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1108.Английский язык учеб.-метод

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Министерство образования и науки Российской Федерации
Сибирский федеральный университет
Магистратура
АНГЛИЙСКИЙ ЯЗЫК
Учебно-методическое пособие
Электронное издание
Красноярск
СФУ
2013
1 УДК 811.111:629(07)
ББК 81.432.1я73
А647
Составитель: Гаврилина Любовь Евгеньевна
А647 Английский язык: учеб.-метод. пособие [Электронный ресурс] / сост.
Л.Е. Гаврилина. – Электрон. дан. – Красноярск: Сиб. федер. ун-т, 2013.
– Систем. требования: PC не ниже класса Pentium I; 128 Mb RAM;
Windows 98/XP/7, Adobe Reader V8.0 и выше. – Загл. с экрана.
Целью учебно-методического пособия является подготовка магистрантов к
самостоятельному чтению на английском языке оригинальной технической литературы по
специальности.
Предназначено для самостоятельной и аудиторной работы магистров 1-го и 2-го
курса факультета транспорта всех специальностей.
УДК 811.111:629(07)
ББК 81.432.1я73
© Сибирский
федеральный
университет, 2013
Электронное учебное издание
Подготовлено к публикации Издательским центром БИК СФУ
Подписано в свет 21.10.2013 г. Заказ 3148.
Тиражируется на машиночитаемых носителях.
Издательский центр
Библиотечно-издательского комплекса
Сибирского федерального университета
660041, г. Красноярск, пр. Свободный, 79
Тел/факс (391)206-21-49. E-mail [email protected]
http://rio.sfu-kras.ru
2 Contents
Вместо предисловия
Введение
1. Introductory test
2. Automobile Production Management
3. Research and development
4. Quality
5. Logistics
Keys
Appendix
Bibliography
4
5
6
9
25
55
71
90
93
97
3 Вместо предисловия
Дорогие друзья!
Предлагаемое учебное пособие предназначено главным образом для
студентов, имеющих хорошее знание английского языка в объеме программы
вуза или прошедших специальный коррективный курс, что предполагает
владение навыками построения предложений на базе всех времен английской
грамматики, знакомство с неличными формами глагола и другими
грамматическими явлениями, предусмотренными программой курса обучения
неязыкового факультета.
Цель пособия – совершенствование навыков чтения аутентичных
текстов, формирование коммуникативных навыков при обсуждении
актуальных проблем по специальности, а также развитие навыков
письменной речи, в том числе и составление аннотаций. Чтобы добиться
наилучшего результата и для поддержания интереса к изучению
иностранного языка в пособие включены задания с элементами ролевых игр,
написанием проектов и решением проблемных задач; упражнения,
способствующие развитию языковой догадки, логического мышления,
восприятия устной речи на слух, обогащения словарного запаса для
дальнейшей профессиональной деятельности.
Пособие состоит из теста и 4 разделов, 3 из которых снабжены
иллюстрациями, схемами, презентациями, которые помогут при подготовке
сообщений, все разделы дополнены видеоматериалами. Кроме того, имеются
дополнительные тексты для самостоятельного домашнего чтения, которые
рекомендуются после прохождения соответствующих разделов основной
части.
Успехов вам!
4 Введение
Обоснование необходимости создания данного пособия
В первой четверти третьего тысячелетий становиться все более
очевидным, что человечество развивается по пути расширения взаимосвязей
стран и народов в области науки и культуры.
Сегодня на различных факультетах во многих российских вузах
обучают языку специальности, и не только потому, что для целого ряда
специальностей
это
является
обязательным
в
соответствии
с
Государственным стандартом. Прежде всего, овладение знаниями и навыками
иноязычной коммуникации диктуется практическими потребностями
реальной жизни. Все чаще и чаще у студентов появляется необходимость
знакомиться с новыми актуальными вопросами и идеями, используя
зарубежные источники при написании курсовых, рефератов, дипломных
работ и подготовке к выступлениям на международных конференциях.
Подача материала представляет собой попытку использовать
коммуникативный подход при написании учебного пособия для магистрантов
по различным специальностям, касающимся автоиндустрии.
Кроме того, учитывая, что в последние годы у молодых людей
появилась возможность выезжать на учебу за рубеж, в пособие включены
элементы заданий и материалы из теста TOEFL и видео ролики из интернета
(Youtube) в упражнения по аудированию.
5 INTRODUCTORY TEST
Раздел 1. Грамматика и лексика
Задание 1. В вопросах 1-25 выберите правильный ответ A, B, C, D.
1. Victor is free _ the evening.
A on
B at
C in
D of
2. People have different opinions _ cars.
A about
B on
C of
В over
3. I live in _ country and there’s no public transport.
A the
Ba
C an
D–
4. John would like to buy _ expensive car.
Aa
B an
C the
D–
5. Limousines _ lots of room for passengers.
A has
B have
C has been
D have been
6. _. are perfect for hot, sunny weather.
A sport cars
B SUV
C convertibles D pick up
7. Taking good care of your car _ increase its resale value.
A may
B must
C could
D can
8. One _ study hard to become a high qualified engineer.
A can
B should
C may
D must
9. _ you want to buy a new car for yourself?
A are
B is
C do
D does
10. Mike _ a car with a diesel engine to reduce fuel consumption.
A is driving
B drives
C drove
D has driven
11. Last year manufactures _ Skoda’s body.
A improves
B has improved
C improved
D improve
12. Have you ever _ this model on sale?
A see
B saw
C have seen
D seen
13. Mark is in his car, he _ home.
A drove
B is driving
6 C drives
D drive
14. He comes from England. Where _ he come from?
A does
B do
C is
D–
15 They _ French very well.
A are speaking B speaks
C to speak
D speak
16. _ I open the window? It’s stuffy in the room.
A can
B must
C may
D might
17. Bad driving causes _ accidents.
A lot of
B much
C many
D little
18. Neхt year she _ to study at university.
A will
B goes
C is
D is going
19. You _ television. You should study more.
A watch
B are always watching
C will watch D always watch
20. Yesterday she _ late because of the traffic jams.
A were
B will be
C was
D had been
21. Your time-table _ next semester.
A is changed B will be changed
C changed
D was changed
22. The doctor _ for an hour ago.
A is sent
B will be sent
C are sent
D was sent
23. Is _ absent in your group?
A somebody B nobody
C anybody
D any
24. Moscow university – by the Russian architect Kazakov.
A is designed B will be designed
C designed D was designed
25. Students and teachers – to smoke in the classroom.
A are allowed B are not allowed
C allowed
D were allowed
Задание 2. Прочтите текст, заполните пропуски словом, выбрав один из
предложенных вариантов ответа в вопросах 26-31.
Safety was 26 – one of the main concerns of London transport. In spite of the
fact that trains follow each other within seconds it is the safest form of 27 - in the
world. Automatic signaling is operated 28 – the trains themselves. A programmed
7 machine 29 – routes if changes are necessary, they are made automatically and with
lightning speed. 30 _ accidents can happen through human error. New automatic
driving 31 – are now being used.
26. A often
B always
C seldom
D sometimes
27. A transport B means
C train
D vehicle
28. A in
B from
C by
D under
29. A governs B controls
C describes
D plans
30 A any
B no
C many
D some
31. A wheels
B pedals
C systems
D maps
Раздел 2. Чтение
Задание 3. Прочтите текст и выберите правильный вариант А, B, C, D
из предложенных после текста вопросов.
Вопросы 32-39.
Built to order
Almost every car is produced to the customer’s specific requirements – a
built-to-order car.
As soon as a car is ordered and a delivery date agreed, weekly and daily
production schedules are created and sent to outside suppliers and the company’s
own pre-assembly stations. This is to make sure that all the necessary components
arrive on time.
First of all a small data carrier is attached to the floor pan in the body shop.
This data carrier contains all the customer’s specifications and communicates
wirelessly with control units along the production line. In the body shop the floor
pan, wheel arches, side panels, and roof are welded together by robots to make the
frame of the car. The add-on parts – the doors and bonnet – are then mounted to
make the body in white.
The finished body shell then goes into the paint shop where the data carrier
determines the colour. In final assembly, the interior and the exterior parts (for
example the front and rear bumpers, headlights, windscreen, and other windows)
are fitted. After quality control and a final check, the finished car can be released. It
is now ready for delivery to its new owner.
32. According to the text almost every car is produced
A. to satisfy the manufacturer’s interests.
B to apply for different purposes.
C to the customer’s specific requirements.
D to the government needs.
33. According to the production schedules as soon as a car is ordered
A it is sent to the other company.
B it is delivered to the owner.
С its order is agreed.
D it is sent to the company’s own pre-assembly stations.
8 34. According to the production process a small data carrier is attached
A to the floor pan of the body.
B with the windshield.
C to the front door.
D in the side panels
35. To make the frame the floor pan, wheel arches, side panels, and roof are
A communicating together wirelessly.
B attached in production line.
C welded together by robots.
D framed with the other parts.
36. The completed body shell goes into the
A production line.
B body shop.
C paint shop to determine the colour.
D company’s pre-assembly stations
37. In final assembly, the interior and the exterior parts
A are welded.
B will be connected.
C are fitted.
D mounted.
38. After quality control and the final check the finished car
A may be sold.
B can be released.
C must be delivered to the car show.
D should be tested.
39. To make sure that all the necessary components arrive on time
A the order on the car is sent to the assembly line.
B the order is delivered to different warehouses.
C the car is ordered and the delivery date agreed.
D the order is sent to outside suppliers.
UNIT1
Automobile Production Management
In this unit you will...
• remember the main factors of achieving success in production
management
• learn to use terms and definitions of some production branches
• revise Present Tenses
• read about production planning system and production management
• listen and watch the video connected with the role of models in
production management, list some ideas it deals with
9 • talk about the main advantages of an effective production planning system
• write a memo from a company director to the production manager
Lead-in
Before reading the text see if you can answer the following questions:
a) How do we define production management?
b) What do people involved in production management study to achieve
overall success?
c) What are the activities which also contribute to success?
Read the Text
Now you can definitely answer all the questions given above.
Production Management
Production management is concerned with planning and controlling
industrial processes which produce and distribute products and services.
Techniques of production management are also used in service industries: here they
are called operations management. During production processes, inputs are
converted into outputs. These processes take many forms: from basic agriculture to
large-scale manufacturing. Much manufacturing takes place in factories, where
assembly lines allow a steady flow of raw materials (inputs) and finished products
(outputs). People in production focus on efficiency and effectiveness of processes
in order to maximize productivity. To achieve overall success, it is important to
measure, analyze and evaluate these processes. However, other activities also
contribute to success: purchasing, inventory control, quality control, storage,
logistics.
Production varies according to the inputs, processes and outputs. Other
important factors are the place of production and the resources. In addition, stock, a
major cost, needs to be carefully controlled, and the equipment must be regularly
maintained to remain productive and prevent breakdowns.
Task 1. Give definitions of the words belonging to production places,
processes, resources etc. Use the dictionary if it is necessary.
Inventory, equipment, breakdown, stock, assemble, batch, store, failure,
fault, factory, layout, plant, convert, effectiveness, machinery, materials handling,
efficiency, line, lot, site, unit, workshop, component, optimize, fixtures, raw
materials, maximize, maintain, repair.
Task 2. Use the numbered categories to classify the words given in the first
task.
a)
Production place
b)
Process
c)
Resources
d)
Stock
e)
Maintenance
10 Task 3. Study and agree or disagree with the Productivity Conceptual
Model:
A simple way of looking at productivity in a business organization is to think
of it in terms of the productivity model. The Productivity Conceptual Model below
takes the form of a 'productivity pyramid'. The base denotes the inputs to the
system, the middle parts denote the conversion process and the outputs; success of
productivity is on the top which contribute to reduced costs, increased volume and
improved service.
Reduced Costs
Increased Volume
Improved Service
Outputs
Conversion Process
Inputs
Materials
People
Systems
Tools
Attitudes, Skills
Management
Equipment
Knowledge
Processes
Task 4. Match the words that go together and then complete the sentences below.
Quality
material
finished
manager
industrial
lines
raw
products
production
control
large-scale
levels
productivity
process
assembly
manufacturing
1.
Improved ----- ----- has led to higher efficiency in production.
2.
The manufacture of paper is an -----.
3.
Crude oil is the basic ----- ----- for the plastics industry.
4.
Increased ------ ----- have reduced the number of manufacturing workers.
5.
The large warehouse is used ----- ----- to store waiting for delivery.
6.
Large car manufacturers use ----- ----- in production.
7.
The company began in a single room but has now developed into -----.
8.
The manufacturing process is the responsibility of the -----.
Task 5. Complete the sentences below. The first letter of the missing word has
been given.
1.
A quantity of goods prepared at the same time is known as a b -----.
2.
To put parts together to produce the final product is to a -----.
3.
Production processes convert inputs to o -----.
4.
The process of buying inputs is known as p -----.
5.
A part which is used in the final product is called a c -----.
6.
To get the best possible level of production is to o -----.
Read Text 2
11 Task 6. Read the text and say, if the following statements are true or false.
a)
A production planning system is not essential for better profitability.
b)
Almost all areas of management require careful planning and organizing.
c)
It is difficult to keep track of all the changes in this ever-changing world
therefore to handle these changes, many companies keep safety stock.
d)
There are a lot of factors that need to be considered in the planning system.
e)
Techniques of production management are also used in service
industries.
f)
Much manufacturing takes place in factories, where assembly lines
allow a steady flow of raw materials (outputs) and finished products (inputs).
g)
To remain productive and prevent breakdowns stock, a major cost,
needs to be carefully controlled, and the equipment must be regularly maintained
to.
Production
A production planning system is essential to ensure that a company's processes,
machinery, equipment, labor skills and material are organized efficiently for better
profitability. There are many factors that need to be considered in the planning system.
For example, a firm may require a large number of different components. Demand can
also vary daily in this ever-changing world. New sales orders come in. Some get
cancelled; there may be breakdowns in the workshop; backlogs build up; there may be
late or early delivery from suppliers. It is difficult to keep track of all these changes
manually. To handle these situations, many companies keep safety stock. However, if a
company has an effective production planning system there is no need to keep high
safety stock. The money blocked in the excessive safety stock can be released. At the
same time, opportunity costs due to stock-outs can be minimized.
Task 7. Study the Market Needs Analysis Model below and give your
commentaries:
There are two principal aims of the Market Needs Analysis Model:
- to identify market needs for your product
- to analyze the market potential for new products or services
The product performance specifications detail the operational features of the
product.
At the product design stage, designers and product managers will redefine how
the product is to work and how it is to be made.
At the production system specifications stage, we focus on the manufacturing
requirements.
Investment decision methods focus on the alternative methods for financing the
investment needed.
The objective of production system design is to standardize both the methods of
production system design and the machine units for production system construction.
A production cost model calculates production costs and capacity factors.
Market needs
Product performance
12 Specification
Product design
Production system
Production system
Production system
technology
specifications
methods
production system design
Production cost model
Task 8. Choose the correct answer in the following sentences.
1. Recent faults with machines have cost the company a great deal of ------.
a) maintenance b) slack time c) downtime
2. Once the mock-up of the new design has been tested, we can build the -----.
a) prototype b) update c) set up
3. It's unprofitable to manufacture small quantities because of the machine ----.
a) lead time b) set-up time c) sequence
4. The production manager has to produce a production ----- for the next four
weeks.
a) set up b) schedule c) output
5. Once the order has been agreed and production begun, the designer is still
responsible for the -----.
a) work in progress b) workload c) back order
6 These items are produced together as one -----.
a) cycle b) delivery c) lot
Task 9. Match the correct word with each definition.
Workload - the movement of materials through a production system,
workforce - an order from an earlier time which hasn't been produced yet,
back order - the volume of goods which are produced,
material flow - something that is needed for a particular process,
throughput - the series of activities following one another to produce a product,
output - the amount of work that has to be done,
cycle - the volume of goods that can be dealt with in a certain period of time,
requirement - all the people who work in a particular company.
Grammar Revision
Present Tenses
Uses
The present tenses are used to express a range of meanings.
The present continuous describes:
1. an activity at or around the time of speaking
At present we are using plastic packaging.
2. a fixed future plan
Next year we are building a new depot.
The present simple describes:
1. a regular or characteristic happening
How often do you receive shipments?
13 The present perfect describes:
1. an activity at a non-specific time in the past
Our contractor has built a new supporting wall.
2. an activity which started in the past and continues to the present
We have been working on this project since last year.
Form
Present Simple, Present continuous and Present Perfect (Positive, Negative,
Question)
Present simple active: We receive raw materials from our suppliers. The
supervisor does not prepare papers. Where do you store finished goods?
Present simple passive: All goods are received at this depot. The bill of loading
isn’t dispatched. Where are the goods stored?
Present continuous active: The supervisor is checking the delivery. I’m not
sending out the bill of loading with this shipment. When are we moving to the new
depot?
Present continuous passive: Goods are being unloaded over there. At present the
pallets are not being reused. Why are those crates being moved?
Present perfect simple active: Our contractor has built a supporting wall. They
have not drained the water yet. How many tunnels have they dug?
Present perfect simple passive: The walls have been built. The water has not
been drained. Has the cable been laid?
Present perfect continuous active: The supervisor has been checking the walls
today. I have not been working on that site since last year. How long have they been
excavating at the site?
Note: the present perfect continuous passive is very rare used.
Sample sentences for you to translate and explain the use of tenses.
The logistics department dispatches finished goods to our customers and
receives raw materials from our suppliers. Delivery documentation is enclosed with the
consignment, but the shipping papers aren't prepared in this department. In this area here
the goods are loaded onto trucks; and over there incoming goods which have just
arrived are unloaded. A consignment is just being delivered over there. We have been
using plastic packaging for many years; however, next year we are moving to more
environmentally-friendly materials.
Task 10. Choose the correct verb form in each of the following.
1. In this process, the mixture is heated/is heating to 120°C.
2. Once the salts are dissolving/have dissolved, the heat is reduced.
3. Several people have survived/are surviving the earthquake and are
treating/are being treated in hospital at the moment.
4. For security purposes the employees change/are changing their passwords
regularly.
5. Up until now people in this area have taken/take waste plastic to recycling
centers, but at present we have tried/are trying a curbside collection system.
14 Task 11. A journalist is asking some questions. Complete the answers by
putting the verb in brackets into the appropriate present tense in the active or passive.
1 A: Do you normally hold these products in stock?
B: No. They are normally made to order. (make)
2 A: Is the chief engineer here at the moment?
B: l'm afraid not. He ----- currently ------ the plant in the north of Scotland.
(inspect)
3 A: Can I see the new design?
B: Yes, of course. It ----- just ----- off the production line. (come)
4 A: How many units do you produce a month?
B: We ----- 5,000 units a month and only a very small number ------(produce)
(reject).
S A: How long have you been using imported raw materials?
B: We ----- (import) rayon for many years but we ----- only just -----(begin)
using imported polyester.
6 A: Is this the natural color of the fabric?
B: No, this fabric ----- (dye).
SKILLS DEVELOPMENT
Practice
Reading Comprehension and Speaking
Task 12. Skim the text and study the model connected with productioncontrol. Analyze the methods used in production-control process, given by William
K. Holstein.
The Importance of Models and Methods
Because of the enormous complexity of typical production operations and the
almost infinite number of changes that can be made and the alternatives that can be
pursued, a productive body of quantitative methods has been developed to solve
production management problems. Most of these techniques have emerged from
the fields of industrial engineering, operations research, and systems engineering.
Specialists in these fields are increasingly using computers and information
processing to solve production problems involving the masses of data associated
with large numbers of workers, massive inventories, and huge quantities of work in
process that characterize most of today’s production operations. Indeed, many mass
production operations could not run without the support of these industrial
engineers and technical specialists.
15 Production-Control Summary
processes
inventory
inspection
measuring rate
of
output;
inspecting
recording stock
materials
observation recording idle
levels
time
or
parts
downtime
analysis
costs
and
analyzing
demand
for
comparing
estimating
stocks
in
progress with
process
different
uses
the plan
capabilities
and at different
times
corrective
action
expediting
issuing
initiating
production and inspection;
procurement
adjusting
orders
processes
evaluation
estimating
production
capacity and
maintenance
schedules
drawing
up
replenishment
policies
and
inventory
systems
collecting
cost data
computing
costs
in
relation
to
estimates
full
reassessing
specifications;
improving
processes
and
procedures
adjusting
selling price
of product
evaluating
production
economics;
improving
data
Speaking Practice
Task 13. Work in pairs. Ask each other questions to find out the key
information about the companies described in the first and second articles.
The world’s most respected companies
Article 1 Customer service by Rod Newing
The main factors for the success of Toyota (the number one company for
customer service) are not only its customer focus but also its products. Toyota
provides the products that customers most want to buy and designs models that
meet people’s changing priorities. In particular, it has responded to the industry
trend by providing smaller, more environmentally friendly cars, such as the Prius, a
hybrid car with both petrol and electric engines.
However, Toyota’s after-sales service is very much appreciated too. “They
do everything to make clients satisfied.” says one respondent. Toyota’s reward for
its world-beating customer service is not just to be the world’s most profitable
carmaker. It is of course to become the world’s biggest producer.
Article 2 Driven: Inside BMW, the Most Admired Car Company in the
World.
16 BMW is perhaps the most admired carmaker in the world–renowned for a
level of luxury and performance that inspires near-fanatical loyalty in its customers.
While other carmakers struggle with falling sales, profits and market share, demand
for BMWs continues to grow, frequently outpacing production. Combining worldclass engineering, intelligent management, and a unique corporate culture, BMW
produces consistently superior cars that are the most benchmarked vehicles in the
industry.
In Driven, David Kiley presents an inside look at the fabled automaker,
revealing the business philosophy and practices that make BMW more than just
another carmaker, and the unsurpassed quality that makes a "Bimmer" more than
just a car. With uncommon access to BMW executives and records, Kiley explains
how the company emerged from the wreckage of World War II to become the most
respected car producer and one of the most profitable automakers in the world.
More than just a company, BMW is an iconic symbol of the successful
rebirth of German industry. For the first time in the U.S. media, Kiley introduces
readers to the family behind BMW’s success–the mysterious and secretive
Quandts.
Excepting the occasional speed bump, BMW has seen more than four
decades of steady growth and success. Kiley explores the company’s ups and
downs from top to bottom, including the disastrous acquisition and eventual
divestiture of the British Rover Group and the controversial hiring of head designer
Chris Bangle. Driven digs deep to reveal the practices that make BMW the king of
the road.
Task 14. Presenting your company
Which of the following suggestions do you agree with?
To make an effective presentation, you should:
1. Find out as much as possible about your audience.
2. Introduce yourself (name, position, company).
3. Start with a joke.
4. Outline the structure of your talk
Think about your company or any other company you know. Study the
useful language below and use the following scheme to prepare your own
presentation.
Useful language: Outlining the presentation
First I’ll give you some basic information. Secondly, I’ll talk about our
stores in other countries. Next, I’ll talk about carrier opportunities. Last of all, I
want to look at our future plans.
Introducing new information
Here’s some basic information.
Let me add a few figures.
Let’s have a look at some statistics.
Ending the presentation
To conclude, I want to tell you about our future plans.
17 Finally, let me tell you a few words about our new project.
Thanks very much for listening to my talk.
Thanks for coming to my presentation.
Have a look at an example of a presentation and make your own
presentation
Good morning, everyone. Thanks for coming to my presentation. My name
is… I’m Personal Director of…. I’m going to talk to you today about our company.
First I’ll give you some basic information about Toyota Company. Then I’ll talk
about our overseas stores. After that I’ll outline the strengths of the company. Next
I’ll talk about career opportunities with our company. And finally I’ll mention our
future plans. I’ll be pleased to answer any questions at the end of my talk.
Let me start with some basic facts about Toyota Company. The company
started… We are a family-owned business and our head office is in …. We
produce, We have 15 stores in … All the stores are very profitable. Right those are
the basic facts. Let me add a few figures. We have an annual turnover of about…
So those are the numbers.
Now about our overseas production sites and stores. We have four large
stores in
… and another ten in other European countries. We are planning to open 5
new plants next year. What are our strengths… We keep up with new trends. We
deliver to the stores twice a month. And we sell our cars at the right price.
OK, now what about career opportunities? It’s quite simple. If you are
ambitious we have work in all areas of our business. We will welcome you with
open arms. Finally let me tell you a few words about our new projects. We are
planning to open a new store in …. This will give us a foothold in the US market.
We are very excited about this new development. Well thanks very much for
listening to my talk. Are there any questions?
Task 15. Role-play: Read the text attentively and discuss the main
responsibilities of a production manager. One of you is the prospective production
manager and the other is the general director. Work in pairs.
The “five M”s”
Production management’s responsibilities are summarized by the “five
M’s”: men, machines, methods, materials, and money. “Men” refers to the human
element in operating systems. Since the vast majority of manufacturing personnel
work in the physical production of goods, “people management” is one of the
production manager’s most important responsibilities.
The production manager must also choose the machines and methods of the
company, first selecting the equipment and technology to be used in the
manufacture of the product or service and then planning and controlling the
methods and procedures for their use. The flexibility of the production process and
the ability of workers to adapt to equipment and schedules are important issues in
this phase of production management.
18 The production manager’s responsibility for materials includes the
management of flow processes—both physical (raw materials) and information
(paperwork). The smoothness of resource movement and data flow is determined
largely by the fundamental choices made in the design of the product and in the
process to be used.
The manager’s concern for money is explained by the importance of
financing and asset utilization to most manufacturing organizations. A manager
who allows excessive inventories to build up or who achieves level production and
steady operation by sacrificing good customer service and timely delivery runs the
risk that overinvestment or high current costs will wipe out any temporary
competitive advantage that might have been obtained.
Listening
Task16. Watch the video: Role of models in production management and
answer the following questions.
(http://www.youtube.com/watch?v=Hba1hraPIY)
1. Whose lecture is given in this video?
2. How does the lecturer define a model?
3. What are the features of models?
4. Could you give criteria for models classifications?
5. How many different varieties of models are presented in the lecture?
Writing Practice
Task 17. Here is part of a memo from a company director to the production
manager. Complete it with words given below and write your own memo:
Faulty, equipment, repair, site, workshops, factory, stocks, breakdowns, layout,
maintain, machinery, fixtures.
MEMO
From Robert George -----------To Sarah Bridge ----------- Re Premises
We are making good progress with the new (a) ---- development. A new (b) ---close to the river has been acquired. Designers are currently working on the (c) ---- of
the area and exact location of the ----factory building. All (d ) ---- and fittings will be
carried out by Alan Shores Ltd. The new manufacturing (e) ---- has been ordered and
we hope to be able to install it ahead of schedule. New (f) ---- will be purchased for the
engineering (g) ---- once they have been completed. The present machinery is old and
several (h) ---- recently have caused production backlogs. We will continue to (i) ---and (j) ---- these machines until the new ones are up and running.
I would ask you to carry out a full (k) ---- inventory as soon as possible. Any (I)
---- goods should be removed from store and disposed of.
Task 18. The works manager is showing a group around the factory. The letters
of the missing words are mixed up. Complete the dialogue with the missing words.
Then write the main idea of the dialogue in a monologic speech.
We're not particularly busy at the moment. Believe it or not, the (a) ---(manedd) for furniture is seasonal.
So, do you (b) (kaem-ot-osckt)?
19 Well, all our units are made- (c) ---- (ot-reord). However, we make componentsto-stock.
When are your busy times?
Normally from September to May but there is always a great deal of (d) ---(cerunintyta) and it's ditticult to (e) ---- (recatfos) sales trends.
So does the (adel mite) vary?
No, not really. Our (g) ---- (adel mite) is usually 8 to 10 weeks. When we are
very busy, the workforce usually do (h) ---- (mitevero) to try to avoid a (i)---- (Iockbag)
of orders. If necessary we introduce a U) (fisht) system when we're working at full
capacity to avoid (k) --- (beckslotten) at key machines.
During a busy period do you have (I) ---- (toskc-tous)?
Seldom. We use the time when work is (m) ---- (Iacks) to build up stock of
components. We don't like machines or workers to be (n) ---- (Iide)!
Texts for additional reading
Task 19. Scan the text located below and translate only significant
sentences. You should put unnecessary information in brackets. Give your own
opinion on the production management system used in a Japanese-American
automobile factory based in Ingersoll, Ontario. Write an annotation.
Production Management in a Unionized Canadian Auto Plant
David Robertson, James Rinehart, Christopher Huxley and the CAW
research group on CAMI
This paper provides some study of a unionized Japanese-American
automobile factory based in Ingersoll, Ontario! The operation, CAMI Automotive
Inc., is a joint venture between General Motors and Suzuki that produces
subcompact cars and compact 4-wheel drive sports utility vehicles. There were no
transplants operating on this continent prior to 1981. As a result of a variety of
considerations - tariff and non-tariff barriers, Voluntary Restraint Agreements and
threats of import quotas, the upward reevaluation of the Yen, and state or provincial
subsidies, grants, forgivable loans, etc. Eight auto assembly transplants began
production in the United States and Canada between 1982 and 1989, with a
combined capacity of 1.5 million vehicles per year. There are now four transplants
operating in Canada - Toyota, Honda, Hyundai and CAMI (the only joint venture in
Canada) - all of them having arrived since 1985.
By 1990 they were producing over one-quarter of a million vehicles or
roughly 18 percent of North American transplant production. This figure
represented 13.8 percent of all vehicles and 22.6 percent of all cars produced in
Canada in 1990. It is estimated that by 1995 transplant capacity in North America
will reach three million vehicles, or one-fourth of all North American production. If
the remarkable Japanese penetration of the North American auto market has
stimulated the Big Three auto producers to adopt Japanese methods, the transplant
phenomenon may accelerate the rate of emulation. One proponent of Japanese
Production Management (JPM) has warned: The competitive future of the
American automotive industry may well depend on whether the high performance
20 of the transplants persists, and whether U.S. companies can learn the secrets of their
success. If this is so, transplants also present major challenges to auto workers and
their unions. CAMI, following the pattern of Japanese transplants, is a "greenfield
operation," located on the outskirts of a small town. Ingersoll, which has a
population of approximately 8,500, is strategically located a stone's throw away
from Ontario's major transportation corridor. Midway between Toronto and Detroit,
it is in, what the company refers to as, the heart of the Canadian automotive
supplier community. Production at CAMI began in April, 1989 and by November,
1990 was operating two shifts with a workforce about 1,700. Workers at CAMI are
members of the Canadian Auto Workers union (CAW), making this the only
unionized transplant or joint venture car factory in Canada, and one of only four
organized transplants in North America (along with NUMMI in California, Mazda
in Michigan and Diamond Star in Illinois). Unions face major obstacles in
attempting to organize these plants, and so far only joint ventures have been
unionized. In the case of CAMI, the CAW undertook a sign-up campaign and
applied to the Ontario Labor Relations Board for certification. Having signed up 90
percent of the existing workforce, a certification vote was unnecessary. This was
followed by the negotiation and eventual ratification by the membership of their
first three year collective agreement.
To its proponents, JPM (or in the phrase preferred by the MIT group that
wrote The Machine That Changed the World, "lean production") represents the
death of mass production, the coup de grace to the remaining vestiges of craft
production, and the insurmountable barrier against which those outposts of neocraft based production will collide and then fall. JPM allegedly combines the best
of craft and mass production, "avoiding the high cost of the former and the rigidity
of the latter." For its enthusiasts, JPM is unchallenged in its capacity to deliver cost
reductions, zero defects, tight inventories and low assembly hours. But just as
important, JPM accomplishes this through procedures that demand the
contributions of workers to production and rewards those contributions by
providing "workers with the skills they need to control their work environment. For
the MIT group and others championing JPM, it is a production system that, "by
moving responsibility for as much as possible down to the floor ...offers a creative
tension in which workers have many ways to address challenges. What emerges in
JPM workplaces is the multiskilled worker, prepared to make a commitment to
work and the company in exchange for a "process that continuously enhances the
workers' skill" and that provides opportunities for "ever more challenging work."
So taken by the possibilities offered by JPM is the MIT group that it looks forward
to a future workplace staffed with "highly skilled problem solvers whose task will
be to think continuously of ways to make the system run smoothly and
productively." Florida and Kenney also view JPM as a major expression of postfordism: The central role played by worker initiative and the use of workers'
knowledge contradicts the view that the Japanese model is simply an extension of
Fordist mass production. It lends support to the alternative conceptualization that it
21 is a new and potential successor model based upon harnessing workers' intellectual
and physical capabilities. JPM considers: what is good for the company is good for
the workforce. There are those who question this perspective, who see it as too rosy
a view and one that is at odds with what actually makes JPM work. Some critics
have characterized JPM as a system of "management by stress," in which the
production system and the workers who populate it are subject to continuous
pressure? Some observers have argued that behind the 'lean' is a whole lot of mean
- that JPM workplaces exclude those who are not young and fit. Others have
characterized JPM as a sophisticated version of the old standby, "speed-up." Still
others have argued that JPM's success, premised on some variant of enterprise
unionism, is contingent on undermining union independence and superimposing
collaborative goals over the distinct interests of workers.
Task 20. Scan the text and divide it into logical parts. Give the title to each
part.
Planning and Control
Although the five M’s capture the essence of the major tasks of production
management, control summarizes its single most important issue. The production
manager must plan and control the process of production so that it moves smoothly
at the required level of output while meeting cost and quality objectives. Process
control has two purposes: first, to ensure that operations are performed according to
plan, and second, to continuously monitor and evaluate the production plan to see if
modifications can be devised to better meet cost, quality, delivery, flexibility, or
other objectives. For example, when demand for a product is high enough to justify
continuous production, the production level might need to be adjusted from time to
time to address fluctuating demand or changes in a company’s market share. This is
called the “production-smoothing” problem. When more than one product is
involved, complex industrial engineering or operations research procedures are
required to analyze the many factors that impinge on the problem. Inventory
control is another important phase of production management. Inventories include
raw materials, component parts, work in process, finished goods, packing and
packaging materials, and general supplies. Although the effective use of financial
resources is generally regarded as beyond the responsibility of production
management, many manufacturing firms with large inventories (some accounting
for more than 50 percent of total assets) usually hold production managers
responsible for inventories. Successful inventory management, which involves the
solution of the problem of which items to carry in inventory in various locations, is
critical to a company’s competitive success. Not carrying an item can result in
delays in getting needed parts or supplies, but carrying every item at every location
can tie up huge amounts of capital and result in an accumulation of obsolete,
unusable stock. Managers generally rely on mathematical models and computer
systems developed by industrial engineers and operations researchers to handle the
problems of control. To control labour costs, managers must first measure the
amount and type of work required to produce a product and then specify well22 designed, efficient methods for accomplishing the necessary manufacturing tasks.
The concepts of work measurement and time study introduced by Taylor and the
Gilbreths, as well as incentive systems to motivate and reward high levels of
worker output, are important tools in this area of management. In new operations
particularly, it is important to anticipate human resource requirements and to
translate them into recruiting and training programs so that a nucleus of
appropriately skilled operators is available as production machinery and equipment
are installed. Specialized groups responsible for support activities (such as
equipment maintenance, plant services and production scheduling, and control
activities) also need to be hired, trained, and properly equipped. This type of careful
personnel planning reduces the chance that expensive capital equipment will stand
idle and that effort, time, and materials will be wasted during start-up and regular
operations. The effective use and control of materials often involves investigations
of the causes of scrap and waste; this, in turn, can lead to alternative materials and
handling methods to improve the production process. The effective control of
machinery and equipment depends on each machine’s suitability to its specific task,
the degree of its utilization, the extent to which it is kept in optimum running
condition, and the degree to which it can be mechanically or electronically
controlled.
Task 21. Look through the texts if you are interested in making a carrier of
a production manager.
Production Manager: Job Description
A production manager is involved with the planning, coordination and
control of manufacturing processes. They ensure that goods and services are
produced efficiently and that the correct amount is produced at the right cost and
level of quality.
The scope of the job depends on the nature of the production system:
jobbing, mass, process, or batch production. Many companies are involved in
several types of production, adding to the complexity of the job. Most production
managers are responsible for both human and material resources. (The job role is
also referred to as operations manager).
Typical Work Activities
The exact nature of the work will depend on the size of the employing
organization. However, tasks typically involve:
•
overseeing the production process, drawing up a production schedule;
•
ensuring that the production is cost effective;
•
making sure that products are produced on time and are of good
quality;
•
working out the human and material resources needed;
•
drafting a timescale for the job;
•
estimating costs and setting the quality standards;
•
monitoring the production processes and adjusting schedules as
needed;
23 being responsible for the selection and maintenance of equipment;
•
monitoring product standards and implementing quality-control
programmes;
•
liaising among different departments, e.g. suppliers, managers;
•
working with managers to implement the company's policies and
goals;
•
ensuring that health and safety guidelines are followed;
•
supervising and motivating a team of workers;
•
reviewing worker performance;
•
identifying training needs.
A production manager is involved in the pre-production (planning) stage as
well as the production (control and supervision) stage. A large part of production
management involves dealing with people, particularly those who work in your
team. Production managers are also involved with product design and purchasing.
In a small firm you may have to make many of the decisions yourself, but in larger
organization planners, controllers, production engineers and production supervisors
will assist you. In progressive firms, the production manager's role tends to be more
closely integrated with other functions, such as marketing, sales and finance.
(Written by AGCAS editors, June 2012).
Production Manager: Salary and Conditions
•
Average salaries for production managers with a few years of
experience range from £25,000 to £35,000. For more senior roles, salaries are in the
region of £40,000 to £60,000.
•
Salary will vary according to the size of the organization, the type of
business and its geographical location. Hi-tech companies pay higher salaries than
those in more traditional industries.
•
This is not a nine-to-five job and you may well have to work shifts and
unsocial hours, especially in the early stages of your career. You may also need to
work extended hours, particularly if there are tight deadlines to be met or new
systems to be introduced. You could be on call at weekends or public holidays to
deal with problems.
•
In small enterprises you will spend considerable amounts of time on
the shop floor supervising staff, where the environment can be quiet and pleasant,
or noisy and dirty, depending on the nature of the organisation.
•
Opportunities for self-employment are limited, but people with
considerable expertise in production management are sometimes engaged as
consultants to help industries implement new manufacturing and production
systems.
•
Opportunities are available all over the UK.
•
Dress code is usually business casual, but you will need to dress more
formally when meeting suppliers, managers or business people.
•
The job can be stressful but rewarding and you will definitely need
good time management and excellent attention to detail.
•
24 Most production managers tend to be based on one site, but some are
responsible for operations in a number of locations, including locations abroad, and
will be required to travel and spend time away from home. (This information is
taken from the official site, June 2012).
•
UNIT 2
Research and Development
In this unit you will
• remember the main types of research and development
• learn to use the main terms connected with research and development
activities, measuring and reporting the results
• revise Past Tenses
• read about automobile research and development
• watch a short video and give the main idea it deals with
• talk about Porsche R and D chief idea about hybrids
• write an email to the R and D department
Lead-in
Before you read the text see if you can answer the questions:
a)
What is research and development
b)
What types of research could you name?
c)
Does development mean modernization?
Now you can definitely answer all the questions given above.
Read the Text
Research and Development (Part 1)
Research and development (R and D) is the search for new and improved
products and industrial processes. Both industrial firms and governments carry out R
and D. Innovations in products or processes normally follow a path from laboratory
(lab) idea, through pilot or prototype production and manufacturing start-up, to fullscale production and market introduction. There are two main types of research. Pure
or basic research aims to clarify scientific principles without a specific end product in
view; applied research uses the findings of pure research in order to achieve a
particular commercial objective. Development describes the improvement of a
product or process by scientists in conjunction with engineers. Industry spends vast
sums to develop new products and the means to produce them cheaply, efficiently,
and safely. Research is important in many disciplines and there are different types of
research with different research professionals. The type of research ref1ects the
environment and the objectives. There are the following types of research: academic
research, clinical research, applied research, development and evaluation research,
experimental development, experimentation innovation, product development, pure
basic research, pure research, strategic basic research. Scientists, engineers, analysts,
25 technicians, lab technicians, researchers may participate in any research and are called
research professionals.
Read Text 2
Read the text and get ready to explain what qualitative research means, when
we use it. Describe the most effective activities used in qualitative research.
Research and Development (Part 2)
If you want to get feedback on a product or service, you can use qualitative
research. Qualitative research uses open-ended interviewing to explore and
understand the attitudes, opinions, feelings and behavior of individuals or a group of
individuals. Qualitative research has many common uses, including:
- investigating current product/service/brand positioning
- identifying strengths and weaknesses
- exploring alternative communication messages
- understanding why customers buy and use a product or service
- evaluating the impact of advertising or public relations campaigns
Research is based around a wide range of activities - from detailed analysis to
product improvement. Results from research activities need to be scientifically
measured and then reported.
Task 1. Memorize the following terms connected with research activities,
measuring and reporting results. Use some of them in the sentences of your own.
Research activities
Analyze, assess, compile, determine, develop, discover, evaluate, experiment,
explore, find, identify, improve, innovate, investigate, modify, record, search for,
study, survey, test trial.
Measuring the results
Constant, correlation, deviation, distribution, frequency, mean, measurement,
scale, mode, norm, random, reliability, sampling, standard, statistics, validity,
variable, variance.
Reporting the results
Feedback, report, response
Task 2. Use the sentences given below in a short description of air bags trial.
The following words can be used as both nouns and verbs:
Study, test, trial, experiment
We plan to conduct a study of consumer attitudes.
We are going to study consumer attitudes.
We intend to test the reactions to our new advertising campaign.
We will carry out the tests in order to get feedback on our advertising
campaigns.
The trials produced some very interesting results.
We aim to trial our new products over the coming months.
We have evaluated the reliability of the experiments.
It is important to experiment with new processes.
26 Task 3. Complete the following sentences with an appropriate verb from
Research Activities given after the text in task 1. You will have to put the verb in
the correct form.
1 They ----- a report on future energy requirements.
2 The temperature was measured every hour and carefully ------.
3 Following the accident, fire experts have to ------ the cause of the fire.
4 These clothes have not worn well so we will have to try and ------ the
quality.
5 Scientists continue to ----- for a cure for cancer.
6 They are trying to ----- a solution to the problem of friction.
Task 4. Notice the stress in the word families below often changes:
verb
noun (process)
noun (person)
adjective
'analyse
an'alysis
'analyst
ana'lytical
'innovate inno'vation
inno'vator
inn'ovative
de'velop de'velopment
de'veloper
develop' mental
ex'periment experimen'tation ex'perimenter
experi'mental
in'vent
in'vention
in'ventor
in'ventive
Task 5. Match the term with the correct definition
Applied research, clinical research, pilot study, experimentation, pure basiс
research, innovations, analysis
1)
The study of pure scientific principles
2)
the study of the parts and their relationship to one another
3)
changing and improving a product to achieve the best possible results
4)
looking at how scientific theory can be used in practice
5)
looking at the effects of drugs or treatment on patients
6)
product development a new technique or idea
7)
the process of tests and trials to see what happens under different
conditions
8)
small-scale experiment
Read text 3
Task 6. Read the text and evaluate the steps in the process of developing a
car. Put the following steps in the logical order.
a. A plant is set up to build the new model.
b. Marketing teams work to promote the new model and the new car is
launched.
c. Researchers analyse the answers and suggest the type of car to be built.
d. Engineers work to modify existing parts for the new model.
e. Customers are asked questions about the sorts of features they would like
in a car.
f. Product planners make sure that the new car is ready on time.
g. Tests are carried out in different conditions.
h. A prototype is built.
i. Designers work to design a new car based on these suggestions.
27 Automobile Research and Development (part 3)
Building a car takes a long time - from research, through design to final
development. First, researchers need to determine what consumers want, and then
suggest what kind of automobile to make. During the design phase, new ideas are
converted into tangible parts or products. At the same time engineers modify existing
parts and features for the new model and draft new plans for the prototype (a working
example of a new design). Then manufacturers begin to construct a few prototypes.
These are extensively tested in wind tunnels and dust tunnels, factory tracks, waterproofing bays, desert heat, Arctic cold and crashes. At the next stage a plant is set up
to build the new model and the necessary components. Product planners monitor the
process to ensure that the new car programme finishes on time and within budget.
Managers must also coordinate different activities, including producing the cars,
purchasing materials, and training the workers.
Marketing teams must then sell the car. Every year the major car manufacturers
launch their new models, but a single car design can take several years from the
drawing board to the showroom floor. A typical company will therefore have several
new designs in various stages of development at any given time. Automobiles have
developed over the years, both in terms of mechanics and design. Today's automobile
system is more efficient and safer, and the range of models more varied. A central
part of car manufacture is the workshop where car bodies are shaped and painted.
Task 7. Use the word in brackets to form a word which fits in the sentence.
1.
The scientists have presented the detailed ----- of the results. (analyse)
2.
They have brought in a food ----- to help in the research. (analyse)
3.
All process materials are tested using highly developed-----technigues.
(analyse)
4.
The researches have come up with an-----idea for the use of recycled
plastics. (innovate)
5.
Charles Dyson is the-----of a vacuum cleaner which works on a new
principle. (invent)
6.
The advent of the ballpoint pen was a wonderful -----. (invent)
7.
They imploy a large team of softwear-----.(develop)
8.
A report has been prepared in the-----tests that have been carried
out.(develop)
9.
Increasing numbers of people can now work from homes thanks to ----in telecommunications.(develop)
10.
These methods of production are still at an------stage.(experiment)
11.
The ----- is continuing work on the new drug.(experiment)
12.
Many people are against animal ----- .(experiment)
28 Task 8. Match the part of the car with its function.
Steering wheel, exhaust manifold, radiator, fuel tank, brake line, battery,
clutch, differential, engine, accelerator, distributor, alternator, brake cylinder,
Silencer/muffler.
1.
… holds brake fluid.
2.
… stores electricity.
3.
… provides the power.
4.
… when a car corners.
5.
… ensures that the rear wheels turn at a different speed to each other.
6.
… produces electricity.
7.
… sends an electric current to the spark plugs.
8.
… carries waste gases to the exhaust pipe.
9.
… makes the car go faster when it is pressed.
10.
… used by the driver to turn the car.
11.
… holds fuel.
12.
… cools water from the engine.
13.
… connects the brake cylinder to the brakes.
14.
… reduces the exhaust noise.
15.
disconnects the engine from the gearbox while the gears are changed
Task 9. The following email has been received by R and D department.
Complete it using the words from the list below. Write an email to your scientific
supervisor asking him/her for a meeting to discuss some ideas conserning your
qualification work to obtain your Master’s degree.
Brekthrough, prototipe, developmental, engineers, design, pattern,
innovative, experiment.
Dear Frank
I had a preliminary meeting with Maria Altefors regarding her (a) ---- for a
new
children's pushchair. It's a simple but (b) ----- invention which will allow two
29 children of different ages to be transported in a single unit. She has already
registered a (c) ---- and l'd like us to develop a (d) ---- . Could you arrange a
meeting with the (e) ----- to discuss this? We will have to carry out (f) ---- tests to
assess safety features with and (g) ---- different weight loads. This could be a real
(h) ----- in pushchair design!
Regards, Rulf.
Task 10. Notice the following verb and noun patterns. Noun ending -ation,ication,-ment. Think of some more verb and noun patterns, if it’s difficult find
some in the dictionary.
Compile
compilation
Standardize
standardazation
Evaluate
evaluation
Identify
identification
Modify
modification
Assess
assessment
Develop
development
Improve
improvement
Task 11. Choose the correct word given below to complete the following.
Distribution, random, scale, sampling, statistics, mean, frequency, mode, median.
The collecting, classifying and analysing of information shown in numbers is
known as (a) -----.
The middle value of a set of numbers is known as the (b) -------.
The average value is also known as the (e) ------.
The value which occurs most often is the (d) -------.
1,480 ball bearings were measured as part of quality control. The results are
shown in a histogram. The histogram shows frequency (e) ----- .The figures are
based on a
(f) ----- of 2,000 ball bearings. They were chosen at (g) ----- ; in no particular
order, time or pattern. The measurement (h) ---- is in millimetres. The (i) ----- of
I4.96mm is two.
Answer the following questions from the graph below.
30 The median is (j) ---- . The mode of distribution is (k) ----- . The mean is (I) ----.
Task 12. Put the following sentences in the correct order to describe the
steps in the process of developing a new drug.
a.
After hospital specialists have evaluated the drug, information
gathered from clinical trials is analysed.
b.
Data is subsequently sent to the Committee on Safety of Medicines.
c.
Then an application is made to the government for a clinicallicence.
d.
Tests are then carried out on volunteers.
e.
They are monitored closely for any other unwanted effects which
were not identified earlier.
f.
A decision is made by the committee and a licence issued before the
new product is introduced.
g.
Any side effects or toxicity are identified at this early stage.
h.
First of all, a new substance is tested in the laboratories.
Grammar Revision
Past Tenses
Uses
All the past tenses are used to express activities at a definite time in the past.
Past simple describes facts: The study of airbags was started last year.
Past continuous describes an activity which is a time frame for another activity:
While we were studying the airbags we made a significant discovery.
The past perfect describes an activity that happened earlier than another activity
in the past: Our studies showed how well the equipment had performed.
Notes: We use the past tenses with these expressions:
Yesterday/yesterday morning, last/ last night/week/month/year,
Ago/one hour/two weeks/four years ago, in 2012.
Form
Past simple, Past continuous and Past perfect
Past simple active/passive
Positive: Last year we began a new study. The performance of the airbags was
assessed.
Negative: We didn’t develop the software ourselves. The results weren’t
recorded.
Question: Where did you record the results? Where were the findings published?
Past continuous active / Passive
Positive: While the analyst was carrying out the test we went out.
Negative: The technicians were not recording the results.
Question: What were you doing during the test phase?
Past perfect active / Passive
Positive: After we had compiled the results we began our test. After the results
had been compiled the test started.
31 Negative: As they had not recorded the data they spoiled the result. The result
was spoiled because the data had not been recorded.
Question: Had we carried out all the tests? Had all the tests been carried out?
Past perfect continuous active:
Positive: The analyst had been checking the walls yesterday when we came.
Negative: We had not been evaluating the physical characteristics.
Question: How long have you been working on the project?
Note: The past perfect continuous active is quite unusual and past perfect
continuous passive is very rear.
Sample sentences for you to translate and explain the use of tenses.
Last year we began a study of airbags on our four wheel drive vehicles. First we
analyzed the results of the tests that we had carried out. After the results had been
compiled, we used modeling software to evaluate the performance of the airbags. This
showed how well they had performed under different conditions. While we were
evaluating the physical performance, another study was assessing the materials that we
were using. All the results were then recorded into a database.
Task 13. Six of the following sentences contain mistakes. Find and correct them.
1.
Sydney Harbour Bridge was building in 1932.
2.
While they were carrying out tests in the laboratories researches were
analyzing past results.
3.
The first real road builders in Britain was the Romans.
4.
The Romans built roads of layers of broken stones of various sizes and
were covering them with the stones.
5.
The system didn’t working because the loudspeaker had been wrongly
connected.
6.
Before factories were told to stop polluting the environment waste was
being dumped in rivers and in the sea.
7.
Louis Pasteur was discovering the actions of germs while he was studying
fermentation in wines.
8.
The production process had already been shut down when the leak of the
fuel tank was found.
9.
Nuclear energy began to be used from the mid - 1950s.
10. 10 In the second half of the 20th century, the electronics industry
transforming the way we work in factories.
Task 14. Make past tense questions and answers using the words given.
1.
When/ be/ fiber optics/first/develop?
2.
The horses/break/because they/make/of how quality materials.
3.
The power supply/cut off/because/cables/come down/during the storm.
4.
They/ not complete/ the foundations/by the time/the building
materials/arrive.
5.
When/they/install/the solar panels?
6.
Be/this/the first hydroelectric scheme/in Scotland?
7.
They/not use/wood chip/for heating/when the engineer/visit/the factory.
32 8.
How/they/produce/gas/before they/discover/North Sea gas?
9.
He/the oil pollution along the coastline/cause/by an oil tanker spillage?
10. How/they prepare access to this mine?
Task 15. Complete the following report of an accident which happened in a
factory with the correct form of the verbs in brackets.
On Friday morning at 9.25 a worker in the chemical plant (a) ------ (find) by a
female colleague. He (b) ------- (lie) on the floor. His colleague (c) ------ (check) that he
(d) ----- still ------ (breathe) and then (e) ------ (call) the emergency services. The injured
man (f) ------ (take) to hospital where he later (g) ------ (recover). An investigation at the
factory (h) ------ (find) that a bottle containing a dangerous chemical liquid (i) ------(leave) open. Vapour from the liquid (j) --------- (escape) into the air. While he had been
working in the room he (k) ------- (become) unwell. He (l) ------- (become) drowsy and
then (m) --------- (fall) unconscious. Investigating officers are interviewing everyone
who (n) ------- (work) in the factory that morning.
SKILLS DEVELOPMENT
Practice
Reading Comprehension and Speaking
Task 16. Look through the text and define if the following statements are
true or false?
1.
A compilation of all the important parameters of the exterior and
interior as a 3D model is called final package.
2.
Sets of data so-called package are applied for clay design model
creation.
3.
The Research and Development division starts working on the first
conceptual sketches long before a new model is designed.
4.
Both complete studies and comparative analyses of competitors’
vehicles are carried out to determine optimal car parameters.
5.
The created models are neither checked for conformity of its
ergonomic parameters nor technological feasibility.
Automobile Design Development
Long before a new model is designed, the R&D Division begins to work on
the first conceptual sketches. Upon compiling draft designs, based on the
Konzern’s platform, the overall vehicle concept is ready for further elaboration.
Simultaneously with the development of the platform, there are various studies and
comparative analyses of competitors’ vehicles under progress, in order to define
optimal external and internal dimensions. The results of the studies are then
converted into sets of data called package, which are then used for creating
modeling clay design models. The models thus created are continuously checked
for conformity to internal, external and ergonomic parameters, technological
feasibility and compliance with current legislative regulations. The designing
process includes creation of cross sections of the individual design versions and the
33 junction points of the future body frames. During the final stage, a so-called final
package is produced, a compilation of all the important parameters of the exterior
and interior as a 3D model.
Task 17. Scan the text located below and give your own opinion on the
development of a new car.
It takes at least 5 years to develop a new car
Since cars are highly complex and innovative products, their development –
from the concept to the engineering phase – takes up to 5 years. Engine
development can take significantly longer and so does much of the strategic R and
D in powertrains and fuels, in mobility and safety systems, and in materials and
manufacturing processes. Automotive manufacturing is a hugely complicated and
capital-intensive process, involving a large, very diverse supply chain that feeds
into highly sophisticated production lines. Once taken into production, most car
models have a manufacturing cycle of up to 7 years during which investments are
recovered. Manufacturers and their suppliers plan and allocate production capacity
well ahead to facilitate timely production and the regular renewal of the car
portfolio. To adjust automobiles to new legislative requirements, the auto industry
needs sufficient lead-time ahead of the implementation of these new rules. The long
development and production cycles must be taken into account to sustain the
economics of automotive manufacturing. For models just ahead introduction or
already in production, change is limited to ready-available technologies and this,
within the technical and economic constraints of the car’s concept.
Robust intellectual property laws encourage companies to innovate and
support investment in R and D. the automotive sector therefore welcomes measures
to protect legitimate manufacturing interests and moves to drive out the
counterfeiters. It is therefore hard to understand why the commission would push
ahead with plans to abolish design protection for visible spare parts. They expect no
price benefit for consumers; there are also genuine safety concerns as well as
serious implications for investment and jobs in Europe. Abolish design protection
would also send entirely the wrong message to countries, like China, which are
being urged to do more to prevent vehicle and parts counterfeiting and fight
intellectual property rights infringements.
Speaking Practice
Task 18. Work in pairs. Ask each other questions to find out the key
information discussed at the EUCAR conference; name the participants of the
conference.
7th November 2012 - The European Council for Automotive R&D (EUCAR)
held its Annual Reception and Conference today in Autoworld, Brussels,
highlighting how collaborative research and innovation through the EU’s future
Horizon 2020 Framework Programme can support the achievement of societal
objectives and a strong European automotive industrial sector. Speaking at the
34 opening reception yesterday evening, Connie Hedegaard, EU Commissioner for
Climate Action emphasized that EU research and innovation should contribute to
the twin goals of climate protection and competitiveness of the automotive
industry. Commissioner Hedegaard explained how investment in automotive
research and innovation (R&D) through Horizon 2020 is essential to ensure the
availability of technologies that significantly reduce fuel consumption and CO2
emissions from passenger and commercial vehicles. “I believe in a strong and
competitive European car industry," she stated. "Already now, we can see tangible
results of the EU automotive industry's efforts in research and innovation, also due
to substantial EU funding under the current research programme. The average CO2
emissions of the new fleet have dropped from just below 160 g CO2/km in 2007 to
135 g CO2/km in 2011 and the supply of more fuel-efficient vehicles is
continuously increasing.”
Jean-Michel Billig, Executive Vice-President of Engineering and Quality at
Renault, representing EUCAR’s 2012 Chairmanship, focused on the necessary
conditions to maintain a strong automotive industrial base in Europe, including
affordability, leadership in advanced technology and business opportunities with
future mobility. He stated: “In the 21st century, we are at an important turning point
where the car must reinvent itself, conforming to human beings and to the planet as
well as being environmentally-friendly”.
EUCAR Chairman and Vice-President of Research at Renault, Rémi Bastien,
presented EUCAR’s priority initiatives for Horizon 2020 and how these can
leverage further innovation and industrial activity. To support the automotive R&I
priorities, he reiterated the importance of maintaining the proposed €80 bn budget
for Horizon 2020 and of devoting contributions totalling at least €5 bn to the
automotive initiatives. He said, “EU R&I programmes feed industrial research and
create skills and knowledge, leveraging the industry’s own investment in the
development of new products and helping to maintain the European industry’s
strength”.
The Conference panel sessions featured keynote speeches from senior research
executives of EUCAR’s members - the major European automotive manufacturers and presentations from European Commission officials, key stakeholders in
automotive R&I, and coordinators of EU projects. From the European Commission,
Paul Timmers, Director for Sustainable and Secure Society in DG CONNECT,
discussed the societal challenge of safety for all road users, and how ICT research
and innovation in Horizon 2020 could leverage industry’s efforts towards meeting
this challenge. On Materials and Manufacturing, Herbert von Bose, Director for
Industrial Technologies in DG RTD highlighted how public-private partnerships
can support innovation in key enabling technologies, ensuring that these lead to
product development and competitive manufacturing. In the panel on Mobility and
Transport, Olivier Onidi, Director for Innovative and Sustainable Mobility in DG
MOVE, referred to the recently published communication on a European transport
technology strategy, highlighting how research and innovation – and in particular
35 the well aligned Horizon 2020 Programme - can support the achievement of
transport policy goals. Speaking about fuels and powertrains, András Siegler,
Director for Transport in DG RTD, focused on future opportunities for powertrain
research, detailing in particular how the future European Green Vehicles Initiative
public-private partnership will focus on vehicle efficiency, including electrification.
Task 19. Look through the interview between Wolfgang Hatz and Krogh
Henning reported in Automotive News on April 1, 2013 and retell it in a monologic
speech.
It wasn't long ago that gasoline was the only fuel a Porsche could use. Today,
the powertrain options at the Volkswagen Group subsidiary include diesel,
gasoline-electric hybrid and, soon, plug-in hybrid.
Wolfgang Hatz, Porsche's R&D boss, is spearheading the changes, which
will be highlighted by the upcoming launch of the Porsche 918 Spyder hybrid.
Hatz, who was VW Group's powertrain boss until joining Porsche in 2011,
shared more details about the company's powertrain strategy in an interview with
reporter Henning Krogh of Automotive News.
Q: How important are plug-in hybrid powertrains to Porsche?
A: Very important. We have attained a very good cruising altitude here. For
example, Porsche will present the 918 Spyder this year with an innovative hybrid
concept. In a tough competitive environment, we have been able to take a leading
position.
Are sports cars with purely electric propulsion an option?
In principle, they are here already. Various types of vehicles are being tested.
But it won't be an extremely high priority for us to bring these cars to production
readiness. The reason is that they just do not have sufficient range. So Porsche
won't have any purely electrically propelled sports cars in the next few years.
The European Union is prescribing strict limits for CO2 emissions. Is
that a problem for Porsche, with its high-horsepower engines?
In Europe, we have weight-dependent specifications that we have to meet as
well. This is certainly a special challenge with our high-performance vehicles. But
so far we have always been able to exceed our goals.
Which CO2 guidelines will apply to Porsche by 2015 and 2020?
We are already less than 200 grams of CO2 per kilometer [27 mpg U.S.] on
average at present. With the accelerated integration into the Volkswagen Group last
year, we will be assessed as a member of its brand family. Therefore, we can create
a certain balance across the collective fleet on CO2.
VW Group is looking at many ways to boost battery performance
sharply. Is Porsche looking for alternatives to the lithium ion battery?
I am still convinced that we will stick with the familiar lithium ion batteries
for a long time. You should not forget that we are dependent on being able to
provide very high performance in sports cars in the short run in addition to an
adequate range. That is another reason that we are betting on the plug-in hybrids for
the next five to 10 years.
36 Is there still the potential for lower fuel consumption in the drivetrain?
Overall, the auto industry has worked very hard on this in recent years.
Cooperating closely, automakers and suppliers have been able to cover all the
angles that they could reach conventionally. I am referring to better thermal
management and the reduction of friction losses, for example. There is still work to
be done, but the potential for further optimization is quite manageable. Over the
next five years, there is not likely to be as much to do in the classic powertrain
areas as in the past five.
What advantages does Porsche have as a member of VW Group?
Cooperation, with Audi, for example, moves all the participants forward. The
eight-cylinder diesel, which is going into volume production in the Porsche
Cayenne, is one example. Working with our colleagues in Ingolstadt, we have
found solutions to further improve the convincing performance of Audi's base
engine.
Listening
Task20. Watch the video
(https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=PCwcA9PDAeQ)
and complete the text, using the words and word combinations given below:
Hybrids, engine, successor, modular concepts, emission regulations, horse
power, also prove, on those projects, driver, plug-in, powertrain, about
environment, in charge of, to drive the car.
Wolfgang Hatz, Porsche's R&D head is being interviewed by Henning Krogh
the reporter of Automotive News at the 2013 Detroit auto show.
I’m here with Wolfgang Hatz head of Porsche's R&D. Porsche has been
pretty quiet on the Detroit shelf but 2013 would be definitely a busy year for
the company. In September you will start production of the 918 Spyder. Is that
right?
First of all I think it is the most ambitious concept at the moment which we
are going to produce and I can assure it will be not just 700 but a little bit more than
800 ---- ---.
Clearly Porsche has ---- on their mind right now. Am I right?
Right.
What is the thinking inside an idea about electrifying 911?
I think at the moment on the sport cars we have our 918 project and for sure
some of those things which we now show in case 918 you will see in future cars. At
the moment we are concentrating on such cars like economy Porsche and Cayenne,
let’s say the ---- technology. On a sports car we have to say the major enemy is
weight, so we have to find a very light solution for a sports car hybrid system in
combination with a very powerful ---- on sports car and the first steps we’ll
concentrate on our front ---- cars like Cayenne. And with the 918 I think we can
ensure our customers that we are prepared for the future and for the next generation
918. Let’s see what we’ll take over from the 918 project.
37 You recently dispelled the rumors that Porsche was working on a midengine car between 911 and 918 a Ferrari 54. A current ---- working on
Porsche interested in front engine two door coupes based on the next in the
mirror. Then they are interested in a ---- to the 918.
At the moment there are a lot of rumors. And we are doing a lot of things at
R and D. We are working for sure -- --- --- with front engines but also super sports
car. We have not taken decisions yet and its normal that our R&D designers are
working very hard on alternative concepts which can --- --- that we are really their
sport car company.
Boxter, Volkswagen, Porsche and Audio will be all interested in subBoxter sports car. It sounded like a four cylinder Porsche was inevitable. Now
we know that 55 programmes are off the table. Is there still any interest to
meet future ---- ---- in doing a four cylinder sports car at Porsche? Not
necessarily a new car but a four cylinder engine.
I’m sure we have to think about downsizing and I think we had a very
successful four cylinder sports car in the past and I would say it’s quite realistic that
in some years we can also offer a four cylinder sports car. We have also to take care
of the environment and we are pre-concerted --- --- and we have to think about
downsizing. So, four cylinder sports car is something which is not impossible.
Volkswagen group is currently reworking on product architectures. We
know that Porsche is --- --- front engine, rear wheel drive, all wheel platforms.
You are also working on MMB which is the next generation mid-engine, rear
engine products. How does the MMB platform differ from what is on the
current cars the platform 9×1?
I think Porchse was always very clever to use modularity and it has showed it
with the model 911 and also with the Boxter where they used a lot of --- --- on both
cars and with that experience, I think, we are very well prepared for the future, even
to enhance and enlarge those concepts for the future.
What do you think about the Corvette?
Oh, I think it’s a very interesting car. Two hours ago I had a chance to have a
first look at this car. I think they have had a good job - it has got an aluminum
chassis. I’m very much looking forward --- --- to feel how sport car really is. I think
it’s a good thing to have such a new Corvette in the segment, because I think it’ll
also boost the sport car sales in the US. So we are looking forward.
Writing Practice
Task 21. What should companies do to encourage new ideas?
Match the words with their explanations. Write your recommendations on
creating new ideas.
1.
To take advantage of an opportunity a) to offer a large variety of goods
2.
To raise somebody’s status
b) to do or provide something that is
necessary
3.
To enter a market
c) to do something when you get the chance to do
it
38 4.
To extend a product range d) to make an important discovery or
change
5.
To meet a need
e) to start selling goods or services in a new
area
6.
To make breakthrough f) to make somebody look or feel more
important
Task 22. Read this extract from a talk by the head of a Research and
Development Department and fill in the gaps with the correct word combinations
from the previous task.
Great ideas are generated in different ways. Sometimes an idea may simply
be when a company -----, to -----, to offer more choice to existing customers. Or a
great idea could allow a company to ----- which was closed to it before. Companies
which are prepared to spend a lot on R&D may-----by having an original idea for a
product which others later copy, for example Sony and the Walkman. On the other
hand, some products are developed in response to customer research. They come
from customer ideas. These products are made to-----, to satisfy consumer demand.
Or the product does something similar to another product, but faster, so it saves
time. Some people will buy new products because the product-----gives them a
new, more upmarket image. Other people will buy any green product which----waste or-----the environment, even if it is more expensive. If an idea is really good
and the product-----a gap in the market, it may even-----an award for innovation.
Texts for additional reading
Task 23. Here you can find only some ideas for your report on any problem
dealing with research and development either in Russia or in England. Look through all
the texts to make a short report. Find some more information if it is necessary.
Research at OLEV
Supporting emerging technologies which the UK can exploit and lead
globally, where full commercial funding is not otherwise available.
Ultra-low emission vehicle technology is developing fast. The government is
committed to accelerating the pace of change in this area and contributes to the
funding of a range of innovative research and development activities. The Office
for Low Emission Vehicles (OLEV) is focused on identifying and supporting
emerging technologies in the field of ultra-low emission vehicles.
The low carbon vehicles innovation platform
The government’s programme of research and development for low carbon
vehicle technologies is delivered through the Technology Strategy Board’slow
carbon vehicles innovation platform (LCVIP).
This platform was launched in 2007 and is funded by the Department for
Transport, Department for Business, Innovation and Skills, the Technology
Strategy Board (TSB) and the Engineering and Physical Sciences Research
Council.
The LCVIP aims:
to significantly reduce carbon emissions from vehicles
39 to accelerate the introduction of low-carbon vehicle technologies
to help the UK automotive sector benefit from growing demand for low
carbon vehicles
The TSB LCVIP is run by setting competitions to fund collaborative research
and development with the criteria set with input from industry and government
through the Automotive Council and TSB’s Low Carbon Vehicle Steering Group.
Project bids are assessed independently by a panel of automotive experts.
All projects are required to be match funded by the private sector. To date,
OLEV has committed funding of around £60 million into more than 75 innovative
projects, with £17 million committed most recently to support LCVIP’s Integrated
Delivery Programme 8 ‘disruptive technologies’ competition and Integrated
Delivery Programme 9 ‘technology challenge’ competition.
In June 2011, £500,000 was awarded to 6 British companies to carry out
feasibility studies into the recycling and re-use of batteries for low and ultra-low
carbon vehicles.
As part of the LCVIP, the Technology Strategy Board’s ultra-low carbon
vehicle demonstration project is trialing over 340 electric and plug-in hybrid cars in
8 locations around the UK.
The trial includes 5 plug-in hybrid Toyota Prius cars, which have joined the
Government Car Service and will provide important data on the real world use and
performance of electric vehicles, driver behaviour and recharging issues.
Also funded via the TSB, the low carbon truck demonstration trial is set to
deliver fleets of low-emission heavy goods vehicles onto UK roads as well as
supporting infrastructure such as gas fuelling stations. OLEV and the DfT freight
division are jointly funding £9.5 million.
The low carbon vehicle public procurement programme
The government’s low carbon vehicle public procurement programme
(LCVPPP) was set up in 2007 to help stimulate the market for lower carbon
vehicles. LCVPPP is providing funding to support the trial of over 200 electric and
low emission vans in a range of public fleets.
The LCVPPP is allowing for the collection of ‘real-world’ data about the
vehicles’ performance and usage and helping to drive ongoing technological
development as well as demonstrate the existing capabilities of these vehicles. It
also provides financial assistance to public sector organisations wishing to procure
innovative, lower carbon vehicles for their fleets.
Low carbon funding landscape
You may also wish to find funding providers on the low carbon funding
landscape navigator. This is a newly developed, fully searchable database provided
by the Energy Generation and Supply Knowledge Transfer Network with support
from the Department of Energy & Climate Change(DECC) which enables you to
find detailed information on existing private and public funding organisations and
funding opportunities.
The Technology Strategy Board
40 The TSB is the UK’s national innovation agency. Their goal is to accelerate
economic growth by stimulating and supporting business-led innovation. They
work right across government, business and the research community – removing
the barriers to innovation, bringing organisations together to focus on opportunities,
and investing in the development of new technology-based products and services
for future markets.
Task 24. Some interesting information to attract your attention to the problems
connected with research and development.
Department of Energy Awards More Than $175 Million for Advanced
Vehicle Research and Development
Washington, D.C. – U.S. Energy Secretary Steven Chu today announced
more than $175 million over the next three to five years to accelerate the
development and deployment of advanced vehicle technologies. The funding will
support 40 projects across 15 states and will help improve the fuel efficiency of
next generation vehicles. The projects will target new innovations throughout the
vehicle, including better fuels and lubricants, lighter weight materials, longerlasting and cheaper electric vehicle batteries and components, more efficient engine
technologies, and more. This comprehensive approach to vehicle efficiency
research and development will help ensure the technologies are available to help
automakers achieve recently announced fuel efficiency standards.
Last month, the President announced historic fuel efficiency standards for
cars and light trucks which will bring fuel efficiency to 54.5 miles per gallon by
Model Year 2025 and which, combined with steps already taken by this
administration, will save American families $1.7 trillion at the pump and reduce oil
consumption by 12 billion barrels by 2025. Yesterday, the Administration
announced of first-of-their-kind fuel-efficiency standards for work trucks, buses
and other heavy-duty vehicles, which will save American businesses that operate
and own these commercial vehicles approximately $50 billion in fuel costs over the
life of the program.
"The Department of Energy is investing in new advanced technologies that
will significantly improve vehicle fuel economy, save consumers money, and create
skilled jobs for Americans,” said Secretary Chu. "Investments in the next
generation of autos will strengthen our economy and lead to a more fuel-efficient,
clean energy future."
The funds will leverage additional investments by the grantees to support
projects totaling more than $300 million. The selections announced today focus on
eight approaches to improving vehicle efficiency:
Advanced fuels and lubricants: Eight projects awarded to improve fuels and
lubricants that will enable optimal performance of advanced combustion engines.
Light-weighting materials: Five projects awarded to accelerate commercial
availability of lighter weight vehicles using advanced materials that dramatically
reduce vehicle weight while maintaining the highest safety standards.
41 Light weight multi-material prototype: Two projects awarded to design,
build, and test a light-weight vehicle that is 50 percent lighter than a baseline lightduty vehicle. These projects are being undertaken as part of the Clean Energy
Dialogue with Canada. Advanced cells and design technology for electric drive
batteries: Twelve projects awarded to develop high energy or high power batteries
for electric vehicles that should significantly exceed existing state-of-the-art
technologies in terms of performance and/or cost. Advanced power electronics and
electric motor technology: Four projects awarded to develop the next generation of
power inverters and electric motors to meet demanding performance targets while
achieving significant cost reductions.
Thermoelectric and enabling engine technology: Three projects awarded to
improve the efficiency of thermoelectric devices to convert engine waste heat to
electricity. Selections of projects to develop early-stage enabling engine
technologies to improve fuel efficiency and reduce emissions are expected in
September.
Fleet efficiency: Five projects awarded to develop and demonstrate fuel
efficient tire and driver feedback technologies that will improve efficiency of the
passenger car and commercial fleet.
Advanced vehicle testing and evaluation: One project awarded to conduct
laboratory and field evaluations of advanced technology vehicles and related
infrastructure, while developing new or modified test procedures.
DOE’s Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy currently
supports research in electric drive vehicle systems, advanced combustion engines,
materials technologies, fuels and lubricants, energy storage, and automotive
electronics. The selected projects address key technology barriers to improving
vehicle fuel economy, such as lowering the cost of lightweight materials.
Task 25. Study the following article thoroughly and have a proper look at the
presentation made on the material given in the article. Prepare your own
presentation.
This article may also be used as a good example when you will be given the
task to write your own article. In brackets there are explanations of important
technical details of the authors. If you can you may continue giving your
commentaries on other interesting places.
Chairman Jim Saxton (R-NJ)
Joint Economic Committee
United States Congress
December 2006
THE Promise of Alternative Automotive Fuels and Technology
A Joint Economic Committee Study
Abstract
There are many alternative ways to power vehicles that have a long history of
practical application, from alcohol fuel used in auto racing to electricity that powers
locomotives.
42 Fundamental advances in electronics, micro processing, and chemistry are
poised to transform core engine and drive train technology in mass-produced
vehicles, which essentially has not changed in a century.
Fuel is but a part of a system of automotive propulsion, and automotive
technology will progress in as yet unpredictable ways. Therefore, one cannot
identify an “optimal” fuel alternative to gasoline or diesel at this time. Indications
are that the transportation sector will become increasingly flexible and tap diverse
energy sources.
Brazil produces ethanol from sugar cane and mandates ethanol pumps at
filling stations; South Africa has long made synthetic diesel from coal. These
countries may or may not have made the right choice for their circumstances. Either
way, they have not attracted a significant following. The experience of the
telecommunications and information processing industry shows the benefit of
allowing competing entrepreneurial visions and business models to sort out
alternative technologies
The Promise of Alternative Automotive Fuels and Technology
Introduction
There are many different types of automotive fuel. Most were known and put
to practical use when the automotive age began in the 19th century. The special
requirements of the automobile put a premium on high fuel energy density and
manageable fuel volatility. Gasoline and diesel fuel compare favorably to most
alternative fuels in one or both of these respects and tend to maximize driving
range, safety, and ease of refueling. Most importantly, petroleum-based fuel has
been less costly to produce on an increasing scale than the alternatives. In
combination with the enduring efficiency of the four-stroke piston engine under
varied, everyday operating conditions, gasoline and diesel have come to dominate
automotive engineering. Mass-produced vehicle engines are optimized for gasoline
or diesel and a dedicated refueling infrastructure has been built. The predominant
engine designs and virtually ubiquitous filling stations give petroleum further
competitive advantages over rival fuels. However, three major developments are
prompting innovations that may challenge the preeminence of liquid petroleumbased fuels:
Dependence on foreign sources of oil. The use of oil as a political weapon
by foreign governments was not a factor in the original fuel competition.
Environmental impact. Emissions were not an important consideration in
the early days of automotive development and since then have been addressed
without changing core fuel technology. Global warming concerns, however, are
increasing pressure to curtail the use of traditional fossil fuels.
Technological progress. Advances in electronics, micro processing, and
chemistry have enhanced various aspects of automotive engineering and are poised
to transform the core of automotive technology. Engines and drive trains today are
still mechanical devices using pistons, shafts, belts, and levers, set in motion by the
combustion of the same basic fuel as a century ago.
43 Mass-marketed automobiles and fuels are at the cusp of technological
changes that promise to reduce oil consumption and harmful emissions. Following
is a review of the many fuels and technologies that have the potential to change
how automobile engines function.
The Nature of Fuel Competition
Indications are that the transportation sector is not moving toward an
“optimal” substitute for gasoline or diesel but toward diverse energy sources.
Various alternative fuels already have made inroads as complements and
supplements to the fuel supply:
Additives and blends. Alternative fuels in low concentration complement
mainstay fuels without requiring changes to vehicles or separate fueling facilities.
Blending the fuel supply can improve the performance of many vehicles in terms of
combustion and emissions without raising costs prohibitively.
Specialized applications. Vehicles dedicated to a localized service area,
such as fleets of city buses, can be fueled centrally. They avoid the need to build an
extensive refueling infrastructure and acquaint the public with a new fueling
process. At the same time, reduced emissions especially benefit densely populated
urban areas.
Flexible fuel use. Alternative fuel vehicles intended for general use can
retain the capability to run on gasoline or diesel. Flex-fuel vehicles have modified
engines that can run on any combination of ethanol or gasoline, including pure
ethanol. Bi-fuel vehicles have a dual fueling system and can run on liquid or
gaseous fuels. Hybrid vehicles have two separate but coordinated propulsion
systems, one conventional and one electric, the latter charged onboard with help
from the former.
Alternative fuels are positioned to increase their market penetration, but
which ones will do so depends on how technology advances. Several major fuel
types can be produced by different methods and from different substances.
Moreover, a given fuel can find use in different systems of vehicle propulsion. For
example: Hydrogen can be produced from hydrocarbons or by splitting water; it
can be carried as a gas in high-pressure tanks or converted from methane, natural
gas, or even gasoline by a “reformer” onboard a vehicle; hydrogen can be burned in
combustion engines; and it can be used in fuel cells that produce electricity to drive
an electric motor. It is not yet clear what methods of producing various fuels will
prove to be superior, what propulsion technologies will establish lasting
advantages, or whether alternative technologies will combine to form synergies.
The fuel competition is part of this larger competitive picture. The competition to
our current way of powering vehicles will come from alternative systems of
automotive technology and fuel supply. New systems will encompass changes to
vehicle technology, fuel technology, the fueling process, and the fuel infrastructure
and may recast how the automotive transportation sector is structured.
Alternative Fuel Categories
44 The Department of Energy recognizes eight alternative fuels: alcohol fuels
ethanol and methanol, fuels derived from biological materials, coal-derived liquid
fuels, liquefied petroleum gas, natural gas, hydrogen, and electricity. We group
these fuels into three categories—combustible liquids, combustible gases, and
electricity—according to their approximate substitutability for gasoline and diesel
in prevailing vehicle types. Liquids generally are closer substitutes for gasoline and
diesel than gases are, and electricity, strictly speaking, is not a fuel. It bears
emphasis, however, that technology can change the relative economics of
alternative fuels. Within each group, major types of feedstock and production
methods also are identified, as these relate to the source of supply and cost.
Electricity
Combustible
Combustible
Fuel Cells
Gases*
Liquids*
Power Grid &
Liquefied
Biofuel
Batteries
Petroleum Gas
Ethanol-Crops,
Hybrid Drive Train
Natural Gas
Cellulose
Hydrogen
Methanol-Wood
Biodiesel-Vegetable
oil,fat
Synthetic Fuel**
Diesel-Coal, N.Gas,
Biomass
Methanol-Methane
* At normal temperature and pressure.
** Not including fuel made from synthetic crude oil derived, for example,
from oil sands.
Combustible liquids. The term “biofuel” is applied to fuels derived from
biomass. Production of biofuel typically entails either (1) fermentation of organic
matter and subsequent distillation to obtain concentrated alcohol, or (2) conversion
of oils from vegetables and animal fat. When biofuel is mixed in low concentration
with conventional fuel, the resulting blends require little or no engine modifications
and no segregation of the fuel supply. However, blends containing high
concentrations of biofuel produced by these methods generally do require engine
modifications and separate fueling facilities. Fuel also can be derived from biomass
through gasification, in which case the fuel can be referred to either as “biofuel,”
based on the feedstock, or as “synthetic” fuel, based on the production method.
Fuel produced from minerals always is considered synthetic. Alcohol can be
produced from petroleum through refining. Diesel can be produced from coal
through gasification. Synthetic diesel can be a perfect substitute for regular diesel.
(It is not practical to produce gasoline synthetically from a source other than
petroleum.)
Combustible gases. Gaseous fuel typically is derived from natural gas or the
crude oil refining process, but it also can be produced from other minerals or
45 biomass. Gaseous automotive fuel requires only minor engine modification to
optimize combustion, but it must be carried onboard a vehicle in either compressed
or liquid form in reinforced tanks. Fueling is accomplished with sealed nozzles
under pressure and generally takes longer than filling a tank with liquid fuel. Socalled bi-fuel vehicles have two separate fuel systems, one for gasoline or diesel,
and the other for gas.
Electricity. Electric engines represent a complete departure from combustion
engine technology, but combustible fuels still play a role in electric vehicle
propulsion. Batteries or fuel cells power an electric motor that moves the vehicle.
Battery-powered vehicles charged by the power grid draw on whatever energy
source electric utilities employ. Hybrid electric vehicles run partially on electricity
while still relying on a combustion engine. Fuel cells chemically produce electricity
by reacting hydrogen with oxygen. Since hydrogen does not occur naturally by
itself, traditional fuels may be used in its production. Electric and hybrid vehicles
demonstrate most clearly that fuel is only a part of a system of automotive
transportation that can be configured in many ways.
Major Fuel Alternatives
Combustible Liquids—Biofuel
Biofuels can be produced domestically and therefore reduce reliance on
foreign sources of energy. Biofuels generally also burn more cleanly than gasoline
and diesel and, in particular, emit fewer greenhouse gases that are suspected of
contributing to global warming. In some cases, some compounds can increase with
biofuels.
Ethanol (ethyl alcohol) from food-crops. Ethanol was the fuel originally
used in the four-stroke piston engine invented by Nicolas Otto in 1876. It was the
closest competitor to gasoline in the beginning of the 20th century. The Ford Model
T was a flex-fuel vehicle that could run on alcohol or gasoline. In the U.S., ethanol
is grain alcohol made mainly from corn that is denatured (made unfit for human
consumption). In Brazil, it is made from sugarcane. Ethanol has been a gasoline
additive for many years, as it increases the octane rating and reduces engine
“knock.” It is also an oxygenate that typically reduces harmful hydrocarbon and
carbon monoxide emissions by adding oxygen to gasoline, causing it to burn more
completely. Ethanol can be blended with gasoline in concentrations up to 10
percent (E10 gasohol) without requiring vehicle adaptation or separate fueling
facilities. Higher concentrations, such as E85 (85 percent ethanol) which is being
more widely introduced, require vehicle modifications reportedly costing as little as
$100 per vehicle when made at the factory. Today there are approximately five
million flexfuel vehicles in the U.S. that can run on any combination of unleaded
gasoline and ethanol. Ethanol has significantly lower energy density than gasoline
resulting in lower mileage, although engines designed to optimize combustion
through timing and compression adjustments could mitigate some of the difference.
Ethanol is corrosive. It mixes with water and reacts with metal, rubber, and
fiberglass in ways that gasoline does not. (Alcohol is a solvent.) Hence, it is
46 necessary to keep ethanol separate from gasoline supply facilities, which include
filling station pumps, tanks, and refined products pipelines. In high concentration,
ethanol thus requires additions to the existing supply structure. As a pure fuel
substitute, ethanol’s competitiveness with gasoline depends to a greater extent on
relative production costs.
Ethanol from cellulose. Nature produces alcohol by fermentation of sugar,
which exists sufficiently in fruits, vegetables, and grains to have enabled man for
ages to make wine, beer, and mash, and in turn extract concentrated alcohol
through distillation. However, these sources require cultivation and have other uses.
Ethanol would cost less if plants that require little or no cultivation (switch grass)
and plant parts that have no other uses (stalks and stems) could be fermented
efficiently. The cellulose in agricultural waste products and other “biomass” unfit
for human consumption unfortunately does not contain the kind of sugar (or starch
that converts to sugar) that feeds the fermentation process. Progress is being made,
however, in extracting sugar from wheat and barley straw and producing cellulosic
ethanol in pilot bio refineries. Construction of cellulosic ethanol plants on a
commercial scale now is being proposed with federal help. If biochemistry can turn
organic waste into fuel on a commercial basis, it would enhance the fuel supply
significantly.
Methanol (methyl or wood alcohol). Originally produced from the
distillation of wood products, methanol today is produced principally from
methane. Methanol has an extensive history as a fuel and a gasoline additive. Since
1965, the United States Auto Club has mandated the use of methanol and banned
the use of gasoline in the races it sanctions. The ban was imposed after a crash at
the Indianapolis 500 in which gasoline-powered cars burned more intensely than a
methanol-powered car. Methanol also is used to produce MTBE (methyl tertiary
butyl ether), which until recently was a common oxygenate for gasoline. In
anything other than trace amounts, methanol is highly toxic. It mixes with water,
and concern over groundwater contamination from
leaking fuel tanks has led to the replacement of MTBE by ethanol as a
gasoline additive.
Biodiesel. In 1893, Rudolf Diesel invented the diesel engine. At the 1900
Paris Exposition his invention was fueled with peanut oil. Vegetable oil has higher
viscosity than petroleum diesel, but it can be used in nearly pure form with some
engine modifications in modern diesel-powered vehicles. Today, alternative diesel
fuel is produced from vegetable oils, including soybean and canola oils, animal
fats, and cooking grease. Typically, the organically derived oils are transesterified,
i.e., combined with alcohol (ethanol or methanol) in the presence of a catalyst to
form an ethyl or methyl ester. Biomass also can yield diesel fuel via a completely
different process, as described in the section entitled “Biomass-to-liquid” below.
Biodiesel is sold in five to twenty percent blends with conventional diesel at about
450 filling stations in the U.S. Biodiesel can supplement the conventional diesel
supply with domestic sourced feedstock and emits fewer greenhouse gases than
47 petroleum-based diesel. Dedicated production of foodstuffs for fuel, however,
raises the same question for biodiesel as it does for ethanol, namely whether an
increasing scale will lead to increasing cost.
Combustible Liquids – Synthetic Diesel
Gasification of different kinds of feedstock has been possible since the
Industrial
Revolution and led to the use of so-called producer’s gas long before it
became feasible to pipe natural gas to market over long distances. Turning gases
into synthetic fuel that is liquid at normal temperature and pressure is made
possible by the “Fischer-Tropsch” process invented in the 1920s. Two German
scientists, Franz Fischer and Hans Tropsch, used coal as their feedstock for
gasification and produced fuel by their gas-to-liquids process that is suitable for use
in regular diesel engines without modification.
Coal-to-liquid (CTL). In World War II, when crude oil was scarce,
Germany supplied its military with synthetic diesel fuel made from coal. Since the
War, South Africa has used this process on an industrial scale as it was isolated
from the world community due to apartheid and has abundant (low quality)
domestic coal reserves, but no crude oil. In the U.S., commercial application of the
coal-to-liquids fuel process has been hindered by high production costs and
environmental concerns,
although it is the subject of government-funded research.
Biomass-to-liquid (BTL). Gasifying cellulose or any other organic material
and applying the Fischer-Tropsch process to the gas is an alternative to
fermentationdistillation and transesterification. Gasification and gas liquefaction
are long established industrial processes that have progressed over time and can
produce largescale synthetic fuel supplies, whereas the fermentation of organic
material other than fruits and crops still awaits commercial application.
Natural gas-to-liquid (GTL). The Fischer-Tropsch process works best with
natural gas. The company that produces oil from coal in South Africa, Sasol Ltd.,
collaborated with Qatar, co-owner of the world’s largest natural gas field, to build
the first commercial sized GTL plant.13 (A smaller facility already existed in
Malaysia.) Shell, ExxonMobil and ChevronTexaco have committed $20 billion to
build GTL facilities in Qatar. GTL is an ultra clean automotive fuel that contains no
sulfur, making it an ideal blending agent as the U.S. and Europe tighten emissions
standards on diesel.
Gases
Gases burn more cleanly than gasoline or diesel, which is their main
attraction as a fuel. Gas-powered vehicles are the most common alternative fuel
vehicles in the U.S. They find use mostly in fleets. Natural gas powered city buses,
identifiable by their raised roofs, are an example. While the U.S. has substantial
natural gas reserves, large increases in consumption would raise the prospect of
increased imports. Nevertheless, liquefied natural gas (LNG) is becoming more
48 readily available in different parts of the world and may form a global market less
prone to foreign manipulation than crude oil.
Liquefied petroleum gas (LPG). LPG is by far the most commonly used
alternative fuel. Also known as propane, LPG is a by-product of natural gas
processing and petroleum refining. Because it is a gas at normal temperature, the
mixture must be liquefied and stored under pressure for use in vehicles. There were
about 194,000 LPG vehicles out of 230 million gasoline and diesel-powered
vehicles in 2004. Domestic consumption amounted to about 242 million gasoline
equivalent gallons. LPG tends to be used in light and medium-duty vehicles that are
customized rather than mass produced. There were 3,451 refueling sites in the 50
states at the end of 2004.
Natural gas. Natural gas consists mainly of methane, but also contains
ethane, propane, butane, and pentane. Onboard vehicles it is stored either as
compressed natural gas (CNG) or liquefied natural gas (LNG). Natural gas is the
second most used alternative fuel with 170 million gas equivalent gallons
consumed in 2004. There were about 146,000 natural gas vehicles and about 960
public refueling stations (900 for CNG and 60 for LNG) in 44 states, mostly in
California. Refueling systems are available for home installation, but the fueling
process is slow and requires operator training.
Hydrogen. Hydrogen is the most abundant element in the universe and can
be produced from virtually any primary energy source. It can be produced either by
processing hydrocarbon fuels or splitting water. Most hydrogen is produced from
natural gas (methane) at oil refineries and chemical plants. Hydrogen can be burned
in combustion engines. Various car companies are experimenting with hydrogen as
a combustible fuel for contemporary automobiles.
Electricity
Electrical power is clean and efficient. Electrical drive systems transfer
energy far more efficiently than the internal combustion engine and the mechanical
drive train. 80 to 85 percent of the energy contained in gasoline is lost in a
conventional vehicle; just over 12 percent reaches the wheels. By contrast, 75
percent or more of the energy in a battery reaches the wheels of an electrically
powered vehicle. Electrical drive systems have been employed by locomotives and
300-ton mining trucks but until recently were too large and costly for an
automotive platform. The amount of electronic equipment in automobiles has been
increasing. The share of a vehicle’s production cost attributable to software and
electronics is expected to reach 40 percent by 2010. As advances shrink the size
and cost of power supplies, semiconductor switches, sensors and microprocessors,
automotive electronics will move beyond accessories and take over the drive train.
Fuel cells. Electric vehicles (EV) are propelled by an electric motor fed by
fuel cell or battery power. A fuel cell vehicle generates electricity by chemical
reaction using non-conventional fuel that is stored onboard or derived through
onboard reformation of conventional fuel, although development of the latter is no
longer widely pursued. Most fuel cells use pure hydrogen, but some can use
49 hydrogen-rich fuels (hydrocarbons). A fuel cell is an electrochemical device that
uses hydrogen and oxygen to produce electricity and makes continuous use of the
input fuel. It does not merely store electrical energy as batteries do. Individual fuel
cells have low output power and are arranged in stacks to generate the required
voltage.
Batteries. So-called plug-in electric vehicles carry a battery that is charged
by connecting it to the power grid when the vehicle is parked. The main challenge
presented by electricity is storing it, and advances in batteries are taking place.
Earlier electric cars ran on lead-acid and nickel metal hydride batteries, whereas the
new generation uses lithium-ion batteries similar to those in laptops and cell
phones. The fuel ultimately supplying the energy for locomotion is whatever power
plants use to generate electricity, which could include any number of conventional
and nonconventional sources. To the extent that the power supply for individual
mobility is no longer specialized but merges with the stationary power supply, all
of the advances underway in the energy field—for example, with respect to clean
coal, and nuclear, wind, or solar power—can potentially benefit the transportation
sector. A Department of Energy study found that off-peak capacity in the existing
electric power system could fuel 84 percent of the 220 million vehicles in the U.S.,
if they were plug-ins and charged overnight.
Hybrids. Hybrid electric vehicles (HEV) already have entered mass
production (about 212,000 were sold in 2005) and address the recharging issue by
carrying an internal combustion as well as an electric engine. The battery powering
the electric motor is charged by the conventional engine and the energy released
when the brakes are engaged. Depending on the configuration, the two engines may
run alternately or simultaneously. For example, the electric motor may be engaged
at low speeds or one engine may supplement the other when a boost is needed for
accelerating or traveling
uphill. Plug-in hybrids with larger batteries that also can be charged off the
power grid are attracting growing interest. This type of HEV relies mainly on
electric power and uses the combustion engine as backup, for example, during long
distance travel. According to the Department of Energy study cited above, current
batteries can easily hold the necessary charge for the national average round trip
commuting distance of 33 miles per day.
Other Developments
A recent RAND Corporation study found that the cost of renewable energy
sources has been declining and projects a further cost reduction of 20 percent or
more by the year 2025 if the trend continues. Renewable sources could produce 25
percent of the electricity and motor vehicle fuels used in the United States by 2025
at little or no additional cost compared to fossil fuels, assuming prices for the latter
remain high and the cost of producing renewable energy continues to decline.
Renewable sources currently provide about six percent of all the energy used in the
United States. The study does not postulate an optimal mix of renewable
technologies or attempt to make claims about the probability of different outcomes
50 for energy use. Petroleum-based fuel technology is not standing still. In particular,
diesel, which traditionally pollutes more than gasoline, has benefited from “clean
diesel” engine technology and is widely used in Europe. Diesel engines achieve
about 30 percent better fuel economy than gasoline engines. More than half of all
passenger vehicles sold in Europe this year likely will be diesel-powered. Two new
technologies for lowering diesel emissions further are under development, one by
U.S. and European manufacturers, and the other by Honda. Vehicles featuring these
new diesel technologies are planned for introduction to the U.S. market by the end
of this decade.
Conclusion
Attaining energy independence and a clean environment are critical
objectives for policymakers. Several competing technological paths could take us
there. The automotive industry finds itself in a state not unlike that of its early days.
In 1906, electric vehicles powered by lead-acid batteries outsold vehicles with
combustion engines, and gasoline competed neck and neck with ethanol. Once
again, the race is on among different technologies and the outcome is
unpredictable. Many fuels are
technically viable alternatives to gasoline and diesel. More than theoretical
substitutes, several alternative fuels have proven real world applications: racecars
use ethanol and methanol; significant numbers of cars and buses powered by
gaseous fuel are in daily operation; mining truck and train engines employ electric
power; and hundreds of thousands of hybrid electric vehicles with electric drive
trains are on the roads. In addition, research and development is taking place that
has the potential to deliver breakthroughs in a number of technologies.
The effort necessary to develop alternative energy sources is sometimes
compared to the government-led drive that brought success in the Manhattan
Project and the Moon Landing. However, these were engineering challenges, not
resource allocation challenges. The fuel question presents us with many
technological options, and relative cost matters greatly for long-term success. Some
countries have mandated adoption of a certain path, but they have not inspired
much imitation. South Africa makes synthetic diesel from coal, Brazil ethanol from
sugar cane. Sweden now requires many of its gas stations to offer ethanol (imported
mostly from Brazil). Countries that mandate a particular fuel substitute risk missing
the benefits of experimentation and competition. They may appear to gain an
advantage initially, but also may prove to be on a detour from the path to an
optimal mix of technologies and fuels.
The experience of the telecommunications industry illustrates this point.
Since the breakup of the Bell System in 1982, the industry has developed on
multiple fronts and formed a new information processing and transmission sector
vastly superior to the old telephone network. Though the alternative technologies
all existed prior to 1982, no one could foresee at the time how they would develop
and combine to bring the multitude of new services and enormous efficiency gains
we now enjoy. It took competition among different technologies, visions, and
51 business models to form the digital information age we now live in. It will take a
similar process to bring us the new automotive age.
1. Gasoline engines accomplish fuel combustion through spark plugs that
ignite the gaseous fuel mixture inside the cylinder heads. Diesel engines
accomplish combustion without spark plugs through higher compression inside the
cylinder heads, which generates sufficient heat to ignite the gas spontaneously.
Optimal ignition timing and compression ratios vary with alternative fuels
(as they do for different gasoline fuel grades).
Examples of successful presentations
Development of transport of the future
With the world's love of cars showing little sign of abating, manufacturers
are under increasing pressure to make vehicles less polluting and oil dependent.
Duncan Graham-Rowe explores some of the technologies that could keep us on the
road.
Hybrids
One way to reduce the energy cars consume is to recycle it. Hybrid vehicles
use the combustion engine to charge up a battery that provides extra power to the
engine when accelerating, thus reducing fuel consumption. 'Regenerative braking',
in which the electric motor provides resistance to the drive train to help slow the
vehicle, converts the kinetic energy into electricity, which is then stored for later
use. The benefits of hybrids can really be seen during town driving — the fuel
savings may be only a few per cent on longer trips.
Fleets of hybrids could also provide a place to store
electricty on a large scale, helping in the use of various
renewable technologies .
Laser injection
Replacing spark plugs with laser-pulse ignition
systems may sound over the top, but it makes sense,
says Andrew Scarisbrick, supervisor for UK
52 government and university collaborations at Ford Motor Company's Dunton
Research and Engineering Centre near Basildon. Laser ignition systems can reduce
fuel consumption and emissions because they give better control of where in the
cylinder the spark occurs. Ideally, the spark should be as far from the cylinder walls
as possible, so that the flame front is less able to form harmful nitrous oxides. But
this technology is still a good few years off, Scarisbrick says. "At the moment the
cost is astronomic."
Engenius
One goal is to make existing combustion engines more efficient. Last year,
the gauntlet was thrown down with the X-Prize Foundation's Automotive X Prize, a
US$10-million bounty for whoever can develop a car that can do 100 miles per
gallon.
Automotive engineering company Ricardo UK, based in Sussex, has made
some headway, designing an engine that can switch between two-stroke and fourstroke modes. The company claims this could reduce fuel consumption by 27% and
emissions by a similar amount. Four-stroke engines carry out the four stages of air
intake, compression, combustion and exhaust in four strokes of a piston, whereas
two strokes take just two strokes of the piston. Four strokes are more fuel-efficient
at constant high speeds, whereas two-strokes are more efficient when accelerating
or pulling a heavy load. Software in Ricardo's concept engine, 2/4 SIGHT, controls
hydroelectric valves that switch between four-stroke mode during cruising to twostroke mode when accelerating or hill climbing.
Better batteries
One reason electric vehicles have never taken off is the lack of decent battery
technologies. Lithium-ion batteries are currently the best candidates for cars
because they deliver power much more quickly than others. But they only carry
enough charge to last for around 100 miles before needing recharging. They also
have to be replaced every couple of years. And in extreme circumstances they can
catch fire or explode. So, many car manufacturers, including Toyota with the Prius
hybrid vehicle, have opted for nickel metal hydride batteries, which pack less
punch than the lithium-ion ones but last longer and are safer.
Companies such as Massachusetts-based A123Systems are finding new ways
to squeeze more life out of a battery. The cathodes within batteries degrade with
repeated use and recharging. So A123Systems has developed a birdcage-like
nanostructure of lithium iron phosphate surrounding the cathode that prevents it
from expanding and contracting during charging and discharging, and so stops the
cathode wearing down so quickly. According to the company, its batteries have a
potential lifetime ten times that of conventional ones. And although they are not as
powerful as the regular lithium-ion batteries, they are a vast improvement on the
nickel metal hydride type.
Control freak
Even subtle alterations to the way cars handle on roads can improve fuel
efficiency. Drive-by-wire technology would remove the mechanical linkages
53 between the controls and the brakes, throttle and steering mechanisms. Computers
continually interrogate sensors about the car's handling and the road conditions to
calculate, for example, the optimal throttle position at that moment. Most countries
currently require a mechanical linkage between the steering wheel and wheels
themselves, so manufacturers would have to persuade governments that the
technology is safe.
Better by design
The electric two-seater renewable energy
vehicle (TREV), developed at the University of
South Australia in Adelaide, was designed to
carry only two people because, according to its
creators, 90% of urban trips require no more
than two seats.
Thinking along similar lines, the Californian company Aptera recently
launched a two-seater electric car (pictured) that it claims has the most energyefficient and lowest-drag shape that can surround two people sitting side-by-side.
Even its wing mirrors are replaced with rear-facing cameras and internal monitors.
Use of composite materials makes the three-wheeler very light, just 680 kilograms,
placing less of a drain on its plug-in electric motor. According to the company, it
can go from 0 to 60 miles per hour in ten seconds and has a top speed of 85 mph.
Hydrogen fuel
Widely tipped to replace oil as a transportation fuel, hydrogen has nearly
three times the energy density of petrol by mass, and when used to power fuel cells
it produces only steam as a waste product. Most large car manufacturers are
developing some form of hydrogen-powered car.
54 But there are major obstacles to overcome before hydrogen could become a
mainstream fuel — how to produce, transport and store it. "Hydrogen requires a
huge infrastructure change that's not likely to happen for a long time," says David
Sims-Williams, an engineer at Durham University, UK. Producing it using
renewable sources of energy is extremely inefficient, and the vast majority of
hydrogen is currently produced from coal or natural gas, which is less than ideal.
Another major problem is that, even in liquid form, hydrogen has a tenth the
density of water. So hydrogen has less than a third of the energy density of petrol
by volume. As things stand, a car's fuel tank would not only have to be cooled to
below −250 °C to keep the hydrogen liquid but would also have to be many times
larger than existing ones.
In 2003, the US Department of Energy issued a challenge to scientists to
develop new materials that can store enough hydrogen to make up 6% of the
material's total mass. Frantisek Svec at Lawrence Berkeley National Laboratory in
California has developed a nanoporous polymer that adsorbs hydrogen atoms
reversibly on its surface, allowing much higher densities to be stored. But the
hydrogen is only 1.5% of the polymer's mass, still way short of the target.
UNIT 3
Quality
In this unit you will...
• remember the quality improvement concepts
• learn to use terms belonging to quality control
• revise modal verbs
• read about development and importance of quality control
• listen and watch a video and list some ideas it deals with
• talk about reliable car assembly,
• write memo from the head of quality control to the managing director
Lead-in
Before you read the text see if you can answer the questions:
a)
Could you give the definition of the term quality?
b)
Will you analyze the overall aim of preventing defects?
c)
How was quality improvement concept developed?
Read the text
Now you can definitely answer all the questions given above.
Quality
Quality means meeting the minimum set of requirements in a product's
specification and then being delighted that the customer's expectations have been
met and exceeded. Therefore, the goal of a business should be to find out customer
55 needs and then tune the process to ensure that they are met. Quality improvement
concepts have developed over several decades. They began simply as a method for
detecting defective products by inspection at the end of the production line. In
recent years the emphasis has changed from inspection to prevention. Today
sampling methods monitor processes and keep them under control. The ultimate
aim, of course, is zero defects. In recent years different approaches to quality
improvement have been developed. The overall aim is to prevent defects through:
continuous process improvement, customer defect prevention, error inspection,
repair, system failure analyses, permanent process and inventory control, additional
value analysis, cause effect analysis, on daily base check commitment.
Below there are three examples of useful quality summary charts:
A Pareto chart is a type of bar chart typically used to improve quality,
process capability, or to conserve materials and energy. A bar graph uses either
horizontal or vertical bars to show comparisons among categories. A pie chart helps
you to visualize the relative importance of several categories of a variable.
Task 1. Choose the correct word in the following sentences.
1. We must check/control the temperature regularly to make sure it doesn't
rise.
2. To compare the number of defects over the last ten years, it would be best
to use a Pareto/bar chart.
3. We try to detect/define faulty products before they are sent to our
customers.
4. But it's a better idea to protect/prevent faulty products in the first place.
5. Making sure that materials are stored correctly is part of process/inventory
control.
6. We're sending our engineer who will repair/remake the faulty motor.
7. We have had problems with the electronic equipment due to power
errors/failures.
8. This process is very inefficient because of the volume of scrap/error left
over.
9. Here is a list of things we could do to improve quality, and now we must
define/prioritize them.
10. Improving the design quality of these cars will add value/variability.
56 Task 2. Choose the correct ending from B to complete each of the following
sentences in A and then produce a short article about Japanese cars.
A.1. Let us consider what happened when Japanese cars…
2. Local manufacturers thought they were cheap…
3. But soon people noticed that they didn't break down…
4. At the same time, Japanese manufacturers started trying to…
5. Customers were delighted with the new cars…
6. The cars did more than simply satisfy customers' requirements…
B. as often as British or American cars.
which exceeded their expectations.
they provided value for money.
were first imported into the UK and America.
and of low quality.
meet customer needs in terms of style and design.
Task 3. Give definitions of the word combinations belonging to the overall
measures preventing defects. Use the dictionary if it is necessary: continuous
process improvement, customer defect prevention, error inspection, repair, system
failure analyses, permanent process and inventory control, additional value
analysis, cause effect analysis, on daily base check commitment.
Grammar Revision
Modal verbs
Obligation and Requirement
Sample sentences
Our quality policy is to develop, produce, and deliver on time. In order to do
this, we have implemented quality systems and processes that demand continuous
improvement. To achieve this we need to constantly strive to upgrade our
performance and inspire others by example. The competitive marketplace in which
we operate requires us to be responsive to customer needs. On the other hand, peer
needs must not be ignored. Staff has to be trained to enable them to carry out their
tasks. Everyone will be encouraged to take on responsibility. However, no-one will
be forced.
Form
A - We can view the notion of obligation under the following headings:
-obligation to do something
-obligation not to do something, i.e. prohibition
-no obligation
B - We can also view the notion from the point of view of the
person/situation causing the obligation (the obligor), and the person receiving the
obligation (the obliged).
For the use of the verbs below see C 1-6.
Here is the range of verbs for the obliger:
1 Oblige someone to do something - compel, demand, force, make, oblige,
require
57 2 Oblige someone not to do something - ban, forbid, prohibit
3 Not oblige someone to do something not compel, not force, not make, not
require
Here is the range of verbs for the obliged:
4 Obliged to do something- be forced to, be required to, be supposed to,
have to, must, need to
S Obliged not to do something - be prohibited from, cannot, may not, must
not, not be allowed to, not be permitted to
6 Not oblige someone to do something - do not need to, need not, not have to
C – Uses
1 To oblige someone to do something:
We require the general contractor to supervise and co-ordinate the project.
The general contractor made the sub-contractor sign a compensation clause
for delays. (not: made the sub-contractor to sign)
2 To oblige someone not to do something:
The use of asbestos is banned.
Fire regulations prohibit builders from using flammable materials.
3 Not to oblige someone to do something:
The construction engineers don't normally force painters, plasterers and
plumbers to use specific products.
4 To be obliged to do something:
The contractor must apply flame retardant chemicals to slow down the spread
of fire.
5 To be obliged not to do something:
A nonload-bearing wall must not support any other load except its own
weight.
Not obliged:
In this type of soil we needn't dig the foundations deeper than 10 metres.
Architects don't have to/need to have the same qualifications as quantity
surveyors.
Ability and Inability
Sample sentences
With the new version of Web Discoverer you can specify better search
criteria. Applications are computer programs and systems which enable people to
interface with the computer.
Anti-virus software is designed to prevent programs from damaging your
data or halting operations on your system.
You can't make this type of jacket out of wool. It'll crease too easily.
This cloth is capable of being dyed; but this one doesn't dye well.
Form
We can view the concepts of ability and inability in terms of:
1- making someone able or something possible
The data base allows you to search for client names and addresses.
58 2 - being able
This new monitor can display more than two million colors.
3 - making someone unable or something impossible
The climate stops people from wearing this type of heavy jacket - it's just too
hot.
4 - being unable
You can't press this material with a hot iron as it is too sensitive.
Let's look at the use of language for the concepts 1- 4 above:
1- make able, enable, allow, permit
2 - be able, can, able to, capable of
3 - make unable, prohibit, prevent, and stop
4- be unable, cannot, not able unable to, incapable of
Uses
Now look at the following short text which demonstrates the use of these
verbs.
Now you can create your own website. So simple, anyone is capable of
producing a quality site in minutes. You'll be able to add graphics and photos. This
new software allows you to work with all types of graphic files. The text editing
function enables you to work directly from your word processor. Remember: only
one registered user is permitted to use this software.
Note:
1. We use the infinitive with to after able/unable, e.g.
You'll be able to add graphics and photos.
Synthetic fiber is unable to replace natural fiber.
2. After capable/incapable we use of+verb … ing, e.g.
Anyone is capable of producing a quality site in minutes.
They are incapable of producing these shirts in a wider range of colors.
3. After prohibit, prevent and stop, we use the following constructions:
Local regulations prevent/stop us from improving tee shirts from certain
countries. (from +verb...ing)
Local regulations prevent/prohibit the importation of tee shirts from certain
countries. (noun)
Task 4. Each of the following sentences contains a mistake, Find the
mistakes and correct them,
1 You needn't to enclose the invoice. It will be sent separately.
2 The customer will be needed to pay import duty before he can get the
goods.
3 When bacteria were found in the food plant, the government made the
company to shut down production.
4 They don't required to wear safety clothes in this area.
5 Without just-in-time manufacturing, we would be permitted to hold large
stocks of components.
6 Children are not allowed entering this area.
59 Task 5. Below is an extract from a letter from an insurance agent to a
manufacturing company about regulations, Complete the extract by choosing the
correct word from the following list: needn't, permitted, forcing .have, supposed,
prohibited, require, must (2), banned.
Following my visit to your factory last week, I am writing to confirm what
we discussed. It is important that these points are followed; otherwise the insurance
cover will not be valid.
All empty crates (a) ------- not be stacked in the production area. They are a
health and safety problem and we will not (b) ------- you to leave them there.
The government has (e) -------- the dumping of waste chemicals in waste
sites and are
(d) ------- companies to apply for a license for waste disposal. However, prior
to disposal, these chemicals (e) ------ to. be stored in sealed containers in a
designated area away from the main plant.
Containers that contain flammable materials (f) -------- be at least 100 metres
from the building.
Present air conditioning systems are adequate, so you (g) -------- make any
changes there.
Walls are (h) ------- to be kept clear of dust, so we (i) -------- you to arrange
to have the walls dusted and cleaned.
The use of water fire extinguishers is still (j) ------- , but they are (k) ------from use near or on electrical equipment.
Task 6. Match one part of a sentence from A and one from B to form
sentences of ability and inability.
A
Improving quality control will enable us
Shortage of space prevents us from
Regulations prohibit
A machine breakdown means that we can't
Old copper cables are incapable of
Using a videophone allows you to
Mobile phones can
A firewall is used to stop
B
the storage of chemicals in plastic containers.
carrying the volume of data required today.
see the person you are talking to.
producing more product lines.
now be used to send emails.
to become more profitable.
unauthorized users accessing a network.
finish the order this week.
60 Task 7. There is a mistake in each of the following sentences. Underline the
mistake and correct it.
l. All unauthorized personnel are prohibited to entering this area.
2. Building regulations do not allow of the use of asbestos in public
buildings.
3. Only fully qualified electricians should be permitted repairing these
appliances.
4. Deep pile foundations are capable to support a high building.
5. Water is unable to passing through the vapour barrier.
6. Designers can to design complex structures using computer-aided design
tools.
7. Scientists are not yet able of curing cancer.
8. Aspirin is known to prevent people of having a heart attack.
Task 8. Read the following extract from a brochure advertising car features.
Look at the prompts in bold and change them for a verb or verb phrase from the
previous page, changing the grammar to fit the sentence.
One feature common to all our models is the airbag. The driver is involved in
a crash; the airbag inflates and (make unable) stops/prevents the driver or the
passenger hitting the steering or front panel. It (a) make unable serious injury. The
anti-lock brake system equips the vehicle with speed sensors. If a driver breaks
hard, this system (b) make unable wheel lock up. Valves control the brake
pressure and (e) make able the driver to steer the safely. All our models are fitted
with disc brakes, which means the car (d) be able operate more efficiently in wet
weather. Brakes also (e) make able better performance temperatures. The catalytic
converter is part of the car's exhaust system and (f) make able the exhaust gases to
be converted into less harmful products. With a catalyst the car (g) be able of
meeting international pollution levels. A very popular feature is four-wheel drive.
In this range of vehicles the driver (h) be able select two or four wheel drive.
Together with these off-road tyres, the vehicle (i) be able perform well on rough
ground. But you are more concerned about economical driving; you may be
interested in the overdrive facility. Here the highest gear ratio is less than a one-toone ratio. This (j) make able you to save fuel and as a result also (k) make unable
the engine wearing so quickly. The turbocharger forces more air into the cylinder
than it can normally draw and (I) make able the engine to burn more fuel. As a
result, the car is capable of greater speed and faster acceleration.
SKILLS DEVELOPMENT
Practice
Reading Comprehension and Speaking
Task 9. Look through the text below and define if the following statements
are true or false.
1. Inspection, being the most significant is not necessary in the process of
assembly.
61 2. In completely automated production processes cars are manufactured
without mistakes.
3. Any separate production cycle is proper with the vision processing system.
4. Complicated intelligent sensors are used to eliminate the discord between
traditional and image-processing systems.
5. Image-processing systems are irreplaceable in modern manufacturing
processes.
Reliable Processes
Even in fully-automated production processes, ZERO-error production is
now no longer a problem. The vision processing systems of the Advanced Sensor
family check that every single production stage is correct. Inspection as an integral
part of the process is decisive in this instance: only after successful inspection does
the station clear the route to the next assembly point. This means that production
errors are excluded from the outset and expensive final optical inspection is
superfluous. Where the presence, quality and correct positioning of parts or labels,
and the inspection of complex assemblies or tasks such as robot positioning and
optical character recognition are concerned, easy-to-operate image-processing
sensors are indispensable in modern production processes. Advanced/intelligent
sensors fill the gap between conventional sensors and expensive, complex imageprocessing systems.
Task 10. Read the text and fill in the gaps. Use the following words or word
combinations: optical sensor techniques, totally reliable, intelligent sensors,
reducing error rates, top quality results, correctly fitted parts, measurement tasks.
Reliable Assembly
To achieve ---- ---- ---- in the complex integrated production processes of the
automotive industry, enormous demands are made on production planning. Without
an integrated approach, ---- ---- ---- to the ppm level is almost impossible. Only by
making the assembly process ---- ---- with many individual checks in the process,
using measurement and inspection sensor technology and visual inspection
systems, is ZERO-error production in the sense of Poka-Yoke achievable. To
enable us to check the presence of components directly in the process, we use ---- --- ----– from a distance, using laser beams or directly at the assembly point, using
micro-photoelectric or fibre optic technology. Laser measurement sensors are used
to measure and check gaps, heights, positions and differences. This reduces rework
rates, as inspection during the assembly process means that only ----- ----- ----- are
released to the next step in production. The latest generation of ---- ---- combine
high-performance evaluation algorithms with simple operation. Using these, the
presence and condition of components can be checked and ---- ---- can be carried
out whilst the process continues.
Speaking Practice
Task 11. Work in pairs. Analyze the content of the above text and answer the
following questions.
1.
What measures are used to achieve top quality control?
62 2.
What does inspection during the assembly process mean?
3.
When can the condition of components be checked?
4.
What makes ZERO-error production achievable?
5.
Do we use optical sensor techniques from a distance enabling us to
check the presence of components directly in the process?
Task 12. Work in pairs. Ask each other questions to find out the key
information connected with in-line measurement and inspection.
In-Line Measurement and Inspection
High-precision in-line measurement, inspection and robot guidance is
becoming increasingly important in all areas of car production. Although roofs,
doors, bonnets, tailgates and windscreens, the cockpit and the fully pre-assembled
front end were until quite recently still fitted manually, or with manipulators, robots
with in-line measurement systems are used today. Consistent best-fit assemblies
with corresponding robot guidance, or in-line inspection, guarantee the required
gap widths and flush fittings. Bonding beads on windows and cockpit panels, and
sealing agent beads in the engine and gearbox assembly are inspected with laser
profile sensor systems to ensure correct dimensions. New production procedures
such as laser welding, for example, demand reliable and objective inspection of the
welds. Paints of different colours, in particular black, transparent or highly
reflective surfaces, black bonding material, welds – Omron’s laser measurement
sensors make highly precise measurement possible on the most diverse
combinations of surfaces.
At the DaimlerChrysler AG Bremen works, approx. 1,200 vehicles of classes
C, SLK and SL are produced daily. The pin-stamp data-matrix code used for
bodywork identification in the cockpit area of the new SLK is read by the V530R160 in combination with infrared LED lighting. In addition to the pin-stamping,
the difficult reflective conditions and reading distance of approx. 500 mm present a
particular challenge. In the DaimlerChrysler AG works in Sindelfingen, data
matrix codes are used in final assembly for unique identification of the vehicles.
This coding procedure is much simpler to handle than the RFID transponder
systems used previously. It is cheaper and means that codes can be read from a
greater distance (up to 2 metres). Ensuring an absolutely reliable differentiation
between various components is particularly important in gear and engine assembly.
The solution here is to have easily applied identification marks with symbols and
colours which can reliably be distinguished by pattern recognition and image
processing sensors.
Task 13. Skim the text and study the diagram. Explain to your team how the
PLC system can help to exclude picking errors.
63 Exclude picking errors
1. The empty containers return from the production line. The empty container
is initialized by writing the picking data to a data tag. In this way the required parts
are bound securely to the container.
2. The container is conveyed on the conveyer belt to the first stage of
production.
3. On arrival at each station the data is read from the tag. A PLC system
ensures that the information is forwarded to the picking sensor on the selection
racks, which then displays the item to be picked. If anyone removes a wrong item
or forgets to remove an item the error is displayed on the operator’s terminal and/or
signaled audibly. Only when all items are correctly selected is the movement to the
next station permitted.
4. The container is equipped error-free at every station and is then conveyed
to the production line.
Listening
Task14. Watch the video https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=yv3sgr0nakk
and complete the text, using the word combinations given below: an
incredible level, innovative solutions, unparalleled quality, electric powered, to
involve, lift truck, for maintenance, almost tripling, the system of active stability.
64 In 1967 when Toyota sold its first --- --- in the US the material handling
industry was very different but that year marked the beginning of a simple guiding
principle which is remained unchanged even to this day and that is Toyota’s vision
to focus on --- --- that create value for our customers. This unwavering focus on our
customers’ needs demonstrated in our unmatched community service and
customers support has turned --- --- of customer’s loyalty.
Over the years Toyota has introduced industry changing innovation to the
material handling industry. Toyota was the first to introduce built tools service
accessibility --- --- of the trucks. It was the first in the industry --- --- on board
diagnostics for electric powered lift trucks. And in 1999 after years of development
and more than 120 patterns Toyota revolutionized the industry with the
introduction of --- --- --- (SAS) the world’s first and still only lift truck stability
enhancement system. The tradition of changes has continued with the introduction
of AC powered system which permitted to extend runtime and reduce maintenance
and improve performance of our --- --- lift trucks.
Toyota has become a leader within the industry through --- --- of engineering
design coupled with the leading edge of manufacturing capabilities. In 1990 the
first manufacturing of lift truck began in Columbus Indiana and since then we have
expanded the facility 9 times --- --- our space. In 1999 we produced over one
hundred thousand lift truck at this facility in nine years after we started production.
Writing Practice
Task 15. Here is a memo from the head of quality control to the managing
director.
Complete it with the following words: improvement, sampling, defects, zero,
prevent, analysis, monitor, cause/effect, continuous, defective, Pareto. Write your
own memo.
MEMO
From Sue Braun
To Alois Vincent
Re Quality control
As you know we recently carried out a (a) ------ analysis of the car
manufacturing plant. Our aim was quality (b) ----- and to reduce the number of (e) ---- products. As you can see from the attached (d) ----- chart, raw materials and
system failures are the areas we must improve on. We will introduce new systems
to change our (e) ----- methods and (f) ----- raw materials more carefully. We
carried out a system failure (g) ----- and we are now repairing the molding machine.
This will (h) ----- future failures and reduce (i) -----. With (j) ----- process
improvement, our aim is (k) ----- defects.
Task 16. You are the director of TMHU and you have to write a short report
analyzing its success and popularity in the USA. But the secretary has missed some
participles while typing your report. Please correct the mistakes using the
participles given here: built, authorized, selling, celebrating, practiced,
manufacturing, including.
… more than 40 years of established operations in the United States, Irvine,
Calif.- based Toyota Material Handling, U.S.A., Inc., (TMHU) has been the No. 1
65 forklift supplier in the U.S. since 2002 and currently offers a full line of highquality lift trucks sold under the Toyota brand. on a reputation of excellence,
Toyota remains popular due to its quality, durability and reliability. Quality is the
hallmark of Toyota’s world-renowned Toyota Production System … at all Toyota
manufacturing facilities, including Toyota Industrial Equipment Manufacturing
(TIEM). Most of the Toyota lift trucks sold in the United States are manufactured
at TIEM in Columbus, Ind.
TIEM, and all Toyota … plants in the U.S. and Canada, comply with the ISO
14001 standard from the International Organization for Standardization (ISO), and
have been honored for their environmental management systems and dedication to
continuous improvement. Toyota’s commitment to excellence in customer service
extends nationwide. Sixty-eight … Toyota Industrial Equipment dealers, with a
total of 188 dealership locations throughout the United States, offer comprehensive
customer service support, … one-stop shopping for both new and Certified Used
lift trucks, parts and service, fleet servicing, and financing.
Texts for additional reading
Task 17. If you are interested in zero-error production in the automobile
industry look through the text and discuss it with your future colleagues.
Zero-Error Production in the Automobile Industry
With over 24,000 employees and a turnover of 5.5 billion Euro, Omron is
one of the largest partners of the automotive industry worldwide. Operating on a
global scale, like the automotive industry itself, Omron has regional branches,
production facilities, sales offices and advice centers throughout the world,
enabling it to react quickly and individually to local market needs. Innovative
products for the whole range of automation technology, with what is recognized as
the highest product reliability, important reasons for using our products in the car
industry. The production of more and more new models with ever-shorter product
launch times makes the demand for innovative technologies and new quality
concepts a decisive one in vehicle manufacture. Quality is no longer measured in
percentages or rates per thousand – the requirement is for the failure rate to be no
greater than ppm. Besides the quality of the products, the quality of the advisory
service in particular and local service provision including commissioning support
have a major role to play. Omron with its global automotive group, active in all the
major industrialised countries, stands for professionalism and flexibility in
worldwide automotive projects. Our specialists are at home in the automotive
industry, we know the technologies, the problems and the trends.
Task 18. Scan the text given below and evaluate the possibilities of the
operator guidance systems.
Pick- to- Light System
Pick-to-Light or operator guidance systems make it possible to rule out errors
from the outset in both manual production operations and final assembly of
vehicles. This requirement is becoming increasingly essential for production
planning, particularly when assembling parts under Just-In-Time conditions. Using
66 simple and unambiguous work specifications for employees and by using picking
sensors to check all process steps means that errors in the assembly or fitting of
parts are eliminated. The work piece remains in the assembly station until all steps
have been correctly carried out with all parts. Pre-selection, modularisation and
“off-the-shelf” engineering concepts are increasingly replacing the expensive and
space-intensive presence of materials on the assembly lines. The continually
increasing variety of components makes it necessary to assemble the parts to be
fitted in advance and deliver these to the assembly line complete. This by necessity
requires fault-free assembly of parts and makes the use of Pick-to-Light or operator
guidance systems essential.
Task 19 Look through three texts given below and prepare a short report on
the problems discussed in both texts.
How automotive quality control works
Most people probably don't think too much about their cars on a daily basis -unless he or she happens to be a real car enthusiast, of course. But for the vast
majority of buyers, a car is simply an appliance. And, like the toaster or blender
sitting on your kitchen counter, cars don't tend to take up a lot of space in their
owners' brains. That is, until the car somehow breaks.
The thing is, despite recent high-profile recalls, on the whole, cars are more
reliable than ever before. That's because car makers have begun to master a key
step in automobile manufacturing: quality control. In any industry, quality control
is a process that's used to insure that a product is free from bugs, operational issues
and any number of other problems you can think of. In auto manufacturing, that
means cars go through rigorous testing to make sure they're well-engineered, safe
and comfortable.
The quality control process starts long before the first production models of a
vehicle roll off the assembly line. When a car company releases a new product,
they build prototypes, which are then tested to find weaknesses, mechanical
problems and other details that could be improved. Once the prototypes have been
vetted and polished, the design goes into production, where quality control
continues on the production line, too. After being built, each car is tested for
problems like fluid and air leaks, mechanical problems and proper assembly.
Task 20
Automotive Quality Control Techniques
Quality control is something that's a key part of almost every industry and
every job. You probably engage in your own form of quality control several times a
day. If you proofread your e-mail before you send it, that's a form of quality
control. Even this article is the result of a type of quality control system. The editor
who publishes it onto the HowStuffWorks.com Web site will check the published
version for things like spacing issues, image size and position and broken links.
67 It's a similar process in auto manufacturing. But you can't put something
through quality control until it's actually built. So, in automobile manufacturing,
quality control starts with the prototype of a car. From there, the prototype is put
through its paces.
Engineers have designed several tests to determine how well a car will stand
up to real-world (and extreme) use. For instance, they drive the prototype car over
specially designed surfaces to test the smoothness of the ride and the durability of
the suspension. They also expose the cars to extreme heat and cold weather to test
how the various mechanical components will work in all types of weather. They
even fill a car with smoke and then check all the window and door seals to insure
it's airtight.
One of the most well-known quality-control tests is the crash test. While
most people are familiar with government and insurance industry crash tests, car
makers also run their own tests to make sure its products and safety systems will
work as they were designed to and protect the vehicle's occupants.
Task 21. If you are interested in advances in automotive quality control skim
the text and the information into your report.
Advances in Automotive Quality Control
So the quality control step of auto manufacturing seems pretty
straightforward, right? You design a car, build a prototype, test the prototype and
once you've worked out the kinks, start building production models. But,
technological advances have made the crucial step of automotive quality control
even more involved.
Now, quality controls tests can be more closely controlled, and even more
extreme. While car makers still do a lot of testing in the real world (like driving
through Death Valley, Calif., to test how well a car handles hot weather), they can
mimic and even exceed real-world conditions in their own testing centers. Also,
thanks to more precise sensors and computer programs, they can take more detailed
measurements of a car's responses to the tests. Finally, they've also been able to add
automated quality control systems to assembly lines, so something like a poorly
fitted part or a bad weld can be automatically detected and dealt with.
Still, despite the incredible advances in automotive quality control, the most
important component in building a quality car is the human touch. As a result,
many car makers try to build a corporate culture where every single employee is
responsible for quality. If they see a problem with a product, employees are
encouraged to come forward so the company can make it right. Of course, that
doesn't necessarily prevent all quality issues at the factory, but a sharp set of human
eyes and a commitment to building the best car possible helps keep a company's
cars safe and running properly.
Task 22. When you need to publish an article in a journal you can use the
following like an example. Here you can find all the characteristic features typical
for articles writing.
Quality Control Implementation in Manufacturing Companies:
68 Motivating Factors and Challenges
Hairulliza Mohamad Judi, Ruzzakiah Jenal and Devendran Genasan
Industrial Informatic Programme, Faculty of Information Science and
Technology,
University of Kebangsaan, Malaysia
Introduction
The pressure from globalisation has made manufacturing organisations
moving towards three major competitive arenas: quality, cost, and responsiveness.
Quality is a universal value and has become a global issue. In order to survive and
be able to provide customers with good products, manufacturing organisations are
required to ensure that their processes are continuously monitored and product
quality are improved. Manufacturing organisation applies various quality control
techniques to improve the quality of the process by reducing its variability. A range
of techniques are available to control product or process quality. These include
seven statistical process control (SPC) tools, acceptance sampling, quality function
deployment (QFD), failure mode and effects analysis (FMEA), six sigma, and
design of experiments (DoE). The purpose of this chapter is to present the
implementation of quality control in four manufacturing companies and identify the
factors that influence the selection of quality control techniques in these companies.
The paper discusses the reasons for applying quality control techniques, the
techniques used, and problems faced by them during the implementation. The paper
begins with an overview of quality control and its implementation in organisations.
This is followed by the description of four selected companies in this study
including their products and company backgrounds. The application of quality
control in each company is then presented. The motivating factors for the
companies to apply quality control and challenges faced by companies in
implementing quality control are discussed.
Quality control
Quality can be defined as fulfilling specification or customer requirement,
without any defect. A product is said to be high in quality if it is functioning as
expected and reliable. Quality control refers to activities to ensure that produced
items are fulfilling the highest possible quality. Most of tools and techniques to
control quality are statistical techniques. Quality control techniques can be
classified into basic, intermediate, and advance level, but there is no consensus
among researchers in the classification. For example, Xie and Goh (1999) consider
www.intechopen.com496 Applications and Experiences of Quality Control DoE as
an intermediate level technique whereas Antony et al (1998) classified the
technique as advanced. Nevertheless, the content is more important than the
classification.
Among the basic techniques are SPC. SPC is a statistical approach for
assisting operators, supervisors and managers to manage quality and to eliminate
special causes of variability in a process (Oakland, 2003). The initial role of SPC is
to prevent rather than identify product or process deterioration, but Xie and Goh
69 (1999) suggest for its new role to actively identifying opportunities for process
improvement. The main tools in SPC are control charts. The basic idea of control
charts is to test the hypothesis that there are only common causes of variability
versus the alternative that there are special causes By continuously monitoring the
process, the manufacturing organisation could prevent defect items to be processed
in the next stage and to take immediate corrective action once a process is found to
be out of control (Hairulliza et al., 2005).
DoE and Taguchi methods are powerful tools for product and process
development. Taguchi methods, for instance, aim at making product or process that
robust to undesirable disturbances such as environmental and manufacturing
variations. However, the application of these two methods by industries is limited
(Antony and Kaye, 1995). Antony et al (1998) explore the difficulties in the
application including improper understanding and fear of statistical concepts in the
methods, thus propose a methodology for the implementation. Process capability
study is an efficient method to examine the capability of a process to produce items
that meet specifications. The method gains rapid growing interest due to increased
use of quality system QS9000, where use of process capability studies is requested
(Deleryd et al, 1999). The findings from capability study might require adjustment
of process using other statistical technique such as SPC or DoE. Capability studies
conducted by Motorcu and Gullu (2004) and Srikaeo et al (2005) show that the
machine tool and process capability and production stability was evaluated and
necessary steps to reduce poor quality production was carried out using other
statistical techniques.
FMEA is a powerful method to detect where exactly problems can occur and
to prioritise possible problems in the order of their severity (Dale et al., 2003). The
tool is useful to identify problems in product, i.e. design FMEA, as well as to
trouble shoot problems in process, i.e. process FMEA (Xie and Goh, 1999). Six
sigma is also a statistical tool for ensuring defect free products through process
continuous improvement. The term six sigma originated at Motorola and many
inspired worldwide organizations have set goal towards a six sigma level of
performance (Breyfogle and Cupello, 2001). The application of six sigma has been
mainly used in manufacturing industry. An example of the use of six sigma in
nonmanufacturing industry is in software development (Mahanti and Antony,
2005).
Acceptance sampling is another statistical techniques to make a decision
whether to accept or reject a lot based on the information from sample. The
application of acceptance sampling allows industries to minimise product
destruction during inspection and testing, and to increase the inspection quantity
and effectiveness. The application of acceptance sampling has been mainly used in
manufacturing industry. Similarly, its application in nonmanufacturing industry is
widely reported such as Thorpe et al. (1994), Gardiner and Mitra (1994) Bathika
(2003) and Slattery (2005).
Research methods
70 You will describe the methods used by you.
Companies examined by your team or you personally.
Conclusion
The study finds that the motivating factors for these companies to apply
quality control come internally from the management and parent company or
externally from customer. SPC and acceptance sampling are used widely by the
companies. Six sigma, DOE, Taguchi methods, and capability studies are left
behind from being used in these four industries, due to lack of knowledge in the
technique. The selection of quality control technique in these companies is
influenced by three factors: ease of use of the technique; ability to measure product
specification fulfillment; and ability to improve critical quality and productivity
problem.
References
1.
Antony, J. & Taner, T. (2003). A conceptual framework for the
effective implementation of statistical process control. Business Process
Management Journal, 9(4), pp.473-489.
UNIT 4
Logistics
In this unit you will...
• remember the main problems and prospects logistics deals with
• learn to use terms belonging to the process of goods and materials
distribution, attaching documentation
• revise Conditionals
• read about logistics systems and significance
• listen and watch a video and list some ideas it deals with
• talk about the main advantages of an effective production planning system
• write a memo from a company director to the production manager
Lead-in
Before you read the text see if you can answer the questions:
a) What is logistics speaking in a broader sense?
b) Can logistics be subdivided into materials management and distribution
management?
c) Why does efficient logistics need efficient documentation flow for the
goods from storage to destination?
Read the text
Now you can definitely answer all the questions given above.
Logistics
Logistics deals with the planning and control of material flows and related
information in organizations, both in the public and private sectors. Broadly
71 speaking, its mission is to get the right materials to the right place at the right time,
while optimizing a given performance measure (e.g. minimizing total operating
costs) and satisfying a given set of constraints (e.g. a budget constraint). In the
military context, logistics is concerned with the supply of troops with food,
armaments, ammunitions and spare parts, as well as the transport of troops
themselves. In civil organizations, logistics issues are encountered in firms
producing and distributing physical goods. The key issue is to decide how and
when raw materials, semi-finished and finished goods should be acquired, moved
and stored. Logistics problems also arise in firms and public organizations
producing services. This is the case of garbage collection, mail delivery, public
utilities and after-sales service.
Speaking about logistics as the organized movement of physical materials in
a factory we can subdivide it into materials management, which is control of the
efficient and effective flow of materials in the factory, from the arrival of raw
materials to the packaging of the product; and distribution management, which
includes the storage of goods and their transportation to distributors and consumers.
At the same time, efficient logistics needs efficient documentation flow for
the goods from storage to destination. The process of distribution involves different
means of transportation and requires secure packaging.
Task 1. Give definitions of the words belonging to places of storage, means
of transportation, packaging, documentation, process of distribution, goods way of
delivery. Use the dictionary if it is necessary: channel, freight, export, lorry,
warehouses van, package, distribution center, bill of lading, pack, haul, delivery
note, consignment, dispatch, packing list, forward, carton, import, picking list,
crate, envelope, depots, tanker, loading, forklift truck, ship, cargo, deliver, pallets,
shipment, in transit, truck, in a carriage, by a carrier, air freight.
Task 2. Use the numbered categories to classify the words given in the first
task.
a) Documentation
b) Means of transportation
c) Packaging
d) Places of storage
e) Distribution process
f) Goods form of delivery
Task 3. Match the following English equivalents with the Russian ones.
delivery at door
фургон для доставки заказов
overnight delivery
служба доставки
prompt delivery
доставка заказов на дом
delivery van
срочная доставка (почты)
delivery service
частичная поставка
partial delivery
доставка на следующий день
special / express delivery
своевременная доставка
72 Task 4. Fill up the sentence with the appropriate words meaning means of
transportation and packaging materials: forklift truck, air freight, ship, post,
cartons, truck, pallet, tanker, van.
1. Heavy goods are sent by ---.
2. Milk is transported in a
3. Goods for export are being sent by ---.
4. Local deliveries are made in the ---.
5. Put the documents in an envelope and send them by ---.
6. The goods are packed in ---.
7. Fresh fruit and vegetables are delivered by ---.
8. The goods are packed on a ---.
9. These are moved using a ---.
Task 5. Find a word or phrase either in the text or in the first exercise which
means:
1. a contract with a shipper to transport goods.
2. the control of flow of materials and goods within the factory.
3. to bring goods in from another country.
4. a place where large quantities of materials, equipment or goods are stored
until they are needed.
5. goods packed together and wrapped up ready for transportation.
6. goods carried on a plane, ship or truck.
7. the system of distribution of goods from producer to customer.
8. in the process of being transported.
9. to put goods onto a ship, lorry or plane.
10. the act of moving goods from one place to another.
Task 6. Complete the following sentences with either to + infinitive or verb
+ ...ing. Choose from the following verbs: produce, scratch, visit, overload, deliver,
increase, reduce, switch.
l. Installing another machine could risk ----- the electricity supply.
2. Tell him ----- off the power supply.
3. We expect ----- production by 15%.
4. We'll finish ---- that model in November.
5. The suppliers have agreed ----- the amount of packaging.
6 Please avoid ----- the disc.
7 The firm refuses ----- without payment in advance.
8 We want our customers ----- our website for further information.
Grammar Revision
Scale of likelihood
Sample sentences
The term engineering can have different meanings.
A scientist is unlikely to be able to solve engineering problems.
We are likely to see significant advances in robotics in the coming years.
The generators and turbines are bound to use a lot of electrical power.
73 These rainproof seals can't possibly let water into the switchboard.
Form and uses
If we consider that the scale of likelihood goes from 100% certainty to 0%
certainty, we can identify the following segments. (The numbers below are only general
indication. not exact values.)
certainty (100%)
probability (75%)
possibility (50%)
improbability (25%)
impossibility (0%)
Now let's look at the language for each of these categories.
Certainty I am (absolutely) sure/certain/positive that power requirements will
increase.
Power requirements will definitely/certainly increase.
Power requirements are certain/sure/bound to increase.
probability It is (very) likely/probable that the pumps will use more electricity.
The pumps are (quite) likely to use more electricity.
They could use more electricity.
possibility We may/might need more pumps on site.
improbability It is (very/highly) unlikely/improbable that the pumps will use
more electricity.
The pumps probably won't use more electricity.
The pumps are (quite) unlikelyto use more electricity.
The pumps shouldn 't use more electricity.
Impossibility I am sure/certain/positive that power requirements won't increase.
Power requirements definitely/certainly won't increase.
Power requirements can't (possibly) increase.
Uses
1 Definitely and certainly
Notice the position of the adverbs in certainty and impossibility:
We will definitely/certainly replace the fuses. (after will)
The fuses definitely/certainly won't fan. (before won't)
2 Likely and unlikely
These adjectives can take two constructions:
lt is likely/un1ikely that the pumps will use more electricity. (adjective + that +
clause)
The pumps are likely/un1ikely to use more electricity. (adjective + to + infinitive)
3 May and might
Some speakers feel there is a slight difference in the strength of these two words:
We may need more pumps on use. (50% likelihood)
We might need more pumps on use. (45% likelihood)
Conditionals
Sample sentences
74 If you follow these measures, the risk of bums will be substantially reduced.
If you combined these two substances together there would be a serious risk of
explosion.
If you hadn't sealed the container, the vapour would have contaminated the
environment.
If you feel unwell, seek medical advice immediately.
In case of contact with eyes, rinse immediately with plenty of water.
Form
A conditional sentence has two clauses: the if clause and the main clause.
There are four principal types of conditional sentences: conditional I, conditional
lI, conditional III and universal conditions.
Conditional if clause
main clause
I
present simple
future with will
II
past simple
conditional with would
III
past perfect
past conditional with would have
Universal present simple present simple
Note that the following contractions are common in speech:
wilI- 'lI, e.g. l'lI would have- would've, e.g. we would 've would/had - 'd, e.g.
they'd
Uses
We use conditional sentences to talk about the relationship between events and
their consequences:
If our survey indicates the possibility of oil (event), then we will do some drilling
(consequence).
Conditional I
Here the speaker sees the event as a real possibility:
If the oil field is productive, we will recover our exploration costs in a short time.
Conditional II
Here the speaker sees the event as a remote possibility:
If there was a blowout, we would evacuate the rig immediately.
Conditional III
Here the speaker recognizes that the event is impossibility, i.e. cannot be fulfilled:
If we hadn't made this find, we would have leased out our tankers.
Universal Conditions
Here the speaker indicates that the consequence always follows the event:
If a rock is permeable, it allows water or other fluids, such as oil, to pass through
it.
Notes:
1) These expressions mean if and 'only if':
provided/providing (that) on condition that so long as
Provided that the results of our surveys are positive, we will continue to drill here.
2) These expressions indicate that a future event may or may not happen.
in case in the case of in the event that in the event of
75 In case of corrosion, stop all activity.
3) unless means 'if…not'
Do not return to the rig unless the supervisor gives instructions to do so.
Task 7. Put the following words in the correct order to form sentences.
1 The goods/ until next week/ won't /be delivered/ probably.
2 l'm/ these crates/ sure/ are strong enough/ absolutely/ that.
3 The goods/ to remain in the warehouse/ unlikely / for long/ are.
4 It/ take long/ to load the ship/ shouldn't.
5 They/ be sent by air freight/ won't/ definitely.
6 The goods/ in transit be for four days/ may.
7 They're/ the volume of imports/ quite/ to increase/ likely.
Task 8. Complete the following text about future sources of energy by
choosing a suitable verb or phrase from the item in B in the section grammar
revision. The figure in brackets indicates the likelihood.
At present most of the energy we use comes from oil and gas, and scientists
are becoming increasingly concerned about our future energy needs. Many
scientists believe that fossil fuels are (a) certain bound (100%) to run out by the
middle of this century, while others think that they are (b) -------------(75%) to run
out before then. Whatever the time scale, fossil fuels (e)----------- (100%) run out
sooner or later, and we must consider alternative sources of energy.
In the short term, it (d) --------- (25%) that alternative energy will be able to
supply the world's needs, however, in the long term, our energy needs (e) --------(0%) be met by fossil fuels.
The future of nuclear power is also uncertain. It (f) -------- (50%) provide
enough power, but public opinion is (g) ---------- (75%) to prevent any expansion.
Some countries have promised to stop nuclear power production but it seems
increasingly (h) --------- (25%) that they will be able to do so. Atomic power is
considered much safer and we (i) ---------- (50%) see an expansion of this in the
future. Alternative sources of energy are (j) ---------- (100%) increase but they (k) --------- (25%) won't provide 100% of our needs within the next 50 years. Solar
thermal power will (I) ----- (100%) be one of our future sources, but no one is sure
what percentage it will provide. The US Department of Energy thinks that solar
power plants are (m) ------ (75%) be able to produce electricity almost as cheaply as
fossil fuel plants within the next 50 years. However, due to global warming there
(n) -------- (50%) be changes in the pattern of sunshine as changes in climate are (o)
-------- (75%). There (p) -------(50%) be more cloud in the future which is (q) --------- (100%) to have a
serious effect on solar concentrators.
Task 9. Match two parts to form conditional sentences.
1. If these tests produce positive results,
2. If rubber is cooled to -200° C,
3. If safety measures had been followed,
4. If you want to study the files from the internet,
76 5. If we bought a new software package,
6. If you want to use this software package on
more than one system,
7. If the goods had been sent by sea,
8. If we ran an additional test,
a. the accident would never have happened.
b. download them onto your computer.
c. we'd be able to do all the technical specifications
in half the time.
d. we could estimate the experimental error.
e. they would have taken nearly two months.
f. it becomes brittle and will break.
g. we'll continue with clinical trials.
h. you'lI have to get a site license.
Task 10. Complete these sentences using the words in brackets.
1 The tests won't be continued unless ---- (there/be/better safety measures).
2 He wouldn't have been injured if ---- (he/follow/the correct procedures).
3 In the event of a collision, ---- (the airbag/inflate).
4 If all vehicles were fitted with a catalytic converter, ---(there/be/less/pollution).
5 The reaction would be speeded up if ---- (we/introduce/a catalyst).
6 If heat is applied, ---- (the substance/decompose).
7 As long as disinfectant is used, ---- (infections/not be/ pass on).
8 If iron is left in contact with air and water, (it/rust).
Task 11. Two site workers are discussing the weather. Complete the
conversation with the correct form of the verbs in brackets.
A: We’ll carry on with the work when the conditions (a) ----- (improve).
B: If we’d known the weather was going to be this bad, we (b) ----- (delay)
the start of the project.
A: Well if the rain (с) ----- (stop) soon, we’ll get the foundations laid by
evening.
B: It could have been worse. Do you remember building that bridge last
year? If we (d) ----- (not built) the dike of sandbags, the river would have flooded
the town.
A: And if we had not brought in that earthmover, we (е) ---- (not make) it in
time.
B: If we get any more rain here, we (f) ---- (have to) repair potholes in the
road before we can use it.
A: Provided it (g) ---- (stop) soon, we’ll be able start preparing the timber. If
they’d chosen another time of year, we (h) ---- (not have) these problems. It would
be much nicer if we (i) ---- (have) indoor jobs at this time of year.
77 SKILLS DEVELOPMENT
Practice
Reading Comprehension and Speaking
Task 12. Read the text and fill in the gaps. Use the following words or word
combinations: vast range of products, close cooperation, sites, railway station,
clarify, services, a set of facilities, include, container, international carrier, engaged,
its traffic.
Logistics Systems.
A logistics system is made up of --- --- --- linked by transportation services.
Facilities are --- where materials are processed, e.g. manufactured, stored, sorted,
sold or consumed. They --- manufacturing and assembly centers, warehouses;
distribution centers (DCs), transshipment points, transportation terminals, retail
outlets, mail sorting centers, garbage incinerators, dump sites, etc.
Transportation --- move materials between facilities using vehicles and
equipment such as trucks, tractors, trailers, crews, pallets, containers, cars and
trains. A few examples will help --- these concepts.
Railion is an --- ---, based in Mainz (Germany), whose core business is rail
transport. Railion transports a --- --- ---, such as steel, coal, iron ore, paper, timber,
cars, washing machines, computers as well as chemical products. In 2001 the
company moved about 500 000 containers. Besides offering high-quality rail
transport, Railion is also --- in the development of integrated logistics systems.
This involves --- --- with third parties, such as road haulage, waterborne
transport, forwarding and transshipment companies.
The Gioia Tauro marine terminal is the largest --- transshipment hub on the
Mediterranean Sea and one of the largest in the world. In 1999, --- --- amounted to
2253 million Twenty-foot Equivalent Units (TEUs). The terminal is linked to
nearly 50 end-of-line ports on the Mediterranean Sea. Inside the terminal there is a
--- --- where cars can be loaded or unloaded and convoys can be formed.
Task 13. Look through the text and define if the following statements are
true or false?
1.
Logistics does not matter much for our contemporary world.
2.
The total logistics cost amounted 11% of the USA GDP in 1997.
3.
The combined annual USA government expenditure in social security,
health services and defense equals the total logistics cost.
4.
Some interesting figures are given in table 1.1 demonstrating the
significance of logistics.
78 Significance of Logistics.
Logistics is one of the most important activities in modern societies. A few
figures can be used to illustrate this assertion. It has been estimated that the total
logistics cost incurred by USA organizations in 1997 was 862 billion dollars,
corresponding to approximately 11% of the USA Gross Domestic Product (GDP).
This cost is higher than the combined annual USA government expenditure in
social security, health services and defense. These figures are similar to those
observed for the other North America Free Trade Agreement (NAFTA) countries
and for the European Union (EU) countries. Furthermore, logistics costs represent a
significant part of a company’s sales, as shown in Table 1.1 for EU firms in 1993.
Speaking Practice
Task 14. You are a manager of a company logistics department. Explain to a
newcomer how logistics system works. The text below will give you some ideas.
How Logistics Systems Work
Logistics systems are made up of three main activities: order processing,
inventory management and freight transportation.
Order processing
Order processing is strictly related to information flows in the logistics system
and includes a number of operations. Customers may have to request the products by
filling out an order form. These orders are transmitted and checked. The availability of
the requested items and customer’s credit status are then verified. Later on, items are
retrieved from the stock (or produced), packed and delivered along with their shipping
documentation. Finally, customers have to be kept informed about the status of their
orders.
Traditionally, order processing has been a very time-consuming activity (up to
70% of the total order-cycle time). However, in recent years it has benefited greatly
from advances in electronics and information technology. Bar code scanning allows
retailers to rapidly identify the required products and update inventory level records.
Laptop computers and modems allow salespeople to check in real time whether a
product is available in stock and to enter orders instantaneously. EDI allows companies
79 to enter orders for industrial goods directly in the seller’s computer without any
paperwork.
Freight transportation
Freight transportation plays a key role in today’s economies as it allows
production and consumption to take place at locations that are several hundreds or
thousands of kilometres away from each other. As a result, markets are wider, thus
stimulating direct competition among manufacturers from different countries and
encouraging companies to exploit economies of scale. Moreover, companies in
developed countries can take advantage of lower manufacturing wages in developing
countries. Finally, perishable goods can be made available in the worldwide market.
Freight transportation often accounts for even two-thirds of the total logistics cost
(see Table 1.1) and has a major impact on the level of customer service. It is there-fore
not surprising that transportation planning plays a key role in logistics system
management.
A manufacturer or a distributor can choose among three alternatives to transport
its materials. First, the company may operate a private fleet of owned or rented vehicles
(private transportation). Second, a carrier may be in charge of transporting materials
through direct shipments regulated by a contract (contract transportation). Third, the
company can resort to a carrier that uses common resources (vehicles, crews, terminals)
to fulfil several client transportation needs (common transportation).
Task 16. Look through the text and ask each other questions to find out the
key information on packing and dispatch. Discuss which packing container one
should use to deliver these or that spare parts safely. Work in pairs.
Packing and dispatch
The real art of packing is to get the contents into a nice, compact shape that
will stay that way during the roughest journey. This, on a large scale, is the problem
that faces the dispatch department of every firm. The buyer has a right to expect
that his goods will reach him in perfect condition, and the seller has to pack them in
such a way that they will do so. New packing materials are being developed which
are light and strong, and new methods being found to ensure the safe transport of
heavier goods. Many export firms employ a specialist export packer or forwarding
agent to do their packing for them. The general plan in all packing is to make the
goods secure for the kind of journey they have to make, but to keep the package as
small and light as possible. Transport costs on land usually depend on the weight,
but on the sea the size of package is also important.
For correspondence, you will find the following of specialized terms
useful:
Packing containers
Bag Generally made of paper, linen, canvas, rubber, or plastic. (пакет)
Sack A larger, stronger version of a bag usually made of jute. (мешок)
Carton Made of light but strong cardboard, or fiberboard, it has double lids
and bottoms which are fixed together. Sometimes several cartons are made up into
a single package, held by metal bands. (картонная коробка)
80 Box Stronger than a carton, made of wood, cardboard or metal, sometimes
with a folding (hinged) lid. (ящик из дерева или металла)
Case A strong container made of wood. For extra strength, cases may have
battens fixed to their tops, bottoms and sides. When thin wood is used, metal bands
or wires will be passed around the case. Cases are often lined with various
materials to prevent damage by water, air, insects, etc. (прочный ящик, иногда
скрепленный рейками)
Crates This is like a case, but is not fully enclosed. It has a bottom and a
frame, and is sometimes open at the top. Crates are often built for the particular
things they have to carry. Machinery packed in crates needs a special bottom,
called a skid, to facilitate handling. (решетчатая тара)
Container A very large, robust, metal construction, varying in length from
about ten to about forty feet. It is normally sealed at the consignor’s factory and
transported unopened until it reaches its destination. Containers are carried by rail,
road and by ship. They may be watertight and airtight, and goods sent in them
cannot be lost or stolen. Containers are a recent development, and they can make
transportation very economical. (контейнер)
Drum A cylindrical container for liquids and powders, usually made of metal
or plastics, but sometimes wood or strong cardboard. (цилиндрический
контейнер)
Barrel A wooden drum. Hoops are used to strengthen barrels. There are
various sizes of barrels, and some are known as casks, hogsheads and kegs.
(деревянная бочка)
Bale A package of soft goods (usually textiles) wrapped in protective
material. (кипа, тюк)
Tin (USA can) A small metal container which paint, oil and a variety of
foodstuffs are packed in. (консервная банка)
Bundle Miscellaneous goods packed without a container. (связка, пачка).
Task 16. Read and translate the following extract from a delivery note,
remember and explain the rules of delivery notes writing:
81 Listening
Task17. Watch the video https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=8-yq9McTsTA
Draw the diagrams of Supply chain management and answer the following
questions. Some hints are given to you.
Supply Chain Management
Value Chain
-Vertical integration
Purchasing ….
1. How were the auto manufacturing companies value chains handled in the
past?
2. Was it feasible to produce steel for an auto manufacturing company? What
would happen if they produced?
3. Why is it good to have a high level of vertical integration of supply chain
management?
4. Why should one concentrate on the thing he is good at?
5. Who makes outsourcing?
6. What is a typical manufacturing supply chain? Explain the diagram you
have drawn.
7. Is it necessary to have a special person for purchasing?
8. Is the position of purchasing manager well paid?
Writing practice
Task 18. Here is an email from Woodman Ltd., a manufacturing company,
to a customer. Fill in the blanks with the following words: dispatched, warehouse,
82 shipped, delivery, carrier, packing list, crate, delivery note, consignment. Write
your own email.
Ref: MS423
Dear Clive
We have just (a) ----- the (b) ----- of goods, order no. MS423, to you. We
have used our usual (c) -----, MJ Irving. The chairs have been packed in a wooden
(d) ----- and marked WD MS Belfast. I am attaching the (e) ----- ; the (f) ----- is
enclosed with the goods. The crate should be (g) ----- to Ireland on Thursday and
Irving has promised (h) ----- to your (j) ----- in Belfast on Friday morning.
Regards, Barry
Task 19 Study the following specimen sentences: instructions and
information on packing and dispatch. Write a letter to an English engineering,
ordering a special machine. Give packing and marking instructions.
Supplier’s information to customer
1. We supply these machines in specially designed crates. If not returned to
us within 3 weeks, the crates are charged to you at 5$ each.
2. All export bicycles are wrapped in strong waterproof material and packed
in pairs in lightweight crates.
3. A special crate with reinforced bottom will be needed for the transport of
such a large machine, and both padding and bolting down will be essential.
4. Fibreboard boxes are used to reduce freight. These boxes are not
returnable.
5. When the various items of your order are complete in our warehouse we
will pack them into bundles of suitable size for shipment. The prot3ective canvas
will be provided with ears to facilitate lifting.
Customer’s instructions to supplier
1. Please sort the smaller metal parts in canvas bags before packing in the
crate.
2. Please wrap each item separately in grease paper.
3. Crates must not exceed an overall length of three metres.
4. Valves and all delicate parts are to be wrapped in soft materials and firmly
packed in cardboard boxes. These in turn are to be packed in cases in such a
manner that movement inside the cases is impossible.
General instructions from customer to supplier
1. When packing, please take into account that the boxes are likely to receive
rough handling and must be able to withstand transport over very bad roads.
2. We give you on the attached sheet full details regarding packing and
marking. These must be strictly observed.
3. Tanks must be completely drained of fuel before the vehicles are crated
and all oil removed from sumps.
4. All polished parts of the machine are to be wrapped and generously
padded to avoid scratching and knocking against the container.
Despatch
83 1. Your goods were dispatched this morning, carriage forward as requested.
2. We are pleased to inform you that your order is now ready for dispatch
and we await your instructions.
3. We enclose our pro-forma invoice, on settlement of which your order will
be dispatched without delay.
4.Your order has been dispatched by road transport to avoid risks of frequent
handling.
Task 20. Look through the text and rewrite it correcting spelling mistakes.
Inventory and transportation strategies
Figure 1.2 Distribution strategies: (a) direct shipment; (b) warehousing; (c)
cross docking.
Inventory and pranstortation policies are intertwined. When distributing a
product, three main strategies can be used: direct shipment, warehousing, cross
codking. If a direct shipment strategy is used, goods are shipped directly from the
fanumacturer to the end-user (the retailers in the case of retail goods) (see Figure
1.2a). Direct shipments eliminate the expenses of operating a DC and rudece lead
times. On the other hand, if a tipycal customer shipment size is small and customers
are dispersed over a wide geographic area, a large fleet of small trucks may be
required. As a result, direct shipment is common when fully doaled trucks are
required by customers or when perishable goods have to be delivered timely.
Warehousing is a traditional approach in which goods are received by warehouses
and stored in stank, pallet racks or on shelves (see Figure 1.2b).When an order
84 arrevis; items are retrieved, packed and shipped to the customer. Warehousing
consists of four major functions: reception of the incoming goods, staroge, order
picking and shipping. Out of these four functions, storage and order picking are the
most expensive because of inventory holding costs and labour costs, respectively.
Cross docking (also referred to as just-in-time distribution) is a relatively
newgolistics technique that has been successfully applied by several retail chains
(see Figure 1.2c). A cross dock is a transshipment facility in which incoming
shipments (possibly originating from several manufacturers) are sorted,
consolidated with other products and fransterred directly to outgoing trailers
without intermediate storage or order picking. As a result, shipments spend just a
few hours at the facility. In pre-distribution cross docking, goods are assigned to a
retail outlet before the shipment leaves the vendor. In post-distribution cross
docking, the cross dock itself allocates goods to the retail outlets. In order to work
properly, cross docking requires high volume and low variability of medand
(otherwise it is difficult to match supply and demand) as well as easy-to-handle
products. Moreover, a suitable information system is needed to coordinate inbound
and outbound flows.
Texts for additional reading
Task 21. Look through the texts for additional reading, find some more
information on the topic discussed, analyze the information and write your own
scientific article on one of the problems given in the material.
Global Transport Logistics
Development in Trade Networks
One of the most obvious manifestations of logistics activities is the growth in
freight transport due to the worldwide expansion of trade. In particular, the
globalisation of industry, including planning, sourcing, manufacturing and
marketing activities has resulted in more complex trading and much more
developed transport networks.
Development of trade networks has also been facilitated by major regulatory
and technical trends. Trade liberalisation, particularly within trading blocks such as
the Asia-Pacific Economic Cooperation (APEC), the European Union (EU) and the
North American Free Trade Agreement (NAFTA), has removed constraints on
cross-border movement and has reduced related “barrier costs”. Advances in
telecommunications and information technology have given companies the means
to improve the efficiency of their businesses across widely dispersed geographic
locations.
Trends in Logistics
The development of trade networks creates various needs for value-added
logistics management and gives rise to a large number of individual trends in
logistics and supply chains.
Restructuring of Logistical Systems
Manufacturers are restructuring their logistics systems by concentrating
production and inventory capacity in fewer locations. Concentrating production
85 capacity enables companies to maximize economies of scale in production at the
expense of making their logistics system more transport intensive and lengthening
lead-time to customers. Inventory centralisation, which has been a long-term trend,
is now occurring on a larger geographical scale. Companies have been able to enjoy
the inventory cost savings, while minimizing additional transport costs by
geographically separating stockholding and break-bulk operations, with the former
becoming more centralised while the latter remains decentralised. Centralisation
has also occurred in parcel and mail delivery systems by configuring their logistics
systems to “hub-satellite” systems in which all but local traffic passes through a
centralised sorting system.
Realignment of Supply Chains
Companies are realigning their supply chains. In many sectors, companies
have been concentrating on core competencies and sub-contracting non-core,
ancillary activities to outside contractors. Vertical disintegration of production is
adding extra links to the supply chain and increasing the transport intensity of the
production process. At the same time, companies have steadily expanded the
geographical scale of their sourcing and distribution operations. Also, in order to
overcome the tension between centralised production and product customisation,
companies are centralising the core production of standard products, often in
countries with low labour costs, and delaying their customisation until products
reach their regional markets. The number of stock keeping units is minimised until
the point of customisation, thus minimising inventory risk and costs, and reducing
lead-times. An example of this is the Personal Computer (PC) manufacturing
industry which has reformed its activities to take advantage of the globalisation of
production networks to reduce costs. In order to respond flexibly to changes in
demand while avoiding increases in inventories of finished products, the industry
has created a global product network in which final assembly is placed as close as
possible to end markets. In regard to delivery, direct delivery seems to be
expanding for products with a higher ratio of value to weight. This reflects the
growth of direct marketing, particularly through electronic media. On the other
hand, in several countries in Europe, some large retailers are taking responsibility
for the supply chain from their suppliers to final purchasers. In realigning supply
chains, international transport is becoming increasingly concentrated at a smaller
number of hub ports and airports in order to enjoy economies of scale.
Developments for Supporting Logistics
Advancement of Logistics in the Information Society
In the 1970s and 1980s, information technologies such as LANs (Local Area
Networks) and WANs (Wide Area Networks) were introduced to manage links and
nodes in an isolated manner. As Just-In-Time management became prevalent in
manufacturing, it called for Total Quality Management (TQM) which integrated
logistics into other corporate functions. Thereby, link and node management
became part of the overall management approach using innovative information
86 network technologies. However, up to this stage, one corporation largely controlled
the information networks.
In the 1990s, TQM evolved into logistics and at the same time the Internet
revolution came to fruition. The need to manage door-to-door deliveries efficiently
on a global scale prompted the expansion of corporate information networks to
include suppliers, dealers, partners, subsidiaries and alliances in an integrated
manner. The necessary integration of logistics operations across the supply chain
has been made possible by the advancement of information technology. Internet is
rapidly becoming a powerful business tool because of its online commercial
services and e-commerce capabilities. The net is ready to become a medium by
which companies trade, make contracts, exchange data and information, discuss
designs and locate components.
The application of ICT to transportation has also led to the emergence of
Intelligent Transport Systems (ITS). ITS links individual transportation elements
and combines them into a single system through the use of advanced information
technologies. ITS integrates various technologies and institutional functions to
realise efficient, safe and environmentally friendly transport systems. It offers the
potential to improve the efficiency of use of transportation systems by generating
additional capacity from existing physical infrastructure. With the traditional design
approach of transport infrastructure, it is inherently difficult to take into account
dynamic changes associated with logistics. In order to overcome this gap, dynamic
control of logistics operations is necessary. Strategic applications of innovative
information such as Global Positioning System (GPS), ITS, Electronic Data
Interchange (EDI) and Electronic Commerce (EC) integrated through the Internet
will then become inevitable. The existence of high-performance information
infrastructure will dictate the logistics competence of a country or a region. These
complex and sophisticated information infrastructures will induce interactive
processes in logistics activities.
Effects of advanced information technologies and technological innovation
on logistics; improvement in the performance of logistics. The use of ICT has
improved the exchange of supply chain information, leading to the development of
integrated production and logistics management systems and has thereby improved
supply chain performance in many ways. Commercial transaction flow and
physical distribution are separated. Electronic Data Interchange (EDI) has
dramatically changed the ways in which commercial transactions are managed.
These systems use computer links instead of hard-copy paper which required
extensive time to transfer and often contained errors. The advantages of these ICTsupported information exchange systems include: increased speed and reliability,
increased storage capacity, increased transparency, reduced transaction costs and
increased worldwide coverage. Goods and vehicle tracking as well as real-time
vehicle routing and scheduling systems have transformed logistics management.
Cargo can now be identified, tracked and scheduled in real-time almost anywhere
in the world.
87 Mechanisation and automation inside the logistics facility, quality control
and warehouse management technologies have also improved. Lead-time has been
reduced by the introduction of EDI, mechanisation, automation and optimal vehicle
routing systems, leading to potentially lower levels of stock surplus. The
development of the Internet provides a convenient way of gathering, organising and
distributing information on products, services and trade regulations at a global
level. Inter-company trade in goods over the Internet will continue to grow and will
extend the globalisation of trade, increasing the average haulage distance. Several
companies use the Internet as an exchange mechanism for planning the supply
chain with their partners. Major freight transport service providers have resorted to
creating Web pages on the Internet to provide information on their services,
schedules and rates that can be easily accessed around the clock by the global
market. More advanced freight 22 transport suppliers already provide the
possibility for interactive responses to cargo-tracking inquiries made by shippers
and forwarders. These developments have increased competition among logistics
providers. Transportation requirements of shippers have changed due to
competition as manifested by fast, frequent and reliable services, just-in-time
manufacturing, warehousing and distribution, door-to-door intermodal services,
cargo tracing services and other advanced information related services. The
transport industry’s response to shippers’ requirements has brought about higher
quality value-added services resulting in current trends of supply chain integration,
strategic partnerships and alliances, third party logistics, equipment sharing and
paperless exchange of information. Greater competition among different companies
on a global scale will also increase the pace of innovation and put downward
pressure on prices -- both potentially beneficial to welfare creation.
Information Technologies.
Suppliers and manufacturers make use of EDI. This enables them to share
data on stock levels, timing of deliveries, positioning of in-transit goods in the
supply chain, etc. At the operational level, geographic information systems (GISs),
global positioning systems (GPSs) and on-board computers allow dispatchers to
keep track of the current position of vehicles and to communicate with drivers.
Such technologies are essential to firms engaged in express pick-up and delivery
operations, and to long-haul trucking companies.
E-commerce. An increasing number of companies make commercial
transactions through the internet. It is common to distinguish between business-tobusiness (B2B) and business-to-consumers (B2C) transactions. The growth of ecommerce parallels that of globalization and information technologies. As a result
of e-commerce the volume of goods between producers and retailers should go
down while more direct deliveries should be expected between manufacturers and
end-users.
E-commerce leads to a more complex organization of the entire logistics
system (e-logistics), which should be able to manage small- and medium-size
shipments to a large number of customers, sometimes scattered around the world.
88 Furthermore, the return flow of defective (or rejected) goods becomes a major issue
(reverse logistics).
In an e-logistics system different approaches for operating warehouses and
distribution are generally adopted. The virtual warehouse and the Points of
Presence In The Territory (POPITT) are just a few examples. A virtual warehouse
is a facility where suppliers and distributors keep their goods in stock in such a way
that the e-commerce company can fulfil its orders. A POPITT is a company-owned
facility where customers may go either for purchasing and fetching the ordered
goods, or for returning defective products. Unlike traditional shops, a POPITT only
stores already sold goods waiting to be picked up by customers and defective
products waiting to be returned to the manufacturers. This solution simplifies
distribution management but reduces customer service level since it does not allow
for home deliveries.
89 Keys
Unit 1
Exercise 4
Quality control, finished products, industrial process, production manager,
large-scale manufacturing, assembly lines, raw material, productivity levels.
1. quality control, 2. industrial process, 3 raw material, 4 productivity levels,
5. finished products, 6. assembly lines, 7. large-scale manufacturing, 8. production
manager.
Exercise 5
1 batch, 2 assemble, 3 outputs, 4 purchasing, 5 component, 6 optimize
Exercise 8
1 c, 2 a, 3 b, 4 b, 5 a, 6 c.
Exercise 17 a factory, b site, c layout, d fixtures, e equipment, f machinery, g
workshops, h breakdowns, i maintain, j repair, k stock, I faulty.
Unit 2
Exercise 3
l compiled, 2 recorded, 3 investigate, 4 improve, 5 search, 6 find
Exercise 5
Applied research - looking at how scientific theory can be used in practice
clinical research - looking at the effects of drugs or treatment on patients
pilot study - small-scale experiment
experimentation - the process of tests and trials to see what happens under
different conditions
pure basic research - the study of pure scientific principles
product development - changing and improving a product to achieve the best
possible result
innovation - a new technique or idea
analysis - the study of the parts and their relationship to one another
Exercise 7
l analysis, 2 analyst, 3 analytical, 4 innovative, 5 inventor, 6 invention, 7
developers, 8 developmental, 9 developments, 10 experimental, 11 experimenter,
12 experimentation
Exercise 9
a design, b innovative, c patent, d prototype, e engineers, f developmental, g
experiment, h breakthrough.
Exercise 11
a statistics, b median, c mean, d mode, e distribution, f sampling, g random, h
scale, i frequency, j 14,99, k 14,98, I 14,99.
Exercise 13
1 was built, 2 -, 3 were, 4 covered, 5 work, 6 - , 7 discovered, 8 - , 9 - 10
transformed.
Exercise 14
90 1 When were fibre optics first developed?
2 The boxes broke because they were made/had been made of low quality
materials.
3 The power supply was cut off because cables came down during the storm.
4 They had not completed the foundations by the time the building materials
arrived.
5 When did they install the solar panels?
6 Was this the first hydroelectric scheme in Scotland?
7 They were not using wood chip for heating when the engineer visited the
factory.
8 How did they produce gas before they discovered North Sea gas?
9 Was the oil pollution along the coastline caused by an oil tanker spillage?
10 How did they prepare access to this mine?
Exercise 15
a was found, b was lying, c checked, d was still breathing, e called, f was
taken, g recovered, h found, i had been left, j had escaped, k had become, I had
become, m (had) fallen, n was working.
Unit 3
Exercise 1
1 check, 2 bar, 3 detect, 4 prevent, 5 inventory, 6 repair, 7 failures, 8 scrap, 9
prioritize, 10 value
Exercise 2
Let us consider what happened when Japanese cars were first imported into
the UK and America.
Local manufacturers thought they were cheap and of low quality.
But soon people noticed that they didn't break down as often as British or
American cars.
At the same time, Japanese manufacturers started trying to meet customer
needs in terms of style and design.
Customers were delighted with the new cars which exceeded their
expectations.
The cars did more than simply satisfy customers' requirements, they provided
value for money.
Exercise 3
a cause/effect, b improvement, c defective, d Pareto, e sampling, f monitor, g
analysis, h prevent, i defects, j continuous, k zero
Unit 4
Exercise 1
1d2f5b3g4a6i8e9h7c
Exercise 2
1 bill of lading, 2 materials management, 3 import, 4 depot, 5 package, 6
cargo, 7 channel, 8 in transit, 9 load, 10 carriage
Exercise 7
91 1 The goods probably won't be delivered until next week.
2 l'm absolutely sure that these crates are strong enough.
3 The goods are unlikely to remain in the warehouse for long.
4 It shouldn't take long to load the ship.
5 They definitely won't be sent by air freight.
6 The goods may be in transit for four days.
7 They're quite likely to increase the volume of imports.
Exercise 18
a dispatched, b consignment, c carrier, d crate, e packing list, f delivery note,
g shipped, h delivery, warehouse
92 Appendix
Чтение, реферирование и аннотирование литературы по специальности
(на основе книги Вейзе А.А. Чтение, реферирование и аннотирование
иностранного текста)
Чтение иностранной литературы по специальности направлено на
получение нужной специалисту информации. В настоящее время работа с
целым текстом является приоритетным для неязыковых специальностей:
перед студентами ставится задача научиться беспереводному чтению,
составлению рефератов и аннотаций статей.
В зависимости от поставленной цели различают следующие виды
чтения:
просмотровое
(поисковое,
обзорное);
ознакомительное
(конспективное, реферативное); изучающее (критическое, углубленное).
Целью просмотрового чтения является получение общего
представления о содержании текста или поиск нужной информации.
Полученная в результате такого чтения информация может быть оформлена в
виде аннотации.
Ознакомительное чтение - это более внимательное чтение текста без
словаря. Словарь может быть нужен только для того, чтобы узнать значения
нескольких ключевых слов. Его цель - полностью понять содержание текста,
не переводя его. Письменным результатом такого чтения является реферат.
Изучающее чтение направлено на полное усвоение прочитанного, на
расширение словаря и изучение языковых форм текста. Такое чтение
оформляется в виде перевода текста со словарем.
Эти виды чтения можно рассматривать как самостоятельные или как
этапы чтения одного и того же текста. Не следует приступать к переводу,
минуя первые два этапа чтения, т. е. не просмотрев его целиком и затем, не
прочитав его внимательно.
Аннотация - предельно краткое изложение основного содержания
текста, и в нескольких строчках дающее представление о его тематике. Её
назначение-составить мнение о целесообразности детального ознакомления с
данным материалом.
Аннотация включает 3-4 предложения (30-40 слов) и должна дать очень
краткую обобщенную характеристику материала, определить круг
содержащихся в нём проблем, дать представление о том, насколько
информативен этот материал и для кого он может представить ценность.
Итак, аннотация включает: а) автора, название и вид публикации
(книга, статья, интервью и т. д.), год и место издания; б) определить главную
тему материала; в) перечислить второстепенные; г) определить возможную
ценность информации и адресата, которому эта информация может быть
предназначена. Требование лаконичности является наиболее характерным,
однако в текст аннотации рекомендуется вставлять клише типа (подробно
93 излагается, кратко рассматривается . . .). На неязыковом факультете на первое
место выдвигается просмотровое чтение, которое находит выход в
аннотировании иноязычного материала. Просмотровое чтение и его подвиды
- это ведущие элементы чтения, предшествующие реферированию. Иная
обработка источников информации происходит при ознакомительном чтении.
Во время такого чтения читающий должен точно и полно понять содержание
оригинала, выделить главную мысль каждого абзаца, отбросить всё
второстепенное и несущественное. Для этого часто необходимо прочитать
текст дважды, а наиболее насыщенные информацией абзацы или
предложения - несколько раз. Зафиксированным результатом такого чтения
является реферат.
Рефератом называют текст, построенный на основе смысловой
компрессии первоисточника с целью передачи его главного содержания.
Материал в реферате излагается с позиций автора исходного текста и не
содержит никаких элементов интерпретации или оценки. Реферат может
заменить первоисточник и дать читателю возможность сберечь время при
знакомстве с объектом описания. Отсюда вытекает требование: составлять
рефераты таким образом, чтобы при их использовании у читателя не возникла
необходимость обращаться к первоисточнику.
Поскольку при чтении, целью которого является реферат, необходимо
следить за логикой повествования, понимать основные идеи и факты каждого
абзаца, рекомендуется разделить текст на смысловые куски, затем выделить в
каждом из них основное смысловое ядро и выписать ключевые слова. И
только после этого суммировать разрозненные смысловые группы в единое
смысловое целое.
Реферат оформляется следующим образом: а) выходные данные; б)
основная тема, проблема, основные положения;
в) доказательства и
подтверждение основных положений автора; г) выводы автора. Средний
объём реферата 10 - 15 предложений. Реферирование литературы по
специальности предполагает владение лексикой и терминами в объёме 1000 1500 единиц, знание и понимание структурных особенностей языка.
Различие между рефератом и аннотацией
Различие между рефератом и аннотацией является зыбкой. Помимо
количественного фактора и неодинаковых целей различие между рефератом и
аннотацией заключается в манере подачи материала. При реферативном
изложении референт излагает информацию с позиций автора. Реферат
строится на основе ключевых слов. Аннотация пишется своими словами.
Аннотация - выжимка тематического содержания - пишется с позиций
компетентного судьи, который критически осмысливает материал, обобщает,
сжимает, оценивает. Главное в аннотации - назвать тему текста, в реферате же
излагается содержание текста.
94 Слова и словосочетания для пересказа текста, написания
аннотации и реферирования
1. данная статья - the present paper
2. тема - the theme (subject-matter)
3. основная проблема - the main problem
4. цель - the purpose
5. основной принцип - the basic principle
6. проблемы связанные с - problems relating to
7. аналогично - similarly, likewise
8. поэтому, следовательно - hence, therefore
9. наоборот - on the contrary
10. тем не менее - nevertheless, still, yet
11. кроме того - besides, also, again, in addition, furthermore
12. сначала - at first
13. далее, затем - next, further, then
14. наконец, итак - finally
15. вкратце - in short, in brief
Цель написания статьи:
1. The object (purpose) of this paper is to present (to discuss, to describe, to
show, to develop, to give)...
2. The paper (article) puts forward the idea (attempts to determine)...
Вопросы, обсуждаемые в статье:
1. The paper (article) discusses some problems relating to (deals with some
aspects of, considers the problem of, presents the basic theory, provides
information on, reviews the basic principles of)...
2. The paper (article) is concerned with (is devoted to )...
Начало статьи:
1. The paper (article) begins with a short discussion on (deals firstly with the
problem of)...
2. The first paragraph deals with...
3. First (At first, At the beginning) the author points out that (notes that,
describes)...
Переход к изложению следующей части статьи:
1. Then follows a discussion on...
2. Then the author goes on to the problem...
3. The next (following) paragraph deals with (presents, discusses,
describes)...
4. After discussing . . . the author turns to...
5. Next (Further, Then) the author tries to (indicates that, explains that)...
6. It must be emphasized that (should be noted that, is evident that, is clear
that, is interesting to note that)...
Конец изложения статьи:
1. The final paragraph states (describes, ends with)...
95 2. The conclusion is that the problem is...
3. The author concludes that (summarizes the)...
4. To sum up (To summarize, To conclude) the author emphasizes (points
out, admits) that...
5. Finally (In the end) the author admits (emphasizes) that...
Оценка статьи:
In my opinion (To my mind, I think)...
The paper (article) is interesting (not interesting), of importance (of little
importance), valuable (invaluable), up-to-date, useful (useless)...
96 Bibliography
1.
Briegier N., Pohl A. Technical English, vocabulary and grammar.
Summertown publishing, 2011.
2.
Cotton D., Falvey В., Kent S. Market Leader Business English Course
book pre-intermediate. Longman, 2005.
3.
Ghiani G., Laporte G., Musmanno R. Introduction to Logistics
Systems Planning and Control. John Wiley & Sons, Ltd ISBN: 0-470-84916-9
(HB) 0-470-84917-7 (PB), 2004.
4.
Glendinning E. Oxford English for Electrical and Mechanical
Engineering. Oxford University Press, 2008.
5.
Kavanagh M. English for the automobile industry. Oxford, 2007.
6.
King F., D. Ann Cree English business letters. Commercial
correspondence for foreign students. М.: Высш. шк., 1994.
7.
Гниненко А. В. Современный автомобиль как мы его видим. М.:
Астрель, 2005.
8.
Коваленко А. Я. Общий курс научно-технического перевода.
Киев: ИНКОС, 2004.
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