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1031.Английский язык

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Copyright ОАО «ЦКБ «БИБКОМ» & ООО «Aгентство Kнига-Cервис»
МИНИСТЕРСТВО СПОРТА, ТУРИЗМА И МОЛОДЁЖНОЙ ПОЛИТИКИ
РОССИЙСКОЙ ФЕДЕРАЦИИ
ФЕДЕРАЛЬНОЕ ГОСУДАРСТВЕННОЕ ОБРАЗОВАТЕЛЬНОЕ УЧРЕЖДЕНИЕ
ВЫСШЕГО ПРОФЕССИОНАЛЬНОГО ОБРАЗОВАНИЯ
ВЕЛИКОЛУКСКАЯ ГОСУДАРСТВЕННАЯ АКАДЕМИЯ
ФИЗИЧЕСКОЙ КУЛЬТУРЫ И СПОРТА
Н.Г. Ершова Т.А. Антонова
АНГЛИЙСКИЙ ЯЗЫК
Учебно – методическое пособие
Великие Луки
2010
Copyright ОАО «ЦКБ «БИБКОМ» & ООО «Aгентство Kнига-Cервис»
ББК 81.2 Англ. – 923
УДК 811.111 (075)
РЕЦЕНЗЕНТЫ:
Перепѐлкина Ж.В. – доктор педагогических наук, профессор,
зав.кафедрой иностранных языков
Воронежского государственного педагогического университета
Чепрасова Т.В. – кандидат педагогических наук, доцент
зав.кафедрой русского и иностранных языков
Воронежского государственного института физической культуры
Печатается по решению Редакционно-издательского совета Великолукской
государственной академии физической культуры и спорта.
Утверждено учѐным советом ВЛГАФК
, протокол №
Пособие включает программные требования, методические указания по работе над фонетикой,
лексикой и грамматикой, развитию навыков чтения, вопросы и тексты по изучаемым устным
темам, контрольную работу в двух вариантах, тексты для дополнительного чтения, содержащие
профессионально значимую лексику, и словарь-минимум спортивной лексики.
Пособие предназначено для студентов заочного отделения специальности «Физическая культура и
спорт», а также может быть полезно студентам очной формы обучения.
ISBN 978-5-350-00213-3
Copyright ОАО «ЦКБ «БИБКОМ» & ООО «Aгентство Kнига-Cервис»
Введение
Изучение иностранного языка в неязыковых вузах является неотъемлемой частью
профессиональной подготовки будущих специалистов. Специфика организации обучения
иностранным языкам студентов заочного отделения состоит в том, что на
самостоятельную работу отводится значительно большее количество часов, чем на
практические аудиторные занятия и консультации.
Данное учебное пособие предназначено для самостоятельной работы студентов
заочной формы обучения специальности «Физическая культура и спорт» и может быть
использовано для работы студентов смежных специальностей.
Пособие включает программные требования, методические указания, список
учебной литературы, два варианта контрольной работы, тексты для самостоятельного
чтения, тексты и вопросы для изучения устных тем.
В методических указаниях представлены правила чтения, рекомендации по работе
над лексикой и грамматикой и с разными видами чтения.
Материал контрольной работы включает список изучаемых грамматических тем,
задания по данным темам, тексты с заданиями по переводу и беспереводному пониманию.
Тексты для самостоятельного чтения - общеспортивного, гуманитарного и
узкоспециального характера позволяют студентам усвоить специальную лексику и
терминологию, развить навыки работы с литературой по специальности, получить
профессионально-ориентированную информацию.
Copyright ОАО «ЦКБ «БИБКОМ» & ООО «Aгентство Kнига-Cервис»
Про граммные требования
Целью дисциплины «Иностранный язык» для студентов заочной формы
обучения вузов физической культуры является формирование коммуникативной
компетентности студентов, позволяющей самостоятельно читать литературу по
специальности для извлечения информации из иноязычных источников.
Основные задачи изучения дисциплины:
- овладение необходимым фонетическим, лексическим и грамматическим
материалом;
- формирование умений поискового, просмотрового и изучающего видов чтения с
изложением информации на русском или иностранном языке в устной и письменной
форме;
- формирование навыков устной речи в пределах тем, включенных в программу
вуза.
В процессе обучения студенты должны овладеть:
- фонетическим минимумом - особенностями произношения, правилами чтения,
ударения, интонационными особенностями языка;
- лексическим минимумом - словарным запасом в 1000 лексических единиц (слов
и словосочетаний), наиболее употребительными словообразовательными
средствами и специальной терминологией;
- грамматическим минимумом - основными грамматическими формами и
структурами языка.
Структура курса и требования
В соответствии с действующим учебным планом заочного обучения по
специальности «Физическая культура и спорт» студенты изучают иностранный
язык в течение 5-8 семестров в объеме 340 часов, из них 42 часа отводится на
обязательное аудиторные занятия с преподавателем, 298 часов - на
самостоятельную работу студента.
Работа по изучению иностранного языка в 6 семестре завершается
выполнением контрольной работы, которая должна быть представлена на кафедру
для проверки в начале сессии и зачтена проверяющим ее преподавателем.
Контрольная работа имеет два варианта, один из которых выполняется в отдельной
тетради с указанием на обложке Ф.И.О. студента, факультета, курса, номера
группы. Получив проверенную работу, студенту следует изучить замечания
преподавателя, проанализировать ошибки и исправить их, выполнив еще раз неверно
сделанные задания в конце работы.
Промежуточная аттестация проводится в 7 семестре в форме зачета, к
которому допускаются студенты, выполнившие и защитившие контрольную работу
и прочитавшие указанные преподавателем тексты для самостоятельной работы в
объеме 5 тыс. печатных знаков. Для получения зачета студенты должны:
- выполнить письменный перевод текста гуманитарной или общеспециальной
направленности объемом 800 печатных знаков со словарем;
- уметь высказываться по изученным устным темам в монологической и
диалогической форме.
Copyright ОАО «ЦКБ «БИБКОМ» & ООО «Aгентство Kнига-Cервис»
В 8 семестре проводится итоговый экзамен, к которому допускаются студенты,
имеющие зачет по дисциплине и сдавшие учебный материал по чтению за 8 семестр
в объеме 8 тыс. печатных знаков. На экзамене проверяются умения:
- чтения со словарем текста по специальности; форма контроля - письменный
перевод текста объемом 800 печ.зн. в час;
- чтения без словаря текста, содержащего изученный грамматический материал и 510% незнакомых, слов на 1500-2000 печатных знаков; форма проверки - передача
содержания прочитанного на русском языке; время подготовки - 10-15 минут;
- устного сообщения по одной из изученных тем.
Изучаемые устные темы:
1. Моя семья.
2. Наша академия.
3. Олимпийские игры.
4. Великобритания.
5. Моя специализация.
Рекомендуемая учебная литература
1. Английский язык для физкультурных специальностей/ Е.А. Баженова, А.Ю. Гренлунд,
Л.Я. Ковалева и др. – М.: Академия, 2006. – 352 с.
2. Тимонова В.М. Быстрее, выше, сильнее!: пособие по английскому языку для вузов. –
М.: Высшая школа, 1988. – 109 с.
3. Англо-русский словарь (объем 25-50 тыс. слов).
Copyright ОАО «ЦКБ «БИБКОМ» & ООО «Aгентство Kнига-Cервис»
Методические рекомендации
Особенностью овладения иностранным языком при заочном обучении
является большой объем самостоятельной работы студента. Чтобы добиться успеха
необходимо заниматься систематически, заучивать иноязычные слова, усваивать
грамматические правила, работать с текстами, вырабатывать навыки путем
многократно выполняемого действия.
1. Правила чтения
Чтобы научиться правильно читать на английском языке, следует усвоить
правила произношения отдельных букв и буквосочетаний, ударения в слове и
предложении, регулярно упражняться в чтении вслух.
Сводная таблица чтения гласных.
Типы слога
Буквы
I
Открытый
game
а
e
о
y,i
u
[ei]
II
Закрытый
camp
[ æ ]
III
Буква ‗r‘ после
гласной
start
[ a: ]
IV
Буква ‗r‘ между
гласными
care
[εə]
be
net
her
[i:]
[e]
[ə:]
pole
top
[o]
sport
[o:]
[ o: ]
first
[ə:]
tired
[aiə]
turn
[ə:]
cure
[ou]
my, site
did, system
[ai]
[i]
tube
cup
[ju:]
[Λ]
here
[iə]
more
[juə]
2. Работа над лексикой
Работу по расширению и закреплению лексического запаса рекомендуем
проводить следующим образом.
При работе со словарем выучите английский алфавит, а также ознакомьтесь
по предисловию с построением словаря и системой условных обозначений,
принятых в данном словаре.
Слова выписывайте в тетрадь или на карточки в исходной форме, т.е.
существительные - в единственном числе, глаголы - в неопределенной форме
(инфинитиве), указывая для неправильных глаголов основные формы. Учите слова и
постоянно повторяйте выученные слова.
При переводе с английского языка на русский необходимо помнить, что трудности
вызывает следующее:
Copyright ОАО «ЦКБ «БИБКОМ» & ООО «Aгентство Kнига-Cервис»
1. Многозначность слов. Например, слово convention имеет значения: 1)
собрание, съезд; 2 ) договор, соглашение, конвенция; 3) обычай; 4) условность. Подобрать
нужное значение слова можно только исходя из контекста:
The convention was successful. - Собрание прошло успешно.
That is not in accord with convention. - Это не принято.
2. Омонимы - разные по значению, но одинаково звучащие слова. Их следует
отличать от многозначных слов:
some - какой-нибудь и sum - сумма;
break - ломать и brake - тормоз;
left - левый и left - Past Indefinite от глагола to leave - оставлять, покидать.
3. Конверсия - образование новых слов из существующих без изменения их
написания. Наиболее распространенным является образование глаголов от
существительных:
water - вода - to water - поливать;
control – контроль - to control - контролировать;
cause – причина - to cause - являться причиной, вызывать.
4. Словообразование. Эффективным средством расширения запаса английских слов
является знание способов словообразования. Умея расчленить производное слово на
корень, суффикс и префикс, легче определить значение неизвестного слова. Кроме того,
зная значения наиболее употребительных префиксов и суффиксов, вы сможете без труда
понять значение гнезда слов, образованных от одного корня, который вам известен.
5. В английском языке есть ряд глаголов, которые употребляются с послелогами и
образуют новые понятия. Благодаря послелогам сравнительно немногочисленная группа
слов отличается большой многозначностью. К этой группе относятся глаголы to put, to get,
to be, to make, to go я ряд других:
to go - идти
to go about - циркулировать
to go back - возвращаться
to go in for – заниматься.
6. В английском языке очень часто существительное употребляется в функции
определения. Структура «существительное + существительное» (и т.д.) вызывает
трудность при переводе, так как существительные стоят подряд. Необходимо
помнить, что главным в такой группе является последнее слово. Все
предшествующие существительные являются определениями к нему:
the world championship - мировой чемпионат
sports society - спортивное общество.
7. Научная литература характеризуется наличием терминов. Рекомендуем
выписывать их в специальный терминологический словарь-минимум и заучивать.
3. Работа над грамматическим материалом
Грамматические правила усваивайте постепенно, по каждому разделу в
отдельности, анализируя примеры-образцы. Знакомясь с грамматическим
явлением английского языка, сопоставляйте его с соответствующим явлением в
родном языке. Убедившись в полном понимании грамматической формы,
Copyright ОАО «ЦКБ «БИБКОМ» & ООО «Aгентство Kнига-Cервис»
приступайте к выполнению упражнений. Не оставляйте неусвоенным или не
полностью понятым правило, т.к. это может создать большие затруднения при
изучении следующей темы и повлиять на успех изучения английского языка в
целом.
Помните об основных особенностях грамматического строя английского языка:
1. Наличие минимального числа окончаний, являющихся признаком конкретных
грамматических форм определенных частей речи:
-s (-es)
-'s(-')
-er
-est
-ed
-ing
1) множественное число имени существительного
athletes –спортсмены
2) глагол в 3-м лице единственного числа настоящего времени (the
Present Indefinite Tense)
He runs well. – Он хорошо бегает.
притяжательный падеж имени существительного
an athlete‘s record - рекорд спортсмена
сравнительная степень имени прилагательного или наречия
quicker - быстрее
превосходная степень имени прилагательного или наречия
quickest - самый быстрый
1) глагол в прошедшем времени (the Past Indefinite Tense)
He played well. - Он играл хорошо.
2 ) причастие прошедшего времени (Participle II)
played - сыгранный
1) причастие настоящего времени (Participle I )
playing - играющий, играя
2)герундий
playing - игра
2. Твердый порядок слов в английском предложении.
3. Наличие строевых слов-признаков, являющихся показателем грамматических функций
слов. Строевыми словами-признаками имени существительного являются:
1)артикль: a record - рекорд
an a i m - цель
the object - предмет
2) предлог: without result - без результата
3 ) местоимение: - притяжательное mу work - моя работа
- вопросительное, относительное whose plans - чьи планы
- неопределенное some factors - некоторые факторы
- отрицательное no athlete - ни один спортсмен
Строевыми словами - признаками глагола являются:
1) частица "to": to aim - нацеливаться
2 ) модальный или вспомогательный глагол: must work - должен работать, will work будет работать
3) местоимение: - личное I work - я работаю
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- вопросительное, относительное who plans - кто планирует
4. Работа над текстом
Характер работы с текстом и еѐ итоговый результат зависят от
поставленной цели.
Изучающее чтение - точное и полное понимание текста - предполагает
осуществление адекватного перевода текста на основе лексико-грамматического
анализа и подбора наиболее подходящих форм родного языка.
Ознакомительное чтение - понимание общего содержания, поисковое и
просмотровое чтение - извлечение нужной информации - предполагают
беспереводное понимание текста без словаря, итогом которого может быть
составление аннотации, реферата, ответы на вопросы.
При всех видах чтения необходимо использовать и развивать следующие
умения и навыки:
- догадываться о значении слов на основе словообразовательных признаков и
контекста;
- узнавать интернациональные слова и определять их значение;
- узнавать знакомые грамматические формы и конструкции и устанавливать их
эквиваленты в родном языке;
- применять знания по специальным и другим предметам в качестве основы
смысловой и языковой догадки;
- уметь разбивать текст на смысловые отрезки и составлять план прочитанного.
Контроль самостоятельной работы студентов над текстами осуществляется
преподавателем на занятиях во время сессии и на консультациях.
4.1. Методические рекомендации для грамматического анализа непонятных
предложений текста на иностранном языке
1. Бегло просмотрите текст и постарайтесь понять, о чем идет речь.
2. При вторичном чтении определите тип непонятного предложения и функции
всех его составляющих по внешним признакам.
3. При наличии сложносочиненного или сложноподчиненного предложения
разделяйте его по формальным признакам на самостоятельные и придаточные, выделяйте
инфинитивные, причастные, герундиальные обороты.
4. Если в предложении есть служебные слова, используйте их для членения
предложения на смысловые группы.
5. В каждом отдельном предложении находите сказуемое или группу сказуемого,
затем подлежащее или группу подлежащего. Если значение этих слов неизвестно,
обращайтесь к словарю.
6. Глагол - сказуемое обычно стоит справа от группы подлежащего. Сказуемое
можно найти: а) по личным местоимениям; б) по вспомогательным и модальным глаголам
в личной форме; в) по неправильным глаголам; г) по суффиксам.
7. Подлежащее стоит слева от сказуемого. Помните, что существительное
употребляется в функции подлежащего без предлогов.
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8. Найдя подлежащее и сказуемое, проверьте, согласуются ли они в лице и числе.
Поняв значение главных членов, выявляйте последовательно второстепенные, сначала в
группе сказуемого, а затем в группе подлежащего.
9. Если предложение длинное, определите слова и группы слов, которые можно
временно опустить для выявления основного содержания предложения. Не ищите сразу в
словаре все незнакомые слова, а заменяйте их вначале неопределенными местоимениями
и наречиями (кто-то, какой-то, как-то, где-то и др.).
10. Внимательно присмотритесь к словам, имеющим знакомые корни, суффиксы,
приставки. Попытайтесь установить значение этих слов. При этом обратите внимание на
то, какой частью речи являются такие слова, а затем подбирайте соответствующее русское
слово.
11. Слова, оставшиеся непонятными, ищите в словаре, соотнося их значение с
контекстом.
4.2. Примерный алгоритм обучения просмотровому чтению
1. Внимательно прочитайте заголовок текста, постарайтесь вникнуть в его смысл,
определите главную мысль текста.
2. Прочтите первое предложение текста. Сопоставьте его содержание с заголовком.
3. Прочитайте первый абзац. Сопоставьте его содержание со своим представлением
о главной мысли текста.
4. Просмотрите все остальные абзацы, сопоставьте их содержание с
представлением о главной мысли текста, обращая внимание на содержание первых
предложений абзацев.
5. Сформулируйте ответ на вопрос: « О чем повествуется в тексте? »
4.3. Алгоритм обучения ознакомительному чтению
1. Прочтите заголовок текста и постарайтесь определить его основную тему.
2. Читайте абзац за абзацем, отмечая в каждом предложения, несущие главную
информацию и предложения, в которых содержится дополняющая второстепенная
информация.
3. Определите степень важности абзацев, отметьте абзацы, которые содержат более
важную информацию, и абзацы, которые содержат второстепенную по значению
информацию.
4. Обобщите информацию, выраженную в абзацах, в смысловое единое целое.
4.4. Примерный алгоритм работы с заглавием перед чтением любого текста
1. Внимательно прочитайте заглавие и выделите в нем ключевое слово (чаще всего
оно выражено существительным).
2. Просмотрите текст и обратите внимание на то, как часто встречается выделенное
вами доминирующее слово заглавия в тексте.
3. Найдите слова - заместители для доминирующего слова и всего заглавия в
тексте.
4. Перефразируйте заглавие, используя синонимичные слова из текста.
5. Найдите в тексте предложения с вариантами доминирующего слова заголовка.
6. Скажите, являются ли выделенные вами ключевые слова и их заместители
самыми информативными элементами в тексте.
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7. Повторно прочтите заглавие и скажите, о чем будет идти речь в данном тексте.
4.5. Рекомендации для овладения контекстуальной догадкой в процессе чтения
текста на иностранном языке
1. Прочитайте заголовок текста.
2. Выпишите незнакомые слова.
3. Определите по формальным признакам синтаксическую функцию как известных,
так и неизвестных вам слов.
4. Сделайте предварительный перевод заглавия, заменяя незнакомые слова.
5. Прочтите текст, определите его тему двумя-тремя словами.
6. Прочтите еще раз первый абзац.
7. Подумайте, встречаются ли в первом абзаце слова заглавия. Помните, что
известные вам слова могут быть представлены синонимами или описательно.
8. Посмотрите, есть ли в абзаце слова, близкие по форме неизвестному слову.
9. Определите, одинаковы ли подлежащее абзаца и подлежащее заголовка.
10. Определите, одинаковы ли сказуемые (дополнения) в абзаце и заголовке.
11. Читайте следующие абзацы, выписывая из них законченные в смысловом плане
отрезки, содержащие известные слова заглавия.
12. Преобразуйте, если необходимо, полученные отрезки в двух – или трехсоставные предложения так, чтобы известные слова выполняли одну и ту же
синтаксическую функцию.
13. Сравните главные члены и дополнения в полученных предложениях.
14. Убедитесь в том, что в заголовке сказуемое было выражено незнакомым вам
словом, а в полученных предложениях (в некоторых из них, по крайней мере) в роли
сказуемого появились слова, известные вам. То же относится к подлежащему и
дополнению.
Устные темы.
При подготовке сообщений по устным темам используйте тексты 1, 2, 4, 12-16
раздела «Тексты для чтения».
About Myself
1. Who are you? (What is your name?)
2. What are you? (What is your occupation?)
3. How old are you?
4. When and where were you born?
5. Where are you from?
6. Where do you study?
7. What kinds of sport do you go in for?
8. When did you begin to go in for sport?
9. What is your speciality at the Academy?
10. What is your sports ranking (sporting grade)?
11. Are you married?
12. How many are you in the family?
13. How old is your sister (brother)?
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14. What is your mother‘s occupation?
15. What are your and your family‘s hobbies?
Our Academy
1. Where do you study?
2. When was your academy founded?
3. What departments and faculties are there at the Academy?
4. Who runs the academy?
5. What is the teaching staff of your academy?
6. How many students study there?
7. How long does the course of study last?
8. How many terms are there in the academic year?
9. What disciplines does the curriculum include?
10. How often do students pass credit tests and exams?
11. What students receive scholarships (grants)?
12. What sports facilities are there in the Academy?
13. What qualification do students receive?
14. Where can students continue their studies after graduating from the Academy?
The Olympic Games
1. When were the O.G. revived?
2. Who was the initiator of the revival of the O.G.?
3. When and where did the first modern Olympics take place?
4. Who was the first Russian Olympic champion?
5. What O.G. were held in Moscow? When did they take place?
6. What is the governing body of the Olympic movement?
7. How often are the O.G. held?
8. Where are the O.G. held?
9. What are summer and winter Olympic sports?
10. What sportsmen may participate in the O.G.?
11. What are the main ideals of the Olympic movement?
12. What is the Olympic emblem? What does it signify?
13. What is the Olympic flag? What do its six colours signify?
14. What is the Olympic motto?
15. What are the official Olympic awards?
Great Britain
1. What is the official name of Great Britain?
2. What are the four parts of the U.K.?
3. Where is the country situated?
4. What is the area of the country?
5. What is the population of Great Britain?
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6. What is the climate of Great Britain?
7. What are the main natural resources of the country?
8. What are the longest rivers in Great Britain?
9. What is the capital of the country?
10. What are the largest cities in the U.K.?
11. What does the U.K. produce?
12. What is the state organization of the U.K.?
13. Who is the Queen of the U.K. now?
14. What are the British Parliament‘s chambers?
15. What are the main political parties in the U.K.?
16. What sports originated in Great Britain?
My speciality
1. What is your speciality?
2. When did you begin to go in for sport?
3. What sports do you practice?
4. Do you have any sports classes?
5. What competitions did you take part in?
6. Who is your coach?
7. Where do you usually train?
8. How often do you train?
9. What does your training consist of?
10. What is the aim of your training?
11. When and where did your sport originate?
12. What are the main characteristics of your sport?
13. What equipment does your sport demand?
14. What is your life record?
15. What famous athletes in your sport do you know?
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КОНТРОЛЬНАЯ РАБОТА
Изучите следующие темы:
- Порядок слов в предложении.
- Имя существительное (множественное число, притяжательный падеж).
- Имя прилагательное (степени сравнения).
- Наречие (степени сравнения).
- Имя числительное.
- Конструкция there + be.
- Глагол. Основные формы глагола. Времена групп Indefinite (Simple), Continuous
(Progressive), Perfect, Perfect Continuous действительного залога. Времена
страдательного залога.
- Неличные формы глагола (причастия I и II, герундий, инфинитив).
- Словообразование.
Вариант 1
1. Образуйте множественное число существительных:
a ball,
a boy, a story, a box, a glass,
a photo,
a sportsman,
a woman,
a foot.
2. Переведите на русский язык:
his friends' coach, these athletes' record, Karpov's two point lead, the season's three main
official tournaments, the last year's world championship.
3. Выпишите оборот there + be, определите время, в котором он употреблен,
предложения переведите:
There are two ways of determination of the winner in a boxing match.
There was a surprise ending in the contest between hammer throwers.
There will be no world championships in skating this season.
4. Напишите степени сравнения следующих прилагательных и наречий и
переведите их:
late, big, early, important, good,
little, many.
5. Образуйте наречия от следующих прилагательных и переведите их:
Образец:
easy
легкий
- easily
легко
high
высокий
bad
плохой
careful
осторожный
firm
твердый
particular
особенный
spiritual
духовный
6. Выберите правильный английский перевод русских предложений:
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Рекордсмен
быстро
спортивную форму.
вошел
в
1. The record-holder is maintaining his
form rapidly.
2. The record-holder maintained his form
rapidly.
3. The record-holder has maintained his
form rapidly.
К тому времени наши спортсмены
примут участие во всех главных
международных соревнованиях.
1. Our athletes take part in all major
international competitions.
2. Our athletes will have taken part in all
major international competitions by that
time.
7. Перепишите предложения, подчеркните сказуемое,
правильный перевод:
1. Ranked athletes receive a certificate from the Sports Committee.
а) получают
б) получили
с) получат
выберите
его
2. He specialized in boxing.
а) специализировался
б) специализируется
с) будет специализироваться
3. This athlete will train three times a week.
а) тренируется
б) будет тренироваться
с) тренировался
8. Составьте предложения :
They
won
were training
go in for
have become
from 7 till 9 yesterday.
lawn tennis.
2 gold medals.
Masters of Sport this season.
9. Найдите предложения с глаголом в страдательном залоге, выпишите
сказуемое, определите его временную форму, переведите эти предложения:
1. They have just finished this work.
2. This sports center is used for international competitions.
3. They became world champions last year.
4. New records are set at every Olympic Games.
5. They will be discussing new methods of training at tomorrow's conference.
6. They had been included in the team before the end of the season.
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7. He will be given a central role in the match.
10. Раскройте скобки:
1. The final games (to be played) at the local stadium.
2. Nowadays much attention (to be paid) to the problems of physical education.
3. The second gold medal (to be won) by the Russian gymnast.
4. The prizewinners (to be determined) before the competitions come to the end.
11. Прочитайте и устно переведите текст:
A LITTLE HISTORY
1. The modern Olympic movement is more than 100 years old. Russia was among the
dozen nations whose representatives at the International Sports Congress in Paris in 1894
decided to revive the Games and founded the International Olympic Committee. General Alexei
Butovsky, Russia's representative, was among the 14 elected IOC members.
2. Even though Russia had its representative in the IOC, for a long time there was nobody
in Russia to train athletes for Olympic competitions. The members of sports clubs in Russia at
that time totalled only 50,000 and they came mainly from the privileged classes. Due to lack of
money and any kind of help from the state and society, no sportsmen from Russia took part in
the first three modern Olympic Games.
3. Russian names appeared at long last in the records of the 4th Olympiad staged on the
banks of the Thames. Three of the five men in the Russian team returned from the London
Games with medals.
Nikolai Panin-Kolomenkin won a gold for figure-skating, lightweight
Nikolai Orlov and heavyweight Andrei Petrov took silver medals in Greco-Roman wrestling.
The other two men competing for Russia in London were Yevgeny Zamotin and Grigory
Dyomin.
4. The success of athletes in the l908 Olympics helped to popularize sport in Russia. The
Russian Olympic Committee was set up in March 1911. Russia was represented by 178
competitors in the Olympic Games the following year. The team was not well trained and Russia
could do no better than share the15th place with Austria.
5. In 1950 an official invitation was sent to the Soviet Union by the Organising Committee
to take part in the 1952 Olympic Games in Helsinki. In 1951 the Soviet Union set up its National
Olympic Committee, composed of the presidents of national sports federations, Soviet
representatives in the international federations and top-ranking athletes of the USSR. The Soviet
Olympic Committee was recognised at the IOC session in Vienna in May 1951. The Soviet
Union now formally had the right to enter the Olympic Games. In December l951 the USSR
Olympic Committee notified the Organising Committee of the 15th Olympic Games that it would
send its sportsmen to the 1952 Games in Helsinki.
12. Ответьте на вопросы письменно:
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1. Who was the first Russian representative in the International Olympic Committee?
2. Why didn't Russia take part in the first three modern Olympic Games?
3. Where did the 4th Olympic Games take place?
4. Who was the first Russian Olympic Champion?
13. Перепишите и письменно переведите 2-ой и 5-ый абзацы текста.
14. Образуйте причастия I и II от следующих глаголов:
I. Образец: to play – playing – played
to take – taking – taken
to train, to set, to win, to do, to lead, to organize, to hold.
15. Выпишите причастия, определите их форму, предложения переведите:
1. Sportsmen competing in the Tournament of the USSR showed good results.
2. A football match watched by millions of fans was very interesting.
3. The match won by our team was very strenuous.
4. Having cleared 7m the athlete won the long jump.
5. The finishing runner clocked 1 min 15 sec.
16. Выпишите герундий, определите его функцию, переведите предложения:
1.
2.
Starting is one of the most important fundamentals of good sprinting.
Ever since the 1936 Games the opening ceremony is celebrated by lighting a flame.
1.
2.
17. Переведите предложения с инфинитивом в функции обстоятельства цели:
To run well I must train hard.
Certain standards have to be met to obtain a sports class.
18.
Прочитайте и устно переведите текст:
SPORTS AND RECREATION IN GREAT BRITAIN
1. Britain was the originator of many sports that are popular all over the world – football,
rugby, golf, hockey, lawn tennis. All these sports attract a great number of participants and
spectators in Great Britain. Football in particular has a vast number of supporters. 25 million
people attend the matches during the football season. Many people watch football and other
sports on television.
2. Water sports in Great Britain are based on its long coast-line as well as many lakes and
rivers. Sailing is particularly popular and the Royal Yachting Association has over 1,500 clubs
throughout the country. Other popular water sports include canoeing, rowing, water-skiing, and
surfing.
3. Britain has a long and continued interest in most branches of athletics and there are
hundreds of clubs throughout the country. Also popular are boxing and wrestling, weight-lifting,
gymnastics, and newer sports, such as judo and karate. Swimming is usually taught at schools
and millions of people in Britain enjoy this sport. Diving, underwater swimming and water polo
are also popular. Riding and other equestrian sports are still traditionally popular in Great
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Britain. In Scotland winter sports centres have been established in several parts of highlands.
Britain has about 350 indoor sports centres.
19.
20.
Письменно переведите 3-ий абзац текста.
Ответьте на вопросы письменно:
1. What sports originated in Great Britain?
2. What water sports are popular in Great Britain?
3. How many clubs has the Royal Yachting Association?
21. Письменно переведите текст:
SPORT IN GREAT BRITAIN.
The British are great lovers of competitive sports; and when they are neither playing nor
watching games they like to talk about them, or when they cannot do that, to think about them.
The game particularly associated with England is cricket. Many other games which are
English in origin have been adopted with enthusiasm all over the world, but cricket has been
seriously and extensively adopted only in the former British Empire.
For the greatest mass of the British public the eight months of the football (soccer) season
are more important than the four months of cricket. The annual Cup Final match, between the
two teams which have defeated their opponents in each round of a knock-out contest, dominates
the scene; the regular ―league‖ games, organized in four divisions, provide the main
entertainment through the season and the basis for the vast system of betting on the football
pools. Many of the graffiti on public walls are aggressive statements of support for football
teams, and the hooliganism of some British supporters has become notorious outside as well as
inside Britain.
Rugby football (or ―rugger‖) is played with an egg-shaped ball, which may be carried and
thrown (but not forward). If a player is carrying the ball he may be ―tacked‖ and made to fall
down. Each team has 15 players, who spend a lot of time lying in the mud or on top of each other
and become very dirty, but do not need to wear such heavy protective clothing as players of
American football.
The biggest new development in sport has been with long-distance running. ―Jogging‖,
for healthy outdoor exercise, needing no skill or equipment, became popular in the 1970s, and
soon more and more people took it seriously. Now the annual London Marathon is like a
carnival, with a million people watching as the world's star runners are followed by 25000
ordinary people trying to complete the course.
The most popular fall outdoor sport is fishing from the banks of lakes or rivers or in the
sea, from jetties, rocks or beaches. Some British lakes and rivers are famous for their trout or
salmon, and attract enthusiasts from all over the world.
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Вариант 2
1. Образуйте множественное число существительных:
a book, a toy, a family, a fox, a bus, a hero, a sportswoman, a man, a foot.
2. Переведите на русский язык:
my friend's book, this referee's title, these athletes' records, those sportswomen's record,
the Games' popularity, the players' skill, the team's senior coach.
3. Выпишите оборот there + be ,определите время, в котором он употреблен,
предложения переведите:
1. There are children's and youth competitions all over the world.
2. Before the Second World War there was not a single Russian name in the list of world
swimming records.
3. There will be two other contests which football fans wait eagerly.
4. Напишите степени сравнения следующих прилагательных и наречий и
переведите их:
large, big, easy, beautiful, well, little, bad.
5. Образуйте наречия от следующих прилагательных и переведите их:
Образец:
active
активный
- actively
активно
especial
особенный
annual
ежегодный
free
свободный
loud
громкий
6.
Из правой колонки выберите правильный перевод английских
предложений:
1. The three - day tournament will include
1. На трехдневном турнире прошли
seminars for judges and coaches.
семинары для судей и тренеров.
2. На трехдневном турнире пройдут
семинары для судей и тренеров.
2. Bandy is becoming very popular all over
1. Хоккей на траве стал популярен во
the world.
всем мире.
2. Хоккей на траве становиться
популярным во всем мире.
3. I don't think success has come to us easily.
1. Я не думаю, что успех придет к нам
легко.
2. Я считаю, что успех пришел к нам
легко.
4. Students are starting preparations for the
1. Студенты начнут подготовку к
Summer Students' Games.
летним Студенческим играм.
3. Студенты начинают готовиться к
летним Студенческим играм.
4. Студенты начали подготовку к
летним Студенческим играм.
7.
Перепишите предложения, подчеркните сказуемое, выберите его
правильный перевод:
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1.My friend judged the final matches.
а) судит
б) будет судить
с) судил
2.Coaches play a major part in bringing up youngsters.
а) сыграют
б) играют
с) играли
3.We shall go in for figure-skating.
а) занимаемся б) займемся с) занимались
8. Составьте предложения:
They
won
were training
go in for
have become
from 7from
till 9 7yesterday.
till 9 yesterday.
lawn tennis.
lawn tennis.
2 gold2medals.
gold medals.
Masters
Masters
of Sports
of Sport
this season.
this season.
9. Найдите предложения со сказуемым в одном из времен страдательного
залога. Выпишите сказуемое, определите его временную форму, переведите эти
предложения:
1. Sport is paid great attention in the developed countries.
2. I was dreaming to compete in such a tournament.
3. The Games helped our coaches to reveal new names.
4. He was replaced in the second half of the game.
5. They had been included in the team before the end of the season.
6. He will be given a central role in this match.
1.
2.
3.
4.
10. Раскройте скобки:
The game (to be played) next weekend.
He (to be awarded) the special prize last season.
She (to be qualified) to take part in the championship.
The 22nd Olympic Games (to be held) in Moscow.
11. Прочитайте и устно переведите текст:
OLYMPIC GAMES (Historic outline).
1. The Olympic Games date back to the time before the birth of Christ. They were the
most ancient and the most popular religious festivals and competitions in Ancient Greece. The
Olympic Games were held in honour of Zeus, the father of Greek gods, at the Olympic
mountain, once in four years. The Ancient Olympic Games lasted regularly five days. Women
couldn't take part in the competitions. They were excluded even as spectators. During the
Olympic Games there was a law to stop all kinds of wars.
2. In 394 A.D. the Ancient Olympic Games were terminated. They were reopened in
1894. The International Olympic Committee was organized the same year. According to the
Charter, the Olympic Games unite all the amateur sportsmen of different countries irrespective
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of nationality, race, religion, political views. The motto of the Olympic Games is ―Citius, Altius,
Fortius (Quicker, Higher, Stronger)‖.
3. For the first time the Olympic oath rang out at the opening ceremony of the Olympic
Games in the Belgian city of Antwerp (1920). The idea of the reviving of the ancient tradition of
pronouncing an oath of allegiance to the Olympic ideals was Pierre de Coubertin's. After much
work the text of the oath was born and it is still repeated today at all the Olympics: "In the name
of all competitors I promise that we will take part in these Olympic Games, respecting and
abiding by the rules which govern them in the true spirit of sportsmanship, for the glory of sport
and for the honour of our teams".
4. The Olympic flag is a white silk square with five rings representing the five
continents. Its six colours (including the white background of the panel) represent the national
colours of all countries without exception.
5. From 1896 the medals (gold, silver, bronze) became the sole official Olympic awards.
The first medal was presented on April 6, 1896 to the American James Brenden Connolly for a
triple jump of 13.71 metres.
6. Russian sportsmen have been taking part in the Olympic Games since 1908. The first
Russian sportsman who won the gold medal in the Olympic Games was Panin (figure-skating).
Soviet sportsmen made their first appearance at the Olympic Games in Helsinki in 1952. The
main ideals of the Olympic Games are unity, solidarity and peace.
12. Ответьте на вопросы письменно:
1. How many days did the Ancient Olympic Games last?
2. What is the Olympic flag?
3. Who won the first gold medal in the modern Olympic Games?
4. What are the main ideals of the Olympic Games?
5. Who was the first Russian Olympic champion?
13. Перепишите и письменно переведите 1-ый и 3-ий абзацы текста.
14. Образуйте причастия I и II от следующих глаголов:
Образец: to train – training – trained
to win – winning – won
to read, to take, to establish, to lose, to coach, to create, to finish, to write.
15. Выпишите причастия, определите их форму, предложения переведите:
1. During the academic year the University holds a tournament including several sports.
2. Having scored seven points they won the right to play in the finals.
3. Habits once established are difficult to break.
4. State agreements being signed by the Sport Committee will help to improve friendly ties.
16. Выпишите герундий, определите его функцию, переведите предложения:
1. The important thing in the Olympic Games is not winning but taking part.
2. Our tennis players completed the season by contesting the national championship.
17. Переведите предложения с инфинитивом в функции обстоятельства цели:
1. To have a successful programme, a coach must consider many factors.
2. Speed is essential to attain any real distance in jumping.
18. Прочитайте и устно переведите текст.
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SPORT IN ENGLAND.
1. The English national games are cricket, football, bowling, and to a lesser extend
hockey, tennis and golf. Of these games the two which almost every Englishman plays are
cricket and football.
2. Cricket is played from May till September by professionals and amateurs. Every large
city has a cricket club, the most famous and oldest is the Mary-Lebone club in London. There are
two kinds of football, soccer and rugby. Soccer is played almost throughout the world. In soccer
there are two teams of eleven players each. No players except the goalkeeper is permitted to
touch the ball with hands. The players kick the leather round ball. Rugby is more complicated.
Each side consists of fifteen players. An oval ball is carried in the hands or kicked. It is played in
many towns up and down the country.
3. Bowling is a summer game played by elderly people. Each player rolls the ball from
one side of a square to hit a small white ball on the other side. Golf is a game which requires a
very large playing area. There are 18 holes set in mixed directions with many obstacles: water,
sand, bushes, etc. The course in several miles long: golf, therefore cannot be played in large
cities.
4. Tennis is very popular in England. Most English parks have courts for playing tennis.
Every summer a great international tournament is held in Wimbledon, the suburbs of London, in
which tennis players from all over the world take part.
5. Other English sports are rowing, horse racing, fox hunting and shooting. Sport of all
kinds is encouraged in England. Englishmen are known to be a sport-loving nation.
19. Письменно переведите 2-ой и 5-ый абзацы текста.
20. Ответьте письменно на вопросы:
1. What are the most popular games in Great Britain?
2. Why cannot people play golf in large cities?
3. What tournament is held in Wimbledon every summer?
21. Письменно переведите текст:
AMERICAN SPORTS.
Americans love sports of all kinds. Many people play sports in their free time, and many go to
games or watch them on TV. American sports fans are friendly but very, very noisy. At games
they shout and cheer for their favourite team. One of the most popular sports is football. About
37 million people watch football each weekend during the fall and winter. Baseball is also very
popular. It is played in spring and summer. Basketball is played in winter and spring.
Basketball started in the U.S. in the late nineteenth century. People wanted to play sports in
winter, but it was too cold outside. Basketball was a game they could play indoors. At a big
games in the U.S. there is a lot of entertainment before and during the game. There are parades,
bands, and cheerleaders. The cheerleaders dress in their team's colours, and they lead the crowd
in cheers. You have to be in good shape to be a cheerleader, and you have to practice for many
hours.
Professional games are fun, but so are the thousands of smaller, local games. Each school
or high school has its own teams, and its own cheerleaders. The students and their families and
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friends come to watch games against teams from other schools nearby. Sometimes these games
are just as exciting as the big games.
Thousands of boys between 8 and 12 belong to ―Little League‖ teams and play baseball
on weekends. Many families and groups of friends get together on weekends too and play
softball in parks, often with a picnic or a barbecue. But if you don't belong to a team, there are
plenty of other sports you can do, and in the U.S. there is plenty of space to do them. You can go
to the mountains for skiing or hiking, or you can go to the ocean for surfing or scuba-diving. But
if that's too much trouble, you can always stay home and watch the big ball game on TV.
Тексты для дополнительного чтения.
TEXT 1
Our Academy
Velikie Luki State Academy of Physical Education and Sports was founded in 1970.
At first it was a branch of Lesgaft Institute in St. Petersburg and then of Moscow Regional
Institute.
The Academy is run by the Rector and three deans. The teaching staff numbers about
80 lecturers, among whom there are professors, assistant – professors, doctors and candidates of
sciences.
Over 1.000 students study at full-time and correspondence departments. There are two
faculties – of physical education and sport and of social sciences and the humanities. Students
specialize in sports (athletics, sport games, gymnastics, combat sports, skiing, swimming),
adaptive physical education, pedagogics and psychology, safe life activities, management,
service and tourism.
The course of study lasts from 4 to 6 years. There are two terms in an academic year.
At the end of each term students take credits and exams. Those who study free of charge and get
high marks receive scholarships (grants).
The curriculum includes compulsory and optional disciplines – social and natural
sciences, medicine and biology, pedagogics and psychology, sports. Students also have
educational and organizational practice. After graduation from the Academy they may continue
their training at the post – graduate department formed in 1999.
At students and educators‘ disposal there are lecture rooms, research laboratories, a
library, a reading – hall, a ski base, such sport facilities as a swimming-pool, multipurpose
specialized gyms and a stadium.
The Academy is keeping its best traditions. The teachers are looking for more efficient
forms and methods of education for the future specialists to meet modern requirements.
A lot of well-known athletes graduated from the Academy – Matveyev C., Merited
Master of Sport, the bronze medalist of the Olympic Games in Atlanta (rowing); Ivanov M.,
Master of Sport of International Class (skiing); Khodchenkova M. (cycling); Stolyarov M.
(skiing); Shapoval S. (high jump); Alenichev A and Alenichev D. (football) and others.
TEXT 2
Great Britain
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Great Britain has the official name — the United Kingdom of Great Britain
and Northern Ireland (or UK – for short). It is situated on the British Isles. England,
Wales, Scotland and Northern Ireland are the parts of Great Britain. Administratively the
UK is divided into 55 counties. The total territory is over 244 thousand square kilometers
.
The population of the UK is over 57 mln. Great Britain is one of the most
densely populated countries in the world. The majority of the British population lives in
cities and towns.
The country is washed by the North and Irish Seas, the Atlantic Ocean and the
English Channel. The North and West of the country are highlands, the South and East –
lowlands. The highest mountain of the UK is Ben Nevis in Scotland.
There are many rivers in the country. The longest and most important of them
are the Severn, the Thames and the Clyde. The climate is mild due to the mountains, the
Atlantic Ocean and the warm waters of the Gulf Stream.
Great Britain is a highly developed industrial power. It possesses some mineral resources:
coal, iron ores, oil, gas and some metals.
The country is known as one of the world largest producers and exporters of electronics
and machinery, chemicals and textile, various aircraft and navigation equipment. Among the
main industrial branches are also coal-mining, automobile, ship-building, metallurgy.
The capital of the country is London. It is the largest political, cultural and industrial
centre of the country and one of the largest ports of the world. Its population is over 11 mln.
Among the largest cities of the UK are Birmingham, Glasgow, Liverpool, Manchester,
Edinburgh, Belfast and Cardiff.
Great Britain is a country with old cultural traditions and customs. The official language
of the state is English. The national symbol of the UK is ―Union Jack‖ — the British state flag
having 3 white and red crosses on the dark blue field. The weave of crosses symbolizes power
and might.
The United Kingdom is a constitutional monarchy. Officially the head of the state is the
Queen. But her power is not absolute, it is limited by the Parliament. The British Parliament is
the oldest parliament in the world. It consists of 2 chambers: the House of Lords and the House
of Commons. The British Government is headed by the Prime Minister — the leader of the party
having the majority in the House of Commons. The Prime Minister appoints the ministers to
compose the government.
There are several political parties in the UK. The largest and most influential of them
are the Conservative (the Tory), the Liberal (the Whigs) and the Labour Parties.
TEXT 3
THE HISTORY OF THE OLYMPIC GAMES
Long ago ancient Greeks often waged wars. Small states suffered and lost much even if
they did not take any side and stayed out of wars. The ruler of such a small state, Elis,
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wanted to live in peace with all neighbours. He was a good diplomat, so his negotiations were
successful and Elis was recognized a neutral state. To celebrate this achievement, he organized
athletic games.
In the beginning this feast lasted one day, but later a whole month was devoted to it. All
wars and feuds were stopped by special heralds who rode in all directions of Greece.
The games were held every four years in Olympia on the territory of Elis. This four-year
period was called the Olympic year or the Olympiad. The first games which later were called the
Olympic Games were held about a thousand years before our era.
Usually the Olympic Games began before the middle of the summer. Best athletes
arrived from many Greek states to Olympia to compete in running, long jumps, throwing of
discus and javelin and wrestling. In the course of time fist fighting (boxing) and chariot races
were also included in the Games.
All athletes took an oath that they had been preparing well for the Games in
gymnasiums and promised to compete honestly and keep the rules of the sacred Olympics. The
athletes took part in all kinds of competitions. Winners were called "olympionics"; they were
awarded olive wreaths and cups of olive oil. This tradition has survived. In our time sportsmen
often get cups and wreaths for winning the first place in sports competitions.
The olympionics of ancient Greece became very popular. Best craftsmen were chosen
to make honourary cups, many poets wrote and recited in public poems about the best athletes.
Sculptors made their statues which were put up in the birthplace of the winners.
The Olympic Games were accompanied by arts festivals. Poets recited their poems,
singers sang hymns, dancers danced and orators pronounced speeches—all this in honour of
the sacred Games.
Only men could take part in the Olympic Games. Women were not allowed even to
watch the competitions at the stadium under the fear of death penalty. There was a single exception, when a woman coached her son and accompanied him to the stadium in men's
clothes. That brave woman was spared the penalty because her son excelled in many events.
But from that time all athletes and their coaches had to compete without any clothes.
Magnificent strong bodies inspired artists and sculptors. They painted wall pictures
and made statues of marble and bronze, so now we can admire the corporal beauty of ancient
and eternally young discus thrower, javelin bearer and others.
TEXT 4
THE OLYMPIC GAMES
The Olympic Games bring together thousands of the world's finest athletes to compete
against one another. No other sports event attracts so much attention. Several million people
attend the games, and hundreds of millions throughout the world watch them on television.
The Olympic Games consist of the Summer Games and the Winter Games. The Summer
Games are held in a major city, and the Winter Games are held at a winter resort. The Olympics
have normally been held every four years, with both the Summer Games and the Winter Games
taking place the same year. Beginning from 1994, the Summer Games and the Winter Games are
scheduled to occur on a four-year cycle two years apart. For example, the Winter Games were
held in 1994 and 1998 and the Summer Games in 1996 and 2000.
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Colourful ceremonies combined with athletic competitions are to create the special
feeling of excitement that surrounds the Olympics. The opening ceremony is particularly
impressive. The athletes of Greece march into the stadium first, in honour of the original
Olympics held in ancient Greece. The other athletes follow in alphabetical order, depending on
the spelling of each nation's name in the language of the host country. The athletes of the host
country enter last.
The head of state of the host country declares the Games open. The most dramatic
moment of the opening ceremony is lighting of the Olympic flame. Runners in cross-country
relays bring a lighted torch from the valley of Olympia, Greece, where the ancient Olympics
were held. Thousands of runners take part in the journey, which starts four weeks before the
opening of the Games. They represent Greece and each country that lies between Greece and the
host nation. Planes and ships transport the torch across mountains and seas. The final runner
carries the torch into the stadium, circles the track, and lights the Olympic flame. The flame is kept
burning until the end of the Games. This custom started in 1936.
The modern Olympics were organized to encourage world peace and friendship and to
promote amateur athletics. The Olympic symbol consists of five interlocking rings that represent
the continents of Africa, Asia, Australia, Europe, and North and South America. The rings are
black, blue, green, red, and yellow. The flag of every nation competing in the games has at least
one of these colours. The Olympic motto is Faster, Higher, Stronger.
TEXT 5
THE OLYMPIC PROGRAMME FOR WOMEN
There can be no doubt that women's emancipation is one of the major features
of social progress. Since its beginnings in the 19th century, sport has been a primary
vehicle of this progress. The Olympic Games have made a considerable contribution
towards the realization that women, like men, are able to scale the heights of top-level
competition.
The participation of women in the Games is the work of the International
Olympic Committee, which, since the end of the Second World War, has regularly
expanded the women's Olympic programme. At first athletics, swimming, fencing, gymnastics, tennis and archery were open to women. The number of sports has been
increasing constantly since 1948. In Seoul in 1988 women were able to take part in 18
out of the 23 sports on the programme: athletics, rowing, basketball, canoe kayak,
cycling, equestrian events, fencing, gymnastics, handball, hockey, judo, swimming,
table tennis, tennis, shooting, archery, volleyball and yachting. Three sports are
designated as "mixed": yachting, equestrian sports and shooting. In these sports, men
and women take part in certain events side by side. There are usually less women than
men in these competitions but that does not prevent them from winning medals. At the
Winter Games, five out of eight disciplines are open to women: luge, speed-skating,
artistic skating, Alpine skiing, cross-country skiing. The "Olympic Charter" is
extremely favourable to the introduction of new sports for women, since to be admitted
to the programme they need only to be practised in a minimum of 25 countries on 2
continents, as against 50 countries and 3 continents for a male sport.
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The progression in the number of women's events has been constant and regular,
whereas that in the men's events, both summer and winter, took place in fits and starts
until the sixties. Although there is still a considerable gap between the men's and
women's programmes, it is narrowing all the time.
Beyond the Olympic programme itself, it is interesting to consider the number
of female participants in the Olympic Games. Their percentage has been constantly increasing for forty years and there is a close parallel for each Olympic year. The number
of women participants at Los Angeles or Sarajevo was just under a quarter of the total
number of athletes. On the other hand, in 1984, almost three quarters of NOCs sent
women to compete in the Games.
To conclude, we may observe a regular increase in women's participation from
all points of view. The women's programme has been regularly expanded. As regards the
number of events, the most remarkable increase took place leading up to the Games of
the XXIIIrd Olympiad in Los Angeles, with 13 new women's events, and there was a
similar increase for Seoul with additional events for women plus a women's judo
competition. This trend was confirmed by the XIth Olympic Congress in Baden-Baden
in 1981, where many speakers called for greater participation of women in the Games.
TEXT 6
1984 — AN OLYMPIAD FOR WOMEN
At the first modern Olympics in 1896 in Athens, a woman named Melpomene
sought to enter the marathon race, but the Olympic Committee refused her request. In
subsequent Olympics however women were allowed to compete in tennis and golf
(1900) at first, then in archery (1904), swimming (1912), fencing (1924), gymnastics
and athletics in 1928. It was a slow progression, but an inevitable one. 1984 became a
major historical milestone, for women's participation took the biggest leap forward in
the history of the Games.
In athletics the programme in Los Angeles listed three new running events for
women, the 400 m hurdles, 3000 m and the marathon. In swimming, the 200 m medley
was reinstated. For the first time, women were invited to compete in cycling — in a 50
km road race. For women only were rhythmic gymnastics and synchronised swimming.
At Sarajevo the women were also able to compete in the 20 km cross-country skiing.
To be included in the Olympic programme, in the case of a women's event, it must
be part of the national programme in at least 35 countries and on three continents. As a
rule, a new women's event is first proposed by the women' committee of an International
Federation to the Federation's technical committee. The technical committee will
recommend it to the Council of the Federation. The council will make an appeal to the
Programme Commission of the IOC and, eventually, the IOC Session on
recommendations of its Executive Board, will cast the deciding vote.
When women were first allowed to compete in Olympic skiing events in 1936,
only Alpine competitions, the downhill and slalom combination, were open to them. At
the 1952 Olympics in Oslo, finally, a flat race for women, the 10 kilometres, was intro-
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duced. In 1956, the 3X5 km relay was added and in 1964, the 5 kilometres. Now all
marathon races are open to them.
One of the most popular new events at Los Angeles was board sailing. It is now
practised in 130 countries and differs from other yachting events, because it happens
closer to shore and is quite a flashy spectator sport.
The weakest new event is obviously shooting. While the sport is practised among
men in over 80 countries (it is one of the original Olympic events), one would be hard
put to name 25 countries were women have shooting competitions. The door to the
Olympics was first opened to them in 1967 when the IOC decreed that women could
take part on the men's team if selected by their National Committee.
There are still some corners of the world where the two all-women sports,
rhythmic gymnastics and synchronised swimming, are not known. Rhythmic
gymnastics, which is highly developed in Europe, held a spot on the Olympic
programme in 1952 and 1956. A more sophisticated form of rhythmic gymnastics made
its appearance in 1984. Each country was allowed to enter two women in an individual
competition. To exercise to music in four events that require four different apparatuses
— a jump rope, a small ball, a hoop, two small Indian clubs or a ribbon.
While rhythmic gymnastics is much like dancing, synchronised swimming only
looks that way. Today, synchronised swimming consists of three events: solo, duet and
the 8-women team event. It has also become a very demanding sport where women have
to hold their breath for a good deal of a four-minute routine. A synchronised swimmer is
a gymnast performing under water. This takes a lot of weight training and aerobic
exercises. By 1980 the sport had spread to 35 countries.
TEXT 7
PYOTR LESGAFT
Lesgaft's medical studies of the human system led him to the conclusion that it was in
constant development and change, partly under the influence of the social environment; physical
education instructors should, in his opinion, have a knowledge of chemistry and physics,
particularly the general laws of mechanics, so as to be able to apply them tо the "human
mechanism".
On the basis of his theory, he elaborated and recommended a system of physical
education for the school and the home:
1. The child starts by simple movements which are explained to him
but not demonstrated, he has to analyse them himself and distinguish one
from another, then begin to understand them. The movements, recommended for early school
classes, consist of normal walking, running, jumping and throwing a ball.
2. The child then learns to master exercises of gradually increasing
complexity in various conditions, after which he can tackle more difficult
tasks swiftly and easily. These exercises are designed for the intermediate classes and
consist of running against the clock, long and high jumping and distance throwing.
3. The child then learns to harmonize his movements in time and space and in relation to
surrounding objects, already foreseeing the result. By these exercises, he develops muscular
control and learns to act in the best possible way in any circumstances. Exercises are for the
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upper forms and include running at a set speed, target or distance ball-throwing, exercises
associated with an understanding of special relationships and the temporal distribution of effort.
4. Simultaneously with these groups of exercises, the child checks the skills he has
acquired and consolidates them by employing difficult actions during games, excursions and
work movements.
At each stage of physical education, different, increasingly complicated, pedagogical
aims are pursued, the main purpose being to teach the child conciously to master the movements
of his body and to attain the best results with the minimum energy and time expenditure. In
physical education, the child should both develop physical skills and be prepared to apply them
in the best way possible.
Lesgaft, however, opposed the German system and any gymnastics that employed
special equipment. In his opinion, the type of gymnastics in vogue in Germany and Sweden did
not correspond to children's anatomical structure and were, therefore, physically harmful. He
favoured the type of free gymnastics, which would satisfy the children's natural desire for
physical movement. Physical exercises develop activity in a person and he acquires the ability to
subordinate all his desires to his will.
TEXT 8
Coaching as a Social and Pedagogical Phenomenon
1. Coaching is fundamentally a didactic and educational activity associated with
social and physical development of fitness and health. Hence the coach operates first in
the pedagogical and recreational field and moves towards the sanitary and functional
values as and when higher sport objectives are kept in mind.
2. The striving for self-expression and constant perfection of a man, are
facilitated by the process of coaching. Talent and ambition alone are not enough for
winning a championship. It is necessary to submit oneself absolutely to a planned
concept of coaching. In general physical education and sport are social values which
form an important component of the culture. Physical education has a favourable effect
on health. But to make its best contribution to the society, a long period of systematic
work is needed. In general an athlete with the best coach achieves the best result, all
other conditions being equal.
3. Physical education and sport are a basis for health, physical perfection,
increased working ability, as well as moral and aesthetic teaching. Numerous studies
have shown that college students who practise sports regularly are also better able to
cope with their work; workers in industry, who practise sport, fall ill 3-4 times less
frequently than others; they are more productive, produce fewer rejects and suffer fewer
injuries.
4. Sport compensates for the insufficiency of the physical activity which decreases as a result of conveniences and facilities of modern life. To become perfect in
physical ability and fitness is a virtue desirable for personal- and socio-cultural reasons.
Sport provides opportunities for satisfying our needs, like need for movement, need for
publicity, need for excitement, need for competition, need for security and selfsufficiency as well as need for physical skills. Not all athletes experience all these needs
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and not all needs can be satisfied without difficulty; but all of them are present, real and
powerful.
TEXT 9
COACHING
1. Introduction. Sport and physical education is a dynamic phenomenon which
connects the individual with the physical world made up of rules and regulations, win,
defeat, players, spectators and coach. We have at least three types of sports: competitive
sport, institutional (either school, college or university) sport, and recreational sport.
But at any level or in any form sport does have an educational element.
To be successful the coach should be capable of detecting the regularities and the
possibilities for realization of educational methods and the organization of educative
sport for the young people. He has to know and study the patterns of sports activity. The
coach should understand the educational theory and the practice based on it.
2. Characteristics of coaches. Coaches play a decisive role in shaping the
competitor's cаreer. They are not only expert advisors but influence the formation of
certain patterns of behaviour, attitudes and psychological reactions. That is why it is
very difficult to define a concept like coaching and list out the characteristics of a coach.
We have to localize the following identifying factors involved in such activities as
coaching.
2.1. Coaches require an awareness of contention of interest. Sport outcomes are
based on the knowledge of the form of the sport, rules and the interests of each player.
Without an awareness of the contention of interests the coach cannot stir up directed
commitment among the players.
2.2. Coaches should exhibit a consistency of role. The success of a coach depends
on the extent to which he can train in his/her players a consistent pattern of preferences
and consistency of role expectation. The player should answer the question "What
choice should I make in order that my partial influence over the outcomes benefits me
the most?" This is important because the dilemma of individual decision-making is
crucial to sport and the coach should equip the player with decision-making abilities. In
the case of team sports the decisions are made by the group, of course, with mutual
interest but there may be conflicting interests. The job of the .coach is to resolve or
adjust the individual interest so that efficient productivity can be achieved. In short the
coach has to mould a group of individuals into a team so that unitary interest emerges.
2.3. Coaches should help achieve actualization. The third characteristic of a good
coach is the efficiency with which he can stimulate players to maximization of
individual efforts.
2.4. Variable predictability. In any sport situation we cannot absolutely
programme all the possible chances in advance in any play. The coach has to convince
the players about the chance element and variable predictability associ ated with sports.
TEXT 10
MOVEMENT
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Movement is a typical human activity from the very first days of life, it is an
expression of satisfaction, freedom, playfulness and creativeness, as well as an important means
of upbringing and self-realization. The motor abilities are closely connected with child's
functional capabilities, health condition, intellectual, emotional and social development.
Quick growth, reduced motor abilities, health problems, and negative influences of our
civilization, can cause serious problems to children and the youth.
Coaching is intended for the children and youth, their parents and sports teachers. The
latter can recognize and monitor physical and motor development of young people, they can
compare their achievements with those of their peers, they can help them to take part in sports
activities at or outside school.
The parents can discuss the development of their child with sports teachers, coaches,
doctors. The children and young people themselves are trained to assess their own load in sport.
The findings of the analysis of the measurements enable the sports teacher to suitably
plan the sports educational process, adapt the lessons to each individual, to advise children and
young people on integrating in different sports activities, in special sports education, as well as in
top sports creativity, which results in a friendlier and more interesting sports education.
TEXT 11
PHYSIOLOGICAL VALUES OF EXERCISE
1. Introduction. Life is activity. Movement is characteristic of all types of life.
The scientific opinion today is that exercise is of value to most individuals. It is further
agreed that exercise, to be effective, should meet certain fundamental requirements. It
must be regular, enjoyable, vigorous, and suited to the individual, because not all people
have the same general abilities or capacities. A person should select those activities
which are best suited to his needs and individual preference.
One common benefit of exercise is the improvement of efficiency of the vital
organs and the muscular system. The physically trained person will expend
proportionally less energy and put less strain on his body than the physically untrained
individual. There are many other physiological benefits of regular exercise that will be
discussed briefly.
2.
Improved
circulation.
Exercise
serves
to
promote
better
circulation throughout the entire body. The heart pumps out a greater volume of blood
with
fewer
strokes
per
minute.
Training
in
the
endurance
type of activities usually results in a lower pulse rate than training
in speed or strength type of activities. Marathon runners on the average have a pulse rate
of 59, long distance men of 61, middle distance runners of 63 and sprinters of 66.
Activities that develop muscular strength, like weightlifting, do not have such a
remarkable effect on the circulatory system as the above type of activities.
Exercise promotes improved circulation by aiding the "peripheral heart" action. This
means that the movement of muscles and body organs assist in returning the blood to the
heart. This is especially important in the extremities of the body. Improved circulation
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assures improvement in the heart-regulating mechanism of the body. Exercise warms the
body when it is cold, while on hot days mild exercise has a cooling effect on the body.
3. Improved respiration. Respiration or breathing, is the means by which oxygen
is taken into the body and the waste products of oxidation are carried off. During
exercise, the rate of respiration increases. The trained person will have a slower and
deeper respiration than one who is out of condition.
4. Improved digestion. Exercise aids digestion in two ways: (1) it increases the
appetite, and (2) the movement of the digestive organs speeds up the peristaltic action.
5. Improved musculature. The muscles become stronger through use. Also, the
general muscle tone of the body is improved through exercise. Especially weak muscle
groups can be singled out for developmental attention. Posture can be improved by
developing the elastic muscles of the back.
6. Other values. Another value of exercise is the increase in production of red
blood cells. The hemoglobin count of the blood is raised through activity. Exercise can
also help in keeping blood pressure from becoming high.
Regular exercise improves and maintains the general all-round fitness of the
individual, increases strength, endurance, agility and coordination and retards the onset
of fatigue.
Exercise is effective in reducing neuro-muscular tension. Muscular relaxation is
basic to mental relaxation.
TEXT 12
ATHLETICS (TRACK AND FIELD)
Historians found many facts that running, jumping and throwing had been held in many
ancient countries: Egypt, Assyria and of course, Greece. Ancient Olympic Games included
mostly athletic events.
As modern sports athletics began to develop in the middle of the 19th century. The first
regular athletics competitions began about 1850. In the beginning running races were held on
open fields. Later stadiums appeared where sportsmen could train and compete.
Athletics was in the programme of the first Olympic Games. The International
Amateur Athletics Federation was formed in 1912. Now the Federation unites more than 130
countries. The main athletics international competitions are the Olympics, the European
championships, Asian, African and American Games, and world championships.
Athletics are divided into three main parts: running and walking, jumping and
throwing. Both running and walking races are contested on the track. In running we distinguish
flat races and hurdle races. The speediest distance is 100metres. Other short distance events
include 200 and 400 m, and all three are called ―sprint‖.
Medium-distance runners compete at the distances of 800, 1500 and 3000 m. Longer
runs are represented by 5000 and 10 000 m distances. But they may seem nothing in
comparison with the marathon distance which equals 40 km 195 m! Marathon runs and longdistance walkings are the only events that are contested out of the stadium on specially marked
routes.
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Talking of flat races we should also mention the relays. It is a very interesting view
when four men or women dash along the runway one after another with a small baton. In
contrast to flat races, the hurdles distances do not look impressive – 80,110,200 and 400 m. But
in reality they appear much more difficult because the athletes must not only run at full speed
but also kangaroo-jump over ten hurdles.
There are four varieties of jumping: high jumping, long jumping, triple jumping and
pole vaulting. High jump is performed by sportsmen who compete by clearing a bar suspended
between two posts. Really ―cosmic‖ heights are cleared by pole-vaulters. After an energetic runup with a pole in his hands, the jumper takes off into the air and tops the bar fixed about 5-6 m
above the ground level. The essence of the triple jump is seen in the other name for this event:
―hop, step and jump‖. That means the athlete must run up, take off, land on the take-off foot
then on the other and spring from the same foot for the final jump.
A modern discus is smaller and lighter. It is made of wood with a metal rim. Its weight
is 2 kg for men and 1 kg for women. The discus, is thrown from a circle two and a half metres in
diameter. The athlete stands with his back to the throwing sector, makes several swings with the
discus in one hand, then turns one and a half times and releases the discus.
An ancient weapon javelin, also has its modern "brother" which is made of wood or
aluminium with a steel point and a cord grip in the middle. The sportsmen make a run-up and
throw the javelin over the shoulder. It must touch the ground with the point and this mark shows
the result. The javelin weighs 800 gm for men and 600 gm for women.
Hammer throwing originated from Scotland, where it was a usual contest between
peasants. A sports hammer is a metal ball with a handle attached by a steel wire. The hammer is
thrown from a circle about two metres in diameter. The sportsman swings it several times over
his head, then turns around 3—4 times and lets the hammer fly.
Shot-putting was a favourite contest of artillery soldiers who threw cannon shots. Now
the shot is a metal ball weighing 7.25 kg for men and 4 kg for women. The sportsman stands in
the same circle as for the hammer throwing. He holds the shot at his neck and after some jumps
he turns and sends the shot forward. All throwers are allowed three trials, and the winner is that
who tosses his piece farther.
In the athletics there are combined events called decathlon and septathlon. The ten
events scheduled for two days are: 100 m, 400 m, 1500 m, shot-put, discus, javelin, high jump,
long jump, pole vault and 110 m hurdles. Points are given for each event and at the end of the
second day the sum of total is calculated. The septathlon is for women who compete also for two
days.
Athletics is justly called the queen of sports.
TEXT 13
VOLLEYBALL
Volleyball was devised in 1895 by William G. Morgan, the physical fitness instructor
of the Young Men's Christian Association in Holyoke, Mass. The first US national tournament
was held in New York in 1992. The game spread to the Far East through American missionary
schools and reached Western Europe with the arrival of American troops in World War I. In
Copyright ОАО «ЦКБ «БИБКОМ» & ООО «Aгентство Kнига-Cервис»
1947 the Federation Internationale de Volleyball (FIVB) was founded in Paris. World
championships, sponsored by the FIVB, began in 1949; women's team began to participate in
1952. Both men's and women's volleyball teams first featured in the Olympic Games in 1964.
Volleyball is a team ball game played between two teams of six players. The object of
the game is to use any part of the body above the waist to send the ball over a net within the
boundaries of the court so that the opposing team is unable to return it or prevent it from
hitting the ground. Points are scored for successful actions by a serving team, and these points
make up a set. The winning team is the one that wins the most sets in a match - usually three
out of five.
The playing area is a hard court, indoors or outdoors, that measures 18 m long and
9m wide, with a net across the center. An unobstructed area of 3 m must surround an open-air
court on all sides; indoors this space must be a minimum of 2 m. In the Olympic Games and
the final rounds of world championships, this space must be extended to 8 m behind the end
lines and 5 m beyond the side lines. Above the court there must be 9 m of free space measured
from the ground; for the Olympics and final world championship rounds this should be 12.5 m.
The boundary lines around the court are 5 cm wide and are included in the court's
dimensions. A center line under the net divides the court into two equal squares. In each half
the attack line is drawn across the court 3 m from the center line. The attack line and the center
line enclose the attack area, which extends indefinitely beyond the side lines. In the back righthand corner of each half of the court, the 3 m-wide service area extends beyond the back line
to a minimum of 2 m, and is marked by two 15 cm parallel lines at right angles to the back
line.
The net is stretched across the center of the court at a height of 2.43 m for men and 2.24
m for women.
The net is 9.5 m long and 1 m deep, made of 10 cm square mesh, with 5cm white
bands along the top edge and vertically down each side, over the side lines. Over each side
marker, multicolored vertical antennas project 80 cm above the top of the net.
The ball must be spherical, with a circumference of 65-67 cm and weighing 260-280 g
and it must be uniform in color. It is made of a leather casing enclosing a bladder of rubber or
similar material.
Each team is composed of six players and a maximum of six substitutes. Each team
has a captain. The team captain is the only player allowed to speak to officials. In international
competitions a match is the best of five sets. The interval between all sets lasts 3 minutes. Up
to 3 minutes are allowed for injury stoppages.
Volleyball rules.
The two captains toss a coin for choice of ends or the right to serve. When the ball is
served the players of both teams must be standing in two rows of three - the front-line players
at the net, the back -line players behind them anywhere on the court.
When there is a change of service, the players of the team that is to serve rotate one
position clockwise before serving. Players must serve in the correct order of rotation,
otherwise the team loses the service and all points scored while the wrong person was serving.
Copyright ОАО «ЦКБ «БИБКОМ» & ООО «Aгентство Kнига-Cервис»
The players' order of rotation must remain constant until the end of a game, but the line-up can
then be changed if the scorer is informed.
The server stands in the service area at the back of the court. After the referee‘s whistle
the server has five seconds to put the ball into play. He can hit the ball with his open or closed
hand or any part of his arm. But he must hit it clearly with one hand only, after first clearly
releasing or throwing the ball from either hand. At the moment of impact the server must be
within the service area, although he can land outside it after hitting the ball. The ball must pass
over the net between the antennas or their indefinite extensions, to go into the opponents' court.
A fault is committed if the ball goes under the net, or touches the net, the antennas, or
their indefinite extensions, a player of the serving team, or any other object, or if it lands
outside the opponents' court.
Members of the serving team must not try to distract the opposing team during the
service or form groups to "screen" the server's action.
The same player continues to serve until his team commits a fault. Service then passes
to the other team.
The ball may be hit with any part of the body above and including the waist.
Each team may touch the ball up to three times, not counting "blocking" contact, before
returning it over the net.
Front-line players may make any kind of attack hit (i.e. a hit that directs the ball into
the opponents' court) provided the ball at the time of contact is partially or totally within their
playing space.
Back-line players may make any kind of attack hit; back-line players within the front
zone may make an attack hit. When either referee blows his whistle, the ball is dead. If it
touches the ground or any object outside the court, it is out of play.
Front-line players may block the ball after a third contact by the opponents by making
contact with it before, as, or immediately after it crosses the net. Back-line players are not
permitted to participate in a block.
TEXT 14
BASKETBALL
Its birthplace was Springfield, Mass. The game is the brainchild of an instructor Dr.
James A. Naismith.
The purpose of basketball is to score by throwing the ball into the basket while it is
defended by the opposition. The opposition tries to keep the attacking team from scoring by
defending the basket. The ball may be thrown, deflected by hand, rolled, or dribbled in any
direction subjected to the restrictions of the rules.
A team comprises a center, who is usually the tallest player, two forwards, and two
guards.
A player scores two points each time he throws the ball through the basket from
anywhere on the court. This is a field goal. If, however, he scores from a free throw (from the
free-throw line), awarded as the result of an infringement by an opponent, he scores only one
point.
Basketball is played by two teams of five players each, and a team may have up to seven
substitutes. The playing court is a rectangular surface measuring 94 ft by 50 ft. These
Copyright ОАО «ЦКБ «БИБКОМ» & ООО «Aгентство Kнига-Cервис»
dimensions are marked by side lines and end-lines. The court is divided into two halves by the
division line. All lines on the court are 2 in. wide. The basketball is spherical, with leather or
composition covering, and is approximately 30 in. in circumference. It weighs between 20 and
22 oz, and when dropped from a height of 6 ft the pressure inside should cause it to bounce a
little over 4 ft.
The score, the number of fouls, and the time are kept by two scorers.
The length of a game varies according to the class of competition. At international and
Olympic level the game consists of two 20-minute halves. But professional leagues play 12minute quarters, with a half-time intermission, and schools play four 8-minute periods.
TEXT 15
FOOTBALL
The ancestry of the game can be traced to 200 ВС during the Han dynasty in China.
In 1855 Sheffield Football Club (FC), the world's oldest club, was founded. In October
1863 the Football Association (FA) was founded in London.
Association football is an 11-a-side field game played with a spherical ball, the most
widely played team game in the world and the most popular spectator sport. It is often
popularly called "soccer" (especially in the United States) which is a slang term dating from
about 1891 as a shortening of "assoc." or "association". Association football is distinguished
from American football, Canadian football and Rugby Union.
All that is needed to play the game is a ball, goals and sports outfits consisting of shirts,
shorts, stockings, and athletic shoes.
The object of the game is to score more goals than one's opponents by propelling the
ball into the opposing side's goal.
The pitch is usually grass but the game can be played on other surfaces including, in
some competitions, artificial surfaces. The pitch may be 91-119 m in length and 46-100 m in
width. The ball is round, with a circumference of 27-28 in (68-71 cm) and weighs 14-16 oz
(396-453 g). A game is controlled by a referee with the assistance of two linesmen. There are
normally two 45-minute halves with a halftime interval of a minimum 10 minutes. To decide
cup (knockout) matches which are drawn after 90 minutes, extra time, usually of 15 minutes
each way, is played. Some competitions allow for a penalty kick decider.
A game begins with a kick-off with the ball on the centre spot and kicked forward by
one of the attackers. After a goal the game restarts in the same way. Every time a kick-off
occurs the teams are in their respective halves of the field and cannot move until the ball is
kicked into play. The ball is in play once it has travelled its circumference into the opponent's
half. The player making the kick-off may not touch the ball again until it has been touched by
another player. The ball only goes out of play when it wholly crosses the boundaries of the
field—on the ground or in the air. When the ball goes over the touchline it re-enters the field
by means of a throw-in. This is taken by a member of the team not responsible for putting it
out of play. At the point where the ball crossed the line the thrower takes the ball in both hands
and throws it from behind and over the head. At the moment of throwing-in the player must
face the pitch with both feet on the ground.
Copyright ОАО «ЦКБ «БИБКОМ» & ООО «Aгентство Kнига-Cервис»
TEXT 16
SKIING
History of skiing. Skis found in the bogs of Norway, Sweden, and Finland are estimated
to be between 4,000 and 5,000 years old. The earliest skis presumably were made from bones of
large animals and were strapped to shoes with leather thongs. Not until after the beginning of the
Christian era was wood used.
Skiing was introduced into central Europe, via Austria, in 1590. Since then it has spread
to North America, Japan, Australia, New Zealand, South America.
Ski races are divided into two basic groups: Alpine skiing, and Nordic skiing. The major
Alpine races are downhill, slalom, and giant slalom. Nordic skiing includes individual and relay
cross-country racing, and ski jumping. A combination of cross-country racing and ski jumping
makes up the Nordic combined event. A combination of cross-country racing and shooting is the
biathlon.
Alpine skiing
Downhill skiing. Downhill racing is the most dangerous and exciting of all skiing events.
It consists of skiing from the top to the bottom of a prescribed course by the shortest and fastest
route possible.
The men's course is marked by red or luminous orange gates. The vertical drop of the
course should be 800-1000 m for major international competitions and 500-1000 m for other
competitions. The women's course is marked by alternating red and blue gates. The vertical drop
should be 500-700 m.
Slalom. Slalom is a form of skiing competition in which a skier must descend a course
made up of a series of gates.
The gates are made of poles. The race is decided by two runs over two different courses.
The winner is the competitor with the best aggregate time for the two runs.
Giant slalom. Giant slalom is a longer version of a slalom course.
The course should be prepared as for a downhill race; the sections where gates are set
should be prepared as for slalom. The ground should be undulating and hilly.
The vertical drop of a giant slalom in Olympic competition must be 250-400 m for men,
and 250-350 m for women. The number of the gates set is based on the vertical drop of the
course.
The race is decided by two runs, held when possible on the same day. The winner is the
competitor with the best aggregate time for the two runs.
Nordic skiing
Cross-country skiing. The course should ideally be one third flat, one third uphill, and
one third downhill. Men race over 10, 15, 30, and 50 km courses; women-over 5, 10, 15 and 20
(or 30) km. Skiers compete in classic and free styles. One race is a free technique pursuit.
Competitors must follow the marked track, and must pass through all the official control points.
During the race the skier may exchange both his ski poles and one of his skis.
The winner is the skier who completes the course in the fastest time wearing at least one
marked ski.
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Relay races. A relay team consists of 4 skiers. Each section of the relay course is 10 km
for men and 5 km for women. Usually two sections of the relay are run in classic style and two in
free style. The winners are the team whose final skier is the first to cross the finishing line.
Ski jumping. Each competitor has two jumps. A jump consists of the takeoff, flight,
and landing. Distance points are awarded depending on the distance jumped. Style points are
awarded depending on the general impression of the entire jump. The total points score for each
jump is the total of the distance points and the style points. The winner is the competitor with the
highest total of points from his two jumps.
Nordic combined. The competition consists of ski jumping and cross-country ski racing.
The cross-country course is 15 km long.
The competition takes place on two consecutive days. The competitor with the highest
points total from the two events is the winner.
Biathlon. The event combines cross-country ski racing with smallbore rifle shooting.
There are three races: the individual biathlon, the sprint, and the relay. For each target missed,
there is a shooting penalty, usually a penalty loop.
For individual biathlon races, the men's course should be 20km long, with four bouts of
shooting. The women's course is 10km long, with three bouts of shooting. For biathlon relay, the
men's course is 7.5 km long, the women's 5km long.
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Словарь-минимум спортивной лексики
A
achievement – достижение
amateur – любитель
athlete – спортсмен
athletics – легкая атлетика
award – награждать, награда
B
be held – проходить
break (broke, broken) – побить
bronze medal – бронзовая медаль
C
calisthenics – художественная гимнастика
champion – чемпион
championship – чемпионат
chess – шахматы
clock – показать время
coach – тренер
competition – соревнование
competitor – участник соревнований
contest – соревнование
cup – кубок
cycling – велоспорт
D
decathlon – десятиборье
defeat – победить, поражение
draw – ничья
E
event – вид спорта
F
fan – болельщик
fencing – фехтование
G
game – игра
goal – гол, ворота
go in for – заниматься
gold medal – золотая медаль
gymnastics – гимнастика
Copyright ОАО «ЦКБ «БИБКОМ» & ООО «Aгентство Kнига-Cервис»
I
indoor – в залах
international – международный
J
judge – судья; судить
K
kind of sport – вид спорта
L
lose (lost) – проигрывать
M
match – матч
meeting – встреча
O
opponent – противник, соперник
outdoor – на открытом воздухе
P
participant – участник
participate – участвовать
play – играть
points – очки, баллы
practice – заниматься, тренироваться
preliminary – предварительный, отборочный
prize – приз
prize-winner – призер
professional – профессионал
Q
qualify for – выйти в
R
record-holder – рекордсмен
rival – противник, соперник
rowing – гребля
runner-up – серебряный призер
S
Copyright ОАО «ЦКБ «БИБКОМ» & ООО «Aгентство Kнига-Cервис»
score – счет
set a record – установит рекорд
shooting – стрельба
silver medal – серебряная медаль
skiing – лыжный спорт
spectator – зритель, болельщик
speed-skating – конькобежный спорт
sports class (ranking) – спортивный разряд
swimming – плавание
T
take part – участвовать
take place – занять место; проходить
team – команда
title – звание, титул
tournament – турнир
track-and-field – легкая атлетика
train – тренироваться
W
weightlifting – тяжелая атлетика
win (won) – выигрывать, побеждать
winner – победитель
wrestling – борьба
Copyright ОАО «ЦКБ «БИБКОМ» & ООО «Aгентство Kнига-Cервис»
Литература
1. Английский язык для физкультурных специальностей/ Е.А. Баженова, А.Ю. Гренлунд,
Л.Я. Ковалева, А.В. Соколова. – М.: «Академия», 2006. – 352 с.
2. Англо-русский, русско-английский словарь – справочник спортивной терминологии:
учебное пособие для факультетов и институтов физической культуры и спорта/ под ред.
В.И. Курилова. – Владивосток: Изд-во Дальневосточного ун-та, 2000.
3. Качалова К.Н. Практическая грамматика английского языка/ К.Н. Качалова, Е.Е.
Израилевич. – Элиста: Джангар, 2002
4. Оршанская Е.Г. Английский язык: учебное пособие/ Е.Г. Оршанская, Е.Г. Макарычева,
Л.Р. Гладилина [и др.]. – М.: Флинта, Наука, 2008.
5. Тимонова В.М. Быстрее, выше, сильнее! Пособие по обучению чтению на английском
языке: Учеб. пособие для вузов. – М.: Высшая школа, 1988. – 111 с.
6. Martens R. Coaching young athletes/ R. Martens, Christina R.W., Harvey G.S. [and others]. –
Champaigh, Illinois: Human Kinetics Publishers, Inc., 1999.
7. The Moscow News/ www. mn.ru/ english.
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Оглавление
Часть 1.
Программные требования ……………………………………………………………….4
Методические рекомендации…………………………………………………………….6
Часть 2.
Раздел 1. Устные темы …………………………………………………………………..13
Раздел 2. Контрольная работа …………………………………………………………..15
Раздел 3. Тексты для дополнительного чтения………………………………………..27
Раздел 4. Словарь-минимум спортивной лексики……………………………………..47
Литература………………………………………………………………………………...50
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