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2188.Учебное пособие по развитию навыков работы с английским текстом (перевод, анализ, реферирование)

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Copyright ОАО «ЦКБ «БИБКОМ» & ООО «Aгентство Kнига-Cервис»
Федеральное агентство по образованию
Омский государственный университет им. Ф.М. Достоевского
Учебное пособие
по развитию навыков работы
с английским текстом
(перевод, анализ, реферирование)
для студентов факультета психологии
Изд-во ОмГУ
Омск 2005
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УДК 802.0
ББК 81.2 Англ. я73
У912
Рекомендовано к изданию
редакционно-издательским советом ОмГУ
Рецензент Е.И. Бояринцева
У912
Учебное пособие по развитию навыков работы с английским текстом (перевод, анализ, реферирование) для студентов
факультета психологии / сост. О.К. Сургутская, Ж.Ю. Шацкая.
– Омск: Изд-во ОмГУ, 2005. – 116 с.
ISBN 5-7779-0647-8
Пособие состоит из трех частей. В первую часть входят тексты уровня «С», «D» для реферирования и перевода, во вторую –
тексты уровня «А», «В». Тексты из третьей части можно использовать в качестве дополнительного материала по работе с темами
«Описание внешности», «Дети и родители», «Интеллект» и другими по усмотрению преподавателя.
В пособие вошел материал, соответствующий учебной программе по английскому языку.
Адресовано студентам I и II курсов факультета психологии
разного уровня подготовки для совершенствования навыков реферирования и перевода.
УДК 802.0
ББК 81.2 Англ. я73
© Омский госуниверситет, 2005
ISBN 5-7779-0647-8
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Предисловие
Основное назначение данного издания – развить навыки работы с текстом с тем, чтобы научить получать правильную информацию, то есть, пользуясь грамматическими явлениями, верно улавливать смысл. Кроме этого, авторы пособия преследуют и другую цель
– научить находить в тексте основную идею (проблему) и выражать
ее в форме реферирования с последующим обсуждением предлагаемых тем.
Учебное пособие состоит из трех частей. В первой части собраны тексты для реферирования, соответствующие уровням C и D,
во второй части представлены тексты для уровней А и В. В третью
часть включен дополнительный материал по работе с разговорными
темами, такими как «Описание», «Счастье», «Стресс», «Дети и родители», «Гендерные различия», «Интеллект».
В текстах, представленных в пособии, затрагиваются различные психологические темы: чувства, воспитание, интеллект, подростковые депрессии и т. д.
Те тексты, в которых четко выражена какая-либо проблема,
собраны в раздел для реферирования; в которых есть сложные или
требующие внимания грамматические элементы предлагаются в разделе перевода.
Материал подобран по уровням сложности (для более продвинутых студентов, для студентов среднего уровня). Преподаватель
может варьировать его и по целям. Например, тексты, предназначенные для перевода, могут использоваться для обсуждения и реферирования.
В последней части содержится дополнительный материал к
сборнику тем, выпущенному ранее, по развитию навыков монологической речи.
Все предлагаемые тексты имеют психологическую направленность, поэтому материал должен заинтересовать студентов, вызвать
эмоции и мысли, которые им захочется высказать.
Пособие предназначено для студентов-психологов I и II курсов, а также для аспирантов.
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План реферирования
1. Заголовок статьи (the head-line).
> The article I‘ve read is headlined … – статья, которую я прочитал, называется …
> The article is called … – статья называется …
2. Автор статьи (the author of the article).
> The author of the article is … – автором статьи является …
> The article is written by … – статья написана …
3. Главная идея статьи (the main idea of the article).
> The main idea of the article is … – главной идеей текста является …
> The article is about … – статья рассказывает о …
> The article deals with … – в статье рассматривается вопрос о
…
> The article touches upon … – статья затрагивает вопрос о …
> The purpose of the article is to give the reader some information
on … (inform the reader about…) – цель статьи – дать читателю некоторую информацию о… (проинформировать читателя о…)
4. Содержание статьи (the contents of the article).
> The author starts by telling the reader about… – автор начинает
свой рассказ …
> The author writes (states, thinks, considers, believes, points out,
comments on) that… – автор пишет (утверждает, думает, считает, верит, указывает, комментирует), что…
> According to the article… – в соответствии со статьей…
> Speaking about… the author can‘t help mentioning… – говоря
о… автор не может не упомянуть…
> Further the author says that… – в дальнейшем автор говорит,
что…
> From the author‘s point of view… – с точки зрения автора…
> The author gives some examples … – автор приводит ряд примеров
> The author underlines that… – автор подчеркивает, что…
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> The article is illustrated with figures, diagrams, tables – в статье
приводятся цифры, диаграммы, таблицы…
> In conclusion… – в заключение…
> The author comes to the conclusion… – автор приходит к заключению, что…
5. Ваше мнение о прочитанной статье (your opinion of the
article).
> I found the article interesting (informative, dull, too hard to understand, up-to-date)… – я нахожу статью интересной, информативной, скучной, слишком трудной для понимания, современной
> I share / don‘t share the author‘s opinion … – я разделяю / не
разделяю мнение автора …
> I fully agree / totally disagree with the author… – я полностью
согласен / не согласен с автором
> To my mind… – по-моему…
> As for me… – что касается меня…
> As far as I know… – насколько я знаю…
> All in all / in general / on the whole… – в целом…
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PART 1
1.1. Texts for rendering (level C, D)
Text 1.
Read and translate the following text. Do the tasks after
the text.
How does family size affect children?
This report outlines the findings of my recent survey which compared the advantages and disadvantages of being either an only child or
part of a larger family. The information was gathered from 500 interviews
with parents and their children aged 4-16.
1. .................................................................................................................
Many parents felt that there were advantages to a child having
brothers and sisters, despite the possible increased financial burden on the
family. Firstly, they stressed that there was less chance of a child feeling
lonely or isolated if he / she were part of a larger family. Secondly, parents believed that siblings have a positive effect on the social skills of the
growing child, teaching tolerance of others and promoting co-operation
through the sharing of household duties. In addition, it was considered an
advantage that children with siblings would not have sole responsibility for
their ageing parents in later life.
2. .................................................................................................................
The children interviewed, on the other hand, complained that they
did not have enough of their parents' attention and that they often had to do
things they did not want to do, for example, looking after younger siblings. Moreover, they felt that they were often compared unfavourably with
their siblings
3. .................................................................................................................
In contrast, the parents of only children generally had more time and
money to spend on them. For example, if the child showed an interest or
ability in something, such as music, this could be supported. Many of the
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parents interviewed also felt that only children tended to develop better social skills because they were more often in adult company and also had to
make greater efforts to find friends outside the family.
4. .................................................................................................................
The downside for the only children was that they often felt under
pressure to live up to their parents' expectations. As well as this, many
people felt that only children tended to be spoilt and were therefore not adequately prepared for adulthood. On the whole, there seem to be advantages
and disadvantages to both situations, although, interestingly, there were fewer disadvantages for only children than might have been expected. The
advantages for children in large families were mostly seen through the
eyes of the parents, as many of the children interviewed had stories to tell
about frequent arguments between siblings. In conclusion, if we decide to
write an article on this subject, recommend that we write it from the viewpoint of the children themselves.
1. Translate into Russian:
financial burden; to be isolated; siblings; to share household duties; sole
responsibility; ageing parents; to look after; to be compared unfavourably;
to develop social skills; to make efforts; to be spoilt.
2. Read the article and find the topic sentence of each
part.
3. Complete the table:
advantages and disadvantages of
being an only child
1 parents spend more time and
money
2
3
advantages and disadvantages of
being a part of a larger family
1 a child doesn‘t feel lonely
2
3
4. Express your agreement or disagreement on the survey using the following expressions. Give arguments for
your viewpoint.
– I agree with the author…
– I suppose that…
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– That goes without saying…
– I share the author‘s opinion
– I doubt that…
– It won‘t do to say that…
– I hardly think that…
– I don‘t quite agree with the author…
5. Render the article according to the table.
Text 2.
Read and translate the text.
Just watch the eyes
When we are challenged to think about something, we usually look
slightly upward and either to the right or to the left. Merle E. Day, a psychologist at the Downey Illinois Veterans Administration Hospital, reported
that each of us can be classified as a left-mover or a right-mover, in that
each person tends to turn their eyes in the same direction about 75 percent
of the time. (Women are less consistent than men in this regard.) The numbers of right-movers and left-movers are about equal in any large group.
Day then discovered that the direction of the eye-turn appears to be
a marker of a wide variety of psychological and physiological characteristics. Left-movers and right-movers differ in their degree of attention, use
of language, brain-wave patterns, muscle tone and response to psychotherapy.
A left-mover, according to Day, tends to have a heightened awareness of subjective, internal experiences. More recently Paul Bakan of Simon Fraser University found that left-movers are significantly more susceptible to hypnosis than right-movers, as measured by the Stanford Hypnotic
Susceptibility Link, a standard test. Bakan has also found that left-movers
score higher than right-movers in the Scholastic Aptitude Test, as well as
showing greater fluency in writing, while right-movers tend to score higher in the mathematics portion. Bakan further reports that right-movers are
more likely to twitch and have tics than left-movers, spend less time asleep
(if they're males), prefer cool colors and make earlier choices of a career.
Left-movers, on the other hand, tend to imagine more vividly, are more
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sociable, more likely to become alcoholic (if they're males) and are more
likely to report themselves as musical and religious. To find out whether
you are a right-mover or a left-mover may be troublesome, because the
simple effort of trying to find out may cause a self-consciousness that may
stand in the way of an answer. Perhaps all you can do is to start becoming
aware of the direction in which you flick your eyes when you confront a
problem or question. Determining a friend's tendency ought to be easier if
the friend doesn't know what you're trying to find out. Just face her / him
fairly straight-on and ask a few questions like the following:
1. How do you spell perpendicular (or for that matter parallel)?
2. What is the product of 11 by 15?
3. How would you define virtue or sin (or mashed potatoes)?
Ignore the answers. Just watch the eyes.
Render the article.
Text 3.
Read and translate the following text.
Has technology ruined childhood ?
1. Work with a partner. Say whether you agree or disagree with
the following statements.
a) Children should read more books.
b) These days it's unsafe for children to play outside on their own.
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c) Given the chance, children would rather watch TV than do things
outside.
d) It's important for children to have a computer and/or a television
in their bedroom.
2. Translate into Russian:
to be no longer playing outside; to retreat to the bedrooms; communal spaces; a place to socialise; bedroom culture; screen addict; to gossip; to be expected to suffer – once in one‘s room; to stay up watching
TV; to draw the line.
3. Read the article. What do the numbers in the box refer to?
1 in 7 9 72 % 1 % 5 1 in 100 57 % 1 in 5
Today, parents are increasingly worried about the safety of their
children, and because of this, they are not letting their children out to play.
As a result, children are no longer playing outside but shutting themselves
away in their rooms and losing themselves in individualistic activities
such as television viewing and computer games.
Yet, if they had the chance, they would rather get out of the house
and go to the cinema, see friends or play sport. In fact, when asked what
their idea of a good day was, only 1 in 7 said that they would turn on the
television.
British teenagers have always retreated to their bedrooms, leaving
the younger children to play in communal spaces such as the sitting room,
garden or kitchen. However, children from the age of 9 are now turning to
their bedrooms as a place to socialise.
Bedroom culture is a phenomenon of the past 20 years with families getting smaller and homes getting more spacious. Increasing prosperity has also contributed to the rise of the bedroom culture.
Of British children aged 6 to 17,72 % have a room they do not have
to share with a sibling, 68 % have their own music installation, 34 % have
an electronic games controller hooked up to the television, 21 % have a
video and 12 % have a PC. Only 1 %, on the other hand, have an Internet
connection in their bedroom.
On average children devote 5 hours a day to screen media. Even so,
only 1 child in 100 can be classed as a real screen addict, a child who
spends a worrying 7 hours or more watching TV or playing computer
games.
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Although children generally have a few favourite programmes,
they mostly use television to kill time when they are bored and have nothing special to do. Moreover, the distinction between individualistic media
use and social activities such as chatting with friends is less extreme than
is commonly assumed. Children gossip about television soap characters,
make contact with other children on the Internet, and visit friends to admire their new computer games.
As the use of PCs proliferates, reading skills are expected to suffer.
Nevertheless, 57 % of children say they still enjoy reading, and 1 in 5
teenagers can be classed as a book-lover. As a result of the bedroom
culture, it is becoming rarer for children over the age of 10 to watch
television with their parents. Once in their rooms, children tend to stay up
watching television for as long as they wish. Consequently it is getting
harder to control children's viewing.
One father told researchers that he drew the line at 9 p.m. His son,
on the other hand, said: ―They tell us to go up at about 9.30 or 10 or
something, and then we just watch until they come up and tell us to switch
it off at 11 or 11.30‖.
4. Divide the article into logical parts. Find the topic sentence of
each part.
5. Discuss the issue raised in the article. Use the following
phrases:
– It is interesting to note that…
– What strikes me here is that…
– I might as well add that…
– I don‘t want to impose my opinion, but…
– From what I could make out I can say…
– It becomes obvious that…
– The article gives a good insight into…
– Judging by this we can say that…
6. Answer the question:
How does the photo support the main idea of the article?
7. Render the article.
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Text 4.
Read and translate the following text. Be ready to do
tasks after the text.
Love is blind... to genes
Ro s ie Me s tel , Lo s An gel es
How do I love thee? Psychologists have been counting the ways for
decades, and have defined styles of romance that range from wild and
passionate to cosy and affectionate. Now psychologists in California have
published the first ever twin study on the subject. Genes, they found, have
little to do with a person's attitudes to love. The result is a surprise, given
the wealth of genetic studies on personality traits such as introversionextroversion, aggression and even leisure-time activities, many of which
are strongly influenced by genes. Such studies generally compare identical twins – whose genes are the same – with fraternal twins, who have
roughly half their genes in common. If a trait is influenced by genes, identical twins should be more similar to each other than fraternal twins are. If
genes are irrelevant, identical twins should be no more similar than fraternal twins.
Niels Waller and Philip Shaver, psychologists at the University of
California at Davis, undertook the first ever genetic study of love attitudes
'in part because everybody's interested in the topic', says Waller, but also
because they are studying the larger issue of how people make emotional
attachments to each other. Waller and Shaver recruited 445 pairs of twins,
three-quarters of them identical and a quarter fraternal. A quarter of the
pairs were male, three-quarters female. Each twin filled in a questionnaire
designed to identify six basic love styles described by sociologist John
Lee of the University of Toronto. These are Eros, Ludus, Storge, Pragma,
Mania and Agape. Roughly speaking, Eros is a wild and passionate lover,
Ludus enjoys the fun of love but is unwilling to commit, Storge is companionable and dependable, Agape is selfless, Pragma is practical, Mania
is jealous and unstable. The twins were instructed to note how strongly
they agreed or disagreed with statements such as 'I try to keep my lover a
little uncertain about my commitment to him/her', or 'Our love-making is
very passionate and exciting'. As a control, the twins answered other questions designed to measure personality traits known to be influenced by
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genes. As expected, these elicited very similar types of answers from
identical twins.
Of all six love styles, Waller and Shaver found that five had hardly
any genetic influence; the answers from identical twins were almost as
similar as those from fraternal twins. Only Mania stood out as influenced
by genes, which Waller says is not surprising because other researchers
have found that neurotic personalities are genetically influenced. For the
other five love types, environmental influences were paramount, although
the study does not reveal what those factors are. The researchers found
that spouses were very similar to their partners in love attitudes, more so
than twins were to each other. The exception was for people with Mania
and Ludus love attitudes. Perhaps, speculates Waller, two super-jealous
partners or two 'free spirits' cannot sustain relationships easily.
Why should love be blind to genes? The answer is not clear; Waller
says, 'It could be that parents don't try to influence the personality of their
children that much.' That would mean basic personality is relatively unmoulded by parental influence, giving genes more sway. 'But what I've
been finding in my studies is that parents do get involved in their children's mate choices.' If this is the case, choosing a mate would be much
more directed by parents and less by genes.
'It's interesting and I find it surprising,' says David Rose, a behaviour geneticist at the University of Arizona. How about a reason? 'You
can make up any nice romantic explanation you want for why it should
be,' he says. 'But I don't have the answer.‘
Discuss these questions in groups.
a) Do you think people can be categorised according to their 'love
type'?
b) Can you suggest any statements that could have been used in the
questionnaire to identify different love types?
c) Can you suggest any explanation for the findings of the
experiment?
d) What do you think society gains, if anything, from experiments
like this?
e) Can you suggest any further experiments that could be done to
deepen understanding in this area of behaviour psychology?
f) In general, what is your reaction to the experiment described in
this article?
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Render the article.
Text 5.
Read and translate the following text.
What Happens to Bad -Tempered Boys:
A Correlational Study
What happens to boys who have a history of temper tantrums*?
Does their childish bad temper affect their behavior as adults? A
correlational study that followed schoolchildren for thirty years of their
lives has indicated that bad-tempered boys tend to become moody,
irritable men whose marriages fail and who experience frequent bouts of
unemployment (Caspi, Elder, and Bem, 1987).
How did the researches establish these correlations? The
longitudinal study began with boys eight to ten years old. Those
considered ―bad-tempered‖ by their mothers often had explosive outbursts
in which they bit, kicked, struck, swore, screamed, shouted, and threw
things. The researchers followed the lives of these and other boys well
into manhood. Thirty years after the study began, researchers rated the
adult personalities of their subjects and discovered a strong relationship
between temper tantrums in middle childhood and irritability and
moodiness in middle adulthood. The ill-tempered men were twice as
likely to be divorced as the other men in the study, and their work history
was erratic. They tended to change jobs often, to have frequent periods of
unemployment, and to suffer declines in socioeconomic status. More than
half held jobs that were lower in status than those their fathers had held at
the same age. In a world that demands interpersonal skills for
occupational success, bad temper seems to be associated with downward
economic mobility.
*
Tantrum – раздражение.
You shoud know the following words:
Temper – bad temper, irritable, fail, experience- v., kick, shout, discover, suffer, demand, likely (as likely as), divorce, cause-v., predict.
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Although we cannot say that throwing temper tantrums in
childhood causes difficulty in later life, we can say that school-age
children who find it impossible to control their tempers also seem to have
difficulty with social relationships as adults, both at home and on the job.
And we might safely predict that bad-temper boys will be likely to have
future marital and occupational problems
The task:
Point out the sentences which seem to be the most important. Then
find sentences which add some information to those mentioned above.
And now give a short summary of the text.
Text 6.
Read and translate the following text. You might not know
the word “Brat”. But first look through the text up to the
end and try to explain the meaning of this word. Point out
those things which they do. How do you think should parents cope with the problem?
BRATS
(to the topic ” Children”)
Few years ago a French toy company had an unusual contest – a
―biggest brat‖ contest. The company had a prize for the child whose behavior was the worst in the world. Over 2,000 parents entered their children
in the contest. ―Our child is the world's biggest brat!‖ they wrote. The
parents made lists of all the bad things their children had done. Judges
read the lists and chose the winner. She was a little girl from the United
States. Her name was Lizzie, and she was four years old. Here are a few of the
things Lizzie did to win the title, ―The World's Biggest Brat‖:
She put a garden hose into the gas tank of her father‘s car. Then she
turned on the water.
She painted a leather sofa with spray paint.
She threw her mother's wedding ring into the toilet. Then she
flushed the toilet.
She put an ice cream sandwich into the VCR.
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She set the table for dinner. Then she glued the silverware to the
table. Imagine her parents' surprise when they sat down to eat and tried to
pick up their forks!
Lizzie may be the world's biggest brat, but she is certainly not the
world's only brat. Alo is, a five-year-old boy from Bangladesh. One afternoon, while his father was asleep on the sofa, Alo cut off his father's
mustache. A few days later, he cut off his brother's eyebrows when his
brother was sleeping in the bedroom. A few weeks after that, he cut off
most of his mother's hair when she was asleep at night. Alo's family now
keeps every pair of scissors under lock and key and always sleeps behind
locked doors.
The behavior of a Mexican boy named Manuel is perhaps even
worse than Lizzie's and Alo's because it is more dangerous. Manuel likes to
play with matches. One day he found some matches near the kitchen stove.
He took the matches, sneaked into his parents' bedroom, and set fire to the
curtains. Fortunately, Manuel's mother walked into the bedroom just in
time. She pulled down the curtains and put out the fire before it spread.
Hiroshi, a young Japanese man, says that he rarely misbehaved
when he was a young child but turned into a real brat when he was about
13. ―My friends and I used to sneak around at night and let the air out of
tires. We were terrible,‖ he says. ―Our parents tried tried to control us, but
they didn’t have much success. We drove them crazy.
No mother or father wants to be the parent of a brat. Parents everywhere try to control their children's behavior. Some parents spank their
children when they misbehave. Other parents won't let their children watch
TV or eat dessert. In Japan, parents often send their children outside when
they misbehave and tell them they can't come into the house. In the United States, parents do just the opposite: they send their children to their
bedrooms and tell them they can't go outside.
Lizzie's parents don't know what to do about Lizzie. Her mother
says, ―I keep telling myself that Lizzie is going through a stage, but
sometimes I don't know... It seems like she's always getting into trouble.‖
Lizzie's father says, ―One day we'll look back on all this and laugh.‖
What does Lizzie think about her behavior? Lizzie doesn't like to
talk about it. When a reporter asked Lizzie if she was ―a bad girl,‖ Lizzie
kicked his leg. Then she yelled, "I'm not a brat! I'm an angel! Get out of
my house!‖
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Answer the questions:
1. What problem(s) does the text deal with?
2. How many parts do you divide the text into?
3. What do you think about punishment? Do you agree? Do you
have your own idea of punishment?
4. Did you obey your parents? Were you punished? How? Did it
offend you? Do you think it was fair punishment? Did your parents praise
you? For what? Do you think you deserved praise and punishment? Will
you treat your children in the same way or differently? How?
Text 7.
Discuss the following questions.
1. Who is your favourite artress / actor? Why do you like her /
him?
2. Do you know the actor in this photo? What films is he famous for?
Do you know anything else about him?
Read the following text and make a note of one thing that you
did not know which surprises you.
Super Brats
He has played Nintendo games with Michael Jackson and has dated
a supermodel. 'Mack' as he is known to his friends, helped 20th Century
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Fox take an incredible $507 million for Home Alone, which went on to
become one of the biggest grossing films of all time. Culkin played Kevin
McCallister, the angelic child who's mistakenly left behind by his parents
when they go off to Europe for Christmas. Both hands clapped to his
cheeks, eyes and mouth wide with fright, Mack's signature
―Aaaaaaaaaahhhh!‖ scream face was copied by children across the world
months after the movie had left town. Writer/producer John Hughes says,
'Kids really liked it because Kevin was like them. He didn't have superhuman powers. He foiled the burglars with plain old stuff from around the
house.
Macaulay's personal fortune is 30 now valued at around $lm for every year he's spent on earth, but... 'I'm just like every other kid,' claims Mack.
'When I'm not doing movies I go out with my friends and do things any
normal kid would do: go to a video arcade or go get pizza. I don't get an
allowance, but whenever I need money I go, ―Mom, Mom, can I get ten
bucks for pizza?‖ She goes, ―Sure, sure, sure.‖, but it's not always ―Sure,
sure, sure.‖ I have chores, I wake up every day at seven. Then I try to wake
up for half an hour. Then I walk the dog for twenty minutes, that's my favourite. I miss my family when I'm away filming. My younger brothers and
sisters love Home Alone, but I don't think they realise I'm in it.'
However, as LA-based psychologist Dan Rosenthal points out,
'Showbiz children are under an incredible amount of pressure to achieve.
First off there's the auditions. Parents push their kids into attending way
too many of them, often when they should be in school or doing their
homework or playing baseball or whatever.'
Rosenthal claims he has often seen children pushed to nervous
breakdowns by starstruck parents. 'The most disturbing aspect of all this is
when parents make a child feel inadequate when they fail to get parts.
Kids can't cope.‘ He also describes how plastic surgery is becoming increasingly common among pre-teens. 'Foolish parents or unscrupulous
casting agents sometimes believe that if only little Mary had a nose job,
she could have any part she wanted. The long-term psychological effects
show that it's simply not worth it. In fact, I often advise child clients to
choose a nice risk-free career like insurance instead.‘
Now read the text again and choose the correct alternative for each question. (See page 64 for advice on how to
do multiple choice questions.)
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1. In Home Alone Macaulay Culkin plays a child who
A) goes to Europe on holiday with his parents;
B) is deliberately deserted by his parents;
C) has nightmares;
D) finds himself on his own by chance.
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2. John Hughes thinks children liked the film because the main
character
A) was just a typical everyday kid;
B) wasn't very clever;
C) got on well with burglars;
D) was very strong.
3. Macaulay Culkin
A) earns $1m a year;
B) has over $5m;
C) earns 51 m a film;
D) has under $5m.
4. When he needs money, Macaulay Culkin just asks his
mother and
A) she gives him what he wants;
B) she gives him what he wants as long as it is for food;
C) she gives him what he wants if he does some work around the
house;
D) she may or may not give him what he wants.
5. The psychologist Dan Rosenthal thinks
A) showbiz children are generally too ambitious;
B) the children's fame has a bad effect on their relationships with
their parents;
C) the children's parents are often largely to blame for the children's problems;
D) parents feel inadequate if their children don't do well.
6. Rosenthal thinks plastic surgery
A) should be avoided by everyone;
B) can help children get parts, but that it's not worth the expense;
C) is a waste of time for showbiz children;
D) is not only a waste of time, but will also have a bad effect on the
children in later life.
7. Unscrupulous means
A) not hard-working;
B) not caring about honesty or fairness;
C) not interested in financial gain;
D) not patient.
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8. It refers to
A) a nose job;
B) a psychological effect;
C) a part in a film;
D) life in general.
Discuss the following questions.
1. What feelings do you have about Macaulay Culkin – envy / admiration / pity / irritation? Do you think he is 'just like every other kid'?
2. What problems do you think that being a child star can cause the
individuals concerned?
3. Do you think it is right that individual film / pop / sports stars
can earn so much money?
Vocabulary: entertainment
1. Fill in the gaps in the following sentences with an appropriate word. You have been given the first part of each
word and the number of letters.
1. I like sitting in the front r …… in the cinema because I like to be
really near the scr …….
2. The best sc…… in the film is where she escapes.
3. He is a great dir…… and really inspires his act…….
4. In general the pi…… was quite original, but the en…… was
terrible. Everyone got married and they all lived happily ever after! –
5. It's the first Shakespeare pi…… I have seen in the th…….
6. My aud…… went very well. They gave me the pa…….
Reh…… start on Monday. It's all very exciting!
7. The first per…… is in eight weeks' time.
8. Some of the cri…… from the top newspapers were there. I hope
the rev…… will be good. They should be. The aud…… app…… for ages.
9. We went to a wonderful con…… last night. It was a new
sym…… by that Russian com……. He actually con…… the orc……
himself.
10. They are my favourite pop gr…… I've got their last album on
cass……. I really like the lead sin…… and the bass guit…… in particular.
2. Describe the last film / concert / opera / play that you
went to. What was it like? Did you enjoy it? Why? / Why
not?
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1.2. Texts for rendering (level A, B)
Text 1.
Look through the questions and then through the answers
(without going into detail). Make the plan of the text. Point
out the main idea in the answers.
Do you agree that “Everyone is an Orphan” today?
Famous Psychologist:
Today, Everyone’s an Orphan
In the 1960s-70s, Vladimir Levi was the Soviet Union's bestknown psychologist However today some may try to dismiss his works as
no longer being relevant. Are the psychological problems we face in the
era of reform really different from those we faced before?
MN: What do you think is changing in our countrymen's psychological consciousness?
VL: I have treated about 250,000 patients in my lifetime. This
means that, at least in part, I have come to understand the problems of
that many people. And I have come to realize that as diverse as they
might be, they have made very similar mistakes in life and are troubled by
the same problems – ten fingers would be more than enough to count
them all. I can‘t cite any statistics, so please accept what I say as personal impressions.
MN: But could you make at least a general conclusion?
VL: A new era is at hand, right? Well, regardless of what has
changed over the past few years, my younger patients are following in
their grandparents' footsteps. They are not copying them deliberately,
but it‘s as if they‘re unconsciously reproducing the same musical
theme.
MN: I hear motives from Ecclesiastes: “Generations come and
generations go, while the earth endures forever”
VL: Even young people of 14-16 years come to me with problems
that are not determined by time, place, or today's conditions, but by human nature: life and death, health and sickness, age crises, human relationships – love, jealousy, rivalry, violence, deceit. Human inequality is
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also an eternal theme. The essence of relations between children and
parents has not changed for thousands of years.
Many see the psychologist as someone who can predict the future, explain the meaning of life, or even create such a meaning. The causes of psychosis, neurosis, depression, fear, dependence, and addiction
remain basically the same.
The overall sum of people‘s fears is still the same. Feelings of vulnerability have grown, as has the fear of being left without the means to
survive. A person has more freedom now, supposedly. But it's not spiritual freedom; rather it's just lack of restraint. Before, even if it was an illusion, a person knew where to seek out justice. The government was a bad,
evil father – but at least it was a parent! Now everyone is a lone orphan
and can only count on himself.
MN: What's wrong with that? We're learning to be free.
VL: Soviet people either believed in the ideals of communism or
in the falsity of those ideals. The consciousness was clearly polarized.
Now there is absolutely nothing, a naked vacuum. For some, religion
filled the gap. However, the enthusiasm for the church has its limits as is
now evident Its prospects are not very great A belief in capitalism; is left,
but that does not really exist either. The result is mass disillusionment. Not
only the danger of spiritual devastation has become evident, but the psychological and physical destruction of the youth – drugs. Every day mums
and dads call me: ―Something is going on with my daughter – with my
son.‖ Soon it becomes clear drugs.
MN: Can these people be helped?
VL: Well, it's like with smoking: about 20 percent quit on their
own before becoming addicted. The rest can quit the poison only if they
have the desire and get qualified help. Alas, this is rarely possible.
MN: Does the spiritual vacuum you spoke about result in greater numbers of the psychologically disturbed?
VL: Unfortunately, yes. Back in the seventies the great geneticist
Vladimir Efroimson sounded the alarm: ―The gene of oligophrenia is
attacking.‖ And today not only one gene, but a whole number of harmful
genetic factors are working towards the debilitation of the popul a tion.
MN: You worked in the US. Is there any difference in their approach to psychology?
VL: In America I worked with our immigrants and some Americans. An amazing revelation: American psycho-therapists can ‗t work
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with our people, but we can work with theirs. Our psychologists and doctors, having studied their language and culture, can switch over to their
system, but they can't switch over to ours. It is no coincidence that the
demand has fallen for the enormous number of translated publications on
applied psychology.
MN: What about Dak Carnegie?
VL: Carnegie grasped some commonplace psychological factors.
But when a person is in a conflict, Carnegie's principles don't work. The
main problems are the same here as they are there. But the approaches to
them, as well as the social and psychological patterns, are different
MN: Does Russia have a special path again?
VL: I am for the kind of psychology that can provide for healthy
morals – as electricity gave the world light But so far we are living with
bonfires and candles.
Some useful words:
orphan – сирота
dismiss – увольнять, распускать, перестать думать
relevant – уместный, относящийся к делу
conscious(ness) – сознающий, сознательный
impress – создавать впечатление
Render the article according to your plan.
Text 2.
You are going to read the text about some kinds of difficult parents. Try to guess who the text is addressed to,
and why? How many types of parents are discussed in the
text?
First describe in Russian these types (in your own words).
Problem parents and how to deal with them
W h a t r e a l l y l i e s b e h i n d p a r e n t s ' b e h a v i o u r towards their children?
(Try to answer this question after reading the text)
Here are a few parental profiles to think over.
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1. Parents who were neglected as children themselves often overcompensate by smoothering their own offsprings with too much attention.
When a budding adult is preparing to leave home, their endless dictums
about how to behave, how to dress and how to live may also in fact mask
a very real need on the part of the parents to remain involved in their children's lives. Emotions can really run high when it comes to that most delicate of subjects – sex. Mixed with the sense of loss at seeing their little
child transformed into a nubile or virile young adult can be full of envy of
their youth and vitality.
2. Then there are 60's parents, liberal and carefree. They probably
wouldn't mind if you don't come home at all, let alone late at night. All
well and good, or so you may feel, but it can sometimes be quite consoling to know that someone is waiting at home, worrying about where you
are. These kinds of parents often behave like this because they remember
themselves, often from bitter experience, how awful it is to have overstrict parents who want to know your every move or lay down the law at
every opportunity. In rarer cases, though, the tolerance masks indifference
and a wish not to get involved. Or perhaps the parents are insecure, and so
cut themselves off from any emotional reliance to avoid the terrifying
possibility of rejection.
3. Table-thumping, rule-laying parents who won't allow anyone to
disagree or disobey sometimes, unfortunately, just enjoy the sense of
power. At other times, though, exercising their parental muscle allows
them to unload all their own frustrations and unrealised ambitions on to
you. They didn't get the promotion at work they were expecting, they're
worried financially; they feel they haven't achieved in life what they
should have done and now it is too late. Often the temptation to use the
family as a sounding-board for all this frustration is just too great.
4. Ever feel you can't do anything right, however hard you try?
Well, don't automatically think the fault lies with you. It could be that
there are other factors at work behind that disapproving look. These parents may be feeling insecure. They may be lacking in self-esteem. The
stresses and strains of everyday life can play straight into any cracks in
confidence and come tumbling out as criticism and irritability. If you're
the nearest object to hand, get out of the way fast. And then there's the
undercurrent of envy. Most parents want only the best for their children,
as they probably continually tell you. But when they are feeling unhappy
with themselves, when they see their own youth, vitality, even sexuality,
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slipping away, the urge to diminish someone else's youth can be irresistable. So they may put you down because they find it difficult to cope
with their own sense of loss or unhappiness.
5. Everyone goes through fits of depression from time to time, and
everyone copes with it in different ways. Some people curl up into a mental and emotional cocoon and don't want to let anyone near. Some people,
in contrast, want everyone to know about it. You need advice about a
problem and you wouldn't mind some loving support too. But when you
approach your parent the response is dismissive, or unreasonably angry.
This could just be that they're preoccupied with feeling down and don't
have much loving support to spare. So why not just back off for a while
and leave them to cope? Families are real power-houses of emotions.
When something goes wrong with one part of the balance, such as the
marriage, the situation can be highly charged and it is difficult, however
hard parents try, to keep it under wraps. And when it's a case of one parent trying to hold on to the marriage, it can be very difficult not to draw
the rest of the family into the quarrel. Parents may unload all their grievances, hurt and rejection onto the children, smothering them with affection and drawing them closer to fill the emotional gap. They may try to
exclude the other parent from the relationship, as if to punish or make
them jealous. Sometimes, though, this bitterness can be directed at the
child, not because of anything they have done or said, but as an outlet for
all that pain.
Get ready to render the article.
1. After looking through the text tell what problem the article is devoted to (deals with, touches upon).
2. Why do you think the article was written? What is the purpose of
the article? (to inform, to provide the readers with some information ...;
to attract readers‘ attention to ... : to help children understand their parents, try to avoid difficulties getting in contact with them …)
3. Look through each paragraph again and describe (in a few
words) types of parents. (in Russian) How many types of parents are mentioned in the text? Do you agree? Can you give other examples?
4. So, into how many parts can the article be divided?
5. Is there any conclusion in the text? If there is – what conclusion?
What do you think about the article? (What is your opinion? What would
you like to add in conclusion?)
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Text 3.
Read the title of the article and the first paragraph. How
would you answer the question in the title? Make a short
list of the things that you most regret, then compare your
list with a partner's. Are your regrets mostly about things
you have done or things you haven't done?
What do people most regret?
The paths they failed to take
1. Quickly read the rest of the text and find answers to the
questions, given after it.
When people sit back and take stock of their lives, do they regret
the things that failed, such as a romance that foundered, the wrong career
path chosen, bad grades in school? Or do they most regret what they
failed to try?
A small but growing body of research points to inaction – failing to
seize the day – as the leading cause of regret in people's lives over the
long term. These findings are painting a new portrait of regret, an emotion
proving to be far more complex than once thought.
Regret is a ―more or less painful emotional state of feeling sorry for
misfortunes, limitations, losses, transgressions, shortcomings or mistakes,‖ says University of Michigan psychologist Janet Landman, author
of several studies and a book on regret.
―As a culture, we are so afraid of regret, so allergic to it, often we
don't even want to talk about it,‖ Landman says. ―The fear is that it will
pull us down the slippery slope of depression and despair.‖
But psychologists say that regret is an inevitable fact of life.
―In today's world, in which people arguably exercise more choice
than ever before in human history, it is exceedingly difficult to choose so
consistently well that regret is avoided entirely,‖ say Cornell University
psychologists Thomas Gilovich and Victoria Medvec.
Regret involves two distinct types of emotion, what psychologists
call 'hot' and 'wistful'. Hot regret is quick anger felt after discovering that
you have made a mistake, like denting your car, accidentally dropping a
prized vase and seeing it smash into a thousand pieces, or buying a share
that suddenly plummets in price. This is when you want to kick yourself,
and it is associated with a short-term perspective.
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Wistful regret, on the other hand comes from having a longer range
perspective. It is a bittersweet feeling that life might have been better or
different if only certain actions had been taken. Typically, it means something that people should have done but didn't do. That might mean having
the courage to follow a different career, gambling on starting a new business or pursuing what appears to be a risky romance.
Psychologists have focused on hot regret as the type most common
to people's experience. But a growing body of research suggests that
wisftul regret may figure more prominently in people‘s lives over the long
term.
Asked to describe their biggest regrets, participants most often cited things they failed to do. People said such things as, ―I wish I had been
more serious in college,‖ ―I regret that I never pursued my interest in
dance,‖ ―I should have spent more time with my children.‖
In a study of 77 participants, the researchers found that failure to
seize the moment was cited by a 2 to 1 ratio over other types of regret.
The group, which included retired professors, nursing-home residents, undergraduates and staff members at Cornell University, listed
more than 200 missed educational opportunities, romances and career
paths, as well as failing to spend more time with relatives, pursue a special interest or take a chance.
―As troubling as regrettable actions might be initially, when people
look back on their lives, it seems to be their regrettable failures to act that
stand out and cause most grief.‖ Gilovich and Medvec conclude.
Studies suggest that regrets about education are overwhelmingly
the biggest. ―Not getting enough education, or not taking it seriously
enough, is a common regret even among highly educated people,‖ says
Janet Landman.
Tied for a distant second place are regrets about work or love. People talk about having gotten into the wrong occupation, marrying too
young, or that they wish their parents had never divorced, or there were
fewer conflicts in their family, or that their children had turned out better.
Many people also express regrets about themselves. They may wish
they had been more disciplined or more assertive or had taken more risks.
The best example of this kind of regret is one of Woody Allen's characters‘:
―I have only one regret, and that is that I am not someone else.
What people don't regret, however, are events that seem to be beyond their control. Personal responsibility is central to the experience of
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regret, according to Gilovich and Medvec. People might be moan or curse
their bad fate, but they rarely regret it in the sense that the term is typically understood.‖
Their studies found that older people expressed slightly more regrets than did young people. There is no solid evidence that regret increased as life goes on but regrets are likely to change throughout life.
For example, young women are more likely to report familyoriented regrets than young men. But by middle age men are more likely
than women to regret not spending enough time with their families.
And what do middle-aged women regret? Marrying too early and
not getting enough education.
Woody Allen
(American comic actor)
Questions:
What two types of regrets have psychologists identified? How are
they different?
Which type is more important in people's lives?
What do people express most regrets about?
What do people not regret?
2. Find these words and phrases and discuss with your partner
what they mean. The context provides various clues. Look for:
– a definition or explanation;
– examples that clarify the meaning;
– repeated occurrences of the word(s);
– words in the text that have a similar or opposite meaning.
1) Take stock of (line 1).
2) Foundered (line 2) This is an example of 'things that failed'.
3) Failing to seize the day (line 5) Look for an explanation in the
same sentence and other occurrences in lines 41/46.
4) Over the long term (line 6).
5) Inevitable (line 16) Look for an explanation in die following
sentence.
6) Figure prominently (line 35) The word 'But‘ introduces a contrast
with the previous sentence.
7) Cited (line 36) Look for another occurrence in line
84 and an alternative word in line 89.
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3. Choose the correct answer. Be prepared to explain your answers and why the other options are incorrect. Question 1 has been
done as an example.
1) What is emerging in new studies of regret?
A) a confirmation of traditional beliefs Incorrect. The text says
that research 'findings are painting a new portrait of regret'.
B) a recognition of the need for more education Incorrect. The
text refers to 'bad grades in school' as a possible cause of regret, but does not mention general educational standards.
C) the importance of romance in people's lives Incorrect. The
reference to 'a romance that foundered' is just another example of a possible cause for regret.
D) an enlarged view of this topic Correct. The text refers to
findings 'painting a new portrait' which 'is far more complex
than once thought’.
2) According to Janet Landman, people are not keen to discuss regret because
A) it can lead to negative feelings;
B) it makes them feel embarrassed;
C) it produces physical symptoms;
D) it makes them feel inferior.
3) Psychologists view regret as something
A) that should be accepted philosophically;
B) that was avoidable in the past;
C) that cannot be avoided In today's world;
D) that takes different forms in various historical periods.
4) Research indicates that 'hot' regret
A) is related to what other people do to you;
B) is concerned with long-term effects;
C) relates to physical actions;
D) is less significant than 'wistful' regret.
5) According to research, people regret
A) events that cause grief;
B) the way they are treated by their families;
C) chances that were not exploited;
D) the way they were educated.
Now get ready to render the article.
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Text 4.
BEFORE YOU READ: What are some examples of typical
regrets that people have? Why do you think the article is
called "Useless Regrets"?
Read this article from a popular psychology magazine.
USELESS REGRETS
I could have applied to college.
I could have become a doctor.
I shouldn’t have missed that opportunity.
I could have been rich and famous by now.
The words ‗It might have been‘ are the saddest among all the
words.
Not only the saddest, but perhaps the most destructive. According
to recent ideas in psychology, our feelings are mainly the result of the way
we think about reality, not reality itself.
According to Nathan S. Kline, M.D., it's not unusual to feel deep
regret about things in the past that you think you should have done and
did not do – or the opposite, about things you did do and feel you should
not have done. In fact, we learn by thinking about past mistakes. For example, a student who fails a test learns that he or she should have studied
more and can improve on the next test.
However, thinking too much about past mistakes and missed opportunities can create such bad feelings that people become paralyzed and
can't move on with their lives. Arthur Freeman, Ph.D., and Rose DeWolf
have labeled this process ―woulda / coulda / shoulda thinking,‖ and they
have written an entire book about this type of disorder.
In Woulda / Coulda / Shoulda: Overcoming Regrets, Mistakes,
and Missed Opportunities, Freeman and DeWolf suggest challenging regrets with specifics. ―Instead of saying, I should have done better,” they
suggest, ―Write down an example of a way in which you might have
done better. Exactly what should you have done to produce the desired
result? Did you have the skills, money, experience, etc. at the time?‖ In
the case of the student who should have studied more, perhaps on that
occasion it was not really possible.
When people examine their feelings of regret about the past, they
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grets missing a football game in which her son's leg was injured. She
blames herself and the officials. ―I should have gone,” she keeps telling
herself. “I could have prevented the injury. They might at least have
telephoned me as soon as it happened.‖ Did she really have the power to
prevent her son's injury? Should the officials have called her before
looking at the injury? Probably not.
Once people realize how unrealistic their feelings of regret are,
they are more ready to let go of them. Cognitive psychologist David
Burns, M.D., suggests specific strategies for dealing with useless feelings
of regret and getting on with the present. One amusing technique is to
spend ten minutes a day writing down all the things you regret. Then say
them all aloud (better yet, record them), and listen to yourself.
I shoudn’t have told that joke in the office. My career is ruined.
I ought to have cleaned the house instead of going out this weekend. My mother’s right. I’m just lazy.
My boyfriend could have told me he was going out of town this
weekend. He’s an inconsiderate jerk. I should never have started going
out with him.
Once you listen to your own ―woulda / coulda / shoulda‖ thoughts,
it's easier to see their illogic. For example, it's unlikely that your entire
career is in ruins because of one joke. You're an adult and you can choose
to go out instead of cleaning house. That doesn't make you a lazy person.
And your boyfriend isn't a jerk for making a single mistake.
After you recognize how foolish most feelings of regret sound, the
next step is to let go of them and to start dealing with life in the present.
For some, this might be harder than sighing over past errors. An Italian
proverb notes, ―When the ship has sunk, everyone knows how they could
have saved it.‖ The message from cognitive psychology is similar. It's
easy to second guess about the past; the real challenge is to solve the
problems you face right now.
Get ready to render the article:
1. What is the purpose of the article?
2. What are the main points in the text? Indicate them?
3. Is there any advice how to cope with ―useless regrets‖?
(techniques)
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4. Do you find any advice useful? Which would you choose? Why?
Do you know any other ways to deal with regrets?
Text 5.
Parents' Dilemma
If you did drugs as a kid,
how do you talk to your children about the dangers?
By John Leland
… In a recent survey of parents with teenage kids, 75 percent said
they ―would be upset if my child even tried marijuana.‖ and 77 percent
said ―parents should forbid their kids to use drugs at any time.‖ For a generation that believes it skewered anti-drug hypocrisy, this can be a source
of real parental anxiety How much should you tell your kids about your
own past? When? How can you just say no, when you spent your salad
days just saying yes? In short, how does the drug generation now talk to
its children about drugs?
One answer is: not very effectively After a decadelong decline,
rates of teenage drug use have risen sharply in the last five years, in some
cases nearly doubling. More than 41 percent of last year's high-school
seniors had tried marijuana or hashish, the highest rate since 1989. Nearly
12 percent had tried LSD. Though usage rates are srill well below their
peak of the late '70s. kids seem to be experimenting earlier. More than one
in five eighth graders said they used an illicit drug in the last year. And
experts warn that some marijuana available today is much more powerful
– up to 30 times stronger – than it was in the past. At the same time, the
percentage of kids who say their parents have talked to them about drugs
has dropped. Says Alan Leshner, director of the National Institute on
Drug Abuse. ―Many parents are afraid that their kids will say, 'Didn't you
try it then?'‖
Elizabeth Crown, 45, found herself in this position last month with
her daughter Emily, 9. Crown smoked marijuana with her friends in the
late '60s, and says now that she doesn't ―feel totally negative about the
experience. Whether right or wrong, it brought friends together. We had
fun." When Emily asked her whether she had smoked pot, she said yes.
"She asked me what it did,‖ says Crown. ―I said it makes me stupid. I told
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her there's really nothing worse than feeling like you're not in control.‖
She says she doesn't feel hypocritical about telling Emily to do as she
says, not as she did. ―I knew people who escalated and became addicts
later, and therefore I feel that I can say, ‘It really isn't a smart thing to do.‖
Drug counselors are divided about how much you should tell your
kids about your own experiences. Leshner advises parents to shift the
conversation away from themselves, especially for those who enjoyed the
ride. ―You have to turn it around from 'I did it and I lived, so therefore
you can do it and live' to 'My friend Sally didn't live'.‖ Also, he says, we
know more now about the harmful effects of marijuana. Child psychologist James Garbarino, director of the family-life development center at
Cornell University, argues that parents should avoid telling their children
too much about their own drug use, just as they wouldn't share the details
of their sex lives. ―They're in a role of authority. In general they should be
cautious.‖ Young children especially can be confused by parents' simplistic confessions that they used drugs. ―They'll overgeneralize,‖ says
Garbarino. ―They'll see something on TV about crack addicts. They'll
think, 'My parents are criminals, they're going to go to jail, I'm going to be
left behind'.‖
Sarah Wenk, 38, a computer consultant in Woodstock, N.Y., has
cobbled together a compromise for discussing her past experiences with
her son Conor, 6. She'll tell him the broad Story now, the fine points when
he gets older. ―He's so little now. Last night I asked him what he knew
about drugs. He said, 'You can't take drugs, they're really bad for you.' I
said why? He said he didn't know. Then as he gets older, I can be less
black and white. If I say drugs are bad but some aren't as bad, he's too
young to make some of those decisions.‖
The drug question can get dicier for parents who still smoke pot. A
documentary filmmaker from New York, who spoke only anonymously,
still likes to get high occasionally and views his drug experiences, apart
from cocaine, as largely beneficial. He hasn't raised the subject of drugs
with his kids, ages 8 and 11, because he hasn‘t needed to. ―They're ahead
of me,‖ he says. ―The propaganda at school is so strong that they bring the
subject up. They say drugs are terrible, anybody who does them is stupid.
I nod my head and say nothing, figuring in due time they will experiment.
He makes no moral distinction between marijuana and alcohol. But
though he drinks in front of his two children, he wouldn't think of lighting
up. ―One's legal,‖ he says. ―One isn't.‖ For Sarah Wenk, as for many par34
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ents, the worst scenario isn't for their kids to try drugs – they concede that
they might – but for them to be secretive about it. In this, parents' experience can be a blessing. ―If Conor is going to try things,‖ says Wenk, ―I
hope he'll keep me posted.‖ The call for candor cuts both ways. Jett Russell, the basketball jock, is glad his mother told him about her past. ―I
think I probably would have figured it out,‖ he says. ―I'm glad she quit
when she did.‖
But for all the candor and sensitivity, what many parents really
want is what their parents wanted: that their kids never mess with any
drug, any time. In an online discussion group for parents, which she hosts,
Wenk recently arrived at what she thought was an appropriate age for
Conor to experiment with drugs: 40.
Questions:
How many people take part in the discussion?
Do they have different or the same opinions?
What can psychologists recommend parents to do (how and when
to talk to their children, how much to tell them about drugs, how to
behave)? Express your own opinion of the problem.
Do you know any figures of drug addiction in our country?
Are there any addicts among teenagers?
Is it really a great problem for our society?
How do you think we should cope with it?
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PART 2
2.1. Texts for translation (level C, D)
Text 1.
PCYCHOLOGY OF COLOUR
There are colours that we like and colours that we dislike. There
are colours that make us feel happy and colours that make us feel sad.
Colours can make a big room look smaller or make a small room
larger. They can warm a cool room or cool a hot, sunny one. Warm colours contain red or yellow, and cool colours contain blue. The warm colours seem to bring things closer, and the cool ones tend to make objects
seem farther away.
Colours have a strong influence on us. They can affect our moods
and personalities, though we don‘t always notice it.
Japanese psychologists made an interesting experiment. They
asked a group of strangers to walk round two rooms, one painted red and
other blue. They found that in the red room, the people felt comfortable
the moment they entered it. They began talking with each other and even
laughing. But when they walked into the blue room they fell silent.
Experiments have also shown that our blood pressure goes up in
red surroundings and becomes lower on blue surroundings.
Blue is calming. A person can work best when surrounded by blue.
But too strong a blue or too much of it can become depressing. We often
feel cold in a blue room and warm in a red room, yet we may not know
that it is the colour that makes us feel this way.
Red is exciting. It makes us feel happy. It increases our energy. It
can also make us eat faster.
Orange, too, can stimulate appetite.
Is it a coincidence that places like McDonald‘s use mostly red and
orange?
Pink can make us tired. Some institutions in the United States use
this colour to cool down angry prisoners and patients.
Green is a calming colour. It helps us feel relaxed and quiet.
Turquoise is the colour of communication. If you are shy, wear this
colour. It may help you relax and feel more sure of yourself.
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Yellow, we are said, can help concentration and learning. Besides,
bright yellow surroundings usually put us in a good mood and make us
smile.
1. Phonetic drill:
though; notice; laughing; silent; blood; exciting; appetite; coincidence; quiet; turquoise.
2. Give 3 forms of the verbs:
to make; to have; to find; to feel; to begin; to fall; to go; to
become; to know; to eat; to say; to put.
3. Give the comparative and the superlative degree of the
following adjectives:
small; comfortable; large; warm; far; strong; sad; good; fast;
interesting.
4. Give antonyms:
e.g. : like – dislike
increase – decrease
far; warm; talkative; big; happy; comfortable; go up; strong; fast;
angry; shy.
5. Translate into Russian. Make up sentences of your own.
To feel more sure of yourself; to work best; to put smb. in a good
mood; besides; coincidence.
6. Translate the passage in writing (“Japanese psychologists … in blue surroundings”).
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7. Solve the puzzle:
1
2
3
4
5
6
7
8
9
10
1. повышать / увеличивать
2. влияние
3. удобный
4. совпадение
5. робкий / застенчивый
6. замечать
7. предметы
8. казаться
9. становиться
10. улыбаться
Text 2.
Discuss what you think it means to be an 'addict'.
Read the article about different types of addicts and decide which person you think has the most serious problem.
Are you hooked?
No one likes to admit they're an addict. They are sad creatures ruled
by deadly substances such as tobacco or alcohol. But there are others less
damaging to the health. Like it or not, large numbers of us are addicts. Addictions can be chemical (caffeine), emotional (shopping), physical (exercise) or downright strange – such as picking your spots! You're the odd one
out if you don't have at least one everyday addiction. What do you do when
you feel under pressure, bored or depressed? Get lost in the world of TV?
Go shopping? Eat one bar of chocolate after another?
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Becci has been a chocaholic for ten years. 'I just get an urge for it –
a need,' says Becci. 'I really don't know why, it's just so delicious. People
say that chocolate can make up for lost passion – I don't know about that,
but I love the way it melts in my mouth.' Every day, Becci gets through
several bars of her favourite Cadbury's chocolate (the one with the soft
caramel centre is the best). But it's not only the bars she goes for – hot
chocolate drinks and chocolate cakes are also essentials. Towards exam
time, Becci feels she has to increase her intake to cope with all the work.
'If I get up late, I'll have chocolate for breakfast, then more and more during the day. I am addicted. It's like smoking, I suppose, but I have no
plans to give it up. If I like it so much, why should I?'
Addiction to exercise can ruin your life, Janine learnt to her cost. 'I
was swimming at least fifty lengths a day, jogging to the gym and doing
three aerobic classes a week. At home, I used an exercise bike and keepfit videos. My husband said that I didn't have time for him, and he was
right. But I couldn't believe it when he left me. Finally, I came to my
senses, I wanted to get fit but it all got out of hand and my addiction ruined my marriage. Now, I'm seeing a counsellor and gradually reducing
the amount of exercise I do.'
Well-known Member of Parliament, Tony Benn, just can't live
without his favourite drink. He has on average eighteen pints of tea a day
and his addiction has raised concern about his health. When he collapsed
recently, some people blamed his excessive tea drinking. Mr Benn has
calculated that, over the years, he has drunk enough tea (around 300,000
gallons) to displace an ocean-going liner. If he ever tried to stop, he would
find it agonising.
Anne shopped for thirteen hours a day without leaving her living
room – she was addicted to TV shopping. When she got home from her
job as a nightcare worker at 8.30 a.m., Anne would immediately tune into
a satellite TV shopping channel and buy everything in sight. Her home
was soon an Aladdin's cave of household goods and trendy clothes she
didn't need. When her cash ran out, she stole money from the elderly patients in her care and was charged with theft. 'It seemed so easy,' she says.
'I didn't realise I'd become so addicted.' Anne's family have now removed
her satellite receiver.
Reading
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1. Read the following sentences and decide which person
(Becci, Janine, Tony Benn or Anne) each one refers to. One
of the sentences does not refer to any of them.
1. Her / his addiction led to crime.
2. She / he became out of touch with the rest of her / his life.
3. She / he was addicted to getting things she/he never used.
4. She / he feels her addiction is a substitute for love.
5. She / he needs it to help her/him work effectively under pressure.
6. She / he is receiving professional treatment.
7. Her / his addiction may have had serious physical consequences.
8. She / he isn't convinced she/he should give it up.
2. Find words or phrases in the text with the following
meanings.
1) the exception, the unusual person (para. 1);
2) a desire (para. 2);
3) to compensate (para. 2);
4) to change from solid to liquid (para. 2);
5) to destroy (para. 3);
6) to realise what is happening (para. 3);
7) to stop being under control (para. 3);
8) to make people worried (para. 4);
9) to fall down (para. 4);
10) too much (para. 4);
11) very difficult and painful (para. 4);
12) fashionable (para. 5);
13) to come to an end (para. 5).
3. Discuss the following questions.
1. What advice would you give to the four addicts (and their
families) in the article?
2. Would you say you were addicted to anything?
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Text 3.
Why do we risk it?
Ordinary people all over the world are willing to risk
their lives for the ultimate experience – an 'adrenaline buzz'.
What basic human need is driving them to do it?
Risk sports are one of the fastest-growing leisure activities. Daredevils try anything from organised bungee jumps to illegally jumping off buildings. These people never feel so alive as when they are risking their lives. In
their quest for the ultimate sensation, thrill-seekers are thinking up more
and more elaborate sports. 'Zip wiring', for example, involves sliding down
a rope from the top of a cliff suspended by a pulley attached to your ankle.
So why do some people's lives seem to be dominated by the 'thrill
factor', while others are perfectly happy to sit at home by the fire? Some
say that people who do risk sports are reacting against a society which
they feel has become dull and constricting. David Lewis, a psychologist,
believes that people today crave adventure. In an attempt to guarantee
safety, our culture has eliminated risk. 'The world has become a bland and
safe place, 'says Lewis. 'People used to be able to seek adventure by hunting wild animals, or taking part in expeditions. Now they turn to risk
sports as an escape.'
Risk sports have a positive side as well. They help people to overcome fears that affect them in their real lives. This makes risk sports particularly valuable for executives in office jobs who need to stay alert so
that they can cope when things go wrong. They learn that being frightened
doesn't mean they can't be in control.
Of all the risk or adrenaline sports, bungee jumping is proving the
most popular. Worldwide, one-and-a-half million people have tried it.
You hurtle towards the ground from 200 metres up and, at the last moment, when you are about to hit the water or land and death seems certain,
a rubber band yanks you back to life. You can decide whether to jump
from a crane, a bridge or a balloon. Attached to a length of elastic rope,
jumpers experience a free fall of nearly 100 mph, before they're slowed by
a quickly increasing pull on their ankles.
After five or six bounces jumpers are lowered on to a mattress and
set free. Almost inarticulate, they walk around with idiotic grins on their
faces. Their hands can't stop shaking, they can only use superlatives and
say repeatedly how amazing it was. 'As you're falling, all you see are
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things flying around as you turn,' says one breathless bungee jumper. 'You
don't think you're ever going to stop and when you rebound, it's like
weightlessness. You feel as if you're floating on air. My legs are like jelly,
but I feel so alive!'
1. Look at the pictures below and describe what you can
see happening in each one.
2. Now read the text and decide which paragraph each
picture belongs to. Then tell a partner how each picture
relates to the text.
3. In most texts you read there will be some words that
you do not understand. It is important that you are able to
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make sensible guesses as to what these words might mean
from the surrounding context.
4. The words opposite come from the text. Look at each
word in context and choose the correct meaning a) or b).
• quest (noun)
• crave (verb)
• bland (adjective)
• alert (adjective)
a) search
a) want very much
a) frightening
a) full of anxiety
• hurtle (verb)
• yank (verb)
• inarticulate (adjective)
a) move very fast
a) hit violently
a) unable to speak
clearly
b) fear
b) dislike strongly
b) without excitement
b) quick to notice
what is happening
b) be sick
b) pull suddenly
b) unable to move
5. Now choose two other words hat you don’t know in the
text and try to work out their meaning from the context.
6. Translate into Russian:
leasure activities; quest for the ultimate sensation; elaborate sports;
to eliminate risk; used to be able to seek adventure; turn to risk sports; to
overcome fears.
Text 4.
Teens Need Self -Esteem
It alarms me that the rate of suicide among our teenagers is so on
the rise. It seems that more and more young people feel overwhelmed by
the responsibilities of life and would just as soon give up rather than to
persevere and experience the multitude of adventures that life has to offer.
Much of this problem has to do with the way we, as adults, expect them to
respond to life situations. Do we want them to react as we would? Do we
bombard them with negativity?
The period between age 10 and 15 can be a very critical time. Children in that age group have the tendency to conform, and they will do anything to be accepted by their peers. In their need for acceptance, they
often hide their true feelings for fear they will not be accepted and loved
for whom they really are.
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The peer pressure and societal stress that I experienced when I was
young pale in comparison to that which today's young people must endure, and yet, when I was 15, due to physical and mental abuse, I left
school and home to be on my own. Think how jarring it must be for the
child of today to have to deal with drug abuse, physical abuse, sexually
transmitted diseases, peer pressure and gangs, family problems; and on a
global level, nuclear war, environmental upheavals, crime and so much
more.
As a parent, you can discuss the differences between negative and
positive peer pressure with your teen. Peer pressure is all around us from
the moment we are born until the day we leave the planet. We must learn
how to deal with it and not let it control us.
Similarly, it is important for us to gain some knowledge and understanding of why our children are shy, mischievous, sad, slow in school,
destructive, et cetera. Children are strongly influenced by the thinking,
feeling patterns established in the home, and he or she makes daily choices and decisions from that belief system. If the home environment is not
conducive to trusting and loving, the child will seek trust, love, and compassion elsewhere. Many gangs are a place where children feel safe. They
form a family bond, no matter how dysfunctional it is.
I truly believe that a lot of hardships could be avoided if we could
only get young people to ask themselves one important question before
they act: ―Will this make me feel better about myself?” We can help our
teenagers see their choices in each situation. Choice and responsibility put
power back into their hands. It enables them to do something without feeling like victims of the system.
If we can teach children that they are not victims and that it is possible for them to change their experiences by taking responsibility for
their own lives, we will begin to see major breakthroughs.
It is vitally important to keep the lines of communication open with
children, especially when they are in their teen.
1. Phonetic drill:
suicide
overwhelmed
persevere
peers
acceptance
endure
similarly
knowledge
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conducive
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2. Find synonyms to the following words:
to give up
due to
to deal with
to gain
to seek
hardships
major
to change
3. Translate into Russian:
a) Young people would just as soon give up rather than to
persevere and experience the multitude of adventures that life has to offer.
b) Much of this problem has to do with the way we expect them to
respond.
c) They often hide their true feelings for fear they will not be
accepted.
d) We will begin to see major breakthroughs.
4. Translate the passage in writing (“Similarly… how dysfunctional it is”).
5. Make up sentences of your own with the following
phrases:
family problems; environmental upheavals; critical time; to experience societal stress; peer pressure; home environment; to avoid hardships;
to take responsibility.
Text 5.
Why we sleep and why w e need to
Most people spend a third of their lives asleep. But why? Is it so
that the body can repair itself? Is it part of a process in which our brain
assimilates the information it has gathered during the day? Or is sleep a
mechanism that has evolved to keep us out of harm's way? No one knows
for sure, though each hypothesis has its supporters.
It is easier to say what sleep is than why we sleep. During sleep,
our blood pressure falls, the pulse rate drops, respiration slows, body temperature falls, most of our muscles relax, and in general our metabolic rate
falls by about twenty per cent. The organ that shows the clearest distinction between the states of sleeping and waking, however, is the brain. But
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while the activity of the sleeping brain differs from that of the waking
brain, it does not 'switch off' during sleep.
Sleep involves five distinct patterns – four stages of successively
deeper sleep known as Non-Rapid-Eye-Movement sleep (or NREM sleep)
and a fifth stage known as Rapid-Eye-Movement, or REM, sleep. During
NREM sleep, the brain waves tend to become slow and more regular, and
the sleeper lies fairly still and breathes slowly and regularly. Any snoring
that takes place will be during NREM sleep. It is in stage four, the deepest
level of sleep, that the electrical activity is slowest. REM sleep is a much
lighter sleep. Its distinguishing feature is that the eyes intermittently dart
about under closed eyelids – hence the term 'Rapid Eye Movement'.
The sleeper will progress through these five stages in cycles, each
cycle lasting about ninety minutes. Young mammals experience a much
greater proportion of REM sleep than adults. A newborn baby who sleeps
around sixteen hours a day will spend at least half of that in REM sleep.
Some researchers believe that REM sleep is essential for the human brain
to mature before and after birth, and this explains why babies need so
much sleep.
A team of physiologists studying sleep patterns found that 16-yearold students liked to sleep between ten and eleven hours a night; older
students slept on average eight hours a night. The need for sleep continues
to decline as people age to about seven hours a night on average for 45–
60-year-olds, and even less in old age. In particular, stage four sleep almost disappears after the age of about fifty.
Scientists have never come across a person who can go without
sleep. A few individuals have attempted to stay awake for as long as possible. The current record- holder, Robert McDonald of California, held
out for 18 days 21 hours 40 minutes. Apart from the sheer difficulty of
staying awake, such record-breakers report side-effects such as hallucinations, irritability, blurred vision, slurring of speech, and lapses of concentration and memory. The symptoms disappear after a few nights of normal
sleep.
People suffering from insomnia have trouble falling asleep and
staying asleep throughout the night. The problem is real enough, but may
seem worse; time appears to pass very slowly when you lie' awake at
night, and insomniacs often think that they have been awake far longer
than they really have. Scientists monitored the sleep patterns of some
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somniacs remained awake for more than thirty minutes in the course of
the night.
Text 6.
Guilt Makes Us Feel Inferior
Many times people give you negative messages because it is the
easiest way to manipulate you. If someone is trying to make you feel
guilty, ask yourself, ―What do they want? Why are they doing this?‖
Ask these questions instead of inwardly agreeing, ―Yes, I'm guilty, I must
do what they say.‖
Many parents manipulate their children with guilt because they were
raised the same way. They tell lies to their children to make them feel less
than. Some people are still manipulated by their relatives and friends
when they grow up because, first of all, they don't respect themselves, otherwise they wouldn't let it happen. Secondly, they are manipulative themselves.
Many of you live under a cloud of guilt. You always feel wrong, or that
you are not doing the right thing, or apologizing to someone for something.
You will not forgive yourself for something you did in the past. You berate
yourself for a lot that goes on in your life. Let the cloud dissipate. You
don't need to live that way any longer.
Those of you who feel guilty can now learn to say no and call people
on their nonsense. I'm not saying to be angry with them, but you don't
have to play their game anymore. If saying ―no‖ is new to you, say it very
simply: ―No. No, I cannot do that.‖ Don't give excuses or the manipulator
will have ammunition to talk you out of your decision. When people see
that manipulating you doesn't work, they will stop. People will only control
you as long as you allow them to. You may feel guilty the first time you
say no; however, it gets easier the next few times.
Text 7.
KING OF THE ECCENTRICS
C o u l d i t b e t h a t b e in g c o m p l e t e l y c r a z y i s n o t o n l y g o o d f u n b u t g o o d f o r y o u r
health?
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Dr David Weeks, an American psychologist who works at the Royal Edinburgh Hospital, is extremely well qualified to comment on eccentricity.
He is the author of a five-year study of T h e G r e a t B r i t i s h
Eccentric.
One of his most striking findings was the good health that eccentrics enjoy. 'Almost all of them visit the doctor only once every eight or
nine years.' They are also a happy lot. They are very curious about everything. This gives them a goal in life, which is a recipe for happiness.'
Of all the eccentrics he has come across, Dr Weeks believes that
Professor Jake Jonathon Zebedee Mangle-Wurzle is the most remarkable.
'He displays all the usual characteristics he's obstinate, non-conformist,
and creative – but he's more extreme than my other cases.'
The professor lives on the outskirts of Huddersfield in his very own
kingdom of Wurzle-land. He rarely ventures out of his kingdom except to
perform eccentric feats, such as his famous drive from Leeds to Huddersfield, in reverse.
He is something of a celebrity, giving free guided tours to people
from all over the world. He rejects all religious belief and he preaches
daily, trying to convert his kingdom to atheism. The only problem with
this plan is that all his followers are sheep. The professor has just divorced
his third wife and claims he is delighted. 'It's the best Christmas gift I've
ever had. 'This development might have been predicted by Dr Weeks' research. His study shows that there are more marriages, separations, and
divorces among eccentrics than in the general population. They admit that
they are people who are difficult to work with and live with. They often
feel that they are ahead of their time, and that it is the rest of the world
that is completely so insane, not themselves.'
The sensation of pain is actually a sensation of loss. It is a loss of
beingness, loss of position and awareness. Therefore, when one loses anything, he has a tendency to perceive less, for there is less to perceive.
Something has withdrawn from him without his consent. This would be
the definition of loss.. This brings about eventually a condition of darkness. This could also be called an ARC break. If he has lost something, the
guilty party is probably in the other two universes. It is either the physical
universe or another's universe which has caused the loss. Thus he has less
communication since he is unwilling to communicate, which is to say, put
out things in the direction of something which is going to take them and
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carry them away without his further consent. This brings about a reduction of the desire to be aware which is the reduction of affinity, reduction
of agreement (reality) and the reduction of communication in general. In a
moment of severe disappointment in one's fellow man, the universe
around him actually grows dark. Simply as an experiment, one can say to
himself that he has the only viewpoint there is, that all other viewpoints
are simply mocked up by him, he will get an almost immediate diminution of lightness around him. This is the same mechanism as the mechanism of loss. The result of too much loss is darkness.
Another mechanism of the darkness and unawareness settling over
a person is brought about by the loss of a viewpoint which has greatly
evaluated for one. One has had a mother or a father who over evaluated
about everything, and then this parent or guardian or ally in life, such as a
teacher, died or inexplicably disappeared. One was depending for actual
looking, seeing, hearing, upon the continued existence of this individual.
Suddenly that individual goes and all becomes dark.
2.2. Texts for translation (level A, B)
Text 1.
Translate the text. Pay particular attention to the marked
words and phrases.
The difficult child
The difficult child is the child who is unhappy. He is at war with
himself, and in consequence, he is at war with the world. A difficult child
is nearly always made difficult by wrong treatment at home. Adults take
it for granted that a child should be taught to behave in such a way that
the adults will have as quiet as possible. Hence the importance attached to
obedience, to manner, to docility. The usual argument against freedom for
children is this: life is hard, and we must train the children so that they
will fit into life later on. We must therefore discipline them. If we allow
them to do what they like, how will they ever be able to serve under a
boss? How will they ever be able to exercise self-discipline? The problem child is the child who is pressured into obedience and persuaded
through fear.
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The happiest homes are those in which the parents are frankly honest with their children without moralizing. Fear does not enter these
homes. Love can thrive. In other homes love is crushed by fear. Pretentious dignity and demanded respect hold love aloof. Compelled respect
always implies fear. Home plays many parts in the life of a growing child,
it is the natural source of affection, the place where he can live with the
sense of security: it educates him in all sorts of ways, provided him with
his opportunities of recreation, it affects his status in society. Children
need affection. Of all the functions of the family that of providing an
affectionate background for childhood and adolescence has never been
more important than it is today. Child study has enabled us to see how
necessary affection is in ensuring proper emotional child care: ―Many
evidences made me think that Americans have often been developed; and
the stresses and strains of growing up in modem urban society have the
effect of intensifying the yearning for parental regard.
Approaching adolescence children become more independent of
their parents. They are now more concerned with what other kids say or
do. They go on loving their parents deeply underneath, but they don't
show it on the surface. They no longer want to be loved as a possession or
as an appealing child. They are gaining a sense of dignity as individuals,
and they like to be treated as such. They develop a stronger sense of responsibility about matters that they think are important. From their need
to be less dependent on their parents, they turn more to trusted adults
outside the family for ideas and knowledge. In adolescence aggressive
feelings become much stronger. In this period, children will play an earnest game of war. Is gunplay good or bad for children? The world famous
Dr. Benjamin Spock has this to say in the new edition of his book for parents about tolerant of harshness, lawlessness and violence, as well as of
brutality on screen. Some children can only partly distinguish between
dramas and reality. I believe that parents should flatly forbid programs
that go in for violence. I also believe that parents should firmly stop children's war-play or any other kind of play that degenerates into deliberate
cruelty or meanness. One can't be permissive about such things. To me it
seems very clear that we should bring up the next generation with a greater respect for law and for other people's rights.‖
According to the article, why do parents bring up their
children in obedience and discipline?
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Choose the correct alternative for each sentence.
1. Parents want difficult children to...
1) lead as a quiet life as possible;
2) adjust themselves to life;
3) be well-mannered;
4) teach themselves how to work properly.
2. What can destroy love in the family?
1) respect;
3) fear;
2) dignity;
4) moralization.
3. In what way does the affection of parents influence a child?
1) it makes him emotionally balanced;
2) it influences his status in society;
3) it helps him to be educated in all possible ways;
4) it intensifies his need in parental respect.
4. Why do adolescents want to become more independent of
their parents?
1) they wanted to be treated as personalities;
2) they don‘t want to feel responsibility for anyone;
3) they stop loving their parents;
4) they feel more trust in other adults.
5. According to B. Spock, what is often the attitude of
Americans to violence?
1) they can‘t stand it;
3) they close their eyes to it;
2) they welcome it;
4) they don‘t admit its existence.
6. According to B. Spock, how should parents treat the wish of
their children to play games of war?
They should be ...
1) tolerant to it;
3) strongly against it;
2) permissive about it;
4) respectful for it.
Text 2.
The text is about the different styles that men and women
have in the workplace.
Read the text and see if the writer's ideas are the same as
yours. The text has eight main sub-sections. Match the
cartoons to the sections.
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Men and women
Men and women do things differently. There are, of course, exceptions to every generalisation, including this one.
Cristina Stuart is a managing director of Speakeasy Training, a
consultancy that runs courses for men and women working together. Here
she describes a few key differences between the sexes in the workplace.
1. Working together
The male approach to business is competitive, direct and confrontational. The end justifies the means. *Personal status and a focus on the
individual are important. The female method is collaborative. Collective
action and responsibility are more important than personal achievement.
Lateral thinking*, as well as goodwill and the well-being of the individual, are also of great importance.
2. Tackling problems
The male approach is to go to the heart of the problem, without
taking into account secondary considerations. The female preference is to
look at various options.
3. Body language
Male body language tends to be challenging. Female body language tends towards self-protection. A stereotypical female pose is sitting cross-legged; the male sits with legs apart to give an impression that
he is in control. Male behaviour can include forceful gestures for example banging a fist on the desk for effect. The female style does not usually include aggressive gestures.
4. Language
The male way of speaking does not encourage discussion. Women
tend to welcome others' opinions and contributions more.
5. Conversation
Men like to talk about their personal experiences and achievements
or discuss 'masculine' topics such as cars or sport. Women tend to talk
about staff problems and personal matters.
6. Meetings
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If a woman does not copy the male confrontational style, she is often ignored.
7. Self-promotion
Men find it easy to tell others about their successes. Women tend
to share or pass on the credit for a success.
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8. Humour
Men's humour can be cruel – a man's joke usually has a victim.
Female humour is less hurtful. A woman often jokes against herself.
CAVEAT
Many men have a female style of working. Equally many women
have a male approach. As Ms Stuart says many of the current management theorems – flatter organisations*, empowerment, managing by
consensus* – have a female style to them.
________________________
*The end justifies the means: it doesn‘t matter what method you use, success
is the only important thing.
*lateral thinking: thinking in a creative way, making unusual connections.
*flatter organisations: organisations in which there are fewer managers and
people have equal status.
*managing by consensus: managing by getting everyone to agree.
Look at the cartoons and say which figures you think represent men and which represent women?
confrontational,
competitive
personal
achievement
comes first
forceful,
self-protective,
challenging, direct
share credit
for success
in control
How's your daughter?
collaborative
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Text 3.
Focus on reading
Face value
Face value (recommended for discussion. The topic – ―Non-verbal
behavior‖).
1. It is generally agreed that there are a number of basic
universally recognised facial expressions. With another
student, study the pictures below and identify the seven
basic emotions they show.
2. With your partner, discuss the following questions.
1) Which of the expressions were easiest and which most difficult
to identify?
2) What other signals (e.g. gestures) might accompany these facial
expressions?
3) On what occasions would it be important to hide the following
feelings? Why?
Anger
Fear
Disgust
Discuss the following questions.
1) How do facial expressions help in everyday communication?
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2) What kind of difficulties can arise when people communicate
without being able to see each other, by telephone or e-mail for example?
3) Why is it better for children to play with friends than play on a
computer?
4) How can you tell if someone is embarrassed? What kind of
situations make you feel embarrassed?
Face and value
Skimming and scanning.
Each of the extracts (A-D) relates to one of the questions (1-4). Read the extracts quickly and answer
the following questions.
Which extract below relates to each question?
Write the letters next to the questions.
Which words or phrases helped you identify the correct extract?
A
When two pedestrians collide, there's none of that anger we see
when motorists cross one another's path. The experts say that we don't see
aggression when people collide because they're liable to exchange little
signs of apology, which you are unable to do when you're trapped inside a
car. The same kind of misunderstandings can easily happen on e-mail.
The style of e-mail is terse but informal, so people get annoyed where no
rudeness is intended, because they can't see the expression on the face of
the person they're communicating with. If they could, the problem would
instantly disappear.
B
Facial movements associated with embarrassment act as an apology, with the gaze averted and the eyes moving downwards. A brief smile flickers across the face and the hand often moves to the cheek. This may be
accompanied by blushing. The whole response takes about five seconds.
Studies done in court rooms in the United States prove that of the defendants
found guilty in court, the ones who blushed and looked embarrassed after the
verdicts were read out received shorter sentences than those who appeared
unrepentant. Embarrassment on the face is the equivalent of apologising. It
helps to show people that you know you've transgressed the rules.
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Interestingly, embarrassment seems only to appear at the age of
eighteen months, much later than other expressions. It's at this age that a
child first gets an awareness of people around it and a social sense.
C
Eye contact and head nods are crucial to our conversations. The
single head nod indicates that the nodder has understood what is being said
and wishes the speaker to continue. Rapid and repeated head nods indicate
that the speaker wishes to speak. Eye contact is also vital, and we spend up
to 75 per cent of the time looking at the person we're talking to. We can underline the points we are making by raising our eyebrows or pursing our
lips. The eyebrows can also be raised in a kind of visual question mark at
the end of a sentence.
D
Most children learn to express themselves naturally through face-toface communication with their parents and their peers. But in the modern
world this kind of contact is diminishing. Instead of playing football and
fighting, children are spending increasing amounts of time in front of computers. Numerous studies have shown that this can cause relationship problems later in life. Without the feedback of another's emotions, children
risk becoming withdrawn and depressed.
From BBC Online Science: The Human Face
From: Focus on IELTS: By Sue O'Connell
Text 4.
(Recommended for written translation with a dictionary).
Pay particular attention to the marked words and
phrases.
PARENTS ARE TOO PERMISSIVE
WITH THEIR CHILDREN NOWADAYS
Few people would defend the Victorian attitude to children, but if
you were a parent in those days, at least you knew where you stood: children were to be seen and not to be heard. Freud and company did away
with all that and parents have been bewildered ever since.
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... The child's happiness is all-important, the psychologists say, but
what about the parents' happiness? Parents suffer constantly from fear and
guilt while their children gaily run about pulling the place apart. A good
old-fashioned spanking is out of the question: no modern child –rearing
manual woud permit such barbarity. The trouble is you are not allowed
even to shout... Certainly a child needs love ... and a lot of it. But the excessive permissiveness of modern parents is surely doing more harm
than good.
Psychologists have succeeded in undermining parents' confidence
in their own authority. And it hasn't taken children long to get wind of the
fact. In addition to the great modern classics on child care, there are
countless articles in magazines and newspapers. With so much unsolicited
advice flying about, mum and dad just don't know what to do any more.
In the end they do nothing at all. So, from early childhood, the kids are in
charge and parents' lives are regulated according to the needs of their offspring. If the young people are going to have a party, for instance, parents
are asked to leave the house. Their presence merely spoils the fun. What
else the poor parents can do but obey?
Children are hardy creatures (far hardier than the psychologists
would have us believe) and most of them survive the harmful influence of
extreme permissiveness which is the normal condition in the modern
household. But a great many do not. The spread of juvenile delinquency
in our own age is largely due to parental laxity. Mother, believing that
little Johnny can look after himself, is not at home when he returns from
school, so little Johnny roams the streets. The dividing line between permissiveness and sheer negligence is very fine indeed.
The psychologists have much to answer. They should keep their
mouths shut and let parents get on with the job. And if children are
knocked about a little bit in the process, it may not really matter too
much... Perhaps, there's some truth in the idea that children who've had a
surfeit of happiness in their childhood emerge like stodgy puddings and
fail to make a success of life.
Text 5.
There are grounds …
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There are grounds for deep suspicion, in the idea of a family group
which does not occasionally dissolve into a mass of screaming squabblers.
I know of families where no word of dissent is ever permitted before – or
from – the children, and these to be families where no word of tenderness either is ever permitted before – or from – the children. If two or
three or four or five or six people live together in one house, sooner or
later something is going to come up about which they do not see eye to
eye and are prepared to say so. The children are displeased with their parents, perhaps, or displeased with each other or some outside element; it is
even possible that the parents are displeased with their children. It would
be unsafe to imagine that the average family could keep these emotions
unspoken without some damage to the psyche, particularly the parents'.
In our family we are six – two parents and four children – and we
are given to what I might call unceasing differences of opinion, more or
less violent. Anyone, of course, may start the fray, but once begun, certain
immutable ground rules apply and must not be broken. Approximately,
the ground rules may be stated as: the battle must be joined in a spirit of
high moral indignation and a correspondingly high voice. The more vivid
the detail, the more forceful the complaint. ―He hit me and scratched –
me and pulled my hair and bit me‖ is clearly a finer many-angle trench
than merely: ―He hit me‖.
Once the arguable premise has been decided, counter-attack may
consist of flat denial (―I never did‖), counter-accusation (―Well, you hit
me first‖) or personal insult (―Anyway you are nothing but a big baby‖).
In the case of parental involvement, case histories may be admitted evidence (―Since you are so consistently rude to members of your own family, I can see no reason why we should believe that you are civil to your
sister's friends‖), and dire prediction may be used as a pseudo threat (―The
main part of growing up is the acceptance of responsibility, so a little girl
who is going to wear lipstick and fancy shoes will naturally want to be
more capable in the home and can, therefore, expect to wash and dry up
every night‖).
If the father of the family speaks, whether in anger or not, absolute silence must be maintained, although it is not necessary to pay any
particular attention to what he is saying.
If the mother of the family speaks, by heaven everybody had better look alive.
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Any apology fairly earned must be delivered in a cold and superior voice, as grudgingly as possible (―Well, I said I was sorry‖), and
complete to teach the children manners.
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Choose the correct alternative for each sentence.
1. The story gives us information on how ...
1) to settle a family quarrel
2) to conduct a family quarrel properly
3) to avoid a family quarrel
4) to take advantage of a family quarrel
2. The author claims that families who have quarrels turn out
to be ...
1) more affectinate to each other
2) more cruel
3) more tolerant
4) more united
3. What is the reason for family quarrel? It starts when family
members ...
1) can‘t see the eyes of each other
2) see the matters differently
3) don‘t see much of each other
4) don‘t see tenderness from each other
4. What is the most important rules to remember when starting
a family quarrel?
1) to determine who is going to start it
2) to arrange a foceful battle
3) to show very emotionally indignation
4) to keep in mind the scheme of the quarrel.
5. What should the end of the family quarrel be like?
1) you should sincerely give the family their earnest apology
2) you should apologize reluctantly and in a cold voice
3) you should teach your family good manners
4) you shouldn‘t repeat the apology for the second time
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Text 6.
Read and translate the following text (Try not to use a
dictionary). Pay attention to the marked words, phrases or
lines.
Gender Differences and Conformity:
The Vanishing Myth of Female Submissiveness
Do women and men differ in terms of their tendencies to conform?
Even today many people seem to believe that females are more susceptible to conformity pressure than males. After all, persons holding this view
might argue, ―aren't women more likely than men to follow changing
fashions? And aren't they more concerned with being liked?‖ Early studies on this issue seemed to offer support for such beliefs (Crutchfield,
1955). These studies reported that women do indeed show greater conformity than men. More recent experiments, however, point to the conclusion that in fact there are no significant differences between males and
females in this respect (e.g., Eagly & Carli, 1981). What accounts for these sharply contrasting findings? Several factors seem to play a role.
Why Early and Later Studies
on Conformity Yielded Opposite Results
First, early studies of gender differences in conformity used tasks
and materials that were more familiar to males than to females. Since individuals of both genders are more likely to yield to social pressure when
they are uncertain about how to behave when they are more confident, it
is hardly surprising that females demonstrated higher levels of conformity; after all, the dice were strongly loaded against them (Sistrunk &
McDavid, 1971).
Another reason for the disparity in the results may lie in major
shifts in gender roles and gender-role stereotypes during the 1970s and
1980s. An ever-increasing number of women have moved into jobs and
fields once dominated by males. As a result, stereotypes suggesting that
women are less ambitious, less competent, and less independent than
males have weakened. And since stereotypes often exert a selfconfirming impact on behavior, these changes may be responsible for the
fading of any tendency for females to be, or to be perceived as, more susceptible to social influence than males (Maupin & Fisher, 1989).
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Evidence Indicating That Gender Differences
in Conformity Are More Illusory Than Real
Now back to the findings of more modern research. As mentioned earlier, several lines of evidence point to the conclusion that despite widespread assumptions to the contrary, males and females do
not actually differ with respect to conformity. One line of research has
focused on the following possibility: A key reason why many people
continue to believe that females are easier to influence than males
may be the fact that females generally have lower economic status.
Give your own idea of this problem.
Do you agree or disagree with the author? The text may be
used for rendering.
Text 7.
You and Your Id: Searching for Roots of the Self
(for a written translation)
New York – the self is like an irritating television jingle: you cannot get it out of your head. Whatever you do on this blue planet, whatever
you taste, embrace, learn or create, all will be filtered through the self.
Even sleep offers no escape, for who is it that struts through the center of
every dream but you, yourself and id?
Call it self-awareness, self-identity, mind, consciousness, or even
soul, but the sense of self, of being a particular individual set apart from
others, seems intrinsic to the human condition. After all, Homo sapiens
have large brains, and they are awfully good at taking stock of their surroundings. Sooner or later, they were bound to notice themselves, and the
impermeable physical barrier between themselves and others.
The invention of personal pronouns, philosophy and large-pore illuminating mirrors was bound to follow.
Yet as natural and inevitable as human self-awareness may seem,
evolutionary biologists and psychologists do not take its existence for
granted. Instead, they are asking deceptively simple questions that cut to the
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awareness been selected by evolutionary pressures, or is it, to borrow a
phrase from Stephen Jay Gould, a ―glorious accident,‖ the byproduct of a
large intelligence that allows humans to build tools and otherwise manipulate their environment? Might humans not fare just as well operating like
computers, which do their jobs without mulling over why they are here?
The quest to understand the evolution of the serf is part of the much
larger and very fashionable study of consciousness, which has spawned
enough scientific symposiums, Web sites and books to render even the
most diligent student unconscious. But most consciousness research focuses on so-called proximate mechanisms, the question of how the brain
knows itself and which neural pathways and patterns of synaptic firings
might underlie self-awareness. Evolutionary researchers concern themselves with ultimate mechanisms, the whys and wherefores of serf.
(1500–1600 зн. – 45 мин.)
They are taking a phylogenetic approach, seeking to understand
when self-awareness arose in the evolutionary past, whether other species
have a sense of self, and if so, how it can be demonstrated.
A number of biologists now suspect that a robustly articulated
sense of serf, far from being an afterthought of abundant cortical tissue, is
very much the point of the human brain. They propose that consciousness
allows humans to manipulate the most important resource of all – themselves – and to use the invented self as a tool to advance their own interests among their peers. This theory, in turn, suggests that the sense of self,
of being set apart like an island afloat in a dark cosmic sea, paradoxically
may have arisen because humans evolved in a highly interdependent
group.
The rudiments of selfhood are as ancient as the plasma membrane,
the greasy coating that separates one single-celled organism from another.
―Even something as simple as an amoeba has a boundary between the self
and the outside world,‖ said Dr. David Darling, a former computer researcher and author of "Soul Search" (Villard Books, 1995) about the nature of self-consciousness. ―That physical and chemical border is the beginning of some kind of self.‖ Most creatures are sufficiently self-aware
to place themselves first on their list. ―It would be unlikely for an insect to
start grooming a neighbor's foot,‖ said Dr. May R. Berenbaum, an entomologist at the University of Illinois in Urbans Champaign and author of'
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'Bugs in the System" (Addison-Weslej 1995). ―You wouldn't want to
waste energy promoting the well being of somebody else.‖
Text 8.
Look through the text and find the sentences which contain the main idea in each part.
Translate the text from the words “using high...” up to the
end.
Depression is not just an adult affliction.
But new research offers hope of detecting
and treating it early in life
When Alec Louis-Seize turned 14, he started to change. But it was
more than just puberty. He became painfully self-conscious and paranoid
around friends and family. He had difficulty concentrating. Simple tasks
left him drained. Some days, he felt too exhausted to get off the couch.
Alec started skipping classes once a week, then every day. When he no
longer could summon the interest or energy to go to school, he dropped
out. Many around him dismissed his behaviour as teen angst. It was his
first brush with depression.
―I felt alone and confused. I didn't know what was happening to
me. I thought it was just a normal teenaged thing,‖ said Alec, now 16. ―I
saw people going to school everyday and it was just the biggest task for
me to get out of bed. Because I had no energy, most people would think I
was lazy and they would tell me to suck it up.‖ His story isn't uncommon.
Anywhere from 5 to 10 per cent of Canadian teenagers are clinically depressed. The illness can strike children as young as 7, and many never get
the help they need.
―At one time, it was taught to us that depression didn't happen in
children and adolescents because they were not mature psychologically to
have depression. That is completely false,‖ said Stan Kutcher, head of
psychiatry at Dal-housie University in Halifax and an international authority on depression in young people. ―Then the teaching became: Depression is a normal part of growing up. You had to become depressed.
That is totally false.‖
Since then, research has come a long way. Today, doctors readily
acknowledge depression is a brain disease.
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Eighteen months ago, Dr. Kutcher's colleagues launched a Canadian study that showed, for the first time, what depression does to developing minds. Their findings may alter our understanding of mental
illness and have important implications for the treatment of childhood
depression.
Using high-resolution magnetic resonance imaging or MRI, they
canned the brains of young people aged seven to 18. The study group included 40 healthy children and adolescents, 60 with depression, 40 with
bi-polar and psychosis disorders, and 40 with attention deficit hyperactivity disorder.
Their preliminary results show that the hippocampus – a horseshoeshaped region in the brain that plays a critical role in memory and emotion – was 9 per cent smaller in the depressed children. Another area – the
dorsal lateral prefrontal cortex (DLPFC), which is important for reasoning
and logic – was 12 per cent smaller in that group. Many of the adolescents
who had depression exhibited problems performing simple addition, a
finding that has serious implications for achievement in school.
―I think that it is a very scary thought when somebody says, 'Does
depression damage the brain?' But I think that is our real concern.‖
The atrophy seen in the hippocampus may explain why depressed
individuals feel they cannot escape the prison of their gloomy thoughts.
―You have heard of people who look at the world through rosecoloured glasses? These would be people who look at the world with
blue-coloured glasses,‖ co-investigator Frank MacMaster said. ―With new
[experiences] coming in, no matter what they are, they are always turning
it into something bad.‖
Young people also may obsess about past events in which they felt
humiliated, rejected or powerless, the researchers say. Jeering from a bully, a snide remark about their looks or even failure on a test may evoke
persistent feelings of worthlessness.
―Their thoughts have a flavour of negativism. They might say that
other kids in school don't like them. They might feel that everybody is
against them. They might even feel that parents would be better off if they
did not have them,‖ said Mark Sanford, a child psychiatrist and head of
childhood mood-disorder program at the Centre for Addiction and Mental
health in Toronto. Keeping up in school can become difficult for these
youngsters...
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Text 9.
Read the following text to find out what the essential
characteristics of a quarrel are, according to the author.
Quarrelling
Great emotional and intellectual resources are demanded in quarrels; stamina* helps, as does a capacity for obsession. But no one is born a
good quarreller; the craft must be learned.
There are two generally recognised apprenticeships. First, and universally preferred, is a long childhood spent in the company of fractious*
siblings. After several years of rainy afternoons, brothers and sisters develop a sure feel for the tactics of attrition* and the niceties* of strategy
so necessary in first-rate quarelling.
The only child, or the child of peaceful or repressed households, is
likely to grow up failing to understand that quarrels, unlike arguments, are
not about anything, least of all the pursuit* of truth. The apparent subject
of a quarrel is a mere pretext; the real business is the quarrel itself.
Essentially, adversaries* in a quarrel are out to establish or rescue
their dignity.
Hence the elementary principle: anything may be said. The unschooled, probably no less quarrelsome by inclination than anyone else,
may spend an hour with knocking heart, sifting the consequences of calling this old acquaintance a lying fraud. Too late! With a cheerful wave the
old acquaintance has left the room.
Those who miss their first apprenticeship may care to enrol in the
second, the bad marriage. The mutual intimacy of spouses makes them at
once more vulnerable and more dangerous in attack. Once sex is involved,
the stakes are higher all round. And there is an unspoken rule that those
who love, or have loved, one another are granted a licence for unlimited
beastliness such as is denied to mere sworn enemies. For all that, some of
our most tenacious black belt quarrellers have come to it late in life and
mastered every throw from the Crushing Silence to the Gloating Apology,
in less than ten years of marriage.
A quarrel may last years. Among brooding types with time on their
hands, like writers, half a lifetime is not uncommon. In its most refined
form, a quarrel may consist of the participants not talking to each other.
They will need to scheme laboriously to appear in public together to register their silence.
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Brief, violent quarrels are also known as rows. In all cases the essential ingredient remains the same; the original cause must be forgotten
as soon as possible. From here on, dignity, pride, self-esteem, honour are
the crucial issues, which is why quarrelling, like jealousy, is an allconsuming business, virtually a profession. For the quarreller's very selfhood is on the line. To lose an argument is a brief disappointment, much
like losing a game of tennis; but to be crushed in a quarrel . . . rather bite
off your tongue and spread it at your opponent's feet.
________________________
* stamina – выносливость, выдержка, стойкость
* attrition – истощение
* fractious – капризный, беспокойный
* nicety – точность, pl. детали
* pursuit – поиск
* adversary – противник
Explain the formation of the marked words.
Answer the questions and be ready to render the article.
1) What are the two ways to master the ability to quarrel?
2) What is the very idea of a quarrel?
3) What does it mean ―to be crushed in the quarrel‖?
Text 10.
Translate the following text but avoid translating each
word. It’s not necessary at all. Point out features of character Englishmen possess. Give the description of the English as they are seen by other people. Have you got the
same impression or a different one?
The English character
The national character of the English has been very differently described, but most commentators agree over one quality, which they describe as fatuous self-satisfaction, serene sense of superiority, or insular
pride. English patriotism is based on a deep sense of security. Englishmen
as individuals may have been insecure, threatened with the loss of a job,
unsure of themselves, or unhappy in many ways; but as a nation they have
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been for centuries secure, serene in their national successes. They have
not lived in a state of hatred of their neighbours, as Frenchmen or Germans have often lived. This national sense of security, hardly threatened
by the Armada, or by Napoleon, or by the First World War, has been
greatly weakened by the Second World War and by the invention of the
atomic bomb.
Many books have been written – even more, perhaps, by Frenchmen, Americans, Germans, and other foreigners than by Englishmen – on
English traits, English ways of life, and the English character. Their authors are by no means always in agreement, but they tend to point out
what seem to them puzzles, contrasts, in the way the English behave. A
few of these contrasts may serve to sum up how the world looks at the
English.
First, there is the contrast between the unity the English display in a
crisis, their strong sense for public order, indeed for conformity, and their
extraordinary toleration of individual eccentricities. Germans are usually
astounded by what they regard as the Englishman's lack of respect for
authority and discipline. Frenchmen are often puzzled by the vehemence
of English political debates, by the Hyde Park public orator, and similar
aspects of English life, which in their own country would seem signs of
grave political disturbance. This sort of contrast has led to the common
belief held by foreigners, and indeed by Englishmen themselves, that they
are a most illogical people, always preferring practical compromises to
theoretical exactness.
Second, there is the contrast between English democracy, the English sense of the dignity and importance of the individual, and the very
great social and economic inequalities that have hitherto characterized
English life. There has recently been some tendency to allow greater social equality. But Victorian and Edwardian England – which foreigners
still think of as the typical England – did display extremes of riches and
poverty, and draw an almost caste line between ladies and gentlemen and
those not ladies and gentlemen.
Third, there is the contrast between the reputation of the English as
hard-headed practical men – the ―nation of shopkeepers‖ – and as men of
poetry – the countrymen of Shakespeare and Shelley. The English tradition in philosophy has always been realistic and hostile to mysticism, –
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sally noted by foreigners; but foreigners also confess that they find English reserve not unpleasant, and that once one gets to know an Englishman
he turns out to be a very companionable fellow.
Text 11.
Read and translate the text and then say (possible in Russian first) what the reason for such absent-minded actions
is (or if there is any explanation – which one)?
The Zany World of Professor Reason
Professor Reason recently persuaded 35 people, 23 of them women, to keep a diary of all their absent-minded actions for a fortnight. When
he came to analyse their embarrassing lapses in a scientific report, he was
surprised to find that nearly all of them fell into a few groupings. Nor did
the lapses appear to be entirely random.
One of the women, for instance, on leaving her house for work one
morning threw her pet corgi her ear-rings and tried to fix a dog biscuit on
her ear. ‗The explanation for this is that the brain is like a computer,‘ explains the professor. People programme themselves to do certain activities
regularly. It was the woman's custom every morning to throw her dog two
biscuits and then put on her earrings. But somehow the action got reversed in the programme. ‗About one in twenty of the incidents the volunteers reported were these 'programme assembly failures.' Altogether the
volunteers logged 433 unintentional actions that they found themselves
doing – an average of twelve each. There appear to be peak periods in the
day when we are at our zaniest. These are two hours some time between
eight a.m. and noon, between four and six p.m. with a smaller peak between eight and ten p.m. 'Among men the peak seems to be when a
changeover in brain ‗programmes' occurs, as for instance between going
to and from work.'
Twenty per cent of all errors were 'test failures' – primarily due to
not verifying the progress of what the body was doing. A man about to get
his car out of the garage passed through the back porch where his garden
jacket and Wellingtons were kept, put them on – much to his surprise.
Sometimes these ‗test failure' abbreviations result in the brain 'overshooting' its programme. Getting home from work tired one evening, another
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man went to the bedroom to take off his jacket and tie and ended up in his
pyjamas.
The automatic stop ‗mechanism of the programme sequence can
undershoot' as well, according to Reason. A woman victim reported: I got
into the bath with my socks on. 'Not surprisingly, the commonest problem, accounting for 40 % of all errors, was information storage failures.'
People forgot the name of people whose faces they knew, went into a
room and forgot why they were there, mislaid something, or smoked a
cigarette without realising it.
The research so far suggests that while the 'central processor' of the
brain is liberated from second-to-second control of a well-rehearsed routine, it must repeatedly switch back its attention at critical decision points
to check that the action has proceeded as intended. Otherwise the activity
may be 'captured' by another frequently and recently used programme.
A startling finding is that the absent-minded activity is a hazard of
doing things in which we are skilled. Normally you would expect that
skill reduces the number of errors we make. But trying to avoid silly slips
by concentrating more could make things a lot worse – even dangerous. If
we had to think about every single activity the brain just could not cope.
'For instance, you could fall if you concentrated on what your feet were
doing as you were running down stairs,' says Professor Reason.
(from The Sunday Times)
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PART 3
Some additional texts to conversational topics
3.1. Additional text. Topic “Description”
Text 1.
Questions to consider
1. If you could select one adjective that best describes your
personality, what adjective would it be?
2. Is there anything to be gained by classifying people into
personality types or placing yourself in a personality category? If so,
what? Read an article about personality types.
What type are You?
Suppose you attend a party where there are several people you
know well. The hosts have a new party game. They ask everyone to take
five minutes and compare each person to a flower. Which flower would
you choose for each person? For that matter, which flower would you
choose for yourself? Are you the kind of person who resembles a
sunflower, open to the world most of the time? Or are you more like a
four o'clock, someone who only opens up at special moments?
This may sound like just a fun activity, something which is suitable
only for get-togethers or for amusing yourself. But there is actually a science of identifying personality types. Personality identification grew out
of the work of Swiss psychologist Carl Jung and the studies of two American women, Katharine Briggs and her daughter, Isabel Briggs Myers.
After considerable study of Jung's work, Briggs and her daughter developed a system in which they formulated four personality dimensions and
sixteen different personality types. This test, which has been refined many
times over the decades, has been validated by the millions of people who
have taken it. What follows is a brief description of what has come to be
known as the Myers-Briggs test. Take a look at it. As you're reading about
these categories, try to place yourself into one or more of them." You may
learn something about your friends, co-workers, and loved ones, and
yourself.
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The first dimension is a familiar one: extrovert or introvert. This
category has to do with the way in which people direct their energy. An
extrovert is basically a person whose energies are activated by being with
others. An introvert is basically a person whose energies are activated by
being alone. Mary is a good example of an extrovert. She's the kind of
person whom others consider shy, but there's no correlation between shyness and either introversion or extroversion. At a party, once Mary meets
some people she feels comfortable with, she starts to open up and get energized. Her friend Bill is the opposite. Bill isn't shy at all, but after he's
been at a party for a while, he's weary and ready to go home. He finds the
conversation interesting enough but is just as likely to be imagining a time
when he was hiking alone in the mountains.
The second dimension of personality is sensor or intuitive. This
category has to do with the kind of information we notice and remember
easily. Sensors are practical people who notice what is going on around
them. They rely on past experiences to make determinations. Intuitives are
more interested in relationships between things or people. They tend to be
imaginative and to focus on what could be. Jack and Barbara, who have
been married for years, are good examples of these types. At a party, Jack,
whose parents own a sofa company, notices immediately that their hosts
have bought a new sofa and asks the hosts where they bought it. Barbara
is much less interested in the sofa and more interested in the strained way
their hosts are talking with each other. Did they have a fight? Jack is the
sensor and Barbara the intuitive here.
The third personality dimension is thinker or feeler. This category
has to do with the way in which we come to conclusions. Thinkers are
those who tend to make decisions objectively and impersonally on the
basis of what makes sense and what is logical. Feelers make decisions
based on their own personal values and how they feel about choices. Helen and Gary are good examples. They've just gone to a bank to apply for a
loan. The loan officer tells them that they owe too much on their credit
cards and that they'll have to pay off their debt before they can borrow
money. This makes perfect sense to Helen, which leads us to classify her
as a thinker. Gary's reaction is quite different. The loan officer, by whom
Gary feels criticized, is only trying to do his job. Gary takes his comments
personally, which is why he is to be considered a feeler.
The fourth category is judger or perceiver. This dimension has to
do with the kind of environment that makes us feel most comfortable.
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Judgers are people who prefer a structured and predictable environment.
They like to make decisions and have things settled. Perceivers are more
interested in keeping their options open, preferring to experience as much
of the world as possible. Tim and Samantha are good examples of these
types. Tim, who always has a plan for everything, gets impatient with
Samantha when he calls and asks her for a date. Tim wants things to be
nailed down; Samantha wants to keep her options open and flexible.
So now we're left with this question: What good is the ability to
pigeonhole people, or ourselves, for that matter? It certainly doesn't give
us any magic powers or tools for dealing with people. But it can give us
insight. It can help us understand others better, and perhaps minimize or at
least reduce conflict. Best of all, it can help us to understand ourselves.
Source: Adapted from "What's Your Personality
Type?" New Woman. August 1998, pp. 68-71,
by Barbara Barron-Tieger and Paul D. Tieger,
authors of Do What You Are, Nurture by Nature,
and The Art of Speed Reading People.
Understanding meaning from context.
Make a guess about the meaning of each italicized word
or phrase from the reading. Write down your guess.
1. This test, which has been refined many times over the decades,
has been validated by the millions of people who have taken it.
2. Barbara is much less interested in the sofa and more interested in
the strained way their hosts are talking with each other.
3. Tim wants things to be nailed down; Samantha wants to keep her
options open and flexible.
4. What good is the ability to pigeonhole people, or ourselves, for
that matter?
5. But it can give us insight.
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Text 2.
Speak out!
A: A pet peeve is something that irritates us. It's often a small
thing, but it bothers us a lot. For example, one person may hate waiting
for people. Another may dislike hearing whistling. List two or three of
your pet peeves.
B: Work with a partner. Find out if your pet peeves bother him or
her, too. Use the language for asking about and expressing feelings as
much as possible.
A: I really dislike hearing someone whistling while I'm trying to
work. Do you feel the same way?
В: Nо, I really don't feel that way at all. I guess I can just avoid listening to it.
Asking About Feelings
Do you feel the same way? How do you feel about it? Does that
bother you?
Expressing Feelings
I feel / don't feel the same way. Yes, that irritates me, too. Oh. I
don't mind … .
Read all about it!
Prereading
A. Read the title of the article and look at the drawings. What do
you think the article is about?
B. Diagrams, drawings, and charts often accompany texts to help
clarify meaning. As you read, refer to the diagrams to help you understand
the text.
Your Personality in the Palm of Your Hand?
Throughout history, people have been fascinated by the mysteries
of the human personality. In their efforts to find out how and why humans
differ from each other, people have looked for answers in the stars, in the
5analysis of handwriting and drawings, in the study of the shape of the
head, and in the lines and shapes of the hand.
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Anyone can look at a human hand and deduce some facts about the
owner. For example, a hand with blisters and calluses tells us its owner
does hard physical labor, while 10 a soft hand with long nails tells us the
owner does not. But some people have gone way beyond that simple step
to a much more exotic way of analyzing a person's character. Through the
ages, these analysts have identified and studied different lines and shapes
(called mounts) in the palm of the hand and have connected them to certain human personality traits.
Experts in palm reading identify nine separate lines in the human
palm. The length and clarity of these lines determine certain aspects of personality. For instance, three of the most important lines are the life line, the
head line, and the heart line. A long life line shows that the owner will keep
on living a healthy life to a very old age. The head line is related to intelligence; a long, curved line shows that the owner is used to thinking imaginatively. The heart line shows love and affection. A short line indicates that
the owner has problems expressing affection; in contrast, a long, strong line
shows that the owner enjoys having passionate relationships.
In addition to identifying lines, readers also look at nine mounts,
rounded parts of the palm, that indicate other character traits. These
mounts can be flat, round, or very developed. For example, three of the
important mounts are the mount of Venus, the mount of the moon, and the
mount of Upper Mars. A flat mount of Venus indicates poor health. If the
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mount of Venus is round, it shows that the owner works at having a
healthy mind and body through exercise and correct eating. It also indicates a love of being with and helping other people. The owner of a round
mount of the moon loves traveling and has a sensitive nature. A strongly
developed mount of the moon can indicate creative thinking. A person
with a flat mount of Upper Mars can't help believing what other people
say; the owner trusts people and easily does what others suggest. A very
developed mount of Upper Mars, however, indicates that the owner has
difficulty in controlling angry feelings and other strong emotions.
After interpreting all the lines and mounts, experts in palm reading
say they can then describe a person's personality. (Of course, people who
have flat mounts of Upper Mars will believe what the palm reader says;
people who have round ones probably won't!)
Exercise 1.
Without looking back at the text, label the diagram. Use
the words in the list.
head line
heart line
life line
mount of the moon
mount of Upper Mars
mount of Venus
Exercise 2.
Comprehension Check
1. What are some ways that people analyze personalities?
2. What aspects of personality do palm readers associate with the
lines of the hand?
3. What aspects do they associate with the mounts?
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Exercise 3: Meaning from Context.
Look at the article and write definitions of these words on
a sheet of paper. Do not use a dictionary.
1) deduce (line 7);
2) labor (line 9);
3) exotic (line 12);
4) passionate (line 27);
5) interpreting (line 45).
Text 3.
You're gor geous!
Reading and vocabulary
1. Who do you think is the most attractive man / woman in the
world? Why?
2. Which is the best explanation of the saying below?
3. Do you think it is true?
Beauty is in the eye of the beholder.
a) It is important to have beautiful eyes.
b) Everyone has their own idea about beauty.
c) Everyone wants to look at a beautiful person.
4. Which pictures above show modern ideas of beauty?
Why do you think the people in the pictures were / are considered attractive?
5. Read the text and check your answers.
6. Which of these statements do we know are true? Explain your
answers.
a) Pale skin was more popular than tanned skin until the
twentieth century.
b) Elizabethan make-up was not very safe.
c) In the eighteenth century most fashionable ladies liked mice.
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d) Ladies in Rubens' times probably never went on diets.
e) If Paduang women didn't have a long neck, they couldn't get
married.
f) People in the eighteenth century thought that it was OK for
men to cry.
g) Dinka women from Sudan think that thin men are very ugly.
1. For many in the 1990s, supermodel Cindy Crawford was the
perfect American dream girl; slim, tanned and natural-looking, with long,
shiny hair. People have described her as ‗The Face of the Decade'.
2. But people have not always had the same ideas about beauty. Until
the 1920s, suntans were for poor people, 'ladies' stayed out of the sun to
keep their faces as pale as possible. In the times of Queen Elizabeth I of
England, fashionable ladies even painted their faces with lead to make them
whiter – a very dangerous habit, since lead is poisonous!
3. And people in the eighteenth century would not have thought
much of Cindy Crawford's hair! Ladies in those days never went out
without their wigs, which were so enormous (and dirty) that it was quite
common to find mice living in them.. As for the 'perfect beauties' painted
by Rubens in the seventeenth century, if they wanted to be supermodels
today, they would need to spend months on a diet!
4. Ideas of beauty can be very different according to where you live
in the world, too. For the Paduang tribe in South East Asia, traditionally,
the most important sign of female beauty was a long neck. So at the age of
five or six, girls received their first neck ring, and each year they added
new rings. By the time they were old enough to marry, their necks were
about twenty-five centimetres long!
5. And what about the ideal man? If you asked people today to
name an attractive man, most of them would ention someone like James
Bond, Harrison Ford or Denzel Washington: someone tall and athletic,
brave and 'manly'.
6. In the eighteenth century however, 'manliness' was very different
from what it is today. As well as wearing wigs, perfume and lots of makeup, a true gentleman showed that he had feelings by crying frequently in
public. According to one story, when the British Prime Minister, Lord
Spencer Percival, came to give King George IV some bad news, both men
sat down and cried!
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7. And even now, James Bond might not find it so easy to attract
women if he visited the Dinka tribe of Sudan. They have always believed
in the saying that 'big is beautiful'. Traditionally, each year, men compete
to win the title of 'the fattest man'. The winner is sure to find a wife
quickly: for a Dinka woman, if a man is fat, it is also a sign that he is rich
and poweful!
From: Cutting Edge Pre-lntermediate.
By Sarah Cunningham, Peter Moor with Jane Comyns Carr
Text 4.
What is Beauty?
When you look in the mirror, do you like what you see? Chances
are you've got a feature or two that could be improved – after all, nobody's
perfect. But how far would you go to be more attractive?
A recent survey found that it's no longer just women who want to
become more beautiful: men are quickly catching up. In Britain, for example, 34 per cent of men are not satisfied with their bodies.
And if creams and lotions can't do the trick, both sexes are increasingly ready to submit to the surgeon's knife in search of perfection.
The world record for plastic surgery is held by Cindy Jackson –
who has had more than 20 operations to redesign herself from top to toe.
She has spent 55,000 pounds over eight years to achieve the Barbie Doll
look, and considers it money well spent. 'Now I can cross the street whenever I want to because male drivers will always stop to look at my figure.'
Research shows that beautiful people get a better deal. Small babies
prefer to look at them, teachers are kinder to them and even mothers pay
more attention to their prettier children. At school attractive children are
punished less and often get higher marks for the same work.
Every day, we're bombarded with beautiful faces. They smile at us
from advertising hoardings, TV screens and magazines. Their perfect
smiles, flawless cheekbones and wide eyes fuel the multi-billion-dollar
beauty industry.
But what exactly is beauty? For centuries men – it usually was men
– have tried to come up with a mathematical formula for beauty. The ancient Greeks thought the number three was the answer – a beautiful face
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was one that could be divided into three exactly equal parts, hairline to
eyebrows, eyebrows to mouth, and finally mouth to chin.
The Victorians believed that a face with great beauty possessed the
average features of all other faces. However, this has now been debunked
by recent research which found that the most attractive faces have higher
cheekbones, a thinner jaw and larger eyes relative to the size of the face
than an average one.
Dr Alfred Linney at University College Hospital measured the faces of models and has found out that there's no such thing as 'the' beautiful
face. Instead the features of models turn out to be just as varied as everyone else's. 'Some have teeth that stick out,' he says, 'others have a jutting
chin. There was no one ideal of beauty that was closer to others.' In fact,
there were some with features that could normally make them candidates
for cosmetic surgery!'
Another survey shows that all sorts of non-standard looks still
count as beautiful. Just think of Angelica Houston or Gerard Depardieu.
The truth is that when it comes to choosing a mate, beauty is still
very much in the eye of the beholder. Some of us make the oddest choices.
So the message is: if you've got it flaunt it – but if you haven't, just
make the most of what you‘ve got.
________________________
features ['fi:t∫əz] черты лица
to improve [im'pru:v] улучшать
attractive [ə'træktiv] привлекательный
survey [sз:vei] обзор, исследование
to catch [kæt∫] up догонять
lotion [leu∫n] лосьон
to do the trick достичь цели
increasingly [inkri:siŋli] все больше и больше
o submit [səb'mit] покориться
surgeon ['s:dən] хирург
to redesign [ridi'zain] переделать
from top to toe с головы до ног
research [ri'sз:t∫] исследования
we're bombarded with [bomba:d] на нас обрушивается шквал
hoarding ['ho:diŋ] щит для наклейки объявлений
flawless [fl:ləs] безупречный
cheekbones ['t∫i:kbəunz] скулы
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to fuel [fjuəl] питать, поддерживать
to come up with найти, придумать
equal ['i:kwl] равный
to possess [pə'zes] обладать
average ['ævərid] средний
to debunk [,di:'bŋk] разоблачать, развенчивать
relative ['relətiv] to по отношению к
to measure ['mеэ] измерять
to turn out to be оказаться
jutting ['dtiŋ] выдающийся, выступающий
count as считаются
mate [meit] супруг, супруга
beauty is in the eye of the beholder у каждого свое представление о красоте (букв. красота в глазах любящего)
odd [od] странный
message ['mesid] зд. идея, смысл
flaunt [fl:nt] выставлять напоказ, щеголять
Who’s this girl?
If you can‘t choose between these supermodels (clockwise from
top): Cindy Crawford, Linda Evangelista, Claudia Shiffer and Naomi
Campbell, this computerised picture shows the image of four of them. But
is the result really four times as beautiful? You decide!
Does your face fit?
In Los Angeles, California, lives a man who says he has the secret
of facial perfection. Plastic surgeon Dr Stephen Marquadt has developed
‗The Mask‘ – a blueprint for the perfect face. He claims it shows the
proportions of the ideal face – and the more a person‘s face fits the Mask,
the more attractive they are.
________________________
blueprint ['blu:print] план, проект, чертеж
Text 5.
Reading.
Look at the title of the article. Do you think the article
will be serious or light-hearted? Why?
First read the article quite quickly.
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Write down one thing about each nationality that you
can remember.
Share what you have written with other students in
the class.
A World Guide to Manners
How not to behave badly abroad
b y N o r ma n Ra ms ha w
Travelling to all corners of the world gets easier and easier. We live
in a global village, but how well do we know and understand each other?
Here is a simple test. Imagine you have arranged a meeting at four
o'clock. What time should you expect your foreign business colleagues to
arrive? If they're German, they'll be bang on time. If they're American,
they'll probably be 15 minutes early. If they're British, they'll be 15
minutes late, and you should allow up to an hour for the Italians. When
the European Community began to increase in size, several guidebooks
appeared giving advice on international etiquette. At first many people
thought this was a joke, especially the British, who seemed to assume that
the widespread understanding of their language meant a corresponding
understanding of English customs. Very soon they had to change their
ideas, as they realized that they had a lot to learn about how to behave
with their foreign business friends.
For example:
The British are happy to have a business lunch and discuss business matters with a drink during the meal; the Japanese prefer not to work
while eating. Lunch is a time to relax and get to know one another, and
they rarely drink at lunchtime. The Germans like to talk business before
dinner; the French like to eat first and talk afterwards. They have to be
well fed and watered before they discuss anything. Taking off your jacket
and rolling up your sleeves is a sign of getting down to work in Britain
and Holland, but in Germany people regard it as taking it easy. American
executives sometimes signal their feelings of ease and importance in their
offices by putting their feet on the desk whilst on the telephone. In Japan,
people would be shocked. Showing the soles of your feet is the height of
bad manners. It is a social insult only exceeded by blowing your nose in
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ness behaviour. Seniority is very important, and a younger man should
never be sent to complete a business deal with an older Japanese man. The
Japanese business card almost needs a rulebook of its own. You must exchange business cards immediately on meeting because it is so essential to
establish everyone's status and position.
When it is handed to a person in a superior position, it must be given and received with both hands, and you must take time to read it carefully, and not just put it in your pocket! Also the, bow is a very important
part of greeting someone. You should not expect the Japanese to shake
hands. Bowing the head is a mark of respect and the first bow of the day
should be lower than when you meet thereafter.
The Americans sometimes find it difficult to accept the more formal Japanese manners. They prefer to be casual and more informal, as
illustrated by the universal 'Have a nice day!' American waiters have a
one-word imperative 'Enjoy!' The British, of course, are cool and reserved. The great topic of conversation between strangers in Britain is the
weather – unemotional and impersonal. In America, the main topic between strangers is the search to find a geographical link. 'Oh, really? You
live in Ohio? I had an uncle who once worked there.'
When in Rome, do as the Romans do
Here are some final tips for travellers.
In France you shouldn't sit down in a cafe until you've shaken
hands with everyone you know.
In Afghanistan you should spend at least five minutes saying hello.
In Pakistan you mustn't wink. It is offensive.
In the Middle East you must never use the left hand for greeting,
eating, drinking, or smoking. Also, you should take care not to admire
anything in your hosts' home. They will feel that they have to give it to
you.
In Russia you must match your hosts drink for drink or they will
think you are unfriendly.
In Thailand you should clasp your hands together and lower your
head and your eyes when you greet someone.
In America you should eat your hamburger with both hands and as
quickly as possible. You shouldn't try to have a conversation until it is
eaten.
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Comprehension check
Read the article again and answer the questions. Discuss
the questions in pairs.
1. Which nationalities are the most and least punctual?
2. Why did the British think that everyone understood their customs?
3. Which nationalities do not like to eat and do business at the same
time?
4. They (the French) have to be well fed and watered. What or who
do you normally have to feed and water?
5. An American friend of yours is going to work in Japan. Give
some advice about how he / she should and shouldn't behave.
6. Imagine you are at a party in (a) England (b) America. How
could you begin a conversation with a stranger? Continue the conversations with your partner.
7. Which nationalities have rules of behaviour about hands? What
are the rules?
8. Why is it not a good idea to ...
… say that you absolutely love your Egyptian friend's vase.
… go to Russia if you don't drink alcohol.
… say 'Hi! See you later!' when you're introduced to someone
in Afghanistan.
… discuss politics with your American friend in a McDonalds.
Discussion
1. Do you agree with the saying 'When in Rome, do as the Romans
do'? Do you have a similar saying in your language?
2. What are the 'rules' about greeting people in your country? When
do you shake hands? When do you kiss? What about when you say goodbye?
3. Think of one or two examples of bad manners. For example, in
Britain it is considered impolite to ask people how much they earn.
4. What advice would you give somebody coming to live and work
in your country?
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THE OPTIMIST TEST
Test yourself by completing the questionnaire.
Are you an optimist or a pessimist?
What do you tell yourself when things go wrong? Check
your most likely self-talk for each situation below. Then
find out if you're an optimist or pessimist.
1. Your boss doesn't say good morning to you.
a. She isn't herself today.
b. She doesn't like me.
2. Your family forgets your birthday.
a. Next year we should keep in touch with one another more.
b. They only think about themselves.
3. You gain ten pounds.
a. I promise myself to eat properly from now on.
b. Diets never work for me.
4. Your romantic partner decides to go out with other people.
a. We didn't spend enough time with each other.
b. We're wrong for each other.
5. You're feeling tired lately.
a. I pushed myself too hard this week.
b. I never take care of myself.
6. Your friend forgets an appointment with you.
a. He sometimes forgets to read his appointment book.
b. He never reminds himself about important things.
Score you questionnaire...
Optimists see bad situations as temporary or limited. Pessimists see
them as permanent. All the ―a‖ answers are optimistic, and all the ―b‖ answers are pessimistic. Give yourself ―0‖ for every ―a‖ answer and ―1‖ for
every ―b‖ answer.
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If You Scored
0-2
3-4
5-6
You Are
very optimistic
somewhat optimistic
pessimistic
Now interview five classmates and find out how they answered the questions. Report the results to another group.
Use reflexive and reciprocal pronouns in your descriptions.
EXAMPLE:
For Question 5, three people said they pushed
themselves too hard. Two people said they
never take care of themselves...
Read the article about different types of friends. First circle the relative pronouns and underline the adjective
clauses. Then draw an arrow from the relative pronoun to
the noun or pronoun that it describes.
Not just Friends
b y B ud E . Fr eu nd
Most of us have very few ―best friends‖ throughout our lives. These are friends stand by us through thick and thin. They are people who
accept us completely (warts and all) and who know our most secret
thoughts. But our lives crisscross with many others whose relationships
with us may be less deep but are still important. What would our lives be
without these acquaintances, buddies, and dear old friends?
ACQUAINTANCES. These are people whose paths often cross
ours. We attend the same school committee meetings or share a car pool
with them. Acquaintances may exchange favors easily. The neighbor who
borrows your chairs for a big party or the colleague who waters your
plants while you're on vacation fits this category. But we usually don't get
too intimate with them. One woman commented, ―Our next-door neighbor, who car pools with us, is very nice. But we don't have anything in
common. We never get together for anything but car pool.‖
BUDDIES. A lot of people have a friend who shares a particular
activity or interest. These usually aren't close relationships, but they're
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important ones that keep us connected to our interests and hobbies. Because they're based on activities rather than feelings, it's relatively easy to
make a new buddy. One foreign-exchange student reported, ―For the first
two months, I didn't have any real friends. My table-tennis partner, who's
from Beijing, was my only social contact. We couldn't communicate in
English very well, but we had a good time anyway. Without him, I would
have been completely isolated.‖
OLD FRIENDS. ―Delores knew me when I worked in the mailroom,‖ recalls an advertising executive. ―I'll never forget this day. The
vice president who promoted me called me for an interview. I didn't have
the right clothes, and Delores was the one who came with me to buy my
first business suit.‖ We all have old friends who knew us ―back when.‖
They keep us in touch with parts of ourselves which are easy to lose as we
move through life. ―Whenever I go home, I always visit Delores,‖ recalls
the executive. ―We look through old albums and talk about experiences
that have helped form us. She always reminds me how shy I used to be. I
agree with George Herbert, who said that the best mirror is an old friend.‖
3.2. Additional text. Topic “Mind”
Text 1.
BEFORE YOU READ: What are your strategies for remembering names?
Read this excerpt from a magazine article.
Stop Forgetting
Marta wanted to go to the party. She's friendly and enjoys meeting
people. But as Marta looked at the invitation, part of her kept saying, ―1
won't know anyone there! How will I remember all those new names?‖
Marta's problem is not unusual. Remembering names is a problem for
many people. For international travelers like Marta (she's a Mexican student studying in the United States), it is even harder to recall unfamiliar
foreign names. What can Marta and others like her do? Here are some tips
from memory experts:
Decide to remember. Making an effort can really help.
Listen carefully when you hear someone's name for the first time.
It's important to pay attention.
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Keep repeating the name. Calling the person by name more than
once will help fix the name in your mind.
Write the name down.
Putting things in writing is the most common memory aid.
CF = Don't hesitate to ask the person to repeat the name. Most
people don't mind doing this.
And last, but not least,
“Hi. I'm, I'm, I'm . . . You'll have to forgive me, I'm terrible with
names.”
Stop worrying. Anxiety only makes the problem worse.
Text 2.
Read and translate the text.
Find the following words in the dictionary: attach, emanate, awe, facet, capture, anticipate, mate, susceptible,
spare – and decide if they are necessary for understanding
the text or you can do without them.
What exactly is intelligence?
There is probably no aspect of contemporary psychology that is
more misunderstood by the general public than intelligence. We seem
awed by our perception of it in others. The notion of intelligence has a
profound effect on one's social status, educational opportunities, and
career choices. Even though great importance is attached to intelligence, most of us are unable to define exactly what intelligence is.
There is no objective, agreed-upon referent either among the general
public or contemporary psychologists. Most commonly, people accept
a definition of intelligence that is synonymous with a score on the traditional intelligence test – a test originally designed by Alfred Binet to
predict which youngsters in Parisian primary grades would succeed and
which would fail. Binet's discovery became known as the ―intelligence
test‖ and has enjoyed great success the world over. Traditional IQ tests
predict school performance with considerable accuracy, but they are
only an indifferent predictor of performance in a profession after formal schooling (Jencks 1977).
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The general public seems to have adopted the theory that intelligence is what an intelligence tests measures (Kail and Pellegrina 1985).
A good example is Marilyn Vos Savant, the individual with the world's
highest recorded score on this IQ test. She is often referred to as the
most intelligent person in the world and, as such, writes a weekly syndicated column called ―Ask Marilyn‖ for many newspapers and magazines in the United States. (Vos Savant 1998). Many people read her
column and stand in awe of the logical and precise answers she offers
to difficult questions. Whatever intelligence means, Vos Savant is regarded for having lots of it.
There is also confusion within psychology. Part of the confusion
surrounding a definition of intelligence within psychology emanates
from the fact that there are several psychological perspectives on intelligence. For example, within modern psychology, the term intelligence
can be defined in two ways. The first way is to use intelligence to refer
to intelligent acts, such as writing a book or designing a new computer.
The second way is to use intelligence to refer to mental processes (e.g.,
analyzing and synthesizing information) that give rise to intelligent
acts. At one extreme, there is the proposal that each intelligent act is
associated with a unique mental process. The other extreme proposes
that a single mental ability underlies all intelligent achievements (Kail
and Pellegrina 1985). One view says that, for example, Mozart was
born with a specific talent to write his music. Writing music is an intelligent act and Mozart was born with this talent. The other extreme says
that Mozart's music was an accident of time and place. In other words,
Mozart was in the right place at the right time to develop unique mental
processes needed to write his music. Another person could have written
what Mozart wrote. Neither extreme view is very attractive.
Gardner's MI theory proposes an alternative definition of intelligence based on a radically different view of the mind. He proposes a
pluralistic view of the mind, recognizing many different and discrete
facets of cognition and acknowledging that people have different cognitive strengths and contrasting cognitive styles (Gardner 1993:6).
This view of intelligence states that some finite set of mental processes
gives rise to a full range of intelligent human activities. This intelligence is most completely realized in the process of solving problems
and fashioning products in real-life situations.
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The problem-solving skill allows one to locate the appropriate
route to reach a particular goal. The creation of a cultural product is as
crucial to such functions as capturing and transmitting knowledge or
expressing one's view or feelings. The problems to be solved range
from creating an end for a story to anticipating a mating move in chess
to repairing a quilt. Products range from scientific theories to musical
compositions to successful political campaigns (Gardner 1993:15).
Defining multiple intelligences? What is the relationship
between learning styles and multiple intelligences and are they the same
thing. For example, we talk about perceptual learning styles, such as
visual and kinesthetic, in almost the same terms as spatial and bodilykinesthetic intelligences. There is bound to be confusion. Let me offer a
short example that might be helpful in sorting out the concepts.
Let's say there are two people who want to develop their musical
intelligence. The first person goes to the music store and buys several of
his favorite cassettes. He takes them home, listens to them, and then
tries to play what he hears. The second person goes to the music store
and buys sheet music. She takes the selections home, studies and reads
the music, and then sits down to play. Both of these individuals are
working to develop their musical intelligence, but they do it in different
ways. The preferred learning style for music for the first person is auditory; the preferred learning style for music for the second person is visual. The preferred style may vary from task to task.
MI theory is framed in light of the biological origins. In order to arrive at the list of eight intelligences, Gardner consulted evidence from
several different sources. He wanted to make a clear distinction between
an intelligence with its biological origins and a talent or skill. He was being purposely provocative in his choice of words. He identified the following basic criteria that each intelligence must meet to be considered an
intelligence.
Brain damage studies. When people suffer brain damage as a result of an injury, one intelligence is often damaged. For example, if a person has damage to Broca's area (the left frontal lobe), linguistic intelligence may be greatly damaged. The individual may have great trouble
reading, writing, and speaking, yet still be able to do math, dance, and
sing. Gardner is actually proposing the existence of eight autonomous
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brain systems. His premise is that because a person can lose ability in one
area while others are spared, there cannot simply be a single intelligence.
Exceptional individuals. In some people, we can see intelligences
operating at high levels. Some individuals can calculate multi-digit numbers in their heads or can play a musical composition after hearing it only
once. Savants are people who demonstrate amazing abilities in one intelligence while other intelligences are very low.
Developmental history. Each intelligence has its own developmental history – its time of arising in childhood, its time of peaking during one's lifetime, and its time of gradual decline. Musical intelligence,
for example, peaks early, but linguistic intelligence can peak very late.
Evolutionary history. Each intelligence has roots in the evolutionary history of man. For example, archaeological evidence supports the
presence of early musical instruments. The cave drawings of Lascaux are
good examples of spatial intelligence.
Psychometric findings. We can look at many existing standardized tests for support of the theory of multiple intelligences. The Weschsler Intelligence Scale for Children includes subtests that focus on several
of the different intelligences.
Psychological tasks. We can look at psychological studies and
witness intelligences working separately. For example, subjects may master a specific skill, such as solving arithmetic problems, but they may still
not be able to read well. Also, individuals may have a superior memory
for words but not for faces. The tasks seem to be independent from each
other.
Core operations. Each intelligence has a set of core operations.
For example, with musical intelligence, a person needs to be able to discriminate rhythmic structures and be sensitive to pitch.
Symbol system. Intelligences are susceptible to being symbolized.
For example, there are spoken and written languages, graphic languages,
computer languages, musical notation systems, and ideographic languages.
Only those intelligences that have satisfied all or a majority of the
criteria mentioned above were selected as bona fide intelligences (Gardner 1985).
What are the eight intelligences? Having sketched the criteria for
an intelligence, Gardner identified seven intelligences and has since added
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an eighth. The list is not meant to be final or exhaustive. The point is not
the exact number of intelligences, but simply the plurality of the intellect.
Each person has raw biological potential. We differ in the particular intelligence profiles with which we are born and the ways in which we develop them. Weinreich-Haste (1985) claims that many people are surprised at
some of the intelligence categories that Gardner has chosen because they
never think of these areas as being related to "intelligence." They think of
the categories more as talents or aptitudes.
Bodily-kinesthetic intelligence: the ability to use the body to express ideas and feelings and to solve problems. This includes such physical skills as coordination, flexibility, speed, and balance. You can help
your students develop their bodily-kinesthetic intelligence by providing
opportunities for physical challenges during the second/foreign language
lesson.
Intrapersonal intelligence: the ability to understand yourself –
your strengths, weaknesses, moods, desires, and intentions. This includes
such skills as understanding how you are similar to or different from others, reminding yourself to do something, knowing about yourself as a language learner, and knowing how to handle your feelings, such as what to
do and how to behave when you are angry or sad. You can help EFL students develop intrapersonal intelligence by letting them express their own
preferences and help them understand their own styles of learning.
Interpersonal intelligence: the ability to understand another person's moods, feelings, motivations, and intentions. This includes such
skills as responding effectively to other people in some pragmatic way,
such as getting students or colleagues to participate in a project. As an
EFL teacher you can help students develop interpersonal intelligence
through activities that involve them in solving problems and resolving
conflict.
Linguistic intelligence: the ability to use words effectively both
orally and in writing. This intelligence includes such skills as the abilities
to remember information, to convince others to help you, and to talk about
language itself. You can help students develop linguistic intelligence by
creating a rich print environment; by providing things to look at, listen to,
and write about; and by creating many opportunities for interaction among
students and between the teacher and the students.
Logical-mathematical intelligence: the ability to use numbers effectively and reason well. This includes such skills as understanding the
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basic properties of numbers and principles of cause and effect, as well as
the ability to predict, using simple machines. You can help students develop logical-mathematical intelligence by providing manipulatives for
experimentation with numbers and by using simple machines or computer
programs to help children think about cause and effect.
Musical intelligence: the ability to sense rhythm, pitch, and melody. This includes such skills as the ability to recognize simple songs and
to vary speed, tempo, and rhythm in simple melodies. You can help students develop musical intelligence by using tape recorders for listening,
singing along, and learning new songs.
Spatial intelligence: the ability to sense form, space, color, line,
and shape. It includes the ability to graphically represent visual or spatial
ideas. You can help students develop spatial/visual intelligence by providing many opportunities for visual mapping activities and encouraging students to vary the arrangements of materials in space, such as by creating
charts and bulletin boards.
Naturalist intelligence: the ability to recognize and classify plants,
minerals, and animals, including rocks and grass, and all variety of flora
and fauna. It is also the ability to recognize cultural artifacts like cars or
sneakers. You can help your students develop their naturalist intelligence
by focusing their attention on the world outside the classroom.
Be ready to discuss the following questions:
1. What is the idea of IQ test? What does it show? Do you think
that this test is enough for a person to be successful and happy?
2. What are the two ways of defining ‖intelligence‖?
3. What is the relation between learning style and multiple
intelligence? (give examples)
4. What are basic criteria for intelligence to be intelligence?
5. What are the eight intelligences?
Do the following task.
Directions: Rank each statement below 0, 1 or 2. Write 0 next to
the number if the statement is not true. Write 2 in the blank if you strongly
agree with the statement. A score of 1 places you somewhere in between.
Compare your scores in different intelligences. What is your multiple intelligence profile? Where did you score highest / lowest?
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Linguistic Intelligence
1. I write and publish articles.
2. I read something almost every day that isn't related to my work.
3. I pay attention to billboards and advertisements.
4. I often listen to the radio and cassette tapes of lectures and books.
5. I enjoy doing crossword puzzles.
6. I use the blackboard, the overhead projector, or charts and posters when I teach.
7. I consider myself a good letter writer.
8. If I hear a song a few times, I can usually remember the words.
9. I often ask my students to read and write in my classes.
10. I have written something that I like.
Musical Intelligence
1. I have no trouble identifying or following a beat.
2. I When I hear a piece of music, I can easily harmonize with it.
3. I can tell if someone is singing off-key.
4. I have a very expressive voice that varies in intensity, pitch, and
emphasis.
5. I often use chants and music in my lessons.
6. I play a musical instrument.
7. I listen to music frequently in the car, at work, or at home.
8. I know the tunes to many songs.
9. I often hum or whistle a tune when I am alone or in an environment where I feel comfortable.
10. Listening to music I like makes me feel better.
Logical-Mathematical Intelligence
1. I feel more comfortable believing an answer is correct if it can
be measured or calculated.
2. I can calculate numbers easily in my head.
3. I like playing card games such as hearts, gin rummy, and bridge.
4. I enjoyed math classes in school.
5. I believe that most things are logical and rational.
6. I like brain-teaser games.
7. I am interested in new developments in science.
8. When I cook, I measure things exactly.
9. I use problem-solving activities in my classes.
10. My classes are very consistent; my students know what to expect.
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Spatial Intelligence
1. I pay attention to the colors I wear.
2. I take lots of photographs.
3. I like to draw.
4. I especially like to read articles and books with many pictures.
5. I am partial to textbooks with illustrations, graphs, and charts.
6. It is easy for me to find my way around in unfamiliar cities.
7. I use slides and pictures frequently in my lessons.
8. I enjoy doing puzzles and mazes.
9. I was good at geometry in school.
10. When I enter a classroom, I notice whether the positioning of
the students and teacher supports the learning process.
Bodily-Kinesthetic Intelligence
1. I like to go for long walks.
2. I like to dance.
3. I engage in at least one sport.
4. I like to do things with my hands such as carve, sew, weave,
build models, or knit.
5. I find it helpful to practice a new skill rather than read about it.
6. I often get my best ideas when I am jogging, walking, vacuuming, or doing something physical.
7. I love doing things in the outdoors.
8. I find it hard to sit for long periods of time.
9. I often do activities in my classes that require the students to
move about.
10. Most of my hobbies involve a physical activity of some sort.
Intrapersonal Intelligence
1. I regularly spend time meditating.
2. I consider myself independent.
3. I keep a journal and record my thoughts.
4. I would rather create my own lessons than use material directly
from the book.
5. I frequently create new activities and materials for my classes.
6. When I get hurt or disappointed, I bounce back quickly.
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7. I articulate the main values that govern my life and describe the
activities that I regularly participate in that are consistent with these values.
8. I have hobbies or interests that I enjoy doing on my own.
9. I frequently choose activities in the classroom for my students to
work on alone or independently.
10. I encourage quiet time and time to reflect in my classes.
Interpersonal Intelligence
1. I prefer going to a party rather than staying home alone.
2. When I have problems, I like to discuss them with friends.
3. People often come to me with their problems.
4. I am involved in social activities several nights a week.
5. I like to entertain friends and have parties.
6. I consider myself a leader and often assume leadership roles.
7. I love to teach and show someone how to do something.
8. I have more than one close friend.
9. I am comfortable in a crowd or at a party with many people I
don't know.
10. My students help decide on the content and learning process in
my classes.
Naturalist Intelligence
1. I am good at recognizing different types of birds.
2. I am good at recognizing different types of plants.
3. I like to garden.
4. I enjoy having pets.
5. It's easy for me to tell the make and year of most cars.
6. I often look at the sky and can tell you the different types of
clouds and what kind of weather they bring.
7. It's easy for me to tell the weeds from the plants.
8. I like to spend time in the outdoors.
9. I enjoy learning about rocks.
10. I have plants in my home and office.
Text 3.
Read and translate the following text.
You can use it for rendering and discussion.
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Try to Remember
Have you ever had this experience? You‘re sitting at the breakfast
table, and you notice that the little saucer you usually put your vitamins on
the empty. Did you take them, nor can you even remember whether you
put the vitamins on the saucer. Or what about this experience? You‘re in a
drugstore with a friend, and suddenly up walks somebody you‘ve known
for a long time. You want to introduce this new person to your friend.
However, just as you say, ―Nancy, I‘d like you to meet _______ ,‖ your
mind goes blank, and you can‘t remember the person‘s name to save your
life. It‘s embarrassing and maybe a little worrisome. I wouldn‘t be too
concerned, though, for it‘s also very common. As we got older, we tend to
become more forgetful, especially of things we‘ve experienced recently.
How does memory work, and what can we do to improve it? Let
me tell you, I was worried about what I perceived to be memory loss on
my part. I felt it was incumbent on me, therefore, to do some research into
the problem. Here‘s what I learned.
First, let’s distinguish between two types of memory, long-term
and short-term. Long-term memory refers to things that we experienced
a long time ago and that form the core of our knowledge of ourselves.
Short-term memory can be called ―working‖ memory – the type we use in
everyday activity. It is involved in processing such things as phone numbers, names of new people we meet, statistics, e-mail addresses, and
phone numbers, and the like. As we grow older, our long-term memory
holds up remarkably well. Thus we are able to intimately remember and
recount the vacation we took at the age of ten to Everglades National Park
and the alligators we saw there. Meanwhile, things have been happening
to our short-term memory. It, in contrast, doesn‘t hold up as well as our
long-term memory does. Because of this, we may have difficulty remembering people‘s names right after we meet them, or remembering someone‘s phone number we heart only twice. Memory problems are generally
short-term memory problems.
Second let’s look a little at the physically of the memory process. The frontal lobes of the brain are the area where short-term
memory operations occur. As we age, these lobes tend to lose mass, as
much as 5 to 10 percent per decade, though this of course varies with the
individual. There is also a structure in the brain called the hippocampus, a
key player in memory processing. This structure tends to atrophy the older
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a person gets. In addition, there is a brain chemical called acetylcholine,
which transmits signals between nerve cells. As time goes on, the brain
tends to produce less of it. So the problem is really that our brains, as we
grow older, do not take things in as well as they once did – and this is the
root of short-term memory problems. However, not all is gloomy on this
score. There are things we can do to slow memory decline. Maintaining a
steady supply of glucose can mitigate the problem of shrinking lobes.
Consequently, elderly people would do well to eat several smaller meals
each day rather than two or three big ones. There is also evidence that
staying mentally active can help prevent memory deterioration.
Another aspect of memory that is interesting to consider involves the many materials on the market designed to help us remember things better. Some of them are relatively cheap; some are expensive. The key question is this: Do they work? Well, yes and no. All
memory courses, books, audiotapes, or whatever, depend on the creation
of a peg, or mental picture on which to hang something we want to recollect. Suppose, for example, that you have trouble remembering your car
license plate number. I had this problem until I created a peg. My license
number is 409 FGO. It occurred to me that FGO reminded me of Fargo
one of my favorite movies. The 409 reminded me of the liquid cleaner of
that name, the product that is supposed to clean anything. Since my car
always look dirty, there are certainly an association here. It made sound
silly, but it worked for me. Or suppose you have difficulty, as most of us
do, remembering names. Let‘s say, for instance, that you‘re at the cocktail
party and are introduced to a man named Terry Baer. You look at him. He
has long, thick, black hair, rather like that of a black bear. Baer = bear.
Furthermore, the first syllable of ―Terry‖ rhymes with ―bear‖. Ter and
Baer. It might work. The point is that you need to create a mental picture
that you can relate to the person, place, or thing you want to recall. If the
picture is outrageous, so much the better. The more vivid the association,
the greater the chance that you‘ll remember it.
There is one particularly salient point in all this, and that is that
memory improvement takes work. If we think carefully about our own involvement is remembering things, we may realize that the real problem is
usually not in remembering something that we learned earlier but in the fact
we weren‘t paying enough attention when we learned it. Think about the
last time you were introduced to someone whose name you immediately
forgot. Where you really paying attention to the person‘s name? Or were
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you, instead, focusing on yourself and the impression you might be making? Memory books and courses can work, of course, but they depend on
techniques that we can create and perform for ourselves. The real trick lies
in our willingness to tap what‘s within us and to expend effort in tapping it.
Source: Based on information in Emily Yoffe,
―How Quickly We Forget,‖ U.S. News & World Report,
October 13, 1997, p. 52
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3.3. Additional text. Topic “Stress”
Text 1.
Look through the text. (Try not to translate each word).
After the first reading can you name the main points of
the text?
If not, look through it again, point out the words which
you think are necessary for you to understand the text.
Then look through the text once again. Did you get more
information now? If did, read once again, and come back
to the question above.
Some important words:
account for – обьяснять
content – довольный, удовлетворять
trigger – запускать (в движение)
elicit – выявлять, извлекать
spoil – портить
plight – (бедственное) положение
downward – спускающийся, ухудшающийся
Objective Determinants of Happiness
You should know almost all the rest words
Try to list the things that would make you happy. The list compiled
by the French philosopher Jean Jacques Rousseau consisted of a good
bank account, a good cook, and a good digestion (Diener, 1984). Your
own list might include getting your college degree, making a lot of money, and staying healthy. Although these objective circumstances seem
related to happiness, they account for surprisingly little of the differences
in happiness among people. (Most of us know at least one person who has
everything he or she ever wanted, but is still not happy.) In fact, health,
wealth, age, gender, employment, and education – objective circumstances of any type – cannot account for much of the difference.
If we return to some of the basic points made earlier, we can see
why this may be so. First, emotions follow from events that involve
change. A steady state of affairs, even though it is extremely positive, is
unlikely to trigger the emotion of happiness. It is possible for a constant to
produce feelings of contentment, if we stop and reflect upon our lives and
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see dearly that we have some of the things we want and that these can
make us feel good for the moment. In other words, such a cognitive appraisal of our situation, triggers, or retriggers, contentment. "We must
make the appraisal in order to feel the emotion. And according to our definition of emotion, this feeling will not last unless it is constantly renewed.
Second, almost all theories of Happiness, from the observations of
the ancient Greeks to the most modern views, have recognized the importance of goals and wishes to feelings of happiness (Diener, 1984).
Thus, objective circumstances should relate to happiness only if those circumstances are relevant to our goals. A person who cares about very little
or who has very narrow interests in life has fewer chances to be happy —
but is also less likely to encounter events that bring unhappiness.
Third, the aggravating truth is that happiness is always relative.
This is because it is generally not objective events or circumstances but
our appraisals of them that determine which emotion we experience. And
our appraisals are usually based on some comparison, whether to our own
past, to some ideal, or to others‘ lives. How happy we are following a positive event depends on what we use as a standard for comparison. Earning
$35,000 a year might seem terrific to a new college graduate used to getting by on a small allowance or part-time salary, but it is likely to be a
comedown for someone who has been making $50,000 a year.
Appraisals That Elicit Happiness
In one study, people from England, Canada, and the United States
strongly agreed about the kinds of appraisals that lead to joy or happiness
(Shaver et al., 1987). One type of appraisal concerns achievement: completing a task successfully, attaining or possessing something you wanted,
or receiving respect or praise. The second type of appraisal involves delighttul surprises: reality exceeds your expectations or you experience
some highly pleasurable sensations or stimuli. The third type of appraisal
involves the satisfaction of interpersonal concerns: being accepted, feeling
that you belong, or receiving love or affection.
The Relativity of Happiness
Perhaps more than any other basic emotion, happiness depends on
our appraisal of events in relation to some standard. The most common
standards are our own past experience – how we have fared before in this
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particular domain (field) – and other people's experience – how others are
currently doing in this domain.
Comparisons with Past Experience
Since it takes a change in circumstances to trigger happiness, we
are happy only when we think things are better than they used to be or
might be. An ironic consequence of this principle of happiness is that extremely positive events can spoil our hopes of future happiness because
they raise our expectations. This observation has given rise to the adaptation-level theory of happiness, which is based on the notion that just as
our senses adapt to a given level of stimulation, we adapt or adjust to a
certain level of happiness, which then becomes our standard of comparison (Brickman, Coates, and Jamff-Bulman, 1978).
The adaptation-level theory was demonstrated by Philip Brickman
and his colleagues (1978) when they studied a group of people who had
won between $50,000 and $1 million in the Illinois lottery. These winners
had hit the jackpot anywhere from one month to a year before the researchers got in touch with them. Winning the lottery, they all agreed, had
been a highly positive event in their lives. Yet these lucky people were no
more (or less) happy than other Illinois citizens. Winning the lottery had
also, oddly, cast a shadow over their chances for future happiness: the
positive aspects of daily life had lost some of their ability to produce happiness. Such everyday activities as talking with a friend, watching television, hearing a good joke, getting a compliment, or buying new clothes
seemed significantly less pleasurable to the lottery winners than to people
who had not won any money. It seemed as if winning the lottery had
changed the winners' standards of happiness.
Comparisons with Others
We may be reluctant to admit it, but we feel better when other people are worse off than ourselves. Sharing a small dormitory room with
two roommates may seem a completely unsatisfactory housing arrangement, until we consider the plight of the homeless. Thomas Wills (1981)
calls this the downward-comparison Principle of happiness. A downward
comparison makes us feel better because it lowers the standard against
which we evaluate our own circumstances.
Understanding Meaning from Context.
Match the ten words and expressions in Column A with
their synonyms in Column B.
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1.
2.
3.
4.
5.
6.
7.
8.
9.
10.
Column A
to save your life
incumbent on
intimately
recount
atrophy
mitigate
deterioration
peg
salient
tap
Column B
a.
b.
c.
d.
e.
relieve
decrease in size or power, weaken
worsening, decay
supporting structure
very prominent, conspicuous, or important
f. obligatory for
g. use
h. tell about
i. no matter how hard you try
j. very closely or well
Two of these words, though they are different parts of
speech, are close in meaning to each other. Which two are
they?
Text 2.
Questions to consider
1. Do you think the majority of people are happy in life?
2. What kinds of things make you happy?
Read an article about happiness.
Happiness Is...
Singers sing about it: Dorothy, for example, sang about what she
hoped to find “Over the Rainbow” in The Wizard of Oz. Bobby McFerrin's advice to us in song was “Don't worry, be happy.” Filmmakers often
make movies with happy endings. Fairy tales typically end with “And they
all lived happily ever after.‖ People go to psychiatrists and psychologists
to find out if they've got it or to get it if they haven't. There's a common
belief that it's essential for us to be happy in life. The American Declaration of Independence says people are entitled to ―life, liberty, and the pursuit of happiness.” It's clear that happiness is central to human existence.
But what is it? How can we get it, and how can we keep it?
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It was difficult for me to come up with answers to these questions,
so I went to The American Heritage Dictionary and looked up ―happy.‖
Here's the main definition I found: ―Enjoying, showing, or marked by
pleasure, satisfaction, or joy.‖ OK. That seems like a reasonable definition. But the concept of happiness is nonetheless elusive. We tend to say
things like,‖ If only I could find someone I could really love, I'd be happy
forever,‖ or ―I'd be so happy if I just had enough money to buy the things
I want and need.‖ That things and even people are not the key to happiness is quite clear, however. How many times have we gone all out to get
something we really wanted, only to discover that it wasn't so great once
we had it? I decided to do some additional research about happiness. I
found out some interesting things.
The first thing I learned about happiness is that there's a big difference between what we think will make us happy and what actually does.
According to psychologist Daniel Gilbert of Harvard University, we human beings are very good at describing our feelings and emotions at the
moment of a significant experience. What we're not so good at is predicting what our feelings will be like in the future and how long we'll have
those feelings. This is because feelings are produced by certain brain
chemicals right after we've had an experience. The feelings are recorded
in our memory, but the specific chemicals associated with the experience
fade rather soon. When we look back on emotional experiences, we still
feel the emotions we once felt but not as strongly as before. It's evident
that some force in our brain seeks to keep our emotions on an even keel.
When we have a humiliating or irritating experience, for example, our
brain takes steps to lessen the impact of this experience in order to maintain mental equilibrium. Gilbert likens this process to the way an oyster
produces a layer of pearl around an invading grain of sand. It appears that
the brain reduces the emotional impact of very positive experiences as
well. A few weeks after a positive experience, we've gotten over the
―high,‖ and our feelings have returned to ―normal.‖ Psychological experiments bear out this notion that humans are not good at predicting their
future happiness. In one case, a number of lottery winners who had won
large jackpots were interviewed after they had won. They expected to feel
happy for a long time afterwards. They did, in fact, feel euphoria for a
short time, but this feeling faded, and their level of happiness was soon
back to its usual state. In another experiment, students were interviewed
about where they thought they would feel happier attending school, in a
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warm climate like that in California or in a colder climate. Most predicted
that they would be happier in warm California, but later interviews
showed that students felt equally happy in warm and cold climates. In a
third case, people who had been tested for Huntington's disease or AIDS
expected that they would be devastated if they got bad news. Most of
them, however, were not. It was those who decided not to be tested who
suffered the greatest anxiety.
The second thing I learned about happiness is that it apparently
centers around our ability to adapt to a situation and live through it, especially under adverse circumstances. For example, a professor recounted an experience he'd had with his wife regarding which curtains they
should buy for their bedroom. The professor's wife wanted some brown
curtains with vertical stripes. The professor hated them and was sure he
would always hate them. His wife was adamant, however, and the professor felt it was important that he not get into an argument with her. They
went ahead and bought the brown curtains. In time, he got used to them.
In fact, not only did he adapt to them, but he also came to like them. It
may be the same with most of our experiences. It's not things or people or
relationships in themselves that make us happy; it's the process of experiencing and adapting to them that brings us joy and satisfaction.
So it appears that the secret to happiness lies not in thinking about
what makes us happy but in just “doing it.” Perhaps Bobby McFerrin had
it right when he said, “Don't worry, be happy.”
1. Phonetic drill:
psychiatrists
psychologists
pursuit
nonetheless
elusive
enough
euphoria
anxiety
through
2. Find synonyms to the following words:
to find out
to come up with
significant
evident
impact
to maintain
apparently
to adapt
3. Look carefully at paragraphs 3, 4, and 5 of the reading.
Match the meanings of the words and phrases from the
reading in column A to their equivalent meanings in column B.
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UNDERSTANDING MEANING FROM CONTEXT
Column A
1. on an even keel (par. 3)
2. likens (par. 3)
3. bear out (par. 4)
4. jackpots (par. 4)
5. euphoria (par. 4)
6. devastated (par. 4)
7. adamant (par. 5)
Column B
a. insistent
b. intense joy
c. reasonably steady
d. support
e. compares
f. destroyed mentally
g. rewards
4. Complete the tables:
Verb → Noun
to produce
to describe
to reduce
to expect
to suffer
Noun → Adjective
anxiety
happiness
difference
pleasure
satisfaction
5. Translate into Russia:
a) There‘s a common belief that it‘s essential for us to be happy in
life.
b) But the concept of happiness is nonetheless elusive.
c) That things and even people are not the key to happiness is quite
clear, however.
d) It‘s evident that some force in our brain seeks to keep out
emotions on an even keel.
e) Gilbert likens this process to way an oyster produces a layer of
pearl around an invading grain of sand.
f) It appears that the brain reduces the emotional impact of very
positive experiences as well.
g) It was those who decided not to be tested who suffered the
greatest anxiety.
6. Translate the passage in writing (“The second thing” …
up to the end).
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Text 3.
Scan (read quickly to pick out particular information)
through the following short texts. Which sentence or sentences in the texts give:
a definition?
information about people?
a reason?
information about places?
examples of things that affect health?
suggestions for improving health?
information about a period of time?
_____
_____
_____
_____
_____
_____
_____
Use the words in italics to help you to write the number
which precedes the relevant sentence. Some sentences can
be used more than once.
Stress
(1) Stress is difficult to define, but the majority of us who live in
today's urban areas know what it is like: (2) it is the feeling that you
can no longer cope with the everyday business of living. Stress plays
such a big role in so many of the illnesses of modern life that it makes
sense to try and do something to reduce 3) To do this, first you have to
work out what situations are stressful for you and then think of ways in
which you can avoid them.
Diet and health
(4) Diet is one of the factors which plays a role in keeping us
healthy, and this is why we should pay more attention to what we eat.
(5) Those who are overweight are prone to high blood pressure and
cholesterol levels, which can cause heart disease, so it is important to
eat wisely. (6) Remember, a healthy diet that is low in saturated fats
and sugar can be just as enjoyable as one that is based on junk food. (7)
Statistics also show that nations whose diet includes large amounts of
vegetables and fruit tend to live longer.
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Exercise and health
(8) Middle age is when most of us tend to lead more sedentary
lives, but physical activity is important if we want to keep healthy. (9)
It improves circulation and burns calories, which helps us lose weight.
So get some exercise at least three times a week. (10) You can go
walking if you live in an area where there are parks, or join a gym
where there are aerobics classes for the middle-aged. (11) Do consult a
doctor who can advise you about what kind of exercise is best for you
if you are over the age of forty and haven't exercised for a long time.
Text 4.
Raising a smile
Introduction (A)
Hisyorically, humour has often been seen in a very negative way.
For example, about two and a half thousand years ago, Plato, the famous
Greek philosopher, wrote about the 'malevolent (unfriendly) nature of
humour'. For him, it meant trying to give yourself a sense of superiority
by making fun of other people, and he taught that only people of lesser
worth did this.
Modern psychology, however, regards humour with more respect.
Sigmund Freud, the founder of psychoanalysis, saw laughter as a means
of safely discharging nervous energy. It provides relief and selfgratification and makes potentially damaging conflicts harmless. While
this approach is still very influential, more recent work in psychology has
also focused on the social value of being funny, the useful role of the
well-timed joke or light remark in everyday encounters.
What is a joke? (B)
What, exactly, is a joke? Why do we laugh at certain kinds of stories and what are the essential characteristics of being funny? For humour
to exist, there must be an essential 20 incongruity – an unexpected conflict or inconsistency between two ideas which is resolved as a joke. This
may come about because the punch line bears an unexpected relationship
to the opening part of the story. This corny old joke also relies on a simple
double meaning:
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My dog has no nose.
Then how does he smell?
Terrible!
Another regular feature of humour is 'displacement'. Here the most
obvious interpretation of the situation is displaced by a less obvious or
expected one. Take, for example, a typical psychiatrist joke:
Doctor, I keep thinking that there are two of me. OK, but don't both
speak at once.
Appreciation of humour depends very much on your reference
point. Group loyalties, political opinions and ethnic background all influence the way a joke is received and how … funny people find it. Because
of this, a joke can rebound on the teller. One story, for example, begins by
making women the butt of a male chauvinist observation, but then the
sting is in 40 the tail of the joke: 'Women are born without a sense of humour so that they can love men without laughing at them.
The advantage of being funny (C)
Studies of persuasion have revealed that humorous people are perceived as being more likeable, and this in turn enables them to have greater influence. In one experiment, trained psychology graduates played the
role of sellers in a bargaining situation. They were to bargain with people
over the price of a painting. Some were instructed to take a humorous approach, while others made no jokes at all and bargained in a straightforward, serious way. It was found that the dealers with the more lighthearted attitude were able to get a significantly higher price for the painting.
What humour does, in this context, is to reduce the buyer's feelings
of threat and anxiety and to establish a more relaxed relationship with the
seller. Both trust and attraction are increased and the buyer feels able to
make concessions without losing face.
The implications of this study are quite important. If humour can
aid the salesman, then it can also work in a similar way with the buyer.
Making jokes which do not threaten the self-esteem of the person who is
trying to sell you a car or a new refrigerator may allow you to win concessions. Humour can be used as a persuader in other social contexts and is
useful in opening conversations with the opposite sex. Establishing a relaxed mood helps a relationship to develop quickly.
Remarks or actions that people would often not see as very funny
are sometimes found quite hilarious in group settings. This is the result of
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an effect known as 'social facilitation'. If one person laughs, then this greatly increases the likelihood that others will, and – because they are laughing
– members of the group perceive the object of humour as funnier.
This illustrates one way in which you can increase your influence.
If you can get people to laugh with you, then you have already established
a degree of leadership that you can later build on. It can also improve your
image and standing in conversation with a group of friends.
Releasing and displacing emotions (D)
Many researchers believe that being genuinely funny can only be
achieved by returning to a more childlike view of the world. This may be
associated with the fact that comedians adopt humour early in life as a way
of getting people to like them, and then use it to maintain their attention.
Many comedians have reported that their use of humour developed
in early schooldays and was a means of coping with anxiety-producing
situations. Such strategies were rewarded with laughter by classmates who
lacked the confidence themselves to go against accepted values in the way
that most humour requires. Defiance of convention continues into the
adult life of comedians. The professionals tackle taboo subjects without
inhibition and this gives them considerable social value. By encouraging
us to laugh at the subjects that give rise to our anxieties, they help us safely to discharge tensions.
Humour may also be a displacement of aggression. The professional
comic is thought by psychoanalysts to be an angry person whose skills
allow him to channel his aggression in a socially acceptable and productive
manner. Another psychoanalytic view of the personality of comedians
suggests that they are depressed people, but with enough strength of character to transfer the depressed emotions into creative expression.
For all of us, humour is not only an invaluable social tool; it also
provides a useful way of coping with personal frustrations and emotional
difficulties. Making a joke about a problem enables us to communicate
the nature of our true feelings to others. By laughing about them, we
achieve a more relaxed mood in which we are better able to understand
and resolve conflicts.
Male chauvinist: a man who doesn't respect women and believes
they are inferior to men.
Amusing yourself
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Idiomatic expressions
Can you explain or paraphrase these idiomatic expressions, which are all connected with the face?
1. I tried to keep a straight face, but I couldn't help laughing.
2. Wearing make-up makes me feel more confident. I never leave
the house until I've put my face on.
3. He'd better not show his face round here again after what he did.
4. You've got to face up to your responsibilities instead of running
away from them.
5. She finally realised her wildest dreams when she met her favourite film star face to face.
6. Bob was very upset at not getting a promotion, but he put a
brave face on it and pretended he didn't mind.
Discuss the following well-known sayings. Can you think of
examples that show they are true. What do you think of the
activities prescribed by the Laughter Clinic? Try one out
now. Work in groups. Each group member should try to recount an amusing incident that happened to them recently.
Discuss the following well-known sayings. Can you think
of examples that show they are true?
1. Laugh and the world laughs with you; weep and you weep alone.
2. He who laughs last laughs longest.
3. A merry heart does good like a medicine.
Text 5.
Lessons will be repeated to you in various forms until you
have learned them. You can then go on to the next lesson.
Look through the text. Answer the questions.
What lesson(s) is the text about?
Does it remind you of any coincidence in your life? Were you in
the same situation(s)?
Or you know somebody with similar problems.
Do you agree with author‘s advice ? Do you have your own advice? (Way out?)
Lessons will be repeated until learned
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Have you ever noticed that lessons tend to repeat themselves? Does
it seem as if you married or dated the same person several times in different bodies with different names? Have you run into the same type of boss
over and over again? Do you find yourself having the same problem with
many different co-workers? Several years ago, Bill Murray starred in a
movie called Groundhog Day, in which he woke up in the same day over
and over until he learned all the lessons he needed to in that one day. The
same events kept repeating themselves until he finally ―got‖ what it was
he was supposed to do in each one. Does this strike a funny but familiar
chord with you?
Lessons will be repeated until learned. When I taught high school, I
always told my students, ―If you don't deal well with authority figures at
home, then you will have an opportunity to deal with them out in the
world. You will continually draw into your life people who need to enforce authority, and you will struggle with them until you learn the lesson
of obedience.‖ Teenagers often perceive their parents as overly strict. At
the age of fourteen, one of my former students went away to boarding
school. Much to her surprise, she found teachers and staff with the same
rules that her mother had laid down at home and that I had at school. She
finally understood.
In couples' counseling it is often noted that people who divorce and
remarry nearly always marry the same type of person they just left. Similarly, a friend of mine named Cassidy who was a compulsive perfectionist
had a knack for attracting inappropriate men. It was no coincidence that
Cassidy, to whom mismatched socks were a horror and a torn shirt a federal offense, repeatedly drew men into her life who dressed like slobs. She
was a stickler for manners, yet her most recent boyfriend held his spoon
like Fred Flintstone wields a drumstick. Only recently did Cassidy begin
to acknowledge that perhaps these men were appearing in her life as
teachers and opportunities to work out her perfectionist issue.
You will continually attract the same lesson into your life. You will
also draw to you teachers to teach you that lesson until you get it right
The only way you can free yourself of difficult patterns and issues you
tend to repeat, is by shifting your perspective so that you can recognize
the patterns and learn the lessons that they offer. You may try to avoid the
situations, but they will eventually catch up with you. To face these challenges means you need to accept the fact that something within you keeps
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tion or relationship may be. In the words of Carl Jung, ―There is no coming to consciousness without pain.‖ And come to consciousness you must
if you are ever to stop repeating the same lessons and be able to move on
to new ones.
The challenge of Rule Four is to identify and release the patterns
that you are repeating. As any good facilitator or therapist will tell you,
this is no easy task, since it means you have to change, and change is not
always easy. Staying just as you are may not help you advance spiritually,
but it certainly is comfortable in its familiarity. You grooved your patterns
a long time ago as a way of protecting yourself. Moving into unfamiliar
new behavior can be uncomfortable not to mention at times frightening.
Rising to the challenge of identifying and releasing your patterns
forces you to admit that the way you have been doing things isn't working. The good news is that by identifying and releasing the pattern, you
actually learn how to change. In my seminars, I teach that there are six
basic steps to executing any change in your life. They are:
awareness – becoming conscious of the pattern or issue,
acknowledgment – admitting that you need to release the pattern,
choice – actively selecting to release the pattern,
strategy – creating a realistic plan,
commitment – taking action, aided by external accountability,
celebration – rewarding yourself for succeeding.
No lasting change can be made, nor any pattern released permanently, without going through each one of these steps. In order to facilitate
your process of change, you will need to learn the lessons of awareness,
willingness, causality, and patience. Once you master these, you will most
likely find the challenge of identifying and releasing your patterns far less
intimidating.
Text 6.
Translate the text for details.
“To Smile, or Not To Smile ”
When species from the animal kingdom bare their teeth, it is generally a sign of displeasure and aggression; when Homo sapiens bares his
we are obliged to call it a smile. But are we being too quick to assume that
man is really that different from the animals? Could it be that smiling is
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merely a vestige from our simian ancestors who readily bare fangs at the
slightest threat? We call it a smile, and attach tremendous significance to
the enigmatic gesture. But perhaps more often than not a smile is actually
a thinly veiled disguise for, at the very least, humoring our dinner guests
until they leave; at the worst, a tooth gnashing display for concealing our
profound irritation. A stewardess with a well-known Russian airline is
handing out dinners, serving drinks and calming screaming babies at a
speed of approximately 650 miles per hour and at an altitude of 35,000
feet (excuse me, America flunked the metric system horribly). Concurrently, she is quietly suffering from the ill effects of jet lag, cabin pressure
and high-heel shoes, and various other discomforts associated with being
hurled across the stratosphere in a steel cylinder. Despite her otherwise
high level of professionalism some of the passengers grumble aloud that
she is committing an unforgivable faux pas: The insolent Russian girl forgets to smile.
This has become a familiar complaint from fastidious visitors to the
Motherland: Why do the Russians smile so little? Are they unhappy? Is it
symptomatic of their unfortunate weather conditions? This question invariably arises on the steamy metro when weary Muscovites are pressed
against each other after a hard day on the job. Despite the obvious pleasures of public transportation during rush hour, there does seem to be a
trend here. Now, whenever I get back to America I am more sensitive to
the facial expressions of New Yorkers riding their unsubtle subway. I
must admit, I found the experience equally depressing, which led me to
the conclusion that mass transportation, despite the time zone, is the worst
place to conduct such experiments.
Nevertheless, there seems to be some truth about the general absence of smiles in Russia. Like good poker players who are trying to bluff
their opponents, Russians are guarded about revealing their innermost
sentiments. But this only begs the question: Why does this character trait
of the Russian people unsettle visitors to such a degree? Why do we place
such significance on whether or not a total stranger shows us their teeth?
Is this more of a problem for us than for them?
In America, a person may be casually assaulted by a thousand happy smiles a day. Everybody from total strangers' to friends to those annoying fluorescent yellow pins that scream "SMILE!" will be only too happy
to bare their canines in your direction. After living through the smiling
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famine in Russia, America can resemble a mental institution where all of
the residents wear permanent grins.
So how do Russians feel about this recent imposition of a Smiling
Regime? I asked Tanya, a desk clerk in a luxurious Moscow hotel, if her
management talked to them about this issue. ―Oh yes,‖ she said with an
infectious smile, ―it is one of our rules that we must smile to our guests.‖
Now we must question whether Tanya is smiling from the goodness of her heart, or from the duress of corporate management. Has smiling become a feature of our commercialized times, where the primary
objective is to coax the consumer into prying open his wallet? Did Herr
Marx scrawl a chapter on smiling and capitalism?
Perhaps Tanya senses the deep field of grass that my mind is
wandering through and adds ―Oh, but I would smile anyway even if it
wasn't a rule.‖ At this, Tanya greets a scowling customer with a full set of
perfect teeth as I leave the hotel with more questions than when I entered.
That night I placed a long-distance telephone call to discuss this
enigma with an old acquaintance, a corporate over-achiever who is in the
world of marketing. He informed me that there are now ultra-posh hotels
in Los Angeles where the staff is instructed to be slightly rude and offensive with their clientele. In other words, no more smiling! As a result, the
customer develops something like a mild inferiority complex, where he
imagines that he may not be ―cool‖ enough to be in the place! And guess
what? He returns again and again.
Perhaps the Russians understand the subtleties of smiling a bit
more than we gave them credit for? At any rate, if there is any truth to this
business logic, Russia should be expecting a stampede of visitors in the
very near future.
Text 7.
Telling a good joke is serious business
Laugh and the world laughs with you, weep and you weep alone. It
isn't always true though. We don't always laugh together. Humour can
divide just as much as it can provide a sense of fellowship.
Psychologists are fond of saying that jokes are a form of release –
under the guise of cracking a good one, fears are dispelled and hostility
becomes socially acceptable.
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But is it that simple? Some of the wittiest people and some of the
funniest jokes leave one not with the feeling that the world is full of happy
laughter and harmony, but pinpoint a very nasty side of life's cruelties and
divisions.
There is absolutely no comfort, for example, to be had in Dorothy
Parker's cuttingly short remark on Katharine Hepburn's performance in a
Broadway play – ―She ran the whole gamut of the emotions from A to B.‖
It tells you less about Miss Hepburn than Miss Parker. Miss Parker
has come out on top, which is surely why the wit – who will be out in
force again today, as usual, in every office, propping up every bar, out on
every factory floor – earns respect and admiration.
Original wits are few and hard to come by. The next best thing is to
tell jokes. All you have to do is get the punchline m the right place and you
could be top dog, too. Have you heard the one about the Irishman who ... ?
But what's so funny about Irish jokes? Sooner or later, someone was
bound to take the thing seriously and write a paper on The Irish Joke As A
Social Phenomenon and now it has happened. Christie Davies, Professor of
Sociology at Reading University, is to present his work at the annual meeting of the British Association for the Advancement of Science in Belfast.
He says the British are not as cruel as the ―molto-fortissimo white
liberals‖, at whom he pokes fun, like to maintain. He has compiled a long
list of countries with an equivalent of the Irish joke – all with a similar
line in poking fun at the so-called stupidity of a neighbouring country or a
local ethnic minority.
Connoisseurs of the Irish joke will, no doubt, particularly appreciate the South African jokes about Van Der Merwe, the Afrikaner. Instead
of ―The Irish attempt to climb Mount Everest has failed – they ran out of
scaffolding‖, try the one about Van Der Merwe being put in charge of a
new integrated bus taking foreign visitors around Pretoria.
He explains: ―I know you all think everything is segregated by colour in South Africa, but it isn't true on my bus. As far as I'm concerned
you can all be green. Right then, everyone on board, light green at the
front, dark green at the back.‖
As Professor Christie points out, it is no coincidence that the butts
of these jokes are never those neighbours with whom the joke-telling nation has ever fought a major war. Nor do his observations show that those
who are laughed at for their stupidity are, in truth, particularly stupid or
particularly dislikable.
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The universal popularity of this kind of joke, he says, can be explained by the fashion in which the teller comes out with a sense of ―playful superiority‖. For the key to each joke is that once the British begin to
relate a story about an Irishman, the French about a Belgian, the Americans about a Pole or even the Irish about a man from County Kerry, you
know these tales are going to be about stupidity.
The prime feature of all these jokes, he says, is how closely related
those who tell them are to their victims. ―For120 the joke-tellers, the butts
are either the closest and most familiar of neighbours, the most remote
and provincial of their own people or long-established and halfassimilated minorities.‖
There is nearly always a linguistic superiority in these jokes, too.
They are not chauvinistic in the sense that one is ever laughing at a foreign language – the butt of the joke speaks the same language but in a
comical fashion. The teller is always on the high ground, because his is
the dominant language or culture. There is, apparently, ―weak evidence‖
to show that the Irish joke is not one of total rejection. In many British
jokes about the Irish, says Professor Christie, the victims are often wits,
rather than half-wits. Mainland skill at poking fun at the generations of
immigrants from the bogs, in their traditional role as underdog and always
confused in sophisticated England, has constantly been cut down to size
by the altogether more brilliant Irish gift for laughing at themselves.
The Vocabulary of Humour
1) After reading the article right through, see if you can find the
word or phrase which best fits the following definitions or situations:
a) A person who can use words in a clever or amusing way;
b) The final line of a joke, which makes everyone laugh;
c) The ―Victim‖ of a joke, the person a joke is told against;
d) Make fun of is similar to ―________‖ fun at;
e) A common way of beginning a joke.
2) The following words, not in the text, are also connected with
humour. Do you know what they mean?
a) slapstick;
f) a standing joke;
b) a comedy;
g) a hoax;
c) a farce;
h) a pun;
d) a practical joke;
i) a laughing stock;
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e) a sick joke;
j) a shaggy dog story.
Список использованной
и рекомендуемой литературы
1. Вейзе А.А. Чтение, реферирование и аннотирование иностранного текста. – М.: Высш. школа, 1985.
2. Цибина О.И. Обучение реферированию и аннотированию
иноязычной литературы в неязыковом вузе. – М., 2000.
3. Рецлер Я.И. Пособие по переводу и реферированию с английского языка на русский. – М., 1976.
4. English Andrew K., English Laura Monahon. North Star: Focus
on Reading and Writing, High Intermediate. – Longman, 1998.
5. New Headway (interm). – Oxford Universiti Press.
6. First Certificate gold. – Longman.
7. Focus on grammar (interm/upper-interm). – Longman.
8. Inside out/upper intermediate). – Macmillan.
9. Moscow News. – 2000; 2001.
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Оглавление
Предисловие .................................................................................... 3
План реферирования ..................................................................... 4
PART 1
1.1. Texts for rendering (level C, D) ................................................. 6
1.2. Texts for rendering (level A, B) ................................................ 22
PART 2
2.1. Texts for translation (level C, D) ............................................. 36
2.2. Texts for translation (level A, B) .............................................. 49
PART 3
Some additional texts to conversational topics
3.1. Additional text. Topic “Description”....................................... 72
3.2. Additional text. Topic “Mind” ................................................. 89
3.3. Additional text. Topic “Stress” .............................................. 102
Список использованной и рекомендуемой литературы ......... 120
***
Составители
Ольга Константиновна Сургутская, Жанна Юрьевна Шацкая
Технический редактор Е.В. Лозовая
Редактор О.М. Азеева
Дизайн обложки З.Н. Образова
Подписано в печать 21.11.2005. Формат бумаги 60х84 1/16.
Печ. л. 7,4. Уч.-изд. л. 7,7. Тираж 100 экз. Заказ 002.
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