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selenium
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ice
(1)
Publication
_________________________________________________________________
Number GB402044A
i»?
Title
_________________________________________________________________
EN Title Improvements relating to light-sensitive apparatus
Abstract
_________________________________________________________________
4760.
Void [Abridged as open to inspection under Sect.
91 of the Acts, Feb.
18, 1932].
[Class
40
(iii).]
A
light-sensitive cell 2, illuminated by
intermittent light, is in circuit with ohmic resistances 3, 10 and an
alternatingcurrent resistance 11 of such magnitude that compensating
actions occurring on impulsive variation of illumination produce,
between two points 13, 14 of the circuit, a voltage almost independent
of the resistance of the cell.
The voltage for the cell is obtained through rectifiers 12 fed from
alternating current 5 of high frequency compared with the frequency of
change of illumination.
The alternatingcurrent
an inductance.
resistance is shown as a capacity, but may be
The resistance of the cell influences both the charge on the condenser
and the compensating current flowing through the resistance 10 on a
change
of
illumination,
and,
by correctly proportioning the
resistances 3, 10, 11, these two effects can be so balanced that the
influence of the cell resistance on the voltage across the resistance
10 is a minimum.
The resistances are so dimensioned that the compensating current
through the resistance 10 fades to approximately one tenth of its
maximum value before the next compensating current is started.
The cell may be at a distance from the rest of the apparatus and
connected to it by a cable.
Description
_________________________________________________________________
1 '
B No E -The application Jo? a Patent has become void.
This print shows the Specification as
inspectionon 18, February, 1932, under
Acts.
it became open to public
Section 91 (4) (a) of thae
PATENT SPECIFICATION
We, SIEMENS and IHALSEE AKTIENGESELLSCHAET, a German Company, of
beriniSiemensstadt, Germany, do hereby declare the nature of this
invention and e in what manner the same is to ice performed, to ie
particularly described and ascertained in and by the following
statement This invention relates io improvements AO in light-sensitive
control apparatus and has for its object to provide a device which
shall be substantially independent of random variations of resistance
in light-sensitive cells due to temperature t 5 fluctuation and other
causes.
It is well known that the use of lightsensitive electric cells, such
as selenium cells, is rendered extraordinarily difficult by the
frequently very high sensitivity of -20 the cells to temperature Othlr
influences lead, especially in the case of selenium cells, to high
variations in resistance which can only be compensated with difficulty
or not at all In order to be 2.i independent of such variations in
resistance it has already been proposed that such cells should be
intermittently
illuminated
The intermittent illumination alone,
however, is insufficient to render the fluctuations of resistance of
the cell harmless, since the variation of resistance that occurs on
fluctuations of illu Lmination can be regarded as a function of the
resistance of the cell during darkness.
According to the present invention, therefore, in order to be, as far
as possible, independent of the resistance of the cell during
darkness, also in the case of varying sensitivity of the cells (on
account of variations of resistance) with the voltage which is taken
from the circuit containing the cell, the intermittently illuminated
cell is placed in a circuit containing ohmic and alternating current
resistances, the magnitudes of the resistance being such that the
currents tending to restore equilibrium in the circuit on an impulsive
change of the illuminalPr-ir ' 2,044 tion of the cell produce, between
two points of the circuit, a voltage which is 50 aminost independent
of the resistance of the cell during darkness The resistances, which
are principally determinative of the restoring currents, may be of a
capacitive as well as of an inductive kind 55 The manner of operation
of the new apparatus depends of the fact that although the disturbance
of the equilibrium, which is produced across the alternatint' current
resistances on an impul 60 sive change of illumination, is dependent
as regards its size on the resistance of the cell during darkness, the
restoring actions occurring on account of the disturbance of the
equilibrium are likewise 65 dependent on the resistance of the cell so
that the voltage existing between two suitable points of the circuit
is to a very large extent independent of the resistance of the cell
Any remainder of voltage 70 dependent on the resistance of the cell,
which still may exist on the utilisation of the compensating actions
can be reduced to a minimum by suitably dimensioning the resistances
constituting the 75 network.
The invention will now be described by way of example only with
reference to the accompanying drawings, which show a suitable circuit
arrangement, and in 80 which the selenium cell 2 is supplied with D.C
voltage through a rectifier 12 in Graetz circuit fed from the
secondary winding 6 of the transformer 4 In the initial condition the
condenser 11, which 85 is in series with the resistance 10, charges
itself from the voltage across the resistance 3 If the illumination of
the cell is impulsively varied, the disturbance of the equilibrium at
the condenser 11 is 9 o determined both lay the resistance of the cell
and by the degree of fluctuation of the illumination The strength of
the compensating current that flows through the resistance 10 on
account of this dis 95 turbance of the equilibrium is, however,
Application Date: Feb 17, 1932 No 4760/32 4 Complete not Accepted.
__ COMPLETE SPECIFICATION.
Improvements relating Lo Liglit-sensitive Apparatus.
402,044 likewise determined by the resistance of the cell 2 in such a
manner that the voltage given bjy the resistance 10 and applied to the
grid of thle valve 1 is almost independent of the resistance of the
cell.
In order to save batteries, alternating current can be used to operate
the circuit, the frequency of which is high compared with the
frequency of interruption of the light that influences the cell The
alternating current is conveniently supplied to the secondaries 6 and
7 through the primary 5 of the transformer 4 The voltage induced in
-the winding -7 is used i S for heating the cathode, and for the
supply of grid bias and anode voltages.
The relay 8, shunted by condenser 9 is connected in the anode circuit
of the valve The relay operates a contact, not shown in the drawving,
so that if is opened or closed at each sufficiently great change of
illumination of the cell.
The circui-u represented in the figure has, as calculation and
experiments have shown, the great advantage that it is to a very large
extent independent of the cable ad insulation resistances which are in
parallel with the resistance 3 It-is possible, therefore, to locate
the cell at a place removed from the rest of the apparatus and to
connect it with it by a cable This advantage is of great importance
when the cell is to be used in connection with vehicles, since the
cell can be fitted in a position on the vehicle which is readily
accessible to light from the outside, although the amplifier circuit
need not be placed in such an exposed position.
In order to utilise the static sensitivity of the cell as fully as
possible,
it
is advantageous to choose the frequency of the
interruptions of the light falling on the cell and the resistances,
which are determinative of the damping of the compensatinm actions, in
such a manner that a compensating current fades away, for example, to
about one tenth of its initial value, before the next compensating
action is started.
In this case it is advisable to make the time which determines the
rapidity of the fading of the compensating current long as compared
with the time that the cell requires, on account of its inertia, to
change its resistance to the value corresponding to the new intensity
of illumination The contact controlled by the relay 8 can be used in
any desired manner for influencing this controlling member, so that
the latter is onerated in one sense or the othier in accordance with
the intensity of the light falling on the cell.
Fa-ving now particularly described and 65 ascertained the nature of
our said invention and in what manner the same is to be performed, we
declare that what we
Claims
_________________________________________________________________
claim is:1) Apparatus for operating controlling 70 membeis in dependence uponi
intermittent light falling upon a light-sensitive cell, for example, a
selenium cell, characterised by the feature that there are provided,
in the circuit containing 75 the cell, ohmic and alternating current
resistances
of such a magnitude that the compensating actions
occurring on impulsive variation of illumination produce, between two
points of the circuit, a volt 80 age that is almost independent of the
resistance of the cell.
2) Apparatus according to claim 1, characterised by the feature that
the alternating current resistances are essentially 85 of a capacitive
nature. a
3 Apparatus according to claim 1, characterised by the feature that
the alternating current resistances are essentially of an inductive
nature 90
4) Apparatus according to claim 1, characterised by the feature that
the resistances are of such magnituides that the influence of the cell
resistance on the magnitude of the voltage taken oft is a 95 minimum.
5)
Apparatus
according
to claim 1, characterised by such a
dimensioning of the resistances that the voltage occurring on account
of the compensating actions 100 fades away to approximately one tenth,
for example, of its maximum value, before the next compensating action
is started.
6) Apparatus according to claim 1, 105 characterised by the feature
that a direct voltage is connected to the cell.
7) Apparatus according to claim 1, characterised by the feature that,
for feeding the installation alternating 1 i 10 current, with whole or
partial interconnection of rectifiers, is used, the frequency of which
is large as compared with the frequency of the change of illumination.
8) Apparatus according to claim 1, 1116 characterised by the feature
that the cell is connected by a cable, so that cells and amplifiers
can be put up at separate places.
9) Apparatus substantially as described 129 with reference to the
accompanying drawings. Dated this 17th day of February, 1932. For the
Anplicants, GEORGE HAM, B Sc (En R)Lond, A.F R Ae S M A M E E,
Chartered Patent Arent, 93-94, Chancery Lane, London, W C 2. Redhill:
Printed for His Majesty's Stationery Office, by Love and Malcomson,
Ltd -1933.
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