Обычаи и традиции Великобритании Разработал: Перегудов Игорь Дмитриевич Водный колледж им. Г. Я. Седова Судоводительское отделение, 2 курс Руководитель проекта: Шаповалова Оксана александровна Plan. 1.) Plan. 2.) Introduction. 3.) New Year's Day. 4.) Easter. 5.) Christmas. 6.) Festivals in the UK. 7.) Great tea ceremony. 8.) British proverbs. 9.) Bibliography. 10.) The end. Introduction. The main distinguishing feature of the British is their conservatism. The desire to live independently is reflected in the appearance of many cities. Low houses built of stone are covered with a high shingle roof. In small villages you can meet many old family castles, which have their own legend. The house and garden have a great value for British. Most of their free time they spend creating the comfort of houses, and working in the garden. The British proudly show their "green fingers" (i.e. dirty hands) after working in the garden. And their yards are always decorated with garden gnomes. New Year's Day. I'd like to start from one of the most popular and adorable holiday - New Year's Day, which is celebrated on the 1st of January. This holiday is less popular than in our country. But anyway we have some similar traditions as -decorating houses and fir-trees, arranging fаmily or friends parties to turn on TV on the 31st of December and to count down together the the last seconds of the old year. Many people stay at home or go out to the night clubs or pubs, it depends on family traditions or personal choices. In Scotland, New Year's Day is called Hogmanay and is widely celebrated because the greatest festival of the year takes place there. This night people roll along the streets burning barrels, so they scorch out the old year. They also cook tasty cake decorated with candies, almonds and сandied fruits. Easter. Another important holiday in Britain is Easter, which will be celebrated on the 27th of March. Сrack of dawn organ concerts and religious services take place in all churches. Adults in the streets give candies and toys to the children because Easter tradition is decorating, exchanging or searching for eggs. These eggs may be fresh or boiled, chocolate or made of other materials. All children in the UK believe that the Easter bunny comes to their houses to hide eggs, after that they look for these eggs everywhere. There are many Easter egg competitions such as collecting eggs or rolling eggs down the slopes. Hard-boiled eggs are usually used, and after the competitions they are eaten. The winner is the person whose eggs remain whole during the competitions. Christmas. And of course the most popular holiday is Christmas, which celebration starts on the 24th of December by decorating fir-trees. There is an interesting ancient custom of houses decoration with the branches of greenery such as holly or ivy etc. According to this custom on the Christmas eve, a man may kiss any girl accidently stopped under the decoration of this plant. The highest Christmas tree is carried to London from Norway. It is placed in Trafalgar Square. All streets are wonderfully decorated with coloured lights and toys. All relatives usually meet for the traditional Christmas dinner. Housewives cook the Christmas bird, nowadays usually a turkey in Britain, goose in Wales and Ireland. However Christmas bird is followed by Christmas pudding, which is made of candied fruits or dried fruits and brandy. And of course everybody gives and receives presents. Children hang stockings at the end of their beds, hoping to find there toys and sweets in the morning. Most of all churches hold special services and people may attend them even if they do not usually go to church. Festivals in the UK. Among the popular holidays there are some interesting festivals in the UK, for example Guy Faweks or Bonfire Night. The festival takes place on the 5th of November annually. On that day, in 1605, Guy Fawkes tried to blow up the Houses of Parliament and to kill King James I. He was ordered to keep watch over the barrels of gunpowder and to light them. But in the morning of the 5th November the King's soldiers found and arrested him. He was taken to the Tower where he was questioned and killed later. And the King decided to celebrate his survival. Everybody was ordered to have a great bonfire on that night. Nowadays the British celebrate this festival every year. They light bonfires and set off fireworks. Great tea ceremony. Talking about British holidays and traditions a great tea ceremony has to be mentioned. Afternoon tea is rather new tradition. For the first time it was held by Anna Maria Stanhope, Duchess of Bedford in 1840. There was a long period of time between lunch and dinner. So the Duchess became very hungry about at four o'clock in the afternoon and she asked to bring her tea with bread and butter. And it became her habit. Later she began to invite her friends for tea. Tea rooms and tea shops became popular particularly among women from 1880. Nowadays afternoon tea takes place between 3:00 and 5:00 in the afternoon. The British drink about 5-6 cups of tea (over 165 million cups) every day. They drink black tea served with milk or lemon and snacks such as savories, sandwiches and sweets. British proverbs. Seven cups of tea make you up in the morning; nine cups will put you to sleep at night. Семь чашек чая заставят тебя проснуться утром, девять чашек - усыпят тебя вечером. If you are hot, tea will cool you off, and if you are cold, it will warm you up. - Если тебе жарко, чай остудит тебя, если ты замерз, он согреет тебя. Tea must be strong, hot, and sweet like womans kiss. - Чай должен быть крепким, горячим и сладким, как поцелуй женщины. Three comforts of old age: fire, tea and tobacco. - Три утешения старости: огонь, чай и табак. Bibliography. http://www.tur-tips.ru http://nauchforum.ru/node/4779 http://womanadvice.ru/tradicii-velikobritani http://www.ladyfromrussia.com/karnaval/mir/greatbritan1.shtml http://www.realtravel.ru/countries/england/england_traditions.html The end Thank you for your attention.