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Publication
_________________________________________________________________
Number GB403875A
i»?
Title
_________________________________________________________________
EN Title Improvements in charging systems for storage batteries
Abstract
_________________________________________________________________
14862.
[Class 53.] In a charging system for batteries each battery cell has
an auxiliary positive electrode which is connected to a source of
higher potential than the normal positive plates, so that the negative
plates receive a charge in excess of that to the positive plates to
compensate for local action.
The auxiliary electrode 7 of the first cell 1 is connected to a
boosting rectifier R and the auxiliary electrodes 11, 13, 16 of the
other cells 2, 3, 4, respectively are connected through resistances to
points at the
preceding cell.
potential
of
the
positive
plate of the respective
Description
_________________________________________________________________
K 7-,'
___ -j 'I j K L
PATENT SPECIFICATION
Application Date: May 23, 1933 No 14,862133.
Complete Accepted: Jan 4, 1934.
COMPLETE SPECIFICATION.
403,875 Improvements in Charging Systlems for Storage Batteries.
We, TV Ci Loni DE ELECTRICAL STORAGE COMPANY LIMITED, of Clifton
Junction, near Manchester, a British Company, do hereby declare the
nature of this invention (which has been communicated to us by Jos Ese
H LESTER WOODBRIDGE, a Citizen of the -United States of America,
residing at 19th Street and Allegheny Avenue, Philadelphia, in the
County of Philadelphia, and State of Pennsylvania, -United States of
America, and -HARRY W BEEDL 1, of 718, Beacon Street, Boston, in the
County of Suffolk, and State of Massachusetts, United States of
America, a Citizen of the United States of America), and in what
manner the same is to be performed, to be particularly described and
ascertained in and by the following statement:
It is customary in many commercial applications of storage batteries
to connect the battery continuously across a constant voltage, direct
current circuit, adjusting the voltage of the circuit to give the
battery continuously a low rate (so called, trickle) charge just
sufficient to compensate for local action in the ceils and maintain
the battery in a fully charged condition.
In practice, it is found that the life of positive plates of a battery
subjected to continuous trickle chiarging tends to become shorter than
their normal life, which we find to be due to the fact that it is
necessary to subject the cells to a higher rate of trickle charge in
order to keep the negatives in a fully charged condition than is
requisite for the positives, with the result that the latter are
subjected to an appreciable amount of overcharge.
The object of our present invention is to overcome the aforesaid
disadvantage associated with continuous low rate or trickle charging.
In accordance with our invention we supply to the negative plates in a
series of storage battery cells, the amount of trickle charge current
required to compensate for local action and keep the negatives fully
charged without passing this entire-fieckle charge current through
lPrice 1/-l the positive plates, the latter being subject only to the
amount of trickle charge 55 current they require To accomplish this
result, an auxiliary electrode is located in each cell connected to a
point in the series of cells of higher positive potential, thus
passing charging current Go into the negative plates in excess of that
passing through the positives and then diverting a similar amount of
charging current from a point in the circuit between the ce Ul in
question and the next 65 cell in the negative direction to prevent
this additional current from passing through the positive plates in
the next cell This diverted current is passed into the auxiliary
electrode of the second cell 70 in the negative direction from the
one. first mentioned in order to provide additional charging current
to the negative plates in that cell.
The invention further comprises an im 75 provement by which current is
taken from the positie conductor of the main source' of direct current
and is passed through a voltage boosting means and de Uvered to the
auxiliary electrode in the first cell 80 The invention will be more
clearly understood by reference to the accompanying drawings Figures 1
and 2 showing diagrammatically the arrangement of two circuits
involving the invention 85 applied to four cells of a storage battery
In Figure 1, four storage battery cells numbered respectively 1, 2, 3
and 4 are connected in series across the direct current supply circuit
5, 6, to which is con 90 nected any suitable source of direct current,
such as the shunt wound generator G Without the auxiliary circuits of.
this invention to be described below, the voltage of the generator G
will beand 91; adjusted to pass through the cells a sufficient amount
of trickle charge current to keep th 1 e positive plates fully
charged, this current as stated above being insufficient to keep the
negatives in a fully i 00 charged condition In order to supply the
additional current required by the; negatives an auxiliary electrode
is immetsea in the 6 lectrolyte of each cell connected to the
auxiliary circuits now to f 0# be described.
A) (i Q (; wl W iai In cell 1 the auxiliary electrode is shown at 7
and unidirectional current is suqprplied to this electrqde from the
Poitive conductor 5 throitgh the boosting rectifier R This rectifier
comprises the well known arrangement of four rectifying elements 20,
21, 22 and 23 arranfged respectively in the four branches of a
Wheatstdne bridge of which the two opppsite junction points 25 and 26
are c-bnnected a(r 9 ss t e secondary iondin 27 of a transformer H ose
-primarv
windihg28 is connected across any suitable source of
alternating current such as the circuit 29, 30 One of the other two
junction p Qints of the Wheatst 6 ne bridge' namely 1, is connected to
the positive conductor by means of conductor 32, and the other
junction point 33 is' connected to the W auxiliary olectroide 7 The
rectifier R is connected in thedirection to take current from the
positive conductor 5 and transmit this at a higher voltage to
electrode 7, thus supplying via electrode 7 to the negative plates in
cel 1 an amount of current suffcient to supplement the charging
current passing -through the positive'plates from conductor 5 and
provide a sufficient total amount of chargi 30 ing culrrent to the
negative plates to keep them in a fully charged condition.
The auxiliary electrode 11 in cell 2 is con Reted to' the 'positive
conductor 5 through a 'fixed resistance 12, the value of this
resistance being such as to supply to the electrode 31 the necessary
trickle charge current to supplement the trickle charge current
passing through the positive plates by an amount necessary to lkeep
the negative plates in cell 2 in a fully charged condition Similarly
auxiliary electrode 13 in cell 3 is connected throughr resistance 14
to the junction point iri the circuit between cell AM 1 amnd cell 2,
the value of resistance 14 being such as to sup'Ily th and e'necessary
current to electrode 13 to supplement the charging clirrent passing
through the positives in celi 3 so as to provide sufflcient trickle
charge'current to the negatives in cell 3 to keep them in a ftilly
charged condition It will-be noted that the current divirtead-fhrough
the resist-: anee 14 'il be' substantially the same as Ei the
cuir'rent supplied to the auxiliary electrode 7 so that the total
cliarging current which has passed through the negative plates in cell
f is reduced by the amount of current diverted through resistance '14
and only the current required by the positive plates in cell 2 is
lhlowe 6 to'pass through them In the sam'e manner auxiliary electrode
i 6 in cell, 4 is c 6 nnected to the junction point 17 ' between' cell
2 and cell 3 through a fixed resistance 18 of suitable value to permit
the necessary excess current to pass from electrode 16 through the
negative' plates in cell 4 to keep them in a fully charged condition.
Starting from the junction point 10 between cells 3 and 4 a circuit is
shown comprising resistance 34 and connected ajt j-4 ction ppiint 35
with the negative -conductor ' The _value of the resist 75 a Re 3 u i
R S chosen to divert from the positive plgates in-et e 4 the
excess-charging, current furnished to the negative plates in-cell 3 by
auxiliary electrode 13.
Prom the ab'ove description it will be 80 noted that a system is
provided by which the positive ph Bfes in a series of cells are
furnished with just enough trickle charge current to keep them in a
fully charged condition, and by means of an auxiliary 85 electrode in
eact cell the negativ'e plates are furnished 'with enough additional
current to keep them in a-fully charged condition To furnish this
additional current the auxiliary electrode in each 9 cell must be
ipaintainea at a somewhat higher potential 'thnn the positiye plates
in that cell, ana this is accomplished by c 6 nnecting this auxiliary
diectrode to a point in the series of cells having a 95 higher
potential, this point being preferably 'chosen at the junction between
the next two cells toward the positive eh 4 of the battery wifh a
suitable resistance included in the circuit to control 100 the current
at the priper value The auxiliary electrode in the first cell at the
positive end: of the battery is maintained at a higher po Thn-tial
than the positive ptates in that ce 4 l by means of an 105 auxiliary
source of boosting potential connected between the positive side of
the main source of direct current and the auxiliary electrod'e in the
first cell.
The excess current supplied to the nega 110 tive 'plates in the next
to the last cell at the negative end of the battery is diverted from
the positive plates in the last cell by means of an auxiliary circuit
including a resistor 34 connected from the junc 115 tin poinit u O
between the last two cells and the negative side of the main source of
direct 'current.
Figure 2 is very similar to Figure 1 but in this case the means to
supply addi 120 tional curirept to f I -eauxiliary electrode of the
first cell 1 is_a shunt wound generator S connected to the electrode 7
by the conductor 8 and also connected bv its negative cnnductor 9 to
the ijnction 125 point 10 beftv ein the last two cells at tlhe
negative end of the battery It will be seeji that the excess (erran)t
passing tbroul Q,lhe i+a 1 ive nlefo in cell 3 is directed from the
junction point 403,875 403,8 5 between cells 3 and 4 via conductor 9
through the charging source S and is delivered via conductor 8 to the
auxiliary electrode 7 in cell 1, thus preventing the excess current
passing through the negative plates in cell 3 from passing also
through the positive plates in cell 4.
Having now particularly described and ascertained the nature of our
said invenjo tion and in what manner the same is to be performed, we
declare that what we
Claims
_________________________________________________________________
claim is:1 A charging system for storage batteries in which an amount of
trickle charge current is supplied to the negative plates in a series
of storage battery cells to compensate for local action and keep the
negatives fully charged without passing the entire trickle charge
current through the positive pilates, the latter being subject only to
the amount of trickle charge current they require to maintain them
fully charged.
2 If a storage battery charging system comprising a series of storage
cells connected across a source of direct current, means for supplying
charging current to the negative plates in the cells in excess of that
supplied to the positive plates, said means comprising auxiliary
electrodes in the cells, each of said electrodes except that in the
first cell at the positive end being connected to a point in the
series of cells havhg ' higher positive potential than tlit of the
positive plates in the cell in which the auxiliary electrode is
located, means for supplying current to the auxiliary electrode in the
first cely at the positive end comprising a source of boosting voltage
connected between the positive conductor of the source of direct
current and said auxiliary electrode, and a circuit comprising a
resistance connected from the Junction point between the last two
cells in the series to the negative conductor of the source.
3 A storage battery charging system including in combination a storage
battery cell, positive and negative plates in said cell, an auxi Iiary
electrode in said 5 eell, a source of direct current connected to said
plates, means for passing excess current through the negative plates
over that passed through the positive plates, 5 said means comprising
a rectifier connected between the positive side of the source of
direct current and the auxiliary electrode and a source of Alternating
current connected to said rectifier.
4 In a storage battery charging 60 system comprising a series of
storage cells connected across a source of direct current, means for
supplying charging current to the negative plates in each cell in
excess of that supplied to the positive plates, said means comprising
an auxiliary electrode in each cell, a circuit including a controlling
resistor connecting the auxiliary electrode in each cell, except the
first cell at the positive end, with the positive terminal of the next
cell on the positive side, and an auxiliary charging source connected
between the auxiliary electrode in the 75 first cell and a point in
the series of cells between the last two cells at the negative end.
The improved system of charging storage batteries, substantially as
described and shown in the accompanying drawings. Dated this 18thi Jay
of May, T 933. MARKS and CLERK. Redhill: Printed for His Majesty's
Stationery Office by Love and Malcomson, Ltd -1934. -31
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