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1854.456.Английский язык. Сравнительная педагогика

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Copyright ОАО «ЦКБ «БИБКОМ» & ООО «Aгентство Kнига-Cервис»
Министерство спорта, туризма и молодежной политики
Российской Федерации
Федеральное государственное бюджетное образовательное учреждение
высшего профессионального образования
«Волгоградская государственная академия физической культуры»
Кафедра иностранных языков
Столбова Е.Г.
АНГЛИЙСКИЙ ЯЗЫК: Сравнительная педагогика
Для студентов направления 050400.62 «Психолого-педагогическое
образование».
Учебное пособие
Волгоград - 2012
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ББК 81.2 Англ.
С 812
Рецензенты:
кандидат филологических наук, доцент кафедры иностранных языков
ФГБОУ ВПО «ВГАФК» Комлева Л.А.
кандидат педагогических наук, доцент кафедры русского и иностранных
языков ФГБОУ ВПО ВФ РГТЭУ Колобкова Н.Н.
Допущено к изданию решением ученого совета ФГБОУ ВПО «ВГАФК» в
качестве учебного пособия.
С 812
Столбова Е.Г.
Английский язык: Сравнительная педагогика: учебное пособие по
английскому языку для студентов направления 050400.62 «Психологопедагогическое образование» / Е.Г. Столбова. – Волгоград: ФГБОУ
ВПО «ВГАФК», 2012. – 58с.
Учебное пособие по учебной дисциплине «Иностранный язык:
английский» цикла ГСЭ ФГОС для студентов дневной формы обучения по
направлению 050400.62 «Психолого-педагогическое образование».
ББК 81.2 Англ.
 Столбова Е.Г., 2012
 ФГБОУ ВПО «ВГАФК», 2012
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ПОЯСНИТЕЛЬНАЯ ЗАПИСКА К УЧЕБНОМУ ПОСОБИЮ
Цель и содержание учебного пособия
Данное учебное пособие предназначено для студентов и аспирантов,
обучающихся по направлению 050706 Педагогика и психология. Оно
составлено в соответствии с требованиями государственного образовательного
стандарта высшего профессионального образования.
Цель учебного пособия – помочь студентам в процессе аудиторной и
самостоятельной работы овладеть навыками чтения и перевода. Приобретенные
знания, умения и навыки должны обеспечить будущему специалисту
возможность использовать в своей работе специальную литературу на
английском языке, т.е. умение самостоятельно читать и переводить английские
тексты по психолого-педагогической тематике, отбирать полезную для работы
информацию, а также приобрести умение доступно излагать свою мысль на
английском языке при общении с иностранными коллегами.
В учебном пособии представлены оригинальные неадаптированные тексты
по психолого-педагогической тематике из различных периодических, учебных
и методических английских изданий. Их тематика разнообразна: понятие
педагогики как науки, процесс, цели и методы обучения, история и философия
образования, сравнительная педагогика, индивидуальное и дистанционное
обучение и др.
Учебное пособие имеет четкую структуру и состоит из 15 уроков, каждый
из которых содержит текст по специальности и дополнительный текст,
содержащий в себе информацию о выдающихся деятелях в области педагогики
и психологии. Каждый текст в конце имеет практические упражнения,
направленные на закрепление полученных в ходе занятий знаний.
Выбор материала обучения и формы работы над ним определяется
содержанием учебных планов в зависимости от специализации обучаемых.
Для развития навыков практического владения английским языком в
учебном процессе могут быть использованы различные приемы
самостоятельной и аудиторной работы над учебным материалом:
1) чтение и перевод учебных текстов;
2) чтение учебного материала без словаря с охватом общего содержания
прочитанного;
3) составление словаря специальной лексики;
4) выполнение устных и письменных упражнений в конце каждой из
изучаемых тем.
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Предлагаемые тексты могут быть использованы как самостоятельные
задания внеаудиторных и аудиторных контрольных работ, экзаменов и зачетов, а
также в качестве материала для дополнительного чтения студентов с
выборочным переводом текста.
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LESSON 1
TEXT A
PEDAGOGY AS A SCIENCE
1. Read and translate the text.
Pedagogy is the art or science of being a teacher. The term generally refers to
strategies of instruction, or a style of instruction. Pedagogy is also sometimes referred
to as the correct use of teaching strategies. For example, Paulo Freire referred to his
method of teaching adults as "critical pedagogy". In correlation with those teaching
strategies the instructor's own philosophical beliefs of teaching are harbored and
governed by the pupil's background knowledge and experiences, personal situations,
and environment, as well as learning goals set by the student and teacher. One
example would be the Socratic schools of thought.
The first major milestone in the history of education occurred in prehistoric
times when man invented language. Language enabled man to communicate more
precisely than he could by signs and gestures. But early man had only a spoken
language. He had no system of writing or numbering and no schools.
Young people in prehistoric societies were educated through apprenticeship,
imitation and rituals. Through apprenticeship a young man learned, for example, how
to build a shelter by working with an older experienced master builder. Through
imitation, young people acquired the language and customs of their parents and other
adults in their society. Through the performance of rituals, they learned about the
meaning of life and the ties that bound them to their group. The rituals consisted of
dancing or other activities. They were performed at times of emotional stress, such as
death, warfare, or drought. The rituals usually involved myths, which dealt with such
things as the group's history and its gods and heroes.
Today, in all societies, young people still learn through apprenticeship, imitation
and ritual. But as a society grows increasingly complicated, teachers and schools take
on more and more responsibility for educating the young.
The role of a teacher is generally a very varied one. It does not only require a
good knowledge of the subjects you teach. Teachers must also have the ability to
communicate, inspire trust and confidence, and motivate students. An understanding
of the students’ emotional and educational needs in respect to their individual
background and cultural heritage is also very important. A teacher will also benefit
from being organized, dependable, patient and creative.
The day of a teacher can look very different, depending on where you end up
teaching, and which age groups. Different schools organize their teaching differently,
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and public schools in poor areas usually have more problems with a low motivation
of the students, and run down facilities with large classes. Such circumstances can
make teaching much more challenging and stressful, than it may be in a smaller
private school where students are admitted selectively and classes are smaller.
Teaching brings many rewards and satisfactions, but it is a demanding,
exhausting, and sometimes frustrating job. It is hard to do well unless you enjoy
doing it. Teachers who do enjoy their work will show this in their classroom behavior.
They will come to class prepared for the day's lessons and will present lessons in a
way that suggests interest and excitement in promoting learning. When students
achieve success, the teacher shares their joy.
Vocabulary:
refer to – относиться к
correlation – соотношение
harbor – исходить
drought - засуха
apprenticeship – учение
bound – граничить
warfare - война
vary – отличаться
inspire – вдохновлять
challenging – сомнительный
goal – цель
thought – мысль
invent – изобретать
shelter – убежище
performance – представление
admit – принимать
confidence – доверие
heritage – наследие
benefit – извлекать пользу
dependable - зависимый
2. Give English equivalents:
Школа мысли, знаки, общество, ответственность, требовательный, система
письма, иметь дело с, возможность, вдохновлять, требовать, принимать,
удовлетворение, регулировать, бедные районы, зависимый, по-разному,
получать удовлетворение.
3. Translate these expressions:
Milestone, system of numbering, selectively, to achieve success, prehistoric
times, to run down, rewards, frustrating, enabled man, promoting learning, meaning
of life, critical pedagogy, to involve, environment, customs, apprenticeship, warfare,
gestures.
4. Answer the questions:
1. What kind of job is teaching?
2. How did people learn about the meaning of life?
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3.
4.
5.
6.
7.
What was the first major milestone in the history of education?
What do the rituals usually involve?
What does the term “pedagogy” mean?
What does the role of a teacher require?
How do different schools organize their teaching?
5. Translate into English:
1. Обучение приносит много наград и удовольствий.
2. Учителя должны иметь способность общаться, вызывать доверие и
уверенность и мотивировать учащихся.
3. Раньше у людей не было системы письма и чисел.
4. Ритуалы проводились в периоды войн, засухи или смерти.
5. Изобретение разговорного языка позволило человеку общаться более
точно.
6. Так как общество становится все более сложным, учителя берут на
себя больше ответственности за воспитание молодежи.
7. В доисторические времена учащиеся обучались путем подражания и
обучения.
TEXT B
6. Read and translate the text.
Aristotle (384 BC – 322 BC) was a Greek philosopher, a student of Plato and
teacher of Alexander the Great. Aristotle is one of the most important founding
figures in Western philosophy. Aristotle's writings were the first to create a
comprehensive system of Western philosophy, encompassing morality and aesthetics,
logic and science, politics and metaphysics.
Aristotle was an academic throughout his career. At the age of 18 he entered one
of the most renowned centres of learning of his day, Plato’s Academy, where he
became noted for the passion with which he devoted himself to his studies,
particularly to reading, a trait which won him the nickname of ‘reader’. Then he built
up the first great library which served as a model for the libraries of Alexandria and
Pergamon. In 334 Aristotle returned to Athens and established his own school, the
Lyceum. It was a type of university where research was pursued as an extension of
higher education.
For Aristotle the goal of education is identical with the goal of man. Obviously
all forms of education are explicitly or implicitly directed towards a human ideal. But
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Aristotle considers that education is essential for the complete self-realization of man.
The supreme good to which all aspire is happiness. But for Aristotle the happy man is
neither a noble savage, nor man in his natural state, but the educated man.
General understanding:
1. Who was Aristotle?
2. What was his goal of education?
3. Who was the happy man, according to Aristotle?
4. What was Lyceum like?
5. How did his ideas influence on Western philosophy?
LESSON 2
TEXT A
THE PROCESS OF TEACHING
1. Read and translate the text.
A teacher's main responsibility is to teach. The teacher's job involves many roles
besides that of instructing students. At times, a teacher serves as a parent surrogate,
entertainer, psychotherapist, and record keeper, among other things. All of these are
necessary aspects of the teacher's role. However, they are subordinate to and in
support of, the major role of teaching.
Some teachers become more concerned with mothering or entertaining students
than with teaching them. In these classes, much of the day is spent in reading stories,
playing games, singing and listening to records. Such teachers do not like to spend
much time teaching the curriculum and feel they must apologize to children or bribe
them when lessons are conducted. These teachers are meeting their own needs, not
those of the students. By the end of the year, the pupils will have acquired negative
attitude toward the school curriculum, and they will have failed to achieve near their
potential.
The teacher is in the classroom to instruct. This involves move than just giving
demonstrations or presenting learning experiences. Instruction also means giving
additional help to those who are having difficulty, diagnosing the sources of their
problems, and providing remedial assistance. For the teacher we see that it means
finding satisfaction in the progress of slower students as well as brighter ones. If a
teacher's method of handling students who finish quickly is to assign them more of
the same kind of exercises, students will learn to work more slowly or hid the fact
that they have finished. Teachers would do much better to assign alternate activities
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of the students' choice or to allow them to move on to more challenging problems of
a similar type.
Another important indicator is the way teachers respond to right and wrong
answers. When teachers have the appropriate attitude, they accept either type of
response for the information it gives about the student. They become neither overly
elated about correct answers nor overly disappointed about incorrect answers. They
use questions as a way to stimulate thought and to acquire information about a
student's progress.
Although praise and encouragement are important, they should not interfere with
basic teaching goals. If a teacher responds with overly dramatic praise every time a
student answers a simple question, the class will likely be distracted from the content
of the lesson. A better strategy is to follow a simple correct answer with simple
feedback to acknowledge that it is correct. Criticism, of course, should be omitted. In
general, the teacher’s behavior during question-and-answer sessions should say,
"We're going to discuss and deepen our understanding of the material," and not,
"We’re going to find out who knows the material and who doesn't."
Although all students cannot be expected to do equally well, each teacher can
establish reasonable minimal objectives for a class. Naturally, most students will be
capable of going considerably beyond minimal objectives, and the teacher should
encourage students' cognitive development as far as their interests and abilities allow.
However, in doing so, teachers must not loose sight of basic priorities. Teachers with
appropriate attitudes will spend extra time working with students who are having
difficulty.
When teachers do have the appropriate attitude toward school-work, they present
it in ways that make their students see it as enjoyable and interesting. Teachers should
not expect students to enjoy learning in the same way they enjoy a ride on a roller
coaster. Instead, there should be the quieter but consistent satisfaction and feelings of
mastery that come with the accumulation of knowledge and skills.
Teachers with negative attitudes toward school learning see learning activities as
unpleasant but necessary drudgery. If they believe in a positive approach toward
motivation, they will attempt to generate enthusiasm through overemphasis on
contests, rewards, and other external incentives. If they are more authoritarian and
punitive, they will present assignments as bitter pills that students must swallow or
else. In either case, the students will acquire distaste for school activities, thus
providing reinforcement for teacher expectations.
Other evidence of inappropriate teacher attitudes toward school activities
includes: emphasizing the separation of work and play, with work pictured as an
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unpleasant activity one endures in order to get to play; introducing assignments as
something the class has to do, rather than merely as something they are going to do;
the use of extra assignments as punishments, etc. Teachers with negative attitudes
also discuss academic subjects in a way that presents them as dull and devoid of
content.
Teachers must communicate to all of their students the expectations that the
students want to be fair, co-operative, reasonable, and responsible. This includes even
those who consistently present the same behavior problems. If students see that
teachers do not have the faith in them, they will probably lose whatever motivation
they have to keep trying. Thus, teachers should be very careful to avoid suggesting
that students deliberately hurt others or enjoy doing so, that they cannot control their
own behavior, or that they simply do not care and are making no effort to do so. Such
statements will only establish a negative self-concept and will lead to even more
destructive behavior.
Vocabulary:
subordinate – подчиняться
concern with – заинтересован чем-л.
curriculum – учебная программа
acquire – приобретать
achieve – достигать
remedial – облегчающий
assign – назначать
respond – реагировать
praise – похвала
feedback – обратная связь
omit – пропускать
deepen – углублять
satisfaction – удовлетворение
drudgery – тяжелая работа
punitive – карательный
distaste – испытывать отвращение
reinforcement – усиление
emphasize - подчеркивать
devoid – лишенный
faith – вера
2. Give English equivalents:
Неправильный, вмешиваться, способности, разумный, усилие, похвала,
соответствующий, ответственность, избегать, утверждение, самооценка,
показатель, поощрение, понимание, накопление знаний и навыков,
разочарованный, поведение, учебная деятельность, охватывать.
3. Translate these expressions:
Alternative activities, negative attitude, acknowledge, expectation, to be capable,
extra time, roller coaster, external incentives, destructive, cognitive development,
enjoyable, inappropriate attitude, self-concept, positive approach, teacher expectation,
to devoid of content, to allow.
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4. Answer the questions:
1. When do the pupils acquire negative attitude toward the school curriculum?
2. Why should teachers omit criticism?
3. How does a teacher serve at times?
4. What makes a negative self-concept?
5. What must teachers do with basic priorities?
6. What is the main responsibility of a teacher?
7. When do students lose motivation?
5. Translate into English:
1. Учитель может устанавливать минимальные цели в классе.
2. Обучение – это не то же самое, что катание на американских горках.
3. Похвала и поощрение не должны мешать достижению целей
обучения.
4. К концу года ученики приобретают отрицательное отношение к
обучению в школе.
5. Учитель будет тратить дополнительное время для работы со
студентами, имеющими трудности.
6. Такое положение может привести к отрицательной самооценке и
разрушительному поведению.
7. Учителя должны предоставлять студентам право выбора.
TEXT B
6. Read and translate the text.
John Amos Comenius (1592–1670) was a Czech teacher, educator, and writer.
He served as the last bishop of Unity of the Brethren, and became a religious refugee
and one of the earliest champions of universal education, a concept eventually set
forth in his book “Didactica Magna”. He is often considered the father of modern
education.
John Comenius was the youngest child and only son of Martin Comenius and his
wife Anna. Due to his impoverished circumstances, he was unable to begin his formal
education until late. He was 16 when he entered the Latin school in Přerov (he later
returned to this school as a teacher 1614–1618).
The most permanent influence exerted by Comenius was in practical educational
work. The practical educational influence of Comenius was threefold.
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He was first a teacher and an organizer of schools, not only among his own
people, but later in Sweden, and to a slight extent in Holland. In his “Didactica
Magna” (Great Didactic), he outlined a system of schools that is the exact counterpart
of the existing American system of kindergarten, elementary school, secondary
school, college, and university.
In the second place, the influence of Comenius was in formulating the general
theory of education. The third aspect of his educational influence was that on the
subject matter and method of education, exerted through a series of textbooks of an
entirely new nature.
General understanding:
1. What is the name of his famous book?
2. Why was he unable to begin his formal education until late?
3. What was the most permanent influence exerted by Comenius?
4. What was his occupation?
5. What were his ideas in formulating the general theory of education?
LESSON 3
TEXT A
THE PURPOSE OF EDUCATION
1. Read and translate the text.
There is a feeling that the schools are not succeeding - that standards are too
low, that schools are not preparing young people with the skills, knowledge and
personal qualities which are necessary for the world of work and schools have failed
to instill the right social values. These are the criticisms and therefore there have been
changes to meet these criticisms.
However, the criticisms take different forms. First, there are those who believe
that standards have fallen, especially in the areas of literacy and numeracy - and
indeed unfavourable comparisons are made with the other countries as a result of
international surveys. For example, the recent Third International Mathematics and
Science Survey (TIMSS) placed in England and Wales very low in mathematical
achievement at 13 - although very high in science. Therefore, these critics emphasize
«back to basis» and the need for more traditional teaching methods.
Second, there are those who argue for a rather traditional curriculum which is
divided into «subjects» and which calls upon those cultural standards which previous
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generations have known - the study of literary classics (Shakespeare, Keats,
Wordsworth), rather than popular multi-cultural history, classical music rather than
popular music, and so on. Since there are many children who would not be interested
in or capable of learning within these subjects, there is a tendency for such advocates
of traditional standards to support an early selection of children into «the minority»
who are capable of being so educated, separated off from «the majority» who are
thought to benefit more from a more technical or practical education.
Third, there are those who question deeply the idea of a curriculum based on
these traditional subjects. Many employers, for instance, think that such a curriculum
by itself ill - serves the country economically. The curriculum ought to be more
relevant to the world of work, providing those skills, such as computer, numeracy and
literacy skills, personal qualities (such as cooperation and enterprise) and knowledge
(such as economic awareness) which make people more employable.
A very important speech which expressed those concerns and which is seen as
a watershed in government policy was that of Prime Minister Callaghan at Ruskin
College, Oxford, in 1976.
«Preparing future generations for life» was the theme and he pointed to the
need for greater relevance in education on four fronts:
the acquisition by school leavers of basic skills which they lacked but which
industry needed;
the development of more positive attitudes to industry and to the economic
needs of society;
greater technological know-how so that they might live effectively in a
technological society;
the development of personal qualities for coping with an unpredictable future.
Vocabulary:
succeed – успевать
skill – навыки
prepare – готовить
fail - терпеть неудачу
value - ценность
survey – исследование
achievement – достижение
emphasize – подчеркивать
argue for – выступать за
curriculum – учебная программа
previous – предыдущий
capable – способный
selection – отбор
advocate – защищать
benefit – извлекать пользу
employable – трудоспособный
speech – речь
watershed – поворотный пункт
acquisition – приобретение
cope with – бороться с
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2. Give English equivalents:
Различный, счет, недавний, знания, необходимость, поддерживать,
правительство, снижаться, сравнение, правильный, поколение, работодатель,
указывать, критические замечания, наука, обеспечивать, политика, выражать,
исследования, служить, направление, выпускник, разработка, непредсказуемый.
3. Translate these expressions:
The areas of literacy, unfavourable, teaching methods, to meet the criticism,
back to basis, the minority, relevant, economic awareness, international surveys, to be
interested in, numeric skills, to concern, the study of literacy classics, the majority, to
enterprise, personal qualities.
4. Answer the questions:
1. What do critics emphasize?
2. What is a traditional curriculum?
3. What should people learn to live effectively in a technological society?
4. What are the results of international surveys?
5. What were cultural standards of previous generation?
6. What must the curriculum provide?
7. Why do some teachers support an early selection of children?
5. Translate into English:
1. Необходимо развитие личных качеств для борьбы с
непредсказуемым будущим.
2. Стандарты школы являются слишком низкими.
3. Школы не смогли привить социальные ценности.
4. Некоторые критики подчеркивают снижение грамотности.
5. Существует необходимость использования более традиционных
методов обучения.
6. Учебные программы должны быть более актуальными.
7. Некоторые учащиеся не заинтересованы в обучении.
TEXT B
6. Read and translate the text.
John Locke (29 August 1632 – 28 October 1704), was an English philosopher
and physician regarded as one of the most influential of Enlightenment thinkers.
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Considered one of the first of the British empiricists, following the tradition of
Francis Bacon, he is equally important to social contract theory. His work had a great
impact upon the development of epistemology and political philosophy.
Locke was born on 29 August 1632, in a small cottage by the church in
Wrington, Somerset, about twelve miles from Bristol.
In 1693 John Locke, after writing extensively on topics such as human
understanding, government, money, and toleration, published a book which seemed quite
heretical at the time: “Some Thoughts Concerning Education”. Unfortunately, for the
modern reader there doesn’t seem to be any shock value left at all. Consider the three key
themes which are addressed: the development of self-discipline through esteem and
disgrace rather than force or reward; the significance of developing a good character; and
the importance of developing reason in a child by treating the child as a rational entity.
Many of Locke’s ideas are quite humane and consistent with his strong
democratic sentiments. Locke’s belief that the mind is a piece of wax or white paper
which the active educator must keep as still as possible in order to accurately stamp
the information she would have the pupil passively receive.
General understanding:
1. Who was John Locke?
2. What was his belief?
3. What is the name of his famous book?
4. What were the three key themes of Locke?
5. How did he describe human beings?
LESSON 4
TEXT A
TEACHING METHODS IN EDUCATION
1. Read and translate the text.
There are many teaching methods in education that enhance the learning process
of the students. Read this article to know the different teaching methods.
To achieve the goal of teaching, the teacher must adopt effective teaching
methods in education. The teacher has many options to choose from different
teaching methods designed specifically for teaching and learning.
Writing lesson plans is a foremost thing that a teacher must do before executing
any teaching strategy in the class. The teaching method should be adopted on the
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basis of certain criteria like the knowledge of the students, the environment and the
set of learning goals decided in the academic curriculum.
Students respond differently to different methods of teaching. Also, the students
have their unique way of demonstrating the knowledge acquired and absorbing the
information that is imparted. So, to aid this process of demonstrating the knowledge,
the teacher has to adopt a technique that assists the students in retaining the
information and increasing their understanding. There are many teaching methods for
children like questioning, modeling, demonstrating, collaborating and explaining.
We all know about the importance of higher education, so now let us learn some
methods of teaching as well. Here are some of the basic teaching methods for higher
education as well as for the middle education.
The teaching methods for special education are different from the teaching
methods and theories for others. The education is imparted to these students based on
their strengths and weaknesses. The teachers cater to the special needs of the students
like modification in the regular teaching program, use of supplementary aids that
allows students to participate in the learning process. Different effective teaching
strategies are adopted on the basis of the disabilities. Four kinds of provisions are
adopted in special education and they are inclusion, mainstream, segregation and
exclusion.
Apart from these defined methods, nowadays many other teaching methods in
education are being adopted to give quality education. The methods like role-play,
story or games, seminars, presentations, workshops, conferences, brainstorming, case
study, educational trips and modern audio-visual aids like documentary films,
computers, internet, etc have been introduced in education. These new methods have
increased the pace of learning and understanding. This also enhances the capability of
the students to research and logically think for a given problem.
Vocabulary:
enhance-повышать
executing-выполнение
acquired-полученный
impart-передавать
retaining-сохранение
increase-повышать
questioning-опрос
modeling-моделирование
collaborating-сотрудничество
learning-учебный
curriculum-учебная программа
cater to-отвечать (потребностям)
supplementary-дополнительный
inclusion- введение
mainstream-основная часть
segregation-выделение
exclusion-исключение
pace-темп
provision-обеспечение
adopt-принимать
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2. Give English equivalents:
Определенный критерий, передавать, объяснение, образовательный,
учебная программа, сохранение, возможность, увеличение, важность, основной,
сильная сторона, качество, различаться, исследовать, окружающая среда,
помогать, использование.
3. Translate these expressions:
Learning goals, higher education, weaknesses, defined methods, cater to the
needs, to participate, workshops, audio-visual aids, knowledge acquired, disabilities,
case study, giving problem, supplementary aids, are adopted, brainstorming, role-play.
4. Answer the questions:
1. Why does a teacher use supplementary aids?
2. How many kinds of provisions are adopted in special education?
3. How do the teaching methods for special education differ from the
teaching methods for others?
4. What enhances the capability of the students to logically think for a given
problem?
5. Which methods can give quality education?
6. What does the teacher have to adopt to aid the process of demonstrating
the knowledge?
7. What are the basic teaching methods for education?
5. Translate into English:
1. Эти новые методы увеличили темп обучения.
2. Метод обучения должен быть выбран на основе определенных
критериев.
3. Учитель должен применять эффективные методы обучения.
4. Существует разнообразие методов: сотрудничество, объяснение,
опрос и многие другие.
5. Применение методов обучения необходимо для повышения
качества учебного процесса.
6. Студенты по-разному реагируют на различные методы
преподавания.
7. Это повышает способности студентов к исследованию.
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TEXT B
6. Read and translate the text.
Mikhail Vasilyevich Lomonosov (November 19 1711 – April 15 1765) was a
Russian polymath, scientist and writer, who made important contributions to
literature, education, and science. Among his discoveries was the atmosphere of
Venus. His spheres of science were natural science, chemistry, physics, mineralogy,
history, art, philology, optical devices and others. Lomonosov was also a poet, who
created the basis of the modern Russian literary language.
Lomonosov was born in the village of Denisovka in the Arkhangelsk
Governorate. In 1730, at nineteen, Lomonosov joined a caravan traveling to Moscow.
Not long after arriving, Lomonosov obtained admission into the Slavic Greek Latin
Academy. In 1736, Lomonosov was awarded a scholarship to Saint Petersburg State
University. He plunged into his studies and was rewarded with a two-year grant to
study abroad at the University of Marburg, in Germany.
Lomonosov returned to Russia in 1741. A year later he was named adjutant to
the Russian Academy of Science in the physics department. In May 1743,
Lomonosov was accused, arrested, and held under house arrest for eight months, after
he supposedly insulted various people associated with the Academy. He was released
and pardoned in January 1744 after apologising to all involved.
Lomonosov was made a full member of the Academy, and named professor of
chemistry, in 1745. He established the Academy's first chemistry laboratory. Eager to
improve Russia’s educational system, in 1755, Lomonosov joined his patron Count
Ivan Shuvalov in founding the Moscow State University.
General understanding:
1. Who was Mikhail Lomonosov?
2. What were his main discoveries?
3. Where did Lomonosov obtain admission?
4. What role did he play in founding the Moscow State University?
5. What were his spheres of science?
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LESSON 5
TEXT A
TYPES OF TEACHING METHODS
1. Read and translate the text.
Questioning. Testing and questioning are always known to be effective teaching
methods due to its interactive nature. The questions are asked by the teacher with an
intention to know what the student has learnt from earlier discussions and what it
helps in deciding what should be taught further. This can be even vice-verse,
students questioning the teachers to clarify the doubts that would enhance their
understanding of the subject.
The inquisitive instinct of the students evokes them to ask questions and satiate
their query. The teacher should encourage this in a positive way so that the student's
critical thinking is developed. Testing differs in one aspect from questioning. Test in
done in order to know about the previous knowledge and already taught things to the
student.
Explaining. Explaining is one of the very important teaching methods in
education. It has taken a form of lectures in teaching methods for higher education
where the teacher presents the factual information in a direct and a logical way.
Sometimes the experiences can also be shared as a part of knowledge that would
work as a source of inspiration for the students. While adopting this method the
teacher should give an introduction and a proper summary. Make sure that the
information is specific to the audience. The explanation should be accompanied with
suitable examples for the better understanding of the students. It is like a discourse on
a particular subject or topic that is for the entire class or public. Explaining can be
clubbed with the modeling process to be more effective and to have a long-lasting
effect on the pupils.
Modeling. Modeling is a type of visual aid for teaching as well as learning. It is
a known fact that human brain absorbs more and understands better when visual aid
facilitates explanation. This method works on three criteria - observing, retaining and
replicating. The students learn more by observing the things and acquire it by
imitating it time and again. This is also known as reinforced behavior. This type of
learning has very important role to play in the learning process especially during the
childhood, though it can happen in any stage of life. This helps the students to
visualize the things and, then hypothesize the solution.
Demonstrating. With the help of demonstrative teaching methods in education
students get an opportunity to explore the various aspects and understand the theory
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from a different perspective. Demonstration is a step-by-step explanation along with
their reasons and significance for the better understanding of the student. It enhances
the student's understanding by practically applying the knowledge and sharpens their
skills. They become capable of identifying and organizing the subject matter in a
more efficient way. Practical experimentation is a very good method used for
demonstrating the subject.
Collaborating. Teamwork is a contemporary form of collaboration. The
students are taught to work in a group that makes the instructing easier for the teacher.
This method of teaching promotes a sense of mutual responsibility among the
students. They learn to put in more effort to research for the topic and apply effective
techniques to get the result. This inculcates patience and develops an ability to
critically analyze a subject. It gives an opportunity to the students to solve the
problem by a healthy discussion and co-operation. This is what we call 'group
discussions' which motivates the students to perform in a team, show leadership skills
and enhances the presentation capabilities as well. This is one of the best direct
instructional methods.
Vocabulary:
clarify- прояснять
inquisitive- любопытный
evoke- пробуждать
absorb- впитывать
satiate- отвечать
query- вопрос
summary- конспект
brain- мозг
discourse- рассуждение
club- собираться вместе
visual aids- наглядные пособия
facilitate- облегчать
retaining- сохранение
replicating- воспроизведение
sharpen- оттачивать
inculcate- внушать
promote- повышать
entire- полный
mutual- взаимный
reinforced- подкрепленный
2. Give English equivalents:
Намерение, повышать, мышление, предыдущий, детство, терпение, опрос,
воодушевлять, разделять, принимая, исследовать, отличаться, представлять,
возможность, решать проблемы, случаться, решение, умение, ответственность,
применять, взаимный.
3. Translate these expressions:
Taught, direct way, experiences, suitable examples, leadership skills, vice-verse,
particular subject, modeling process, efficient way, testing, source of inspiration,
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visual aids, reinforced behaviour, are known, proper summary, long-lasting effect,
step-by-step.
4. Answer the questions:
1. Where has explaining taken from?
2. When does human brain absorb more and understand better?
3. How does demonstrating enhance the student’s understanding?
4. What method of teaching promotes a sense of mutual responsibility
among the students?
5. What is one of the best direct instructional methods?
6. What facilitates explanation?
7. How does testing differ from questioning?
5. Translate into English:
1. Этот метод основан на трех критериях - наблюдении, сохранении и
воспроизведении.
2. Демонстрация – это пошаговое объяснение, которое повышает
понимание учебного материала.
3. Командная работа – это современная форма сотрудничества.
4. Инстинкт любопытства побуждает студентов задавать вопросы.
5. Использование наглядных средств облегчает объяснение.
6. Студентов обучают работать в группе, что повышает чувство
взаимоответственности среди учащихся.
7. Объяснение должно сопровождаться подходящими примерами.
TEXT B
6. Read and translate the text.
Jean-Jacques Rousseau (28 June 1712 – 2 July 1778) was a major Genevan
philosopher, writer, and composer of 18th-century Romanticism. His political
philosophy heavily influenced the French Revolution, as well as the American
Revolution and the overall development of modern political, sociological and
educational thought. His novel, “Émile”: or, “On Education” is a seminal treatise on
the education of the whole person for citizenship.
Rousseau was born in Geneva, which was at the time a city-state and a
Protestant associate of the Swiss Confederacy. Rousseau’s philosophy of education is
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not concerned with particular techniques of imparting information and concepts, but
rather with developing the pupil’s character and moral sense, so that he may learn to
practice self-mastery and remain virtuous even in the unnatural and imperfect society
in which he will have to live.
The hypothetical boy, Émile, is to be raised in the countryside, which, Rousseau
believes, is a more natural and healthy environment than the city, under the
guardianship of a tutor who will guide him through various learning experiences
arranged by the tutor. Today we would call this the disciplinary method of "natural
consequences" since, like modern psychologists,
Rousseau was one of the first to advocate developmentally appropriate education;
and his description of the stages of child development mirrors his conception of the
evolution of culture.
General understanding:
1. What was the name of his famous novel?
2. What did his philosophy of education include?
3. How was his disciplinary method called?
4. Why did he pay attention to the development of the pupil’s character and
moral sense?
5. How did he describe the stages of development?
LESSON 6
TEXT A
HISTORY OF EDUCATION
1. Read and translate the text.
About 3000 BC mankind invented a system of writing. It included a method of
writing numbers as well as language. The invention of writing was the major
milestone in the history of education. It made possible the beginning of schools, as
we know them today.
Before man developed writing, teachers had to repeat orally what was to be
learned until the young had memorized it. A child could thus learn only what his
teacher already knew, and had memorized. But by teaching the child to read, a
teacher could make available the knowledge of many men, not only his own.
Reading and writing could not be learned while the child served as an apprentice,
imitated the behaviour of his elders, or took part in rituals, in addition, the first
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writing systems, which were a kind of picture writing, were awkward and hard to
learn. As a result, special schools arose in which teachers taught reading, writing, and
calculation.
The learned men of ancient times, by default became the teachers. Priests and
prophets taught children of the wealthy and noble, the skills to take up their roles as
leaders and businessmen. The priests’ position was elevated above many strata of
society, and they were treated accordingly for their knowledge, and wisdom.
One of the most learned men of all time, Confucius (561B.C.-), became the first
private teacher in history. Born of a once noble family fallen on hard times, he found
himself as an adolescent with a thirst for knowledge and nowhere to drink, since only
the royal or noble were allowed an education. Because all the teachers were
government officials, there was no way around the State policy. He solved it by going
to work for a nobleman, whom he could accompany on his extensive travels. Such
was his reputation, people sought him out to teach their sons. Confucius took any
student eager to learn, and with the regular subjects, imparted his personal wisdoms
for developing responsibility and moral character through discipline.
In ancient Greece, long acknowledged as the seat of philosophy and wisdom, the
value of educating their children was recognized very early on, with some households
engaging their own teacher.
Greek civilization flourished from about 700 BC to about 330 BC. During this
period, the Greeks made the greatest educational advance of ancient times. In fact,
Western education today is based on the ancient Greek model.
Ancient Greece was divided into independent city-states. The educational
system of each city-state aimed to produce good citizens. Athens and Sparta, two of
the most powerful city-states, had different ideals of citizenship. In Sparta, a citizen
was judged largely by his political and military service. The government controlled
education. Boys received physical and military training, but few learned to read and
write. In Athens, unlike Sparta, a citizen was judged more by the quality of his mind.
But Athenian citizens were also expected to develop their bodies and to serve the
state.
Learned men, continued to impart wisdom on into the first years of Christianity,
including the scribes in the Bible, who were often men that taught law as well.
Through the first centuries A.D. Roman families often had educated slaves to teach
their children, some of which were captives from other countries.
The Romans established institutions of higher learning. These institutions were
schools of rhetoric, which prepared young men for careers in law and government.
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Education in the modern world tended to be a “hit and miss” proposition until
the Middle Ages, when the Roman Catholic Church took charge of teaching the sons
of nobility, entrusting that charge to monasteries or specially designated learning
“centres.” Many of these centres evolved into the distinguished learning institutions
of today, including Cambridge University, whose first college was St. Peter’s,
founded in 1284. The 17th and 18th centuries saw the greatest growth in education
for more than the privileged, and also a dramatic rise in the training of teachers, and
propounding of educational theories.
Vocabulary:
include – включать
major – крупный
memorize – запоминать
apprentice – новичок
awkward - затруднительный
prophet – проповедник
elevate – возвышать
adolescent – подросток
accompany – сопровождать
impart – передавать
acknowledged – общепризнанный
engage – нанимать
flourish – процветать
advance – прогресс
scribe – книжник
captive – пленный
establish – основывать
proposition – утверждение
charge – плата
evolve – развиваться
2. Give English equivalents:
Доступный, ответственность, век, привилегированный, возможный,
знатный, ценность, раб, выдающийся, развиваться, умения, разрешать,
правительство, признанный, включать, мудрость, право, пропагандировать,
политика, оплата.
3. Translate these expressions:
Picture writing, strata of society, the State policy, major milestone, learned men,
eager to learn, tended to be, ancient times, extensive travels, households, “hit and
miss”, by default, government officials, higher learning, the Middle Ages.
4. Answer the questions:
1. Who established institutions of higher learning?
2. How did the learned men in ancient times become the teachers?
3. Where were young men prepared for careers in law and government?
4. Who were scribes?
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5. When did mankind invent a system of writing?
6. Who was the first private teacher in history?
7. When was the greatest growth in education?
5. Translate into English:
1. В действительности, западное образование основывается на модели
образования Древней Греции.
2. Должность священника возвышалась над всеми слоями общества.
3. Образование в современном мире имеет тенденцию быть теорией
проб и ошибок.
4. Конфуций развивал в своих учениках ответственность и мудрость
через дисциплину.
5. Священники и проповедники обучали детей только из знатных и
богатых семей.
6. Греческая цивилизация совершила огромный прогресс в образовании.
7. Афины и Спарта имели различные идеалы в воспитании.
TEXT B
6. Read and translate the text.
Johann Heinrich Pestalozzi (12 January 1746 – 17 February 1827) was a Swiss
pedagogue and educational reformer who exemplified Romanticism in his approach.
He was born on 12 January 1746 in Zürich, Switzerland. His father died when he
was young, and he was brought up by his mother.
His first published book was “The Evening Hours of a Hermit” (1780), a series
of aphorisms and reflections. This was followed by his masterpiece, “Leonard and
Gertrude” (1781), an account of the gradual reformation, first of a household, and
then of a whole village, by the efforts of a good and devoted woman. It was avidly
read in Germany, and the name of Pestalozzi was rescued from obscurity.
Pestalozzi was a Romantic who felt that education must be radically personal,
appealing to each learner's intuition. He emphasized that every aspect of the child's
life contributed to the formation of personality, character, and reason. He learned by
operating schools at Neuhof and Yverdon. The success of the Yverdon school
attracted the interest of European and American educators. Pestalozzi's educational
methods were child-centered and based on individual differences, sense perception,
and the student's self-activity.
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Pestalozzi was an important influence on the theory of physical education; he
developed a regimen of physical exercise and outdoor activity linked to general,
moral, and intellectual education that reflected his ideal of harmony and human
autonomy.
General understanding:
1. Who was Heinrich Pestalozzi?
2. How did he define the system of education?
3. What were Pestalozzi’s educational methods?
4. How did he influence on the theory of physical education?
5. What were his famous books?
LESSON 7
TEXT A
EDUCATIONAL PHILOSOPHY
1. Read and translate the text.
What makes one teacher different from another? It is merely a difference in
educational philosophy that differentiates them in the eyes of their students. The
philosophy determines how effective they are at imparting knowledge, and what
legacies they will leave behind...
When we carefully think about the many teachers and professors that we have
encountered in our lives, we begin to see a big difference in everyone's educational
philosophy. Every teacher has their own unique way of delivering learning and
teachings to their pupils, and this affects the intensity with which these teachings are
accepted, and the fondness with which these teachers are remembered. We all have
that one special teacher that we will always remember, and this is solely dependent
on that individual educational philosophy.
The philosophy of education of a teacher is a statement of purpose of sorts,
which outlines this persons views on the manner in which education is supposed to be
delivered. It can also be termed as a vision statement of the person, and what he/she
aims to instill in the students in order to develop them on all levels. Every person will
have their own individualistic style of teaching their students, and it is their
philosophy in education that determines how they intend to go about it.
When an individual is preparing to become a teacher, he/she is asked to pen
down their personal educational philosophy statement. This document serves as a
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guideline for them during the course of their teaching career, and it should also be a
reference for them to stick to their principles. They need to write down what
education is in their opinion, and how they plan to go about spreading education in an
efficient manner.
These statements of educational philosophy should serve as a guiding light for
the rest of that persons teaching career, and it should specify their broad goals and
purposes of being a teacher. No matter what happens, they should always stick to
their philosophy. Education is not an easy gift to impart as it involves many
intricacies, and the least that is expected of teachers is to have a clear vision and
purpose for doing what they do. Here are some of the questions that an educational
philosophy should commonly answer.
• What is the purpose of education in a broader sense, as related to the
community and society on a whole?
• What is, in your opinion, the role of a teacher in a classroom?
• What are your goals and ambitions for the students you are teaching?
• What methods do you think facilitate the learning process most effectively?
• Are you convinced that all students can learn something new everyday?
• Lastly, what qualities should a good teacher possess?
If one can manage to answer all these questions and pen them down
convincingly, then this qualifies as a successful educational philosophy blueprint that
one should stick to for the rest of their teaching career.
An individual philosophy and education must go hand in hand with each other,
and this is reflected in the statement that they create when they are applying for a
teacher’s job. This is more than just a written page of one's beliefs, because if the
institution where one is applying is run the right way, they will definitely scrutinize
one's educational philosophy very carefully.
There are bound to be differences in the educational philosophy of different
people, and the methods that they employ. What is important is to understand the sole
aim of teaching is to uplift and free the students, not bind them. If you are a teacher,
stay true to your educational philosophy, and your students will never forget you.
Vocabulary:
determine – определять
impart – распространять
legacies – наследие
encounter – сталкиваться
deliver – доставлять
accept – принимать
outline – проявляться
aim – стремиться
intend – намереваться
guideline – ориентир
reference – указание
statement – утверждение
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specify – указывать
intricacies – тонкости
facilitate – облегчать
reflect – отражать
stick to – придерживаться
related to – связанный с
blueprint – проект
manner – способ
2. Give English equivalents:
Мнение, подарок, по крайней мере, цель, сообщество, качество, оставлять,
распространение, ясное видение, убежден, остальная часть, сталкиваться,
утверждение, включать, успешный, учебный процесс, различие, особенный,
ожидать, общество, владеть, забывать, создавать, влиять.
3. Translate these expressions:
To be termed as, to instill, efficient manner, broad goals, to pen down, guiding
light, no matter, ambitions, sole aim, to stick to the principles, to go hand in hand
with, teaching career, vision statement, broad sense, to apply for a job, to run the
right way.
4. Answer the questions:
1. What does teacher’s philosophy in education determine?
2. What is the philosophy of teacher’s education?
3. What must an individual do if he wants to be a teacher?
4. How can individual philosophy and education be connected?
5. What are the differences in the educational philosophy of different people?
6. What questions does the educational philosophy concern with?
7. What are the main statements of educational philosophy?
5. Translate into English:
1. Учителя отличаются в понимании философии образования.
2. Философия и образование должны идти рука об руку друг с другом.
3. Основные положения философии образования должны быть
ориентиром во всей карьере учителя.
4. У каждого человека есть воспоминания об особенном учителе.
5. Образование включает в себя много тонкостей.
6. Философия образования должна ответить на важные вопросы.
7. Каждый учитель имеет свой собственный способ передачи знаний.
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TEXT B
6. Read and translate the text.
Friedrich Wilhelm August Froebel ( April 21, 1782 – June 21, 1852) was a
German pedagogue, a student of Pestalozzi who laid the foundation for modern
education based on the recognition that children have unique needs and capabilities.
He developed the concept of the “kindergarten”, and also coined the word now used
in German and English.
He began as an educator in 1805 at school in Frankfurt, where he learnt about
Johann Heinrich Pestalozzi’s ideas. He later worked with Pestalozzi in Switzerland
where his ideas further developed.
From 1806 Froebel was the live-in teacher for a Frankfurt noble family’s three
sons. In 1826 he published his main literary work “The Education of Man” and
founded the weekly publication “The Educating Families”.
In 1837 he founded a care, playing and activity institute for small children in
Bad Blankenburg. In 1840 he coined the word kindergarten for the Play and Activity
Institute he had founded in 1837 at Bad Blankenburg for young children.
He designed the educational play materials known as Froebel Gifts, which
included geometric building blocks and pattern activity blocks.
General understanding:
1. What concept did he develop?
2. What were Froebel Gifts?
3. What institute did he found for small children?
4. In what family did he work?
5. What was his main literary work?
LESSON 8
TEXT A
ROLE OF HIGHER EDUCATION
1. Read and translate the text.
Anyone seeking to tackle the problems facing the developing world must
remember two simple facts of life. First, none of these problems — from food
shortages and the spread of disease, to achieving sustainable economic growth — can
be addressed without the use of science and technology.
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Second, harnessing science for development depends on the skills of a country's
people. And that in turn requires a robust and effective higher education system —
the only mechanism that can produce and sustain these skills.
But in the recent past, many governments overlooked this critical information.
Few developing countries, for example, refer to either science or higher education in
their Poverty Reduction Strategy Plans — the documents that guide other countries
on a country's investment priorities.
Fortunately, for a variety of reasons — perhaps most importantly the growing
awareness of the need for a strong domestic science base to benefit from the global
knowledge economy — both developing country governments, and development funding
organizations, are now recognizing the need to build robust higher education systems.
The next step is to consider how this can be best achieved. There should be the
appropriate balance between teaching and research. Social and economic needs
should drive research priorities and complementary basic research. There are the
advantages — and pitfalls — of seeking to compete with higher education institutions
in the developed world.
People intend to put higher education's role in achieving development goals
under the spotlight, the role aid agencies play in supporting this process, and the
opportunities and hurdles facing policymakers on the ground.
Summarizing the shifting attitudes to higher education as a development
objective, the relevant initiatives have been launched over the past decades and the
challenges that these initiatives have faced.
Some countries make a powerful case for building the capacity of higher
education institutions as the key to making science and technology contribute to a
country's development. The other countries argue for universities to promote socioeconomic growth, by building links with industry. Such links are essential for any
country wishing to benefit from the fruits of knowledge-based innovation.
So, university education is necessary for everyone. It is very important. It is an
integral part of our life. Educated person is more likely to get a good job. He has a
great future and quality of a life is higher than an uneducated person. This is one of
the main reasons why we should study at university. In additional, education helps to
get different skills. Besides, university education is opportunity experience rich
culture and social life. This will change our lives for the better and move to a new
stage of development.
Vocabulary:
tackle-решать
facing- стоящий
shortage-нехватка
disease- болезнь
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sustainable-устойчивый
skill-квалификация
sustain-поддерживать
guide-руководствоваться
awareness- осознание
research-исследование
opportunity- возможность
objective- цель
challenge- проблема
capacity- потенциал
harness- использовать
robust- надежный
overlook- не замечать
basic- фундаментальный
funding- финансирование
compete- конкурировать
shifting- смещение
relevant- соответствующий
powerful- мощный
contribute- способствовать
2. Give English equivalents:
Нехватка продовольствия, инвестиционный, достигать, быть решенным,
исследования, возможности, распространение, надежный, единственный, наука,
связи, существенный, поддерживать, необходимость, внутренний, в центре
внимания.
3. Translate these expressions:
Developing world, growth, to require, recognizing the need, to tackle the
problems, to guide, essential links, for a variety of reasons, developing countries,
basic research, the developed world, powerful case, industry, to benefit from the
fruits innovation.
4. Answer the questions:
1. What is the appropriate balance between teaching and research?
2. What did many governments overlook?
3. Why do countries need for a strong domestic science base?
4. What is the role of higher education?
5. What does education help to get?
6. Why is higher education necessary?
7. What should social and economic needs drive?
5. Translate into English:
1. Использование науки в целях развития зависит от квалификации
людей страны.
2. Необходимо определить роль высшего образования в достижении
целей в области развития.
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3. Самое важное – это осознание необходимости мощной научной базы.
4. Многие правительства не заметили этой критически важной
информации.
5. Одной из проблем является нехватка продовольствия и
распространение болезней.
6. Необходимость
высшего
образования
обуславливается
потребностями социально-экономического роста.
7. Достижение устойчивого экономического роста невозможно без
использования науки и техники.
TEXT B
6. Read and translate the text.
Konstantin Dmitrievich Ushinsky (2 March 1824 - 3 January 1871) was a
Russian teacher and writer, credited as the founder of scientific pedagogy in Russia.
Konstantin Ushinsky was born in Tula in a family of a retired officer. In 1844
Ushinsky graduated from the Department of Law of Moscow University. From 1846
to 1849 he was a professor at the Demidov Lyceum in Yaroslavl but was forced to
leave the position because of his liberal views.
At the end of his life Ushinsky mostly acted as a writer and publicist. Together
with Pirogov he may be considered as an author of the liberal reforms of the 1860s.
Emancipated peasants needed schools, the schools needed teachers and textbooks.
Ushinsky expended a lot of effort arguing the best way to organize teachers'
seminaries. He also wrote children's textbooks for learning reading: “Children's
World” (Detski mir), "the Russian equivalent of America's McGuffy Reader," and
“Native Word” (Rodnoye slovo).
Ushinsky's magnum opus was his theoretical work “The Human As a Subject of
Education”: “Pedagogical Anthropology” in three volumes, started in 1867.
According to Ushinsky, the subject of education is human, so it is impossible to
achieve results in education without using the results of the "anthropological
sciences": philosophy, political economy, history, literature, psychology, anatomy,
physiology. Among Ushinsky's breakthroughs was the new "Analytic-Synthetic
Phonetic Method" for learning reading and writing, which is still the main method
used in Russian schools.
General understanding:
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1.
2.
3.
4.
5.
Why was Ushinsky forced to leave the position of a professor?
What were his main ideas?
What is the subject of education, according to Ushinsky?
What are “anthropological sciences”?
What are the names of his famous textbooks?
LESSON 9
TEXT A
THE PROFESSION OF A TEACHER
1. Read and translate the text.
There are professions – vocations – and people surrender themselves wholly to
these professions. Undoubtedly, the profession of a teacher is one of them.
Even if you want to be a teacher you can’t become a good one. You must be
born one. Love for children, an ability to communicate with them, understand and
teach them – these are the most important qualities of a genuine teacher. An ability to
be a genuine teacher is God’s gift; it’s a talent like the talent of a writer, an artist or a
musician. It’s even more – it’s fate. A teacher is like a sculptor: he moulds a
personality out of a child like a sculptor creates a beautiful statue out of clay.
Pedagogy is a very complex and responsible study; probably, no less responsible
than medicine. As a patient hands to the doctor the most expensive thing – his life, so
parents entrust the teacher with the most valuable creature – their child. And mainly it
depends on a teacher what kind of person a child will grow up to be: a genius or a
villain. If you have been dreaming of becoming a teacher since your childhood, it’s
not a problem nowadays.
In Russia there are more than 250 teachers training colleges and universities.
Every year thousands of young people graduate from these colleges to come to school
on September 1st. According to a survey, more than 70 per cent of students enter
these colleges by their own choice, and it is well-known to them what difficult and
sometimes ungrateful work is waiting for them after receiving their diplomas. In the
process of education when they were asked whether they were sorry about their
choice of profession, 60 per cent said that they were not sorry at all. Judging by these
facts teachers come to school not for money (the salary of a teacher is laughable), but
they simply can’t help coming because it’s their vocation to work with children.
The profession of a teacher combines both joy and sorrow. A person who gets
pedagogical training should master a lot of knowledge. But the main thing he should
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understand is according to what laws and rules the personality of a child develops.
The most important of them are love and mercy. Doctors have a rule: “Don’t do
harm”. Teachers must also follow this rule; because there is nothing more valuable
than children and it depends on teachers what kind of people the children will
become. A teacher is responsible for all his pupils, for, according to Antoine de Saint
Exeupery we are answerable for those whom we have tamed.
Vocabulary:
genuine – истинный
clay - глина
mould out- формировать
entrust- поручать
valuable- ценный
villain- разбойник
survey- обследование
sorrow- огорчение
tame- приручать
creature- создание
grow up- вырастать
childhood- детство
graduate from- оканчивать
ungrateful- неблагодарный
laughable- смешной
combine- сочетать
master- владеть
answerable- ответственный
quality- качество
vocation- призвание
2. Give English equivalents:
Истинный, учебный, выбор, вырастать, способность, зависеть от, ценный,
сочетать, владеть, понимать, известный, печаль, ответственный, создание,
поступать в колледж, знания, мечтать, дар, сложный.
3. Translate these expressions:
To hand to, childhood, to be sorry about, vocation, the most important, to entrust,
survey, judging by, to mould out, to graduate from, laughable, mercy, to tame, must
be born, to do harm, laws and rules, valuable creature, ungrateful work.
4. Answer the questions:
1. What does the profession of a teacher combine?
2. What are the most important qualities of a genuine teacher?
3. Is pedagogy a responsible study?
4. Can pedagogy be compared with medicine?
5. What do parents entrust the teacher?
6. Do teachers come to school for money?
7. What rules must the teacher follow?
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5. Translate into English:
1. Некоторые студенты поступают в педагогический колледж по
собственному выбору.
2. Профессия учителя сочетает и радость и огорчения.
3. Многие учителя приходят работать в школу не из-за денег.
4. Важные качества гениального учителя – это любовь к детям,
способность общаться с ними, понимать и обучать их.
5. Родители доверяют учителю самое дорогое – своего ребенка.
6. Важную вещь, которую учитель должен понимать – это по каким
законам и правилам идет развитие ребенка.
7. Мы ответственны за тех, кого приручили.
TEXT B
6. Read and translate the text.
Peter Franzevich Lesgaft (21 September 1837 – 1909) was a Russian teacher,
anatomist, physician and social reformer. He was the founder of the modern system
of physical education and medical-pedagogical control in physical training, one of
founders of theoretical anatomy. P.F. Lesgaft Institute of Physical Culture in St.
Petersburg is named after him. Unity and integrity of all organs in human body was
the basis of Peter Lesgaft system of the pointed exercises for both physical
development and intellectual, moral and aesthetic education.
Outdoor games were his favorite means in both physical development and
formation of character of a child.
Peter Lesgaft was born on 21 September 1837 in Sankt-Petersburg. In 1861 he
graduated from Imperial Medical-Surgical Academy in St. Petersburg and remained
there as a teacher of anatomy. In 1869 he became a professor at the University of
Kazan, but soon was barred from teaching for his outspoken criticism of the
unscientific methods used.
He also became known for publication of a descriptive history of sport in Europe
and ancient Greece and an article on naturalistic gymnastics. As a result he was put in
charge of the physical training of military cadets.
In 1877, he published ‘‘Relationship of Anatomy to Physical Education” and
‘‘The Major Purpose of Physical Education in Schools”. He was able to organizing
courses for physical education instructors for the military academies — until then
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non-existent. In 1893 Peter Lesgaft organized Biological laboratory which in 1918
was transformed into P.F.Lesgaft Institute of Natural Science.
General understanding:
1. Who was Peter Lesgaft?
2. What publications did he publish?
3. What did he organize?
4. What university did he graduate from?
5. What was the basis of his educational system?
LESSON 10
TEXT A
A MODEL OF AN IDEAL TEACHER
1. Read and translate the text.
Few of those engaged in training teachers would conceive of a teacher who
would be ideal for all and any teaching circumstances. The art and craft of teaching is
so diverse that no such paragon would be likely to exist. What is possible, however,
is to conceive of an ideal, which is redefined in terms of the particular kinds of
teaching situations the teacher actually proposes to engage in. Such an "ideal" teacher
would possess personal qualities, technical abilities and professional understanding of
the following kinds:
1) Personal qualities. These include both inherent qualities and other qualities
acquired through experience, education, or training. Equally, it is obvious that the
teacher must be intelligent, have a non-discouraging personality, and display
emotional maturity. Among the acquired qualities are to be included a wide experience of life, an adequate level of personal education and sufficient command of the
subject he is teaching.
2) Technical abilities. These are of three kinds: first ability to discern and assess
the progress and difficulties of his pupils, an unhesitating control of the teaching in
his class so as to maximize the role of learning; secondly a fluent and responsive
grasp of classroom skills and techniques; and thirdly a "creative familiarity" with the
syllabus and materials being used in his classes.
3) Professional understanding. This refers to a sense of perspective that sees the
teacher's own particular task in relation to all types of teaching situations, to an
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awareness of trends and developments in methods of teaching, and to an acceptance
that it is in his professional duty to go on improving his professional effectiveness
throughout his career.
Vocabulary:
engage in- заниматься
conceive – представлять себе
craft – умение
diverse – разнообразный
paragon- образец
redefined- неопределенный
possess- обладать
inherent- неустановленный
acquired- приобретенный
particular - особенный
maturity- зрелость
adequate- соответствующий
sufficient- достаточный
command- владение
discern- замечать
assess- оценивать
grasp-обладание
responsive- отзывчивый
experience- опыт
quality- качество
2. Give English equivalents:
Программа обучения, опыт, обладать, эмоциональная зрелость, личные качества,
обстоятельства, ясно видеть, принадлежности, осознание, методы обучения,
принятие, обязанность, представлять себе, неопределенный, заниматься чем-л.
3. Translate these expressions:
Creative familiarity, technical abilities, non-discouraging, intelligent, fluent
grasp, throughout, sufficient command, acquired qualities, craft of teaching, to refer
to, adequate level, inherent qualities, skills and techniques, to assess, paragon.
4. Answer the questions:
1. What is the professional duty of a teacher?
2. What technical abilities should the teacher possess?
3. What is professional understanding?
4. What should the teacher discern and assess?
5. The teacher must have a discouraging personality, mustn’t he?
6. What personal qualities must the teacher have?
7. What is a model of an ideal teacher?
5. Translate into English:
1. Учитель должен иметь свой собственный взгляд на педагогические
ситуации.
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2. Знания и умения в педагогике очень разнообразны.
3. Ценные качества идеального учителя должны складываться из опыта,
образования и преподавания.
4. Необходимо достаточное владение своим предметом.
5. Учителю следует иметь соответствующий уровень образования.
6. Это относится к пониманию тенденций развития методов обучения.
7. Профессиональный долг педагога – продолжать повышать
профессиональную значимость.
TEXT B
6. Read and translate the text.
Polina Kergomar (1838-1925) was a progressive leader in the field of national
education of France, a prominent theorist of pre-school education. Kergomar considered
many important issues of upbringing and education from materialistic positions.
She described the concept of ideal development of the child's personality as a
spontaneous process, spontaneous development because such education could not
generate the necessary personal qualities. Kergomar believed that the natural process
of development of the child was under the supervision of adults, and stressed the
importance of the guidance in the development of the child's personality.
Kergomar paid much attention to children's games. She stressed the importance
of games for preparing children for future adult life. In her book "the child from 2 to
6 years" there was a paragraph "training for life through games." Kergomar stressed
the importance of games for the development of the public interests of the child. She
introduced the game in the work plan of the parent schools and developed the content
and the methodology guide of different types of games.
Progressive teaching provisions were introduced in the practice of Kergomar for
the children's games: appropriate premises, yard, toys and books. Many nursery
schools bear the name of Pauline Kergomard.
General understanding:
1. Who was Pauline Kergomard?
2. What teaching provisions did she introduce?
3. Why did she stress the importance of games?
4. What were her main ideas?
5. How did she describe the concept of ideal development of the child's
personality?
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LESSON 11
TEXT A
INDIVIDUAL EDUCATION
1. Read and translate the text.
Individual Education (IE) is a new concept in schooling. The basic premise of IE
is that education is a privilege and not an obligation. An IE school directs but does
not demand, leads but does not drive, persuades but doesn't force, suggests but does
not require. John Holt suggests that an alternative to authoritarian systems is to have
schools in which each child can satisfy curiosity, develop abilities and talents, pursue
interests, and obtain from adults and older children a glimpse of the great variety of
richness of life.
Objectives of Individual Education
The objectives of IE are: 1) to generate motivation to learn the academic
curriculum and to provide alternative ways of learning these subjects; 2) to offer
guidance about how to best proceed in various ways of learning the academic
curriculum; 3) to provide testing of learning at frequent intervals; 4) to provide
opportunities for supervised social interaction with other individuals; 5) to provide
opportunities to learn a variety of non-academic subjects.
Academic Curriculum
The academic Curriculum in an Individual Education school includes the usual
elements such as language, ails, arithmetic, science and social sciences.
Creative Curriculum
The creative curriculum is a special means of fostering resourcefulness by
helping the child locate and develop special talents and abilities. Teachers and
students are invited to submit ideas for classes of special interest. Creative courses
can motivate and reinforce learning in the academic subjects; to build a tree house or
bake cookies, one must be able to read and measure.
Socialization
The socialization process is aided in an IE school through the concept of
discipline, in the homeroom, and through advisement by the teacher/advisors.
Education is seen as a voluntary association with equals that creates an atmosphere of
mutual respect and regard.
IE has three rules that the child must understand, and agree to follow before
being admitted to an IE school. After a third violation a child attends a conference
with his teacher/advisor (TA) and the school principal; after the sixth violation the
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parents of the child are brought into the conference session; suspension occurs after
the ninth and to the eleventh violation; and after the twelfth violation the child is
considered for expulsion. Expulsion or suspension is rare at IE schools because
students eventually realize that they have little need to rebel in the school.
Advising is a function of every faculty member in IE school. The child chooses his
teacher/advisor by petition. The TA’s role is to listen, offer help and advice, give
information, and allow the child freedom to make decisions and even to make mistakes.
Advantages of IE
The educators list six advantages of IE schools:
1) Children learn more academically in less time.
2) Children like this kind of school.
3) Schools are orderly and disciplined.
4) Children get a better education for life.
5) Teachers prefer teaching in IE schools.
6) Parents prefer IE to traditional schools.
Vocabulary:
obligation – обязанность
demand – требовать
lead – руководить
persuade – убеждать
force – заставлять
suggest – советовать
obtain – добиваться
glimpse – проблеск
generate – вызывать чувство
guidance – руководство
proceed – продвигаться
ail – беспокоить
fostering – воспитание
reinforce – подкреплять
regard – внимание
suspension – отстранение
occur – случаться
expulsion – исключение
rebel – протестовать
petition – просьба
2. Give English equivalents:
Заставлять, любопытство, взрослый, реклама, соглашаться, управлять,
понятия,
развивать,
цели,
включать,
создавать,
необходимость,
дисциплинированный, возможность, следовать, посещать, достоинство,
предпочитать, правила, советовать, средство, измерять, осознавать, выбирать,
принимать решения, различный.
3. Translate these expressions:
Authoritarian system, abilities, academic curriculum, mutual respect, basic
premise, social sciences, to be aided in, to make mistakes, richness of life,
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resourcefulness, school principal, to pursue interests, non-academic subjects,
voluntary association, third violation, to satisfy.
4. Answer the questions:
1. When does a child attend a conference with his teacher at the school
principal?
2. What are the advantages of IE?
3. What does the academic curriculum in an Individual Education school
include?
4. How many rules does IE have?
5. What is the basic premise of IE?
6. What are the objectives of IE?
7. What is an alternative to authoritarian system of school?
5. Translate into English:
1. Ребенок должен понимать и следовать правилам, чтобы быть
принятым в школу индивидуального обучения.
2. Роль учителя в школах индивидуального обучения – помогать,
советовать, давать информацию и предоставлять свободу принимать
решения.
3. Исключение из школы индивидуального обучения – редкое явление.
4. Творческая учебная программа помогает детям развивать их таланты
и возможности.
5. Школа индивидуального обучения руководит, но не требует,
убеждает, но не заставляет.
6. Детям нравится такой вид школы.
7. Образование в школах индивидуального обучения создает атмосферу
взаимоуважения и взаимопонимания.
TEXT B
6. Read and translate the text.
John Dewey (October 20, 1859 – June 1, 1952) was an American philosopher,
psychologist and educational reformer whose ideas have been influential in education
and social reform. Dewey was an important early developer of the philosophy of
pragmatism and one of the founders of functional psychology. He was a major
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representative of the progressive and progressive populist philosophies of schooling
during the first half of the 20th century in the USA.
Although Dewey is known best for his publications concerning education, he
also wrote about many other topics, including experience, nature, art, logic, inquiry,
democracy, and ethics.
In his advocacy of democracy, Dewey considered two fundamental elements—
schools and civil society—as being major topics needing attention and reconstruction
to encourage experimental intelligence and plurality. Dewey asserted that complete
democracy was to be obtained not just by extending voting rights but also by
ensuring that there exists a fully formed public opinion, accomplished by effective
communication among citizens, experts, and politicians, with the latter being
accountable for the policies they adopt.
The great revolution in teaching by the end of the nineteenth century and the
beginning of the twentieth century was a revolution made by John Dewey. He
developed several critiques of old pedagogy. The main critique was that the
intellectual apparatus didn’t work alone. The intellectual apparatus, Dewey said,
actually depended on motivation. Lessons constructed in a logical and/or historical
way needed to be changed. The lessons should be put in a psychological way. So,
Dewey took once more a theme from Comenius and Rousseau. Lessons should start
with the problems of the world –problems that brought interest and motivation for the
children. The teachers, of course, could show the logical and sequence of an issue,
but they should know that the child learns this only after a translation of the topics in
a psychological way.
General understanding:
1. Who was John Dewey?
2. What was his main critique?
3. What were his two fundamental elements in education?
4. What did his publications concern?
5. How did he made the great revolution in teaching?
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LESSON 12
TEXT A
DISTANCE LEARNING
1. Read and translate the text.
Many people have a need and would benefit greatly from advancing their
education. Since life prevents many people from becoming fulltime students, some of
them turn to distance learning to further themselves. There are many institutions that
currently offer distance learning courses, and while quality will vary, advancing your
education can never hurt.
There are several different types of distance learning courses that both traditional
and non-traditional students use to fit education into their hectic lifestyle. The
purpose of distance learning is to connect instructors and students across a large
distance, but the format and scheduling used can have a large impact on the learning
experience. One of the most popular types of distance learning courses is learning
courses.
Learning courses are essentially internet classes that have no meeting time or
physical meeting place. All assignments are given and turned in online. Typically
there is some kind of forum that students log into to receive assignments and
information about the class.
Many students enjoy learning classes because they can complete work whenever
they have time. Some distance learning courses require students to commute to a
classroom on a nearby campus where they will receive instruction and lectures
indirectly. The most common format is a classroom with a TV that is either
connected to a live feed where the teacher resides, or a recorded lesson is played.
Many towns and cities with mid to large colleges, will broadcast certain classes over
public access channels so that students can receive lectures and class information
from the comfort of their home.
One advantage of broadcasting lessons over public access television is that with
a VCR, you can record the lesson and watch or rewatch the lesson when you have
time or if you do not understand a particular point.
Having lessons recorded can be a valuable tool when studying for a test since
you can watch the actual lecture again or review certain points.
Although distance learning has caught on and is heavily used by non-traditional
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students who have day jobs and a busy lifestyle, many high schools are taking
advantage of distance learning as well.
The reason behind this is because the school does not have to hire another
teacher therefore high schools can gain access to extremely skilled and
knowledgeable teachers through distance learning courses. It can also allow high
schools to offer specialized classes and develop high caliber programs that can delve
deeply into a particular field.
This is particularly useful for rural school districts that may have difficulty
attracting and paying for the best teachers, but with distance learning classes, they
can provide their students with instruction from the best available instructors.
Distance learning courses continue to increase in popularity and variety.
Learning courses are especially becoming more popular since nearly everyone
has internet access and learning courses allow students to complete assignments at
their own pace in the comfort of their own home.
Today, distance learning education offers these same people the best route to get
a better job as well as get an earlier promotion since they can earn a degree while
holding down their existing job and so, there is no need to take years off just to
become better educated. The best part about distance learning education is that you
can set your own timeframe in which to complete your education.
Not having to take time off from your present occupation is one of the biggest
advantages to choosing distance learning education and what's more, the degree that
you will earn will be at par with degrees that are earned through taking regular
courses.
Vocabulary:
benefit – выигрывать
vary – различаться
prevent – препятствовать
fit – соответствовать
hectic – беспокойный
scheduling – планирование
assignments – задания
complete – завершать
campus – здание университета
feed – поддерживать
reside – проживать
broadcast – транслировать
advantage – преимущество
hire – нанимать
allow – позволять
delve – вникать
pace – темп
route – путь
timeframe – сроки
par – равенство
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2. Give English equivalents:
Продвижение, обращаться к, испытание, доступный, квалифицированный,
большое влияние, ценный, вуз, предлагать, полезный, трудность, средний
колледж, некоторые пункты, высокотехнологичный, пересматривать,
напряженный образ жизни, конкретная область.
3. Translate these expressions:
To rewatch the lesson, public access, learning experience, valuable tool, rural
school districts, existing job, particular point, recorded lesson, earlier promotion,
meeting time, popularity and variety, holding down, fulltime students.
4. Answer the questions:
1. What are the advantages of broadcasting lessons?
2. What difficulties do rural school districts have?
3. Why are learning courses so popular?
4. Who can broadcast certain classes?
5. Why do many students enjoy learning classes?
6. What is the purpose of distance learning?
7. What are learning courses?
5. Translate into English:
1. Дистанционные курсы позволяют студентам выполнять задания в
своем собственном темпе, не выходя из дома.
2. С помощью видеомагнитофона студент может записать урок и
пересматривать его несколько раз.
3. При дистанционном обучении вы можете устанавливать свои
собственные сроки получения образования.
4. Существует несколько видов дистанционного обучения.
5. Многие средние школы используют элементы дистанционного
обучения, чтобы иметь возможность консультироваться с самыми
квалифицированными и знающими преподавателями.
6. После просмотра лекции вы можете сами протестировать себя, чтобы
узнать усвоили ли вы урок.
7. Курсы дистанционного обучения стали расширяться в связи с
появлением широкого доступа к интернету.
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TEXT B
6. Read and translate the text.
Maria Montessori (August 31, 1870 – May 6, 1952) was an Italian physician
and educator, a noted humanitarian and devout Catholic best known for the
philosophy of education which bears her name. Her educational method is in use
today in public as well as private schools throughout the world.
Maria Montessori was born in 1870 in Chiaravalle, Italy. Montessori was the
first woman to graduate from the University of Rome La Sapienza Medical School,
becoming one of the first female doctors in Italy. She was a member of the
University's Psychiatric Clinic and became intrigued with trying to educate the
"special needs" or "unhappy little ones" and the "uneducable" in Rome.
In 1896, she gave a lecture at the Educational Congress in Torino about the
training of the disabled. The Italian Minister of Education was in attendance, and,
sufficiently impressed by her arguments, appointed her the same year as director of
the Scuola Ortofrenica, an institution devoted to the care and education of the
mentally retarded.
Because of her success with these children, she was asked to start a school for
children in a housing project in Rome, which opened on January 6, 1907, and which
she called "Casa dei Bambini" or Children's House. Children's House was a child care
center in an apartment building in the poor neighborhood of Rome. She was focused
on teaching the students ways to develop their own skills at a pace they set, which
was a principle Montessori called "spontaneous self-development". Maria Montessori
died in the Netherlands in 1952, after a lifetime devoted to the study of child
development.
General understanding:
1. What was her educational method?
2. Why was she asked to start a school for disabled children?
3. What institute did she graduate from?
4. What kind of center was Children’s House?
5. Was her method of education famous and successful?
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LESSON 13
TEXT A
EDUCATIONAL SYSTEM IN GREAT BRITAIN
1. Read and translate the text.
All state schools in Britain are free, and schools provide their pupils with books
and equipment for their studies. All British children must stay at school from the age
of 5 until they are 16. Many of them stay longer and take final examination when they
are 17 or 18. Parents can choose to send their children to a nursery school or a preschool playgroup to prepare them for the start of compulsory education.
Before 1965 all children had to go through special intelligence tests. There were
different types of state secondary schools and at the age of 11 children went to
different schools in accordance of with the results of the tests.
State schools are divided into the following types:
Grammar schools. Children who go to grammar schools are usually those who
show a preference for academic subjects, although many grammar schools now also
have some technical courses.
Technical schools. Some children go to technical schools. Most courses there are
either commercial or technical.
Modern schools. Boys and girls who are interested in working with there hands
and learning in a practical way can go to a technical schools and learn some trade.
Comprehensive schools. These schools usually combine all types of secondary
education. They have physic, chemistry, biology laboratories, machine workshops for
metal and woodwork and also geography, history and art departments, commercial
and domestic courses.
There are also many schools which the State doesn’t control. They are private
schools. They charge fees for educating children and many of them are boarding
schools, at which pupils live during the term time.
At 16 pupils take a national exam called «G.C.S.E.» (General Certificate of
Secondary Education) and then they can leave school if they wish. This is the end of
compulsory education.
Some 16-year-olds continue their studies in the sixth form at school or at a
sixth form college. The sixth form prepares pupils for a national exam called «A»
level (advanced level) at IS. You need «A» level to enter a university.
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Other 16-year-olds choose to go to a college of further education to study for
more practical (vocational) diplomas relating to the world of work, such as
hairdressing, typing or mechanics.
Universities and colleges of higher education accept students with «A» levels
from 18. Students study for a degree which takes on average three years of fulltime study. Most students graduate at 21 or 22 and are given their degree at a
special graduation ceremony.
There are over 90 universities in GB. They are divided into three types: the old
universities (Oxford, Cambridge and Edinburgh Universities), in the 19th century
universities, such as London and Manchester universities, and the new universities.
University life is considered «an experience». The exams are competitive but the
social life and living away from home are also important. The social life is excellent
with a lot of clubs, parties, concerts, bars.
There are not only universities in Britain but also colleges. Colleges offer
courses in teacher training, courses in technology and some professions connected
with medicine.
Vocabulary:
state – государство
provide – обеспечивать
equipment – оборудование
compulsory – обязательный
trade – ремесло
combine – сочетать
boarding school – интернат
advanced – продвинутый
accept – принимать
experience – опыт
competitive – конкурсный
graduation – окончание
academic – учебный
secondary – средний
preference – предпочтение
private – частный
charge fees – назначать цену
wish – желать
enter – поступать
further – дальнейший
2. Give English equivalents:
Оборудование, сочетать, сдать экзамен, контролировать, семестр, частный,
интернат, различный, выбирать, следующий, дальнейший, обеспечивать,
посылать, государственный, интересоваться, принимать, важный, связанный с,
начало, обучение, курсы, ремесло.
3. Translate these expressions:
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Advanced level, vocational diplomas, educating children, art departments,
intelligence tests, to enter a university, in accordance of, degree, graduation ceremony,
pre-school playground, full-time study, machine workshops, compulsory education,
woodwork, preference, academic subjects, on average, competitive exams, teacher
training.
4. Answer the questions:
1. What are three types of universities of Great Britain?
2. What are modern schools?
3. What do private schools do?
4. What is a national exam? What is “A” level”?
5. What are technical schools?
6. Who goes to grammar schools?
7. What are comprehensive schools?
5. Translate into English:
1. Вузы принимают студентов с продвинутым уровнем.
2. Некоторые ученики отдают предпочтение учебным предметам.
3. Существуют школы, которые не контролируются государством.
4. В технических школах большинство курсов – коммерческие.
5. Все государственные школы в Великобритании бесплатные.
6. Частные школы назначают цену за образовательные услуги.
7. Студенты оканчивают вуз в возрасте 21-22 лет.
TEXT B
6. Read and translate the text.
Janusz Korczak (July 22, 1878 – August 1942) was a Polish children's author,
and pediatrician. After spending many years working in an orphanage, he refused
freedom and stayed with the children when the organisation was sent to
extermination camps.
Korczak often employed the form of the fairy tale in order to actually prepare his
young readers for the dilemmas and difficulties of real adult life, and the need to take
responsible decisions.
His famous books were “King Matt the First” and its sequel “King Matt on the
Desert Island”. Korczak depicted a child prince who was catapulted to the throne by
the sudden death of his father, and who must learn from various mistakes.
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The later “Kajtus the Wizard” anticipated Harry Potter in depicting a schoolboy
who gained magic powers (and its popularity during the 1930s, in both Polish and in
translation to several other languages, was nearly comparable to the present
popularity of the Potter series).
Kajtus had, however, a far more difficult path than Harry Potter: he had no
Hogwarts-type School of Magic where he could be taught by expert mages, but must
learn to use and control his powers all by himself - and most importantly, to learn his
limitations.
In his pedagogical works, Korczak shared much of his experience dealing with
difficult children.
General understanding:
1. Who was Janusz Korczak?
2. What were his famous books?
3. How did he depict children?
4. Why did he use the form of the fairy tale?
5. What did he do in the orphanage?
LESSON 14
TEXT A
EDUCATIONAL SYSTEM IN THE USA
1. Read and translate the text.
Education in America took root with the landing of the Pilgrims in the early
1600s. The first public school was established in 1635 in Boston, Mass. There
followed the creation of “dame” schools and Latin Grammar schools for higher
education. Massachusetts was in the forefront of educational “reform”, when they
enacted a law in 1642 that any child not being properly educated, would have to be
apprenticed to a trade.
Education is not mentioned in the Constitution, nor is there any federal
department of education, so the matter is left to individual states. Education is free
and compulsory in all states, however, from the age of 6 till 16 (or 18).
At 6 years of age children go to elementary school, or first grade (the second
year is "grade 2" etc.). At elementary school the emphasis is placed on the basic
skills (speaking, reading, writing, and arithmetic), though the general principle
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throughout the American school system is that children should be helped to develop
their own interests.
Children move on to high school in the ninth grade, where they continue until
the twelfth grade. There are two basic types of high school: one with a more
academic curriculum, preparing students for admission to college, and the other
offering primarily vocational education (training in a skill or trade).
The local school board decides which courses are compulsory. There is great
freedom of choice, however, and an important figure in high schools is the guidance
counsellor, who advises the students on what courses to take on the basis of their
career choices and the frequent tests defining abilities and propensities.
In order to receive the high school diploma necessary in most states to get into
college, students must accumulate a minimum number of credits, which are
awarded for the successful completion of each one- or half-year course. Students
hoping to be admitted to the more famous universities require far more than the
minimum number of credits and must also have good grades (the mark given on the
basis of course work and a written examination).
Extracurricular activity (such as playing for one of the schools sports teams) is
also very important in the American school system and is taken into consideration by
colleges and employers.
The interplay of local, state, and national programs and policies is particularly
evident in the field of education. Historically, education has been considered the
province of the state and local governments.
Of the more than 3,000 colleges and universities, the academies of the armed
services are among the few federal institutions. Additionally, the federal
government supports school programs, administers Indian education, makes
research grants to universities, underwrites loans to college students, and finances
education for veterans.
Trends in education have been toward being more responsive to the needs of a
complex society: preschool programs; classes in the community; summer and night
schools; and increased facilities for exceptional children. Such programs, however,
have been only partially successful.
Vocabulary:
root – начало
landing – прибытие
forefront – центр деятельности
enacted – представленный
mention – упоминать
grade – класс, оценка
emphasis – значение
curriculum – учебная программа
admission - поступление
abilities – способности
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guidance – руководство
credit – зачет
interplay – взаимосвязь
research – исследование
employer – работодатель
accumulate – накапливать
propensities – склонности
support – поддерживать
community – сообщество
local – местный
2. Give English equivalents:
Начальная школа, чтение, свобода выбора, область, финансировать,
основные умения, профессия, завершение, учитывать, письмо, поступление в
колледж, письменный экзамен, навык, внеучебный, политика, заметный,
требовать, местный.
3. Translate these expressions:
General principle, was established, the frequent tests, vocational education, local
school board, to underwrite loan, the Pilgrims, to enact a law, are awarded, “dame”
school, career choices, counsellor, armed services, preschool programmes.
4. Answer the questions:
1. When do children go to elementary school?
2. Who is an important figure in high school?
3. What is extracurricular activity in the American school system?
4. How many colleges and universities are there in the USA?
5. Who finances education for veterans?
6. When do children move on to high school?
7. Is education in the USA free and compulsory in all states?
5. Translate into English:
1. Цель американской школьной системы состоит в том, чтобы помочь
детям развить их способности.
2. Образование не упоминается в Конституции США.
3. Местное школьное правление решает, какие курсы обязательны.
4. Студентам, надеющимся быть принятыми в более известные
университеты, требуется намного больше, чем минимальное
количество зачетов.
5. Исторически образование рассматривалось, как сфера компетенции
местных правительств и правительства штатов.
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6. Взаимосвязь программ и политик штатов, местных и национальных,
очевидна в сфере образования США.
7. По закону 1642 г. каждый ребенок, который не получает образование,
должен быть обучен ремеслу.
TEXT B
6. Read and translate the text.
Anton Semenovych Makarenko (1888 – 1939) was a Ukrainian educator and
writer, who promoted democratic ideas and principles in educational theory and
practice. He elaborated the theory and methodology of upbringing in self-governing
child collectives and introduced the concept of productive labor into the educational
system. Makarenko is often reckoned among the world’s great educators, and his
books have been published in many countries.
In the aftermath of the Russian Revolution he established self-supporting
orphanages for street children - including juvenile delinquents - left orphaned by the
Russian Civil War. Makarenko was one of the first educators to urge that the
activities of various educational institutions—i.e., the school, the family, clubs,
public organizations, production collectives and the community existing at the place
of residence—should be integrated.
Makarenko wrote several books, of which “The Pedagogical Poem” was
especially popular.
Makarenko is well aware that “more active participation of self-management
collectives in the rehabilitation of inmates will result in the increased role of mutual
dependency and responsibility, making it necessary for members of the collective to
evaluate and influence each other”.
General understanding:
1. What did he elaborate?
2. What was his popular book?
3. What were his pedagogical ideas?
4. Which educational institutions should be integrated, according to
Makarenko?
5. What was his system of education?
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LESSON 15
TEXT A
EDUCATIONAL SYSTEM IN RUSSIA
1. Read and translate the text.
Russians have always shown a great concern for education. The right to
education is stated in the constitution of the Russia Federation. It’s ensured by
compulsory secondary schools, vocational schools and higher education
establishment. It is also ensured by the development of extramural and evening
courses and the system of state scholarship and grants.
Education in Russia is compulsory up to the 9th form inclusive. The stages of
compulsory schooling in Russia are: primary education for ages 6-7 to 9-10 inclusive;
and senior school for ages 10-11 to 12-13 inclusive, and senior school for ages 13-14
to 14-15 inclusive. If a pupil of secondary school wishes to go on in higher education,
he or she must stay at school for two more years. Primary and secondary school
together comprise 11 years of study. Every school has a «core curriculum» of
academic subjects.
After finishing the 9th form one can go on to a vocational school which offer
programmes of academic subjects and a programme of training in a technical field, or
a profession.
After finishing the 11th form of a secondary school, a lyceum or a gymnasium
one can go into higher education. All applicants must take competitive exam. Higher
education institution that is institutes or universities offer a 5-years programme of
academic subjects for undergraduates in a variety of fields, as well as a graduate
course and writes a thesis, he or she receives a candidate’s degree or a doctoral
degree.
Higher educational establishments are headed by Rectors. Protectors are in
charge of academic and scientific work. An institute or a university has a number of
faculties, each specializing councils which confer candidate and doctoral degrees.
The system of higher and secondary education in Russia is going trough a
transitional period. The main objectives of the reforms are: to decentralize the higher
education system, to develop a new financial mechanism, to give more academic
freedom to faculties and students. All secondary schools, institutes and universities
until recently have been funded by the state. Now there is quite a number of private
fee-paying primary and secondary schools, some universities have fee-paying
departments.
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concern – интерес
ensure – обеспечивать
inclusive – включительно
senior – старший
academic – учебный
competitive – конкурсный
graduate course – аспирантура
head – возглавлять
fund – финансировать
department – отделение
Vocabulary:
state – утверждать
compulsory – обязательный
primary – начальный
comprise – составлять
field – область
undergraduate – выпускник
thesis – диссертация
confer – присуждать
fee-paying – платный
council – ученый совет
2. Give English equivalents:
Частный, количество, подготовка, специализированный, средняя,
продолжать, обязательные предметы, государство, отделение, учебная
программа, окончание, вуз, заочное обучение, финансировать, разнообразие,
развитие, получать, стипендия.
3. Translate these expressions:
Vocational schools, doctoral degree, academic freedom, transitional period,
evening courses, higher education establishment, to decentralize the system, financial
mechanism, until recently, scientific work, technical field.
4. Answer the questions:
1. What does a vocational school offer?
2. Who is the head of higher educational establishments?
3. Is education in Russia compulsory?
4. What should a pupil do if he wants to go on in higher education?
5. What are the main objectives of the reforms?
6. Where is the right to education stated?
7. What are the stages of compulsory schooling in Russia?
5. Translate into English:
1. После окончания 11 класса средней школы, лицея или гимназии
можно поступать в вузы.
2. Высшие учебные заведения возглавляются ректорами.
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3. Система высшего и среднего образования в России переживает
переходный период.
4. Все средние школы, институты и университеты до недавнего
времени финансировались государством.
5. Русские люди всегда проявляли большой интерес к образованию.
6. Существует также заочное обучение и вечерние курсы.
TEXT B
6. Read and translate the text.
Vasyl Olexandrovych Sukhomlynsky (September 1918 – September 1970)
was a Ukrainian humanistic educator who saw the aim of education in producing a
truly humane being.
Sukhomlynsky was born in a peasant family in the village of Omelnyk in
Ukraine. In 1935 he started to work as a teacher not far from his native village. In
1938 Sukhomlynsky enrolled into the Poltava Pedagogical Institute out of which he
graduated the same year. Upon graduation he returned to native lands where he
worked as a teacher of the Ukrainian language and literature.
The core of Sukhomlynsky's system of education was his approach to moral
education, which involved sensitising his students to beauty in nature, in art and in
human relations, and encouraging students to take responsibility for the living
environment which surrounded them.
Sukhomlynsky taught his students that the most precious thing in life is a human
being, and that there is no greater honor than to bring joy to other people. He taught
them that to bring joy to other people, and especially to their families, they should
strive to create beauty in themselves and in the environment.
The foundation of all personal growth is health, and Sukhomlynsky gave a great
deal of his attention to ensuring that children enjoyed optimum health, especially in
early childhood, when character is formed. Sukhomlynsky is the author of the 1969
book “I Give my Heart to the Children”.
General understanding:
1. Who was Vasyl Sukhomlynsky?
2. What was his system of education?
3. What did he do after the graduating from the institute?
4. What is his famous book?
5. What is the foundation of all personal growth, according to Sukhomlynsky?
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СПИСОК ИСПОЛЬЗОВАННОЙ ЛИТЕРАТУРЫ:
1. Ваулина Ю.Е. Английский язык для студентов факультета дошкольного
воспитания: Начальный курс: Учеб. для студ. высш. учеб. заведений/ Ю.Е.
Ваулина, Е.Л. Фрейдина. – М.: Гуманит. изд. центр ВЛАДОС, 2003. – 240 с.
2. Мельчина О.П. On Education. О педагогике: Практикум по английскому
языку/ О.П. Мельчина, Л.Ю. Морозова. – М.: Флинта: Наука, 1999. – 176 с.
3. Сборник педагогических текстов на английском языке для неязыковых
факультетов /Сост. В.Г. Грачева. – Волгоград, “Перемена”, 2003. – 24 с.
4. интернет сайты http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki
http://www.buzzle.com/articles
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СОДЕРЖАНИЕ
ПОЯСНИТЕЛЬНАЯ ЗАПИСКА К УЧЕБНОМУ ПОСОБИЮ …………………………………………
3
LESSON 1. PEDAGOGY AS A SCIENCE …………………………………………………………...
5
LESSON 2. THE PROCESS OF TEACHING ………………………………………………………...
8
LESSON 3. THE PURPOSE OF EDUCATION ………………………………………………………
12
LESSON 4. TEACHING METHODS IN EDUCATION ……………………………………………….. 15
LESSON 5. TYPES OF TEACHING METHODS …………………………………………………….. 19
LESSON 6. HISTORY OF EDUCATION …………………………………………………………...
22
LESSON 7. EDUCATIONAL PHILOSOPHY ………………………………………………………..
26
LESSON 8. ROLE OF HIGHER EDUCATION ………………………………………………………
29
LESSON 9. THE PROFESSION OF A TEACHER ……………………………………………………
33
LESSON 10. A MODEL OF AN IDEAL TEACHER ………………………………………………….
36
LESSON 11. INDIVIDUAL EDUCATION ………………………………………………………….
39
LESSON 12. DISTANCE LEARNING ……………………………………………………………... 43
LESSON 13. EDUCATIONAL SYSTEM IN GREAT BRITAIN ……………………………………….
47
LESSON 14. EDUCATIONAL SYSTEM IN THE USA ……………………………………………….
50
LESSON 15. EDUCATIONAL SYSTEM IN RUSSIA ………………………………………………... 54
СПИСОК ИСПОЛЬЗОВАННОЙ ЛИТЕРАТУРЫ ……………………………………………………
58
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Учебное издание
Столбова Елена Георгиевна
Английский язык: Сравнительная педагогика
Учебное пособие по английскому языку
для студентов специальности
«Педагогика и психология»
Ответственные за выпуск:
зав. кафедрой иностранных языков, доцент
Комлева Л.А.
Подписано в печать 29.11.2012 г.
Усл. печ. листов - 3,3.
Тираж 100 экз. Заказ № 889.
Отпечатано на множительной технике.
Издательство
ФГБОУ ВПО «Волгоградская государственная академия физической культуры»
400005, Волгоград, пр. В. Ленина, 78.
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