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J Sci Food Ayric 1996,72,511-512
Book Review
Advanced dairy chemistry-Vol2: Lipids
P F Fox
Chapman and Hall, London, 1995
f110.00, xiv + 443pp
ISBN 0 412 60620 8
The companion volume to this book, Advanced dairy
chemistry-Vol 1 : Proteins was reviewed in this journal
(68 397-398). The reviewer pointed out that these books
are advanced texts and can be regarded as the second
edition of ‘Developments in dairy chemistry’. Both are
intended as a reference for senior undergraduate and
graduate students, researchers and teachers in higher
Sixteen contributors have contributed to the 10 chapters, which cover the topic of lipids from composition
through the influence of nutritional factors, origin of
milk globules and the physical chemistry, crystallisation, technology aspects of the subject matter.
There are two chapters dealing with lipolytic enzymes
and lipid oxidation and the final two chapters discuss
the nutritional significance of lipids and the role of fat
in consumer acceptance of dairy products. The authors
are truly international, two from the USA, two from
Australia, two from New Zealand, three from the
Netherlands, three from Eire the remaining four from
The fatty acid composition of milk lipids is treated in
a very broad sense. Not only bovine but human, rabbit
and other non-ruminant herbivores are covered. A
goodly number of tables list the acids as well as the
distributions of the triacyl glycerol isomers. Future
research trends are also discussed. The biosynthesis of
milk lipids is well covered and the functions of the
various enzymes involved are well discussed; other milk
lipids apart from triacyl glycerol derivatives are
included. Dietary influence is not neglected and the
influence of the season of the weather adequately discussed. It is pointed out, and the reasons indicated, why
Canadian milk fat is particularly low in triacyl glycerol
derivatives whilst both Australia and New Zealand are
relatively low compared with other milks.
The extracellular origin, growth and cytoplasmic
transit and secretion of milk lipid globules are thoroughly treated in the form of an overview. The literature is almost all within the last 25 years. Some clearly
reproduced electron micrographs are of considerable
help to the reader. The composition of the milk globule
membrane is well covered and the enzymes present discussed. The problem of the organisation of the membrane is included in the discussion. In future work, the
information on the biological roles of the individual
globule membrane commitments will become clearer.
The physical and colloidal aspects of the milk fat
globule in cow’s milk are well treated. Foaming and
whipping are strongly affected by their properties and
they also play an important role in emulsions. The
problems of instability are not omitted and interaction
energy and cold agglutination are discussed. A considerable portion of this chapter deals with fat globules in
aerated products including ice cream and in water-in-oil
emulsions such as butter.
Crystallisation and rheological properties of milk fat
are discussed fully, dealing in polymorphism, compound
crystals and recrystallisation. Crystal networks and the
factors which affect consistency are covered. The processing of fat spreads is an important topic for butter
and margarine makers. A study of the fundamental
aspects of emulsions is essential and the effects of ingredients in emulsions. In recent years low-fat spreads have
increased and there are now a number of studies on
ingredient interactions. Emulsion rheology cannot be
neglected. An extensive further reading list is given here,
in addition to the usual references.
Lipolytic enzymes and hydrolytic rancidity in milk
and milk products are discussed initially from the viewpoint of the individual enzymes and psychrotropic bacterial lipases are included. The causes of hydrolytic
rancidity are dealt with under induced lipolysis, spontaneous lipolysis and microbial lipolysis. Both beneficial
effects of lipolysis and analytical methods are discussed.
A table is given on methods for determining lipase
activity and how to prevent the problems occurring.
Lipid oxidation is a most basic chemical reaction
occurring in food and generally results in a deterioration in quality. The mechanism, products and factors
which affect oxidation of lipids in milk are clearly
treated. The function of metals and the use of antioxidants are covered. An interesting section on cholesterol oxidation and measurement of lipid oxidation
concludes the treatment.
The nutritional significance of lipids is treated in a
separate chapter. This covers the lipids in the human
body and their functions. This is not restricted to dairy
lipids and would in fact be more at home in a general
nutritional monograph. The roles of food lipids and the
51 1
J Sci Food Agric 0022-5142/96/$09.00 0 1996 SCI.Printed in Great Britain
roles of vitamins, as well as the importance of coronary
heart disease, are discussed. Cancer prevention is also
included. So much still requires to be known before the
importance of lifestyle and diet can be fully integrated
in unequivocal recommendations. The key to good diet
is still variety.
In the final chapter, the role of fat in products is discussed and how the consumer views various types of
products. Texture and flavour are both important and
attitudes often overrule both. The relationship of beliefs
and attitudes to food choice is discussed and the methodological approaches necessary to explain the product
consumer behaviour are listed. It is an interesting and
provocative chapter.
Book review
Each chapter has an extensive list of up-to-date references and there is an enormous amount of information
present in a form which can only help in teaching and
understanding dairy lipids. The editor, Prof P F Fox, is
to be congratulated on gathering such a distinguished
collection of authors and in obtaining their contributions from them. The volume concludes with 11 pages
of index, although the section headings within each
chapter are very helpful.
I Morton
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