the feeling that the word itself, as a spell, can inspire the educational space of the county with its magic power, improving the universities, students, # 448 # Copyright ОАО «ЦКБ «БИБКОМ» & ООО «Aгентство Kнига-Cервис» Alexandr G. Kislov and Ol’ga V. Shmurygina. Forthcoming Plans for Institutional Transformation of Russian Higher… professors and even administrators. Considering our traditions, it is possible that there are many people who do believe that. But for the others this abusing recitation looks like an euphemism that is aimed at concealing the real words that truly describe what is going on in the higher education system: having imposed the QMC systems on the universities, the state expressed its distrust towards themselves, their customers and the society as a whole. While education is a trust-based service, the main difference of which from the other goods and services is that “it is impossible to measure the quality of the service for them who order, purchase, buy them; when it is possible to measure it, it is usually too late… the consumers of such goods can only trust the evaluations provided by experts… So, the best expert for the education is a person integrated into the academic community (IA.I. Kuz’minov, 2007). But the trust-based relations between the student, university, applicants, academic community experts united by a certification organization or a quality supervision commission, is brazenly interfered by the state: it cannot have enough of the education standards, of the headstrong accreditation requirements; it needs to implement the quality management: as the university and its customers have not matured for this, it is condemned to remain nothing but a paper chase, accompanied by replacing real reports with eyewash. Recently some changes concerning the Russian state attitude towards the higher education QMC were introduced: a clause obliging the universities to have a Quality Management system within their structure was removed from the Resolution of the Russian Federation Ministry of Education and Science dated 02.09.2011 No.2253 “On Approval of Higher Education, Secondary Vocational and Elementary Vocational Education Establishment Activity Criteria for Setting Their Official Status”. Russian Education and Science Supervision Agency issued Resolution dated 25.10.2011 No.2267 “On Setting the Criteria for Defining the Type and Kind of a Higher Professional and Secondary Vocational Education Establishment”, which also did not mention the quality management system. On February 20, 2012, the Resolution No.123 “On Introduction of the Administrative Regulation for the State Certification Service for the Educational Establishment and Scientific Organizations Provided by the Federal Education and Science Supervision Agency” describes the procedure of the state certification procedure for education establishments and scientific organisations carried out by the Russian Education and Science Supervision Agency. Its Paragraph 12 h) goes as follows: “The Organisation can attach some data on the public (social and professional) certification of the organization in Russian, foreign, international educational, scientific, social and other organisations to their application. The data is reviewed during the certification expertise”. So, the social and professional certification of the university in Russian, foreign and international educational, scientific, social and other organisations, and, therefore, the interuniversity quality management system is not obligatory anymore. The justice was finally served, though it was quite late. But still, from the Regulation we arrive at the conclusion that public and professional certification, along with the inter-university quality management system are still advisable by the state. And any decision on the methods and consideration of the public and professional certification results is still up to the Russian Education and Science Supervision Agency (which is not regulated in any way), and then, as the experience shows, any bureaucratic surprises can be expected. But the surprises made by the state are not only bureaucratic. For example, the re-elected # 449 # Copyright ОАО «ЦКБ «БИБКОМ» & ООО «Aгентство Kнига-Cервис» Alexandr G. Kislov and Ol’ga V. Shmurygina. Forthcoming Plans for Institutional Transformation of Russian Higher… President V.V. Putin also did not neglect the problem of the higher education quality. May 9, 2012, he issued the Resolution dated May 7, 2012, No.599 “On the Measures on Implementation of State Policy Concerning Education and Science” which says: “in order to improve the state policy concerning education, science and preparing qualified specialists considering the requirements of innovative economy, I decree: … 4. The Government of the Russian Federation in cooperation with the all-Russian employer unions and the leading universities, with the assistance of the representatives of the Russian Academy of Sciences and international experts, present their suggestion concerning the public professional accreditation of the higher professional education programs, first of all, the programs for educating specialists in the sphere of economy, law, management and sociology”, which means, that public professional certification of the higher professional education is not among the priority activities of the President. But it is not the surprise. The paragraph 1 a) of the same Decree delegates the Government of the Russian Federation “till the end of December 2012, to complete the monitoring of the state education establishments in order to assess the efficiency of their work, reorganize the inefficient state education establishments and in such case provide the students of such education establishments with the opportunity to finish their studies at another education facility”. Today the criteria for the higher education system “comb-out” are ready and its parameters have been determined: 20% of the existing higher education establishments and 30% of higher education establishments’ branches are to be eliminated. What is the reason of setting such a share, no one knows. However, a little earlier the state pointed out several higher education establishments – the best of the kind, according to the opinion of their administration, – and granted them the status of Federal Universities. The status of National Research University is granted not forever, but to the best. The best are promised to get the best funding from the state. All the mentioned governmental measures taken by the Russian Federation indicate the mistrust of the state to the higher education institution, and the reasons of this are evident; it is not just one more reflection of state arbitrariness. It is better to say that the reaction of the state to the existing reasons is arbitrary. And these reasons are of institutional origin. They brought to the loss of the face and decrease of the prestige of the higher education system, including the university symbols and even the graduation documents (diplomas are sometimes rather “bought on the hire-purchase system” than deserved by hard work). In such a situation the neurasthenic presentiments of soon “university collapse”, expressed by especially sensitive personalities, are quite understandable. However, we should dot neglect the presentiments of the same kind of “collapse” of the theatre, cinema, and starting from the recent times, religion as well. Moreover, the distinctive way the information and computer technologies push the impoverished elements of the university education out aggravating the depersonalization of university education, cannot be left without attention. But due to this fact, a way out was found; though it was not organized by anyone, and administrative reaction was quite helpless, ridiculous and inappropriate. Higher education has always born a research element in it. It is also unthinkable without active, spontaneous and free communication between its employees. That is why the researches of all times, which means, long ago before the computer technologies emerged, had been bound by the phenomenon which is now called “social network”. The information and computer # 450 # Copyright ОАО «ЦКБ «БИБКОМ» & ООО «Aгентство Kнига-Cервис» Alexandr G. Kislov and Ol’ga V. Shmurygina. Forthcoming Plans for Institutional Transformation of Russian Higher… technologies, especially those created on the Internet base, are amazingly efficient in providing network communication. Scientists, including the university ones, began to use them actively, and now everyone who is in any way related to the higher education is involved into the network. So, the future, when “the technologies of personalityoriented education… will be implemented outside the higher education institution, in the environmental forms of education” (V.S. Efimov, A.V. Lapteva, V.A. Dadasheva, A.V. Efimov, 2012), which is in the place where the extrainstitutional, network interaction forms, is not that far away. “Network Society”, as M. Castells described it, is a complex of interconnected nods, among which M. Castells lists television channels and studios that make programs and develop computer graphics, journalist groups, transportable technical apparatus etc. But he did not consider such powerful network nods as higher education establishments that, in the person of teachers and students, also include representatives of extremely diverse networks. The functions of the social networks are never limited to mere communication and transfer of existing information. Communication node here is a social subject that is able to process, store, and create information, like a computer inside a computer network; moreover, this subject possesses the freedom of action and will. It can be a network structure of a group of individuals (including groups of revolutionaries or terrorists), a network of branches, organizations, and institutions. Every mesh of a social network can both clone the one it originated from and make its individual element. Modern communication facilities provide the opportunity to make networks both of the similar and the different, to create both clones and individuals able to perform both linear and complex operations. These are not only the networks that unite social subjects, but also the subjects themselves entering various networks, able to unite them. Modern networks can expand and contract, open and close, form exquisite geometry of coverage, quickly include new members and get rid of them. All these mean a new stage of the social structure that has little in common with the “mechanistic solidarity” of E. Durkheim (A.V. Nazarchuk, 2008). The base for the network interaction is information exchange harshly intensified due to the information and computer technologies; its intensiveness has become so strong that its main element now is not reaching some certain aims (even if they are reached, it is a by-product of the main process), but the presence of some common, interesting element that is significant for many people and binds them together. Unlike hierarchy structures, a network can easily bind both likeminded people and those who stick to opposite opinions, but like to gather due to a common interest in solving a problem, implementing a project etc. It may sound surprising, but one of the brightest examples of this are the medieval universities that were created as independent unions of students and teachers, based, primarily, on the interest to the antique heritage, and secondarily on the other interests. The fi rst universities were network associations, as they did not possess any institutional features that appeared later as a result of interaction with other social institutions (city, state, church etc.). It is worth noticing that the concepts of a social institution also evolve in the way vividly illustrated by, for example, so-called “new institutional theory” by O. Williamson. He considerably reduces the significance of the prerequisites of subject rationality, and, therefore, confirms the impossibility to conclude complete (considering all possible circumstances and # 451 # Copyright ОАО «ЦКБ «БИБКОМ» & ООО «Aгентство Kнига-Cервис» Alexandr G. Kislov and Ol’ga V. Shmurygina. Forthcoming Plans for Institutional Transformation of Russian Higher… consequences) contracts (including education contracts). “Relational Contracts” are the category which appears to be in the centre of attention; such contracts set general rules for bargain parties’ interaction to adjust the structure of their relationship to the changing circumstances. The inevitable gap between the contract clauses at the stage of contract conclusion and at the stage of its performance conditions the need to study the process of contraction as an integral process flowing within some time limits and continuously going beyond the limits foreseen by any rules, as a live process accompanied by some urgent informal extra-institutional agreements, their active dialogue. Once, the ideologists of Pan-Clericalism and Pan-Etatism hit the limits of institutional capacities. Life has never confirmed this institutional maximalism. Today we observe the exhaustion of the institutional capacities of the higher education. Having lost touch with the more or less autonomous institution of the higher education, the academic freedom spirit moved to the extrainstitutional sphere of the social networks, where there is no formal hierarchy, but, the most important, there is a non-regulated and intriguing one with new opportunities of intellectual selffulfilment for those, who are just the same as the university creators and for whom the universities were revived; an artistic model of this can be, for example, Castalia from “Das Glasperlenspiel” by von H. Hesse. Today we observe the processes of active, spontaneous and, for now, elemental deinstitutionalization of the higher education, especially the activity of those involved or, literally speaking, attached researchers, whose activity is mostly focused on the theory sphere. As practice and experiment require more financial support, which in a much more distinctive way foresees institutionalized interaction, e.g. not only the network one. Networks have the capacity to relieve from various kinds of responsibility. And only few enthusiast grantors can afford risking their money. However, temporary scientific and research groups have already proved their competitive ability in comparison with bureaucratized research institutes or universities. It is remarkable that the universities themselves strive for creating new network forms of interaction (Anatoliy V. Bucharov, Vladimir I. Kirko, Vladimir G. Zinov, 2008), including interaction on the international level (Natalya P. Koptseva, 2010). But higher education includes not only research, but also the teaching activity which is often very restricted, in some universities and even countries they keep strangling even the smallest academic liberties. In such situation, the alternative network form of interaction between the students and teachers replaces, not accomplishes, the traditional one, and it may also cover students and teachers from other education establishments. The role of the teachers, consultants, experts can be also played by volunteers, on a remuneration basis as well. Technologically, there is everything for deinstitutionalization of the education process itself, except for the stage of final examination, granting a qualification, handing the graduation documents. But even here some innovations can be introduced. The Siberian experts quoted above declare: “In the higher education system, the mass imitation and falsification of education is taking place” (V.S. Efi mov, A.V. Lapteva, V.A. Dadasheva, A.V. Efi mov, 2012). But it is not because “the higher education crisis in Russia is determined by the “jam up” on the industrial development phase and block of further movement to post-industrial perspective” (Ibid.). Today a new, institutionalnetwork model of higher education organization is developing in Russia; this system is radically # 452 # Copyright ОАО «ЦКБ «БИБКОМ» & ООО «Aгентство Kнига-Cервис» Alexandr G. Kislov and Ol’ga V. Shmurygina. Forthcoming Plans for Institutional Transformation of Russian Higher… widening the sphere of academic liberties, tearing it off the institutional autonomy of the university, violated by the state, eliminating it as an obligatory condition. The models of institutional, organizational and legal structure of higher education system can be different, while from the content and technological point of view the prevalence of networks and horizontal bonds is inevitable, which corresponds to the dominating outlook context of the present time: it does not need any absolute, any ultimate perfection, a prevailing vertical, an authority beyond exception, the only way, fi nal judgments and full guarantees; the world appears dynamic, pulsing, undetermined, unpredictable. In such a world “higher” education is the same convention as the “universality” of a university. Conclusion / Results. In Russia and in the world as a whole the processes of deinstitutionalizing the higher education system are being unwind, the existing organizational forms are replaced by the network relations which are more direct, interpersonal, mobile and flexible; such networks forms of organization the higher education life can lead it out the crisis it is suffering now. References 1. Uvarov P.IU. U istokov universitetskoy korporatsii [At the origins of university corporativeness], public lecture, available at: http://www.polit.ru/lectures/2010/02/04/university/ 2. Petrov M.K. Yazyk, znak, kul’tura [Language, sign, culture]. Moscow, 1991, 328 p., available at: http://www.gramotey.com/?open_file=1269058127 3. Nisbet R. The Degradation of the Academic Dogma: The University in America, 1945–1970. N.Y., 1970. 252 p. 4. Le Goff J. Pour un autre Moyen Âge: temps, travail et culture en occident. 18 essais, Paris, Gallimard (Bibliothèque des histoires, 31), 1977 [réimpr.: 1979; 1991], 627 p. 5. Kislov A.G. O postakademicheskikh perspektivakh universitetov. Pravo i obrazovanie, 2008, No. 1, p.34-46 [On post-academic prospects of the universities], available at: http://www.lexed.ru/ pravo/notes/conf/?kislov.html 6. Spitsnadel’ V.N. Sistema kachestva (v sootvetstvii s mezhdunarodnym standartom ISO semeystva 9000): razrabotka, sertifikatsiia, vnedrenie i dal’neyshee razvitie: Uchebnoe posobie [Quality management systems (in conformance with the international ISO 9000 standards): development, certification, implementation and further improvement: Textbook], Saint Petersburg, Businesspressa, 2000, 336 p. 7. Yamburg E.A. Blizorukiy bukhgalter prishёl na smenu uchiteliu [A short-sighted accountant replaced the teacher] Novaia gazeta. (New Newspaper) 11.05.2012, No.No.50-51, available at: http://www.novayagazeta.ru/society/52529.html 8. Kuz’minov IA.I. Nashi universitety [Our universities] Universitetskoe upravlenie: praktika i analiz (University management: practice and analysis), 2007, No.3 (48), p. 8-17, available at: http:// ecsocman.hse.ru/text/33476118/ 9. Nazarchuk A.V. Setevoe obshchestvo i ego filosofskoe osmyslenie [Network community and its philosophic understanding] Voprosy filosofii (Philosophy issues), 2008, No.7, p. 61-75 10. Efimov V.S., Lapteva A.V., Dadasheva V.A., Efimov A.V. Budushchee vysshey shkoly v Rossii: ėkspertnyy vzgliad. Forsayt-issledovanie-2030: analiticheskiy doklad [The future of the higher education in Russian: expert opinion. Foresight research-2030: analytical # 453 # Copyright ОАО «ЦКБ «БИБКОМ» & ООО «Aгентство Kнига-Cервис» Alexandr G. Kislov and Ol’ga V. Shmurygina. Forthcoming Plans for Institutional Transformation of Russian Higher… report] Krasnoyarsk, 2012, available at: http://www.kspu.ru/upload/documents/2012/06/14/ d690dbbc6dedeb190b6a84d73983cb43/prezentatsiya-doklada.pdf Перспектива институциональной трансформации российской высшей школы А.Г. Кислов, О.В. Шмурыгина Институт социологии и права, Российский государственный профессионально-педагогический университет Россия 620012, Екатеринбург, Машиностроителей, 11 Статья посвящена идентификации (и самоидентификации) кризиса, который возник в последнее время в сфере высшего образования, и перспективам его преодоления. По сравнению с некоторыми развитыми странами в России кризис более значителен из-за традиционных административных ограничений высшей автономии системы образования и академической свободы сотрудников и студентов. Во-первых, понимание кризиса приводит к необходимости вернуться к основам университетского образования. Во-вторых, следует провести сравнительный анализ философской рефлексии этой ситуации. В-третьих, исследование текущего состояния высшего образования в различных странах и России, в частности, было необходимо. В результате статья демонстрирует истощение институционального потенциала и увеличение его несоответствия потребностям и тенденциям современного общества. Полученные результаты могут быть использованы в исследовательских работах, связанных с эволюцией и прогнозами развития высшего образования, его институциональной точкой зрения, а также в практике разработки политики в области образования на различных уровнях. Они могут быть полезны для тех, кто пытается найти собственный путь в мире образования. Следовательно, мы можем заключить, что в настоящее время в мире и в России, в частности, процесс деинституционализации высшего образования запущен, он сопровождается заменой существующих форм организацией в сети, межличностной, мобильной и гибкой. Сеть организации высшего образования есть сила, которая может вывести его из кризиса. Ключевые слова: высшая школа, университет, социальные институты, социальные сети. Copyright ОАО «ЦКБ «БИБКОМ» & ООО «Aгентство Kнига-Cервис» Journal of Siberian Federal University. Humanities & Social Sciences 3 (2013 6) 455-467 ~~~ УДК 372.12 Professional Autonomy of a University Teacher in the USA and Russia: Freedom from Control or Freedom for Development? Oksana A. Gavriliuk* and Anastasiya V. Lakhno Krasnoyarsk State Medical University named after Prof. V. F. Voino-Yasenetsky 1 Partisan Zheleznyak Str., Krasnoyarsk, 660022 Russia Received 11.03.2013, received in revised form 18.03.2013, accepted 25.03.2013 The present study aims to investigate the phenomenon of teacher autonomy, which has mostly been explored in the U.S. and is now attracting attention of educational researchers in other countries including Russia. Due to its complexity, the phenomenon of teacher autonomy is still not strictly defined and remains accepted in a variety of forms. Meanwhile, the meaning attributed to the concept of teacher autonomy has great significance in the context of both American and Russian systems of higher education. Analysis of the educational context in both countries and study of research works on the problem under investigation in the context of general concepts of humanistic and cognitive psychology, democratization of education and life-long learning allowed us to define the concept of university teacher professional autonomy as well as to determine special intrinsic and extrinsic conditions which can insure development of professional autonomy skills in young university teachers. Keywords: higher education, teacher professional autonomy, free choice, critical reflection, pedagogical freedom, decision-making, professional self-development, independence, empowerment, personal agency, responsibility. Introduction Modern educational system, following the world tendency for society democratization and humanization, is aimed at introduction of the ideas of changeable, multilevel, differentiated education. Due to ongoing globalization and subsequent growing interdependence of education research across geographical boundaries developing learner autonomy (which is generally defined as “the ability to take charge of one’s own learning” (Holec, 1981, p. 3) has become one of the major educational goals in many countries. * This causes higher education institutions’ faculty to be involved in making various important decisions that include devising course syllabi; choosing teaching forms, methods and materials; mastering new forms of learning environment (e.g. virtual learning environment), coming up with new classroom ideas for promoting learner autonomy. Modern educational documents state that one of the primary goals of the higher education reform is to introduce a new method of teaching focusing on the students’ needs, interests and demands © Siberian Federal University. All rights reserved Corresponding author E-mail address: [email protected] # 455 # Copyright ОАО «ЦКБ «БИБКОМ» & ООО «Aгентство Kнига-Cервис» Oksana A. Gavriliuk and Anastasiya V. Lakhno. Professional Autonomy of a University Teacher in the USA and Russia… and considering their diversities. This can be done if teachers take initiative in curriculum development. Therefore, new responsibilities have been assigned to university teachers. This forms objective preconditions for the recognition of a teacher’s leading role in providing quality education. Indeed, “from the point of view of acmeological science a professional can be trained only by a professional, who is capable of self-education, self-organization and selfcontrol” (Shurupova, 2009, p. 169). As TortMoloney, Little, McGrath and Smith have claimed, teachers who are not autonomous themselves may have a negative influence on the development of their students’ autonomy (Tort-Moloney, 1997; McGrath, 2000; Smith, 2000). In relation to this, teacher autonomy has been actively encouraged for more than ten years in the United States and many European countries and is becoming an issue in Russia, especially in the field of foreign language education (Allwright, 1990; Little, 1994, 1995, 2001; Voller, 1997; Benson, 2000; Smith, 2000; Aoki 2002; Tambovkina, 2000; Koriakovtseva, 2001; Nosacheva, 2010; et al.). There is a growing body of literature demonstrating that the notion of teacher autonomy is a necessary and complementary part of the learner autonomy concept. Over the last decade several foreign authors have emphasized the fact that the promotion of learner autonomy depends on the promotion of teacher autonomy (Little, 1995, 2001; Smith, 2000; Benson, 2000; Aoki, 2002). As K. Castle states, “teacher autonomy will equip teachers to be curriculum creators not just curriculum enactors. Autonomous teachers co-create curriculum with children. They help children become more autonomous through pursuing topics and questions of interest to children themselves” (Castle, 2004, p. 7). It is also suggested that more autonomous teachers feel greater job satisfaction (Davis & Wilson, 2000; Pearson & Moomaw, 2006), experience better outcomes in teaching (Little, 2001), and are more likely to avoid stress, professional demotivation and attrition or burnout (Pearson & Moomaw, 2005). Autonomy has also been identified as necessary for a teacher’s sense of professionalism (Ingersoll & Alsalam, 1997; Hanson, 2003; Pearson & Moomaw, 2006). With all the efforts to investigate this relatively new concept embracing both professional and teaching components, there is a teacher autonomy paradox: being widely discussed, teacher autonomy still does not have a strict defi nition. Today it remains accepted in a variety of forms: from “right to freedom from control” (Pearson & Hall, 1993) and “capacity to engage in self-directed teaching” (Little, 1995) to the “state of being when isolated teachers operate a classroom in an independent, noncollaborative manner” (Willner, 1990). Several attempts were made to defi ne the concept (Little, 1994, 1995; Tort-Moloney, 1997; McGrath, 2000; Smith, 2000; Benson, 2000; Aoki, 2002; Atsushi, 2009, et al.), but the questions of what particular competences and conditions are required for teachers to be autonomous and what influences the level of autonomy felt by teachers remain open. This problem compels us to focus on solving several issues. Firstly, it is necessary to analyze the existing conceptions of teacher autonomy and establish the basis for the interpretation of the phenomenon. Secondly, it is important to reveal the specifics of educational contexts and personal factors, which may influence the development of university teacher autonomy in the USA and Russia. Thirdly, our solution to the university teacher autonomy problem in Russia has to be provided. # 456 # Copyright ОАО «ЦКБ «БИБКОМ» & ООО «Aгентство Kнига-Cервис» Oksana A. Gavriliuk and Anastasiya V. Lakhno. Professional Autonomy of a University Teacher in the USA and Russia… Conceptions of teacher autonomy in American and Russian contexts It should be pointed out that conceptions of teacher autonomy employed by American researchers were often limited to teachers’ control over their work practices. Based on this conception are Kevin Carey’s views, according to which “the real problem in public education isn’t too little teacher autonomy – it’s too much” (Carey, 2008). In his opinion, due to American tradition of local educational control with thousands of districts and tens of thousands of schools, each deciding on their own what students need to learn, teacher autonomy historically has been misinterpreted as “not just how to teach but what to teach and how to assess the results”. He blames American teachers’ unions that became influential in the 1960s and 1970s and considered teachers’ rights and classroom autonomy as key elements of elevating teaching into the realm of respected, well-paid professions. According to Kevin Carey, this resulted in several issues: 1. The autonomy ideal was extended to resist any kind of meaningful teacher evaluation (in 2008 the United Federation of Teachers in New York created a moratorium on basing tenure decisions on “student performance data” of any kind), which led to the fact that really good teachers become harder to find. 2. American teachers had no common expectations or accountability for how much a student learned by the end of the year and this has led to calls for the education reform, including common standards for all students. 3. Instead of balancing policies focused on increasing both teacher quality and quantity, the focus has been on quantity alone (in 1965 the national student/teacher ratio was 25 to one, today it’s 15 to one, the lowest in history). At the same time training provided to novice teachers prior to their entering a classroom is insufficient as well as the mentoring they are given after starting the job. Also, teachers are not held accountable for learning results, which degrades the accomplishments of the best among them. As a result, the term “autonomy” very often conceals the lack of support teachers receive in schools. On this basis Kevin Carey argues for relinquishing the existing kind of autonomy and promoting a newer, better kind of autonomy based on teachers’ collaboration and evaluation. He further claims that teachers shouldn’t define what success means, but they should have freedom to achieve it and be recognized for doing so (Carey, 2008). The difficulties in defining teacher autonomy can be explained by the fact that the term “autonomy” is used in a wide variety of meanings and in numerous philosophical, psychological and pedagogical settings. Let’s refer to some of the most often used definitions of personal autonomy and teacher autonomy, given by foreign researchers. G. Dworkin describes autonomy as a global property referring to a person as a whole, not to particular acts (Dworkin, 1988, p. 16). Thus, personal autonomy is meant as a trait that individuals can exhibit relative to any aspects of their lives, not limited to questions of moral obligation (Dworkin, 1988, p. 34). D. Allwright defines autonomy as “…a constantly changing but at any time optimal state of equilibrium between maximal self-development and human interdependence” (Allwright, 1990, p. 12). As for teacher autonomy, R.G. Willner regards it as teacher’s work in isolation (Willner, 1990). However, this viewpoint is disputed in the more current research (Littlewood, 1999; Smith, 2003 et al.). Teacher autonomy is also viewed as a teacher’s capacity to engage in self-directed teaching, including detachment, critical reflection, decision-making and independent action (Little, 1994) or the extent to which a teacher makes independent # 457 # Copyright ОАО «ЦКБ «БИБКОМ» & ООО «Aгентство Kнига-Cервис» Oksana A. Gavriliuk and Anastasiya V. Lakhno. Professional Autonomy of a University Teacher in the USA and Russia… educational decisions (Pearson & Hall, 1993). W. Littlewood considers an autonomous person as “one who has an independent capacity to make and carry out choices which govern his or her actions. This capacity depends on two main components: ability and willingness…” (Littlewood, 1997, p. 428). Some authors refer to it as “the teacher’s ability and willingness to help learners take responsibility for their own learning” (Thavenius, 1999, p. 160). Teacher autonomy is also defi ned as “control of one’s own work environment” (Pearson & Hall, 1993, p. 173), “freedom to make certain decisions” (Short, 1994, p. 490-491), teachers’ capacity to engage in self-directed teaching (Little, 1995, Tort-Moloney, 1997); the capacity, freedom, and/or responsibility to make choices concerning one’s own teaching (Aoki, 2000) or teachers’ autonomy as learners (Smith, 2000, Savage, 2001). Friedman’s paper suggests that teacher autonomy involves “encouraging and strengthening the power of teachers” (Friedman, 1999, p. 60). J. Everitt in his paper, presented at the annual meeting of the American Sociological Association, measures autonomy as a latent variable that combines teachers’ influence on the policies of their schools with their control over classroom activities, thus allowing to compare teachers who experience different combinations of classroom control and policy influence (Everitt, 2005). Generally, a review of the professional literature in American education reveals that, firstly, teacher professional autonomy is not strictly defined and may be presented in a variety of forms, which can be arranged into two types: “provided autonomy” and “possessed autonomy” by analogy with “freedom from” and “freedom for” defined by A.S. Arsen’ev (Arsen’ev, 1999). Secondly, it should be pointed out that in the American language teaching literature there is a much greater emphasis on the relation between teacher autonomy and learner autonomy (Allwright, 1990; Little, 1995; Thavenius, 1999; McGrath, 2000; Smith 2000; Martinez, 2001; Aoki, 2002). Consequently, teacher autonomy is often suggested to be defined by the analogy with learner autonomy: “If learner autonomy is the capacity, freedom, and/or responsibility to make choices concerning one’s own learning … teacher autonomy, by analogy, can be defined as the capacity, freedom, and/or responsibility to make choices concerning one’s own teaching” (Aoki, 2002, p. 11). Thirdly, most of the existing definitions point to one common aspect, which stresses that teacher autonomy requires being self-directed, self-governed and is based on the recognition of greater power and freedom to the teachers in their professional activities and capacity for self-directed professional development. In this research teacher autonomy is defined in terms suggested by Kamii (Kamii & Hooousman, 2000) who has referred to the fact that autonomy is the ability, not the right to be self-governing. It means that the case of “provided autonomy” does not necessarily mean that a person is autonomous. Indeed, today it is obvious that provided freedom doesn’t necessarily lead to professional development and manifestation of professional autonomy by university teachers. It can be proved by the fact that despite active promotion of autonomy in the USA, there is the deficit of highly qualified teachers. This means that teacher professional autonomy should be developed intentionally. Therefore, caused by the objective need in special additional teacher training, a lot of so-called “teaching and learning centers” have been opened in the USA universities, where they hold special seminars, devoted to methodology of teaching and ways of working with students (Kuz’minov, 2007). # 458 # Copyright ОАО «ЦКБ «БИБКОМ» & ООО «Aгентство Kнига-Cервис» Oksana A. Gavriliuk and Anastasiya V. Lakhno. Professional Autonomy of a University Teacher in the USA and Russia… The problem of teachers’ professionalism is not new for Russia as well, where it is probably even more urgent. It is explained by a number of factors, which include widely accepted practice when universities hire their graduates to teach there. This excludes specialists’ going through external labor market and deprives them of external quality evaluation and control. Professional competition is one of the most important factors which influence a teacher’s motivation for professional development and professional autonomy. This is clearly demonstrated in the US universities, where students have maximum freedom in choosing courses within the curriculum; programs at the first and second levels of college education; a university to continue education (after obtaining a Bachelor’s Degree). Besides, one of the significant features of the US college education is universities’ competition for the most promising students at the second level of higher education, who would take part in university research and classes organization, thus serving as key factors of curricula development. Russian educational system has been under the influence of centralist tendencies throughout the process of its historical development. Consequently, Russian traditions of college education are characterized by less freedom in determining the contents of the curricula; group education domination, scarcity of elective courses. This does not encourage creation of competitive environment for the teachers, who do not feel the need to improve the courses (Kuz’minov, 2007). Today, university autonomy and academic freedom, which are closely connected with university teacher autonomy, are emphasized in many national education documents and initiatives, such as National Doctrine of Education in the Russian Federation 2000-2025, Federal Law on Autonomous Institutions of 2006, Federal Law on Education in the Russian Federation of 2012, and even in the third generation State Educational Standards. Due to such initiatives, modern Russian researchers started investigating the concept of autonomy which had been viewed in our country for a long time as a negative thing associated with individualism. Some up-to-date definitions of teacher autonomy, however few in number, are based on the foreign concept of learner autonomy and autonomous/self-directed learning and consider teacher autonomy to be a precondition for autonomization of educational process. Such aspects of professional autonomy as strategic competence and pedagogical consulting are studied in the works of E.A. Nosacheva (Nosacheva, 2009, 2010). L.N. Makarova believes autonomy to be a teachers’ personality trait, which allows them “to determine the frameworks for creating their own character and style subject to their own domestic rules and resisting to external destabilizing pressure” (Makarova, 2000, p. 14). N.Iu. Tambovkina explains teacher autonomy as “the ability to think and act in one’s profession independently from foreign will, circumstances, one’s own fears; to make one’s own choice and important decisions through creating one’s own goals and working out individual strategies for meeting these goals’ objectives” (Tambovkina, 2000, p. 63). Responsibility and reflection are often described by Russian researchers as key elements of teacher autonomy (Nosacheva, 2009; Tambovkina 2000, et al.). It should be pointed out that most of domestic works on teacher autonomy consider the phenomenon in a larger context of professional self-development. For example, N.F. Koriakovtseva views teacher professional autonomy as “a requirement for effective personal development and self-actualization in # 459 # Copyright ОАО «ЦКБ «БИБКОМ» & ООО «Aгентство Kнига-Cервис» Oksana A. Gavriliuk and Anastasiya V. Lakhno. Professional Autonomy of a University Teacher in the USA and Russia… a broad socio-cultural context” (Koriakovtseva, 2001, p. 12). G.P. Sharapkina considers autonomy to be “the basis for professional socialization” and states that “its development is one of the top targets of teacher training process” (Sharapkina, 2004, p. 148). According to M.R. Kuznetsova, “pedagogical freedom is an important part of civil democratic development” (Kuznetsova, 2009, p. 109). Based on the above mentioned, this study defines teacher professional autonomy as “freedom for” which implies social interaction, personal development and self-actualization. This approach allows us to broaden understanding of teacher autonomy through considering it as an important factor in prevention of teacher attrition. A review of the professional literature allowed us to propose the following defi nition of teacher professional autonomy. Teacher professional autonomy is based on the responsibility and relative independence from external factors. It involves teacher capacity to intensify one’s own professional activity and personal development, making intellectual and moral decisions by considering various perspectives, creating one’s own professional goals, making free choices of educational forms, means, methods and content, and self-monitoring one’s own professional experience. Factors affecting teacher autonomy development Taking into account the abovementioned arguments which prove the existing lack of autonomy in modern university teachers in spite of provided freedom, we believe that teacher professional autonomy should be developed intentionally. That is why it is essential that we identify intrinsic and extrinsic factors able to promote and impede this capacity. Defining teacher autonomy as “a common link that appears when examining teacher motivation, job satisfaction, stress (burnout), professionalism, and empowerment”, Pearson and Moomaw state that its “intrinsic factors consist of individual satisfaction such as desire to assist students to accomplish goals, desire to make a difference in society and sense of achievement when students learn”, whereas extrinsic factors are considered to be “comprised of external elements including wage, nonmonetary fringe benefits and recognition of performance” (Pearson & Moomaw, 2005, p. 39). In the context of teaching the complex of the abovementioned teacher desires and sense of achievement may be considered as teaching achievement motivation. Taking into consideration the data described above, we suggest the readiness to engage in lifelong autonomous learning (including the capacity to become self-directed in improving one’s own teaching and other professional skills and to learn from colleagues at the University and those outside the University) to be another important intrinsic factor promoting teacher autonomy. From this viewpoint, a foreign language teacher can be regarded as autonomous not only by being a professional teacher but also by being a lifelong language learner. Otherwise, job dissatisfaction including stress or pressure results in negative outcomes for teacher autonomy. According to Little, Hawley, Henrich, and Marsland (Little et al., 2002), the development of teacher autonomy entails a process of internalization or personal agency defined as the sense of personal empowerment (or selfempowerment), which implies self-belief, trust, and self-leadership and involves both knowing one’s goals and having what it takes to achieve them. Thus, being self- empowered, teachers will know they have an active role in educational # 460 # Copyright ОАО «ЦКБ «БИБКОМ» & ООО «Aгентство Kнига-Cервис» Oksana A. Gavriliuk and Anastasiya V. Lakhno. Professional Autonomy of a University Teacher in the USA and Russia… process. Self-empowerment/personal agency is also considered one of the requisites for personal growth and success. Dictionary.com’s 21st Century Lexicon defines a self-empowered person as a person deriving the strength to do something through one’s own thoughts and based on the belief that one knows what is best for oneself. Analysis of psychological works on selfempowerment/personal agency allowed us to argue that teachers can develop their selfempowerment/personal agency by trying to be more open, questioning, actively looking for solutions and developing their self-esteem (self confidence and great trust in one’s own abilities). The latter, however, doesn’t mean that a teacher has to be always right. It means a teacher is inwardly prepared to face whatever professional context serves up. Therefore, we believe that teachers can cultivate their professional autonomy by giving themselves a fertile and stable internal environment, which translates to an attitude that is highly motivated, open, confident, questioning and actively looking for solutions, relatively independent from external factors and based on positive thinking. As we can see, a variety of factors affect the teacher autonomy development. The study of these factors allowed us to elaborate the pedagogical conditions and the technology of teacher autonomy development in the course of their professional activity. As Berezina has considered, “it is important to create special pedagogical conditions necessary for the development of teacher autonomy which will make a teacher capable of acting at his/her ease for assuring students autonomy” (Berezina, 2001, p. 3). According to H. Martinez, becoming aware of teachers’ interpretation of learner autonomy and of their beliefs of language teaching is the essence of nurturing teacher autonomy (Martinez, 2001). Critical reflective inquiry, empowerment and dialogue are often seen by American researchers as three principles for teacher autonomy which can allow teachers to develop institutional knowledge and flexibility within their individual teaching contexts (Barfield et al., 2002; Smith, 2003). Arguing for teacher autonomy, M. Jiménez Raya correctly highlights that it is not about working in isolation and defines both teacher and learner autonomy as “the competence to develop as a self determined, socially responsible and critically aware participant in (and beyond) educational environments, within a vision of education as (inter)personal empowerment and social transformation” (Jiménez Raya, 2007, p. 33). This interpretation, linking to the social dimension of autonomy which is, according to the researcher, “about voice, respect for others, negotiation, cooperation, and interdependence” (Jiménez Raya, 2007, p. 33) conditioned our attention towards interaction in a university context as an important factor promoting teacher autonomy. According to C.S. LaCoe, teacher autonomy is directly related to decision-making (LaCoe, 2008). Analyzing the factors affecting the teacher autonomy development as well as the processes involved in autonomous activity allowed us to determine special pedagogical conditions, which are able to make university teachers develop their professional autonomy. Among these conditions we should point out intrinsic and extrinsic ones. Intrinsic conditions include selfempowerment (or personal agency), readiness to engage in lifelong autonomous learning, achievement motivation (desire to assist students in accomplishing goals, desire to make a difference in society and sense of achievement when students learn), as well as relative independence from external factors. # 461 # Copyright ОАО «ЦКБ «БИБКОМ» & ООО «Aгентство Kнига-Cервис» Oksana A. Gavriliuk and Anastasiya V. Lakhno. Professional Autonomy of a University Teacher in the USA and Russia… The revealed extrinsic conditions are: • Providing information on characteristics and components of autonomous activity as well as on particular pedagogical goals, content and strategies of teaching a subject in accordance with general educational and university context. Together with teacher’s involvement in observation and monitoring, based on his/her critical standpoint, this condition will ensure critical awareness. • Providing opportunities to make decisions within university educational area (e.g. providing freedom of choice). Based on teacher self-empowerment, this condition will lead to teacher empowerment (from teacher control over classroom activities to teacher influence on university policies) and development of teacher professional responsibility. • Offering the teachers plenty of opportunities to continuously develop themselves as professionals (e.g. by giving teachers more opportunities to take courses or visit symposia where new developments in the educational field are being discussed). • Providing monetary and nonmonetary fringe benefits for pedagogical research (involving teachers in action research, in selecting their own goals from a range of alternatives on offer, in modifying and adapting the goals and content of the subject’s program in accordance with professional situational problems they are to deal with). • Providing professional challenges which may take the form of exploration into new educational areas, of teacher’s decisions to undertake research, to transform his/ her role in the classroom, to improve his/ her educational practice, professional knowledge or skills, etc. • Stimulating teacher interaction in pedagogical project activities which will prevent teacher isolation, individualism and self-sufficiency and create the situation of cooperation, co-learning, negotiation and sharing. • Open evaluation and recognition of performance which will make teachers self-monitor their teaching in order to observe and reflect upon the teaching strategies they use and the nature of the interactions they set up and participate in. This condition involves teachers into competition, pedagogical selfmonitoring and reflection. Provided that there are no evaluation uncertainties this condition will lead to job satisfaction. The complex of the described conditions will ensure the involvement of the three critical principles of action in the development of autonomy proposed by Barfield et al. participants of the Shizuoka Conference in 2001: critical reflective inquiry, empowerment and dialogue. Conclusion Recent Russian higher education reform initiatives resulting from the world tendency for higher education democratization and humanization force us to study special teachers’ capacities, which allow them to promote learner autonomy. Among these capacities teacher autonomy plays a crucial role in providing a new type of higher education through allowing pedagogical research, teacher influence on school policies, effective implementation of new educational technology, teacher development and self-actualization in a broad socio-cultural context and retaining teachers in their jobs. Based on this, we tried to study the concept of teacher autonomy # 462 # Copyright ОАО «ЦКБ «БИБКОМ» & ООО «Aгентство Kнига-Cервис» Oksana A. Gavriliuk and Anastasiya V. Lakhno. Professional Autonomy of a University Teacher in the USA and Russia… a bit more closely in the context of American and Russian higher education institutions. The findings of this paper offer several contributions to the pedagogical literature on teacher autonomy. Continuing the efforts to define and describe teacher autonomy as an essential factor of teacher professionalism and self-development, this study expands our understanding of teacher autonomy in the context of today’s transformation of Russian educational system. It means that teacher autonomy should be considered as a key variable when examining higher education reform initiatives and granting autonomy could be a way to begin solving some of today’s problems of higher education institutions (including lack of professionalism, teaching stereotypes, professional demotivation and attrition) by ensuring teachers personal development and self-actualization in a broad socio-cultural context. At the conceptual level of our research it means that a teacher him/herself, his/her desires, his/her process for forming the desires and the resulting actions are all the sorts of things that could be regarded as autonomous. The conditions for promoting teacher autonomy identified in this paper certainly call for increased attention to modern university policies that may enhance or decrease teacher autonomy. In the context of today’s transformation of educational system, there are several practices Russian universities should initiate. Firstly, teachers should be involved more actively when it comes to decision-making. Secondly, more opportunities to teacher professional selfdevelopment should be offered. Thirdly, evaluation and recognition of teacher performance should be implemented alongside with provision of monetary and nonmonetary fringe benefits for pedagogical research. Developing management structures that are able to provide conditions, identified in this paper, and stimulate teacher autonomy, university administrators can increase job satisfaction and prevent professional demotivation and attrition amongst university teachers. Implications for future research are based on the conclusion that teacher autonomy cannot be understood without studying the characteristics of a teacher’s workplace and teacher personality. The revealed special intrinsic and extrinsic conditions for teacher professional autonomy development can become the foundation for elaborating a special program, representing a system of proceedings stimulating teacher interaction in a university context and ensuring the formation of a complex of qualities, mindsets and skills for autonomous professional activity in teachers. References 1. 2. 3. 4. 5. Allwright D. (1990). Autonomy in Language Pedagogy. CRILE Working papers 6 (Centre for Research in Education. Lancaster: University of Lancaster). Aoki N. (2002). Aspects of teacher autonomy: Capacity, freedom, and responsibility. Learner Autonomy 7: Challenges to Research and Practice. Arsen’ev A.S. Filosofskie osnovaniia ponimaniia lichnosti [Philosophic Bases of Personality Understanding]. 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Edinburgh: IALS, University of Edinburgh, 2003, available at: http://www.warwick.ac.uk/~elsdr/Teacher_autonomy.pdf> 43. Tambovkina T.Iu. (2000). Razvitie professional’noi avtonomii u budushchikh uchitelei inostrannogo iazyka s ispol’zovaniem metoda proektov [Development of professional autonomy in future foreign language teachers with the use of project method]. Inostrannye iazyki v shkole [Foreign Languages at School], 5, 63-65. 44. Thavenius C. Teacher autonomy for learner autonomy. Learner autonomy in language learning: Defining the field and effecting change. Frankfurt am Main, 1999, 163-166. 45. Tort-Moloney D. (1997). Teacher autonomy: A Vygotskian theoretical framework. CLCS Occasional Paper, Vol. 48. Dublin: Trinity College: Centre for Language & Communication Studies. 46. Voller P. Does the teacher have a role in autonomous learning? Autonomy and independence in language learning. London: Longman, 1997, 192-203. 47. Willner R.G. Images of the future now: Autonomy, professionalism and efficacy. Doctoral Dissertation. Fordham University, 1990. Профессиональная автономность преподавателя университета в США и России: свобода от контроля или свобода для развития? О.А. Гаврилюк, А.В. Лахно Красноярский государственный медицинский университет им. проф. В.Ф.Войно-Ясенецкого Россия 660022, Красноярск, ул. П. Железняка, 1 Статья направлена на исследование профессиональной автономности преподавателя, которая, в основном, изучалась в США и в настоящее время привлекает внимание исследователей в области образования и в других странах, включая Россию. В силу своей сложности феномен профессиональной автономности преподавателя до сих пор не имеет четкого определения и рассматривается по-разному. Между тем, смысл, # 466 # Copyright ОАО «ЦКБ «БИБКОМ» & ООО «Aгентство Kнига-Cервис» Oksana A. Gavriliuk and Anastasiya V. Lakhno. Professional Autonomy of a University Teacher in the USA and Russia… вкладываемый в понятие «автономность преподавателя», имеет большое значение в контексте как американской, так и российской систем высшего образования. Анализ образовательного контекста в этих странах и изучение научно-исследовательских работ по рассматриваемой проблеме в контексте общей концепции гуманистической и когнитивной психологии, демократизации образования и принципа обучения на протяжении всей жизни позволили нам дать определение феномену профессиональной автономности преподавателя, а также выявить специальные внутренние и внешние условия, которые способны обеспечить развитие навыков профессиональной автономности у молодых преподавателей университета. Ключевые слова: высшее образование, профессиональная автономность преподавателя, свободный выбор, критическая рефлексия, свобода преподавания, принятие решений, профессиональное саморазвитие, независимость, расширение прав и возможностей, личная вовлеченность, ответственность. Copyright ОАО «ЦКБ «БИБКОМ» & ООО «Aгентство Kнига-Cервис» Journal of Siberian Federal University. Humanities & Social Sciences 3 (2013 6) 468-476 ~~~ УДК 372.881.1 Media Education in Foreign Languages Teaching – Tribute to Fashion or Requirement of the Time? Ludmila A. Ivanovaa* and Olga M. Verbitskayab a Irkutsk State Linguistic University 8 Lenin Str., Irkutsk, 664025 Russia b Eastern Siberian State Academy of Education 6 Nizhniaya Naberezhnaya Str., Irkutsk, 664011 Russia Received 11.03.2013, received in revised form 18.03.2013, accepted 25.03.2013 The article deals with one of the most burning issues of modern liberal education – media competences forming and development and in the sphere of foreign language teaching – co-development of belonging to another language communicative competence and media competence at the lessons of foreign language. Keywords: media education, media competence, mediatized socializing, foreign language communication, intercultural communication, linguistic personality, secondary linguistic personality. Introduction In the 60s of the 20 century the word combination “media education” began to be used in the leading countries of the world (Great Britain, the USA, Canada, Australia, France, Federal Republic of Germany and others). In pedagogic science a specific direction has been formed which originates from English media education and Latin : media, called for helping students adapt better in the media environment, master mass media and communication language, be able to analyze the information received by means of media etc. In this way a new term appeared and subsequently was perceived by Russian scholars in the field of pedagogics. In the Russian official sources the term “media education” th * was introduced later: by A.V. Sharikov at the symposium on educational issues held in Ryazan in 1986. One may assume that the interest for media education is rather connected with the informational safety problem’s origin without the solution of which a full-fledged development of not only a personality, but of the society is not possible. A question arises; to what extent this enthusiasm for media education is justified? The very notion “media education” has a lot of defi nitions. It means both a process of transmission and assimilation of knowledge, abilities and skills connected with mass communication, and a direction in pedagogics supporting the idea of learning mass communication mechanism © Siberian Federal University. All rights reserved Corresponding author E-mail address: [email protected] # 468 # Copyright ОАО «ЦКБ «БИБКОМ» & ООО «Aгентство Kнига-Cервис» Ludmila A. Ivanova and Olga M. Verbitskaya. Media Education in Foreign Languages Teaching… by the schoolchildren etc. On the one hand, the development of the society, of the human and all his activity aspects has always been connected with the appearance of different sorts of discoveries in the sphere of mass communication means. In various articles the researchers point out that from 1621, since the time of Michael’s ruling, the fi rst tsar from the House of Romanovs, up to 1701 “The Chiming Clock” – the Russian State’s newspaper – had been published. As archival documents witness, an interesting history of formation and development has the fi rst Russian printed newspaper which was founded by Peter I. On January 13 (on the second of January, according to the old calendar) in Moscow, by Peter the Great’s order, the fi rst of surviving issues of the fi rst printed Russian newspaper came out: “Vedomosti about war matters and other issues worth of knowledge and recollection, which came about in Moscow State and other neighboring countries”. Nevertheless, it should be noted, that the fi rst issues of “Vedomosti” in the opinion of historians were also hand-written. It may be said by right that among a good deal of the deeds of Peter the Great there was a creation of a printed newspaper which could be noticeably replicated and spread in many corners of Russia and abroad. Leonardo da Vinci was familiar with a pinhole camera, in Napoleon’s times magic lantern was already anachronism. In 1839 Louis Jacques Mandé Daguerre carried out the fi rst experience of facsimile – daguerreotype. In 1893 Thomas Alva Edison to whom mankind is obliged not only due to the invention of telephone, but also of a “peep-show”, brought the humanity to the threshold of cinematography discovery. At this problem worked the Americans – Latem and Armat, the Russians – Timchenko, Samarski, Akimov, a Polish scientist – Prushinski, an Englishman – Pole. And the French photo fabricators – the brothers Louis and Auguste Lumière – became the inventors. One may confi rm without any exaggeration that these “prototypes” of modern mass communication means formed social procurement, in particular, in the field of education. Namely then, for instance, many scientists became interested in cinematography in educational context. Advanced scientists and pedagogues of the time considered cinematograph as a wonderful alternative for traditional educational models, broadening teaching possibilities. In the Russian pedagogical literature the question about “cinematography” use at school was raised in 1897. Its unlimited possibilities are being considered in the field of up-bringing, education, cultural and historical inclusion. So far unsophisticated experiments of screen representation of well-known historical events witness this. In this very period of definition, educational potential’s evaluation of cinematograph another pedagogical problem emerges – the struggle against the negative impact of the films which are capable to lead the viewers away from culture and real life, to immerse into dreamland, the world of various entertainments, to blunt emotional and mental abilities, even to suggest vicious ideas, morbid inclinations, to push to immoral acts. Thus, since the first years of cinematograph existence in the pedagogical model of its use, a cinematographic education problem has emerged, the question about a mediator (no matter who it is: a critic, a teacher or a film itself) capable to control successively interests, needs, to bring up the viewer effectively using the richest artistic possibilities of an engendered art’s impact. That is why the very notion “media education”, as paradoxical as it may seem, is not innovative. Though, on the other hand, such an intensified interest to media education at all educational hierarchical levels means, as it may be seen, a particular demand today. It may be observed with # 469 # Copyright ОАО «ЦКБ «БИБКОМ» & ООО «Aгентство Kнига-Cервис» Ludmila A. Ivanova and Olga M. Verbitskaya. Media Education in Foreign Languages Teaching… all evidence in the sphere of foreign language teaching as well. Let’s try to account for it. Media Competence Development In connection with globalization processes in our world and information technologies’ development the problems of intercultural communication are put in the focus of attention. At present time education has to solve a very complicated problem – to prepare the youth for life in the conditions of cultures’ dialogue, i.e. for intercultural communication. To achieve this goal pedagogical process must be organized with consideration of numerous foreign language media texts and text formats. They circulate in the global information space created by modern mass communication means. The question of a personality’s media competence forming is becoming very acute. After comparing different points of view on the definition of the notion “media competence”, after generalizing and analyzing the experience of Russian and foreign media pedagogues, under media education goals in the process of foreign language teaching we understand proactively planned and formulated joint-study result of foreign language and the language of authentic mass communication means, and to be more exact: media competence of the secondary linguistic personality. Therefore, at the modern stage of foreign language education’s development one may separate a new perspective direction, which hasn’t been exposed to research up to now. Development of a competence-based paradigm in the sphere of linguodidactics and media educational goal-setting: the question is about thorough consideration of already revealed sub competences and about presentation of new ones belonging to communicative/intercultural competences as metanotions. Hopefully it will allow to determine the goal and pithy aspects of philological/linguistic education and media education. We are particularly interested in the question concerning aspects’ correlation of a “linguistic personality” forming both as a native-speaker, as well as a person learning a foreign language, and along with it “alien” mass communication means. A person’s information space considerably broadens during the period when he/she begins to study a foreign language and “alien” mass communication means. It is known that the media’s assimilation process is by far the most contradictive and has its own peculiarities in comparison with the mother tongue. It has been known from time immemorial that “combining in itself verbal-semantic, linguistic-cognitive and motivational structures, language personality performs as “totality of a man’s abilities and characteristics, conditioning his creation and perception of verbal works (texts) which differ by: 1) the degree of structural-linguistic complexity 2) the depth and exactness of reality’s reflection; 3) a certain target orientation” (Vorozhbitova, 1999, p.15). The same relates without any doubt to media texts. The following fact is undisputable: elaboration of the idea about the “media competent secondary linguistic personality” inevitably reaches the boundary between such disciplines as linguodidactics, theory and methods of foreign languages teaching. Integration of Media Education and Foreign Languages Teaching There is a demand nowadays for the following member of the society – a personality capable of interacting with foreign language media information’s streams in the global informational space: to carry out the search, to analyze, to critically evaluate and to create media texts spread with the help of different mass media and communication means, in all their variability. These personality’s qualities are mainly formed in the system of education by means of all subjects. After all pedagogic aims are the consequence of social ones and social essence of education. # 470 # Copyright ОАО «ЦКБ «БИБКОМ» & ООО «Aгентство Kнига-Cервис» Ludmila A. Ivanova and Olga M. Verbitskaya. Media Education in Foreign Languages Teaching… A foreign language cannot stand off from the solution of this problem. The new society’s requirements to the level of a personality’s development and accomplishments, new information life conditions must change the substance, the means and the methods of the pedagogical process. In this situation a natural and rather urgent necessity of new conceptions, methods and foreign language teaching techniques emerges. For the time being a new technology of media competence’s forming of the secondary linguistic personality is becoming a burning issue. We believe that the potential of foreign language mass communication means consists not only in the development and correction of the speech, not only in compensation of the absent language environment with the help of visual representation of the verbal situation and so on, but to a considerable degree in media competence’s forming of the secondary linguistic personality. This very fact comprises a principally new approach to mass communication means’ use at foreign language lessons at the modern stage of the society informatization. Thereat, we proceed from the fact that media education and “foreign language” have a common genesis. We are going to explain that. The two phenomena are based on the idea of communication. Communication is a human connection, socializing, semantic interaction between people. An intelligent man – homo sapiens – is, first of all, a communicating man – homo communicans. Having analyzed the essential informational-communicative problems, we came to the conclusion that communication is becoming an increasingly complex social and cultural phenomenon which touches upon different types of activity in all countries and is an inseparable part of political, social, economical, cultural, scientific, educational and technological evolution. It is well-known that language is the most important means of communication and is used by people to interact between individuals and individuals’ groups. Foreign language teaching is educating how to use these means. Today the subject “foreign language” has one of the leading tasks: communication acquisition. Etymological and semantic identity of the term “communication” and “socializing” are persuasively proved by the scientists. Mass communication possesses the widest semiotic potential and delivers a mediated character of socializing, offered by modern technique of information’s transmission and receiving. Since socializing may perform at the same time as a process of interaction between people and as an informational process on numerically big, dispersed audiences, i.e. through mass communication means, consequently, students during foreign language acquisition may master not only interpersonal communication, but also mediatized socializing, what is especially topical in the conditions of communicative infrastructure’s strengthening. From the point of view of media education, the property of mediatized socializing implies the choice of not only verbal code of communication, but also of non-verbal one, with the use of artificial and mixed communicative codes providing interaction between a man and a machine. To our mind, foreign language mediatized socializing is an interaction of a person with belonging to another language mass communication means, the substance of which is apprehension of comparative value of this media stuff, its emotional-semantic relationship and hidden constituent. Therefore, it is the development of media competence of the secondary linguistic personality that the modern pedagogical strategy of foreign language teaching must foresee. And to this very social requirement correspond both media education and foreign language as well. # 471 # Copyright ОАО «ЦКБ «БИБКОМ» & ООО «Aгентство Kнига-Cервис» Ludmila A. Ivanova and Olga M. Verbitskaya. Media Education in Foreign Languages Teaching… We believe that the substance of these two phenomena, on the one hand, media education with its strongly pronounced social and cultural character, setting goal of media competence’s forming, on the other hand, foreign language (foreign language lesson) are so intertwined and interdependent that the only right way is their integration. This idea is not new. In the last decades it is observed in authorial foreign languages teaching conceptions (Verbitskaya, 2011; Zharkovskaya, 2010; Ivanova, 1999, 2008, 2010, 2011, 2012; Novikova, 2004; Ryzhykh, 2006; Khlyzova, 2008, 2010, 2011; Fraifeld, 2006; Chicherina, 2008 and others) and in pedagogical practices which are being formed. Nevertheless the way from innovative ideas in theory of teaching to their realization in pedagogical practice turns out to be long and thorny. However, it is an open secret that educational establishments are the most delayedaction social institutions (A.Toffler). Moreover, today one may confirm with a certain admission that the phenomenon of media competence of the secondary linguistic personality hasn’t been yet properly interpreted at the scientific-theoretical level, besides, there’s no wide and competent implementation of its forming technology into the practice of foreign languages teaching at schools and universities, and even if it takes place, it happens slowly and randomly. Causes Preventing Implementation of Media Competence’s Forming Technology of the Secondary Language Personality One may assume that there are psychological barriers some pedagogues have, namely: absence of desire to change, technophobia etc. But the most important thing as the interviewed respondents point out is the fact that media education doesn’t fit well into the educational system of foreign language teaching, traditional interpretations of mass communication means’ role in the educative process and the misgivings that media education’s introduction into the educative process would lead to radical “breakage” of the former conceptualizations of a pedagogue. Probably one may agree with this to a certain degree, especially, if we take into account the fact that the attitude to media education among teachers is extremely different. A certain polarization of viewpoints is being observed: from a well-defined optimistic to a diametrically opposed, sceptical-negative attitude to media education in the educative process. As a rule, a considerable part of pedagogues show their committal to traditional forms and methods of training and feel suspicious and sometimes even hostile about the idea of media education’s implementation in the foreign language educative process. During the questionnaire survey of pedagogues we researched the problem of their attitude to the inclusion of media education issues into the foreign language educative process. The results of this questioning (all in all 150 foreign language teachers of the Irkutsk region have been interrogated) are as follows: (Table 1) The answers to this questionnaire reflect quite objective pedagogues’ evaluation related to media education. In such situation one may hardly count on systematical and all-round implementation of media education in the foreign language educative process. Moreover, another aspect of the problem must be taken into consideration and namely: the attitude towards the enthusiasts of media education on the part of their colleagues and educational establishments’ heads. Unfortunately, as our research showed, this attitude is sometimes so negative that some pedagogues have to cease their media educational activity or not to start it at all. One more reason for putting obstacles in the way of implementation of media education # 472 # Copyright ОАО «ЦКБ «БИБКОМ» & ООО «Aгентство Kнига-Cервис» Ludmila A. Ivanova and Olga M. Verbitskaya. Media Education in Foreign Languages Teaching… Table 1. Pedagogues’ Attitude to Media Education’ Implementation in the Foreign Language Educative Process Questionnaire’ items 1. Media education: will it take place in the pedagogical process of your educational establishment, do the learners need mastering of media knowledge and skills? 2. Will the learners gain if media education is included into pedagogical process? 3. If in your educational establishment a certain amount of teaching periods are dedicated especially to the studying of mass communication means for media educational purposes, will you agree that such training is held within the subject “Foreign Language”? 4. Do you share the opinion that the use of mass communication means as a component of media education in the program of teaching and up-bringing must be represented in a wider scale in initial training and refresher course of a foreign language pedagogue? 5. a) Do you have a course of media education in your educational establishment? b) Do you have media education’s elements integrated into training programs? Yes % No % I don’t know % No answer % 58% 40% - 2 64 34 - 2 29 58 13 - 72 0 23 98 5 2 - 1.3 96.7 2 - Table 2. Frequency of Using Mass Communication Means at the Lessons of Foreign Language Mass communication means’ types/ Frequency Often Seldom Never Audio recordings 21 64 15 Telecommunications network 3 8.5 88.5 Radio 0 0.9 90.1 DVD materials 0 13.2 86.8 Video materials 1.1 26.7 72.2 Press 10.9 25.7 63.4 in the foreign language educative process may be the absence of resources’ provision and the latter implies not only availability of technical basis, but a pedagogue’s training for implementation of media education in the foreign language educative process. The interrogation carried out showed that media stuff is used in their work on the average by 27.7 % of teachers. The frequency of using mass communication means at the lessons is shown in the table (in the Table 2 the results are given in percents to the amount of the interrogated): Targeted questionnaire and observation of teachers’ activity confirmed our supposition that even in those (not numerous) educational establishments which are rather well-equipped with audio-visuals, and computer hardware, the latter is seldom used in the foreign language educative process. In most cases a tape-recorder is used, though, in many educational establishments it is also “kept on the shelves”. # 473 # Copyright ОАО «ЦКБ «БИБКОМ» & ООО «Aгентство Kнига-Cервис» Ludmila A. Ivanova and Olga M. Verbitskaya. Media Education in Foreign Languages Teaching… Conclusion From our point of view, the cause of such situation consists, first of all, in the fact that in teachers’ training schools there was no targeted educational guidance on media competence’s forming of the future pedagogues, to say nothing of education which was carried out in absolutely different social and cultural situation connected neither with practically free media stuff’s market, nor with stormy mass communication means’ development and space virtualization. To our mind, nowadays, in the first decade of the 21st century, it seems justified to consider media competence’s forming technology of the secondary linguistic personality as a necessary constituent in foreign language teaching. Sharing the viewpoint by N.Y. Khlyzova who defines media competence of the secondary linguistic personality as an “integrative personality’s characteristics which consists of totality of special knowledge, skills, attitudes allowing the personality to function in the world information space, to carry out intercultural communication both at the interpersonal, direct level, as well as at the mediatized level, mediated by modern media means” (Khlyzova, 2011, p.70). We would like to focus our attention on technology itself. The introduction of a fundamentally new technology under which we understand pedagogic process’s organization in accordance with a specific theoretical paradigm doesn’t break on the whole the logic of the foreign language educative process. The component parts of media education’s technology of the learners at foreign language lessons are: a goal set; a substance constituent (integrated course “Foreign Language and Media Education”); a technological component (organizational), (specific forms, methods, ways, means of media competence’s forming of the secondary linguistic personality); an expert-evaluative component (diagnostics of the level of formed media competence’s of the secondary language personality) (see Fig. 1). The aim of the media education’s technology is a qualitative level increase of foreign language communicative competence of the students, and namely – forming of the media competent secondary linguistic personality. We believe Fig. 1. Technology of Teenagers’ Media Education by Video Means at the Lessons of the French Language # 474 # Copyright ОАО «ЦКБ «БИБКОМ» & ООО «Aгентство Kнига-Cервис» Ludmila A. Ivanova and Olga M. Verbitskaya. Media Education in Foreign Languages Teaching… that there are all grounds to consider the scientific idea about forming of media competent secondary linguistic personality and its methodic embodiment as a necessary one, from the perspective of nowadays requirements to foreign language teaching and personal enhancement. To sum it up, answering the question put in the title of this article, we may confirm with all evidence: media education in foreign languages teaching is the requirement of the time. References 1. Chicherina N.V. Koncepcija formirovanija mediagramotnosti u studentov jazykovyh fakul’tetov na osnove inojazychnyh mediatekstov [Conception of media competence’s forming of language faculties students on the basis of foreign language media texts]. Saint-Petersburg, 2008, 470 р. 2. Fraifeld E.B. Hudozhestvennyj fil’m kak sredstvo professional’no-lichnostnogo razvitija studentov pri izuchenii inostrannogo jazyka v vysshej shkole [Feature film as a means of professional and personal development of the students in the process of foreign language learning in high school]. Nizhni Novgorod, 2006, 24 р. 3. Grigorieva I.V., Ivanova L.A., Khlyzova N.Y. (2012). Information literacy of the secondary language person: the key to the transformation of the language instruction model. Materiały VIII Międzynarodowej naukowi-praktycznej konferencji «Naukowa przestrzeń Europy – 2012». Volume 17. Pedagogiczne nauki. (Materials of the VIII-th International scientific-practical conference “Scientific Space of Europe – 2012”. Volume 17. Pedagogical Sciences), Przemyśl. Nauka i studia, 2012, pp. 61-62 (Przemysl. Science and Studies, 2012, pp. 61-62). 4. Ivanova L.A. Formirovanie media-kommunikativnoj obrazovannosti shkol’nikov-podrostkov sredstvami video (na materiale urokov francuzskogo jazyka) [Forming of media-communicative competence of school-teenagers by video means (on the material of French language lessons)]. Irkutsk, 1999, 245 р. 5. Ivanova L.A. (2008). The integration of media education and academic subject “foreign language” in the educational process through audiovisual means of Mass Communication. International journal of experimental education, (3), 94 – 95. 6. Ivanova L.A. Obuchenie inostrannomu jazyku i mediaobrazovanie edinyj process [Foreign language teaching and media education as a unified process]. Nepreryvnoe obrazovanie v Zapadnoj Sibiri: sovremennoe sostojanie i perspektivy: materialy chetvertoj regional’noj nauchno-prakticheskoj konferencii (Uninterrupted education in Western Siberia: modern state and perspectives: materials of the fourth regional research-practice conference). Gorno-Altaisk: RIO GAGU, 2010, pp. 90-93. 7. Khlyzova N.J. (2008). Multimedia as leading means of media education at teaching English to linguistic university students. International journal of experimental education, (3), 93. 8. Khlyzova N.J. (2010). Media education in formation of language person media competence. NIEUP, (I), 477-480. 9. Khlyzova N.Y. Pedagogicheskie uslovija formirovanija mediakompetentnosti vtorichnoj jazykovoj lichnosti [Pedagogical conditions of media competence’s forming of secondary linguistic personality]. Moscow, 2011, 208 р. 10. Novikova А.А. Mediaobrazovanie na zanjatijah po anglijskomu jazyku [Media education at the lessons of English]. Taganrog, 2004, 52 р. # 475 # Copyright ОАО «ЦКБ «БИБКОМ» & ООО «Aгентство Kнига-Cервис» Ludmila A. Ivanova and Olga M. Verbitskaya. Media Education in Foreign Languages Teaching… 11. Ryzhykh N.P. Mediaobrazovanie studentov pedagogicheskogo vuza na materiale anglojazychnyh jekrannyh iskusstv [Media education of pedagogical higher school students on the material of English language screen arts]. Rostov-on-Don, 2006, 27 р. 12. Verbitskaya O.M., Ivanova L.A. (2011). Media Competence as an Integral Quality of a New Teacher for a New School. European researcher, (12), 1652 – 1655. 13. Vorozhbitova А. (1999). Synergetic aspect of higher education in the light of language and country study’s approach. Alma-Mater, (2), 15 – 22. 14. Zharkovskaya T.G. (2000). Jeksperimental’naja proverka priemov integracii mediaobrazovanija s predmetami gumanitarnogo cikla [Experimental verification of media education’s integration devices with humanitarian sciences]. Na puti k 12-letnej shkole (On the way to the 12 th summer school). Publishing house of institute of general secondary education of Russian Academy of education, Moscow, 2000, рр. 347-355. Медиаобразование в обучении иностранным языкам – дань моде или требование времени? Л.А. Ивановаа, О.М. Вербицкаяб а Иркутский государственный лингвистический университет Россия 664025, Иркутск, ул. Ленина, 8 б Восточно-Сибирская государственная академия образования Россия 664011, Иркутск, ул. Нижняя Набережная, 6 В статье поднимается один из наиболее актуальных вопросов современного гуманитарного образования – формирование и развитие медиакомпетентности, а в области иностранного языка – соразвития иноязычной коммуникативной компетенции и медиакомпетентности на занятиях по иностранному языку. Ключевые слова: медиаобразование, медиакомпетентность, медиатизированное общение, иноязычное общение, межкультурная коммуникация, языковая личность, вторичная языковая личность.