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carbonic acid
carbon tetrachloride
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room temperature
80 percent
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Gene Or Protein
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Number GB402942A
EN Title Improvements in and relating to oil-break electric switches
[Class 38 (v).] The oil employed in liquid-break switches has the air
or oxygen removed and is then impregnated with carbonic acid gas.
The air
gas is
oil into
is removed from the oil by any known vacuum treatment and the
supplied either by blowing through the oil or by bringing the
finely divided particles which are passed under pressure into
contact with the gas.
To increase the receptivity of the oil it may be heated or subjected
to a pressure in excess of atmospheric pressure , the pressure and
heating being effected in one or several applications.
In use, if the switch detonates during operation the gas is suddenly
and to a considerable extent freed from the oil and settles over the
oil surface.
Moreover, the
of oxygen .
products of the arc cannot ignite owing to the absence
of the gas by diffusion in switches which are in
communication with the atmosphere may be replaced by mixing with the
oil a substance that gives off the inert gas.
a Atlng f e}) e
PATENT SPECIFICATIO Cnnvpntinn Antp fr,-rmnn A l D Pr 2 90 15 Q?
4023942 E Wvlggbv vwlu r s ma, U Application Date (in United Kingdom):
Dec22, 1932No 36,355/ 32.
Complete Accepted: Dec 14, 1933.
Improvements in and relating to Oil-break Electric Switches.
Broadway, New York, United States of America, Merchants, a Corporation
organised under the laws of the State of New York, United States of
Friedrich Karl -Ufer 2-4, Berlin, N W Germany, a German Company), do
hereby declare the nature of this invention and in what manner the
same is to be performed, to be particularly described and ascertained
in and by the following statement:
The invention relates to electric switches
arcextinguishing oil for such switches.
It is well known that incombustible liquids have been used for
electric switches to prevent dangerous burning in the operation of the
been tested such as carbon
tetrachloride , the combustibility of which is much less than ordinary
switch oil Such insulating liquids are, however, attended by the
disadvantage that they have a detrimental effect on the parts of the
switch contacting with the liquid Another known so method to mitigate
the arcing of the switch consists in the use of substances soluble or
suspended in particles in oil such as iodine , chlorine or bromine .
According to the present invention, in all the known kinds of oil
switches, notwithstanding the use of ordinary switch oil, the danger
of fire is either entirely obviated or at least greatly reduced by
saturating the oil with an inert gas consisting of CO, in an
overwhelming amount To effect this, the air normally contained in the
oil, especially the oxygen , must first be removed from the oil, this
may be done by any known vacuum treatment After this, the inert gas is
supplied either by blowing the gas through the oil, or the oil may be
brought into a state of finely divided particles and passed under
pressure into intimate contact with the gas Of the various gases such
as nitrogen and carbonic acid , carbonic acid is very suitable for the
present purpose because it is readily lPrice 11-l absorbed to a
particularly high degree by an oil that has had the vacuum treat 55.
Thus carbonic acid is at ordinary
temperature and pressure absorbed approximately to 80 percent of the
volume of the oil The receptivity of the oil increases with increase
of pres 60 sure and temperature It is therefore advisable either to
place the oil of the switch under a pressure higher than that of the
atmosphere or to bring it above the room temperature by artificial
heating 65 The pressure and heating may be effected in one or separate
The application of a high pressure or a high temperature produces the
advantage that if the switch detonates, the gas 70 is suddenly and to
a considerable extent freed from the oil and settles over the surface
of the oil; this is especially the case with carbonic acid because it
is heavier than air The employment of 75 carbonic acid also favourably
affects the switching operation: the carbonic acid being driven out of
the oil lby the arc has a comparatively small ionic-migration velocity
80 In the class of switches that work at ordinary pressure and are
located in containers with access to the free atmosphere through
openings, the absorbed inert gas will be gradually diffused and
displaced 85 by air In order to avoid this, and also in the case of
the employment of a high pressure to compensate for any possible loss
of gas, it is advisable to mix with the oil a substance that gives off
inert gas 90 By the method according to the invention it is brouglht
about that -as in the case of all liquid switches-under the influence
of a switching arc there occurs a vaporisation of the oil, to which is
95 added the formation of some products of decomposition The products
of the are cannot, however, burn on account of the absence of oxygen
It is advisable to ensure that there is always present 100 inert gas
over the surface of the oil, so that the switching gases produced in
the oil cannot iwnite on rising to the surface of the oil The
provision of an inert gas cushion without the simultaneous satura 105
tion of the oil with the gas is not sufliN2 402,942 cient to produce
the desired effect of the higher than atmospheric and heat treated j 5
present invention aibove room temperature , said application Having
now particularly described and treatment being applied separately or
ascertained the nature of our said inven together. h tion and in what
manner the same is to 3 An electric switch in which an arcClaims
be performed, we declare that what we extinguishing oil as claimed in
1 and 2- claim
the oil switches
freed from -the
impregnated with
December, 1932. of
is and 2, is used having an extinguishing gas 1 An
oil for electric cushion formed on the surface of
comprising an oil with the air -by the inert gas
traated and oxygen removed therefrom and then oil.
an inert gas consisting Dated this 19th day of
carbonic acid gas JOHX GRAY,
2 An arc-extinguishing oil as claimed Crown House, Aldwych, London, W
C 2,. in Claim 1 to which is applied-a pressure Agent for the
Applicants Biedhill: Printed for Hls Majesty's Stationery Office, by
Love and Malcomson, Ltd -1935.
? ?
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