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╠╬Л╩┬└ 2015
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??? 341.96
??? 67.932.112
?-79
?????????
???????? ????? ???????? ? ??????????? ????? ??, ?????? ??????????? ????,
?????????? ??????? ?????????????? ???????? ????? ????????? ????????????????
?а?????????????? ???????????? ??? ????????????? ??
?-79
????????? ?.?.
???????? ????? ????????????? ????????? ?????????: ??????????. а? ?.: ??????, 2015.а? 396 ?.
ISBN 978-5-8354-1098-9 (?а???.)
????????? ??????? ???????? ?????? ??????????? ??????, ??????? ??????????? ???????? ????????? ?????????, ???????????? ???????????? ?????????????? ?? ????????? ??????????, ??????????? ??????? ?? ?????????????
??а?????? ?а?????????????, ??а?а?? ?????????? ????????? ??????. ???а???????????? ????? ??????-???????????? ??????????? ?а????????????? ??????
???????????? ????????? 1999а?. ?а??????? ?????????? ?????????? ????????? 1929а?. ?а????????? ??????????, ??????????? ?а??????????? ????????????????, ???????? ???????? ?а???? ???????. ?а????? ????????????? ????????? ????????? ????????????? ????????????? ????????? ?????????, ??????????????? ???????????? ???????, ??????????? ??????? ???????? ?????????
?а???????????? ??а??????????? ?????????. ??????????? ????? ?а?????? ???????? ??????? ??????????????? ??????????? ??а?????????? ????? ????? ?а???????? ??????????, ????????????? ????? ?а??????, ????????? ??? ?? ?????????,
??????????? ???????????? ??????. ??????????????? ????? ??????? ???????????? ????????? ?а????? ???????????, ??????????? ??? ???????????????.
This edition is the second author?s book dedicated exclusively to the contract of air
carriage and analysis of current problems of carriage by air both on the international
level and in Russia. The book may serve as aаscientific and practical commentary and
comparative analysis of the Montreal Convention 1999 and the system of the Warsaw Convention 1929, as well as Russian and foreign legislation and court practice in
this field. Theаauthor analyzes the legal sources on international air carriage, conflict
of law issues, the legal nature of the contract of carriage and obligations to arrange
carriage. Aаcentral part of the book is taken by such issues as the carrier?s liability towards passengers for death and personal injury, cargo and baggage claims, late delivery, recovery of damages. The book also covers the issue of claims against the carrier,
andаthe insurance of carrier?s liability.
ISBN 978-5-8354-1098-9
??? 341.96
??? 67.932.112
Е ?.?. ?????????, 2014
Е ???????????? Ф??????╗, ?????????????, ??????????, 2014
Copyright ??? Ф??? Ф??????╗ & ??? ФA???????? K????-C?????╗
??????????
????????..................................................................................................7
????? I. ???????? ??????
?????????????? ?????????? ?????????...............................................14
Да1. ??????? ????????????? ?????????????? ?????????? ?
?????? ????????? ????????? ?а?? ??????????..........................15
Да2. ?????????? ???????????? ?????, ???????????? ?????,
???????? ?? ???????????? ?а?????????????????......................33
Да3. ?????????? ?????? ????????????? ????????? ?????????.......47
????? II. ???????? ?????????????? ?а???????????
???????? ????????? ?а?????????????
????????? ?????????...........................................................................54
Да1. ??????? ???????? ????????????? ????????? ?????????..........54
Да2. ???????? ??????? ?а???? ????????..............................................65
Да3. ?????????? ???а??????? ????????................................................84
Да4. ????? ???????? ?а??????? ??? ??????????.................................90
Да5. ?????????? ????????..................................................................102
Да6. ??????? ??????????? ?а????????? ????????.............................119
????? III. ???????? ????? ???????????????
????????? ????????? ?а????? ?????????????
????????? ?????????..........................................................................128
Да1. ???????? ?а???????? ???????????????........................................130
Да2. ???????????????? ????????? ??????????? ?
? ???? ????????? ????????????.................................................148
Да3. ????? ??????????????? ??????????? ?
? ??????? ?????????? ????? ?а???????.....................................159
3
Copyright ??? Ф??? Ф??????╗ & ??? ФA???????? K????-C?????╗
Да4. ????????? ????? ????? ?????????????? ??????????
??????????? ?а??????????? ??????...........................................236
Да5.а????????? ???????????? ??????????? ?? ???????????????.....246
Да6. ??????????? ??????????????? ???????????...............................275
????? IV. ???????????? ?????????? ?? ????????
????????????? ????????? ?????????.................................................293
Да1. ????, ??????? ????? ??а???????????? ??????????.................294
Да2. ????????????? ??????? ?????????? ??????............................295
Да3. ??????? ????????.........................................................................312
Да4. ??????????????? ??????????? ??????........................................315
??????????.........................................................................................328
?????? ???????????? ??????????.......................................................346
??????????........................................................................................366
Copyright ??? Ф??? Ф??????╗ & ??? ФA???????? K????-C?????╗
Chapters Content
Introduction..............................................................................................7
Chapter I. Legal Bases of International Air Transport Operations
Regulation..............................................................................................14
Да1. International Multilateral Conventions.............................................15
Да2. National Law. Conflict of Law Issues. General Problems of
Harmonization and Modification.....................................................33
Да3. Contractual Bases of Carriage. General Conditions of Carriage.........47
Chapter II. Air Carriage Agreement (Contract of Carriage by Air)............54
Да1. Definition of International Air Carriage Agreement..........................54
Да2. Legal Nature and Kinds of the Agreement. ?
Transport Documentation................................................................65
Да3. Air Carrier as aаParty of the Agreement.............................................84
Да4. Form of the Carriage Agreement. Transport Documentation............90
Да5. Agreement Contents......................................................................102
Да6. Cancellation and Modification Conditions.....................................119
Chapter III. Transport Relations Parties? Liability.................................128
Да1. Parties to be Charged and Legal Nature of Liability........................130
Да2. Grounds for Claim. Types of Damage............................................148
Да3. Amount of Compensation. Reimbursement Procedure...................159
Да4. Causal Nexus.................................................................................236
Да5. Release of Liability.........................................................................246
Да6. Air Carrier Liability Insurance........................................................275
Chapter IV. Action for Damages............................................................293
Да1. Who can be aаplaintiff?...................................................................294
5
Copyright ??? Ф??? Ф??????╗ & ??? ФA???????? K????-C?????╗
Да2. Filing aаsuit....................................................................................295
Да3. Statute of Limitations.....................................................................312
Да4. Jurisdiction....................................................................................315
Conclusion............................................................................................328
Bibliography.........................................................................................346
Appendix...............................................................................................366
Copyright ??? Ф??? Ф??????╗ & ??? ФA???????? K????-C?????╗
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?????????? ?а????????????? ?????????.
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Copyright ??? Ф??? Ф??????╗ & ??? ФA???????? K????-C?????╗
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??? ????????? ????????? 1929а?. (?????а? ?????????? ?????????),
????????? ???????? ??????????? ??????? ?а?????????????? ?а???????????? ?а??????? ??????????? ??а??????????? ????? ?а?? ?????? ???????? ???? ????????. ??? ????????? ?????????? ???????????
??а????????? ??????????, ????????????? ?а????????? ?????????
????? ????????????, ????????? ???????? ?????????????? ?????????????? ?а?????????? ?а??????? ????????????? ????????? ?????????
?а?а????? ?????? ??????? ?а????????????? ?????? ????????? ?????? ????????????? ????????? ?????????, ?????????????? ???????????? ?????????? ??? ?????????? ????????? ?????? ?????????????
????????? ????????? 1999а?. (?????а? ???????????? ?????????), ??????? ??? ???????? ??????? ????????????? ?????????.
????? ????? ?а???????????? ??????? ?????????? ?? ??????????,
??а?? ??? ??? ??????????? ??а?????????? ????????????? ??????????
??????? ????????? ????????????? ?????????????? ?????????, ????????????? ?????????? ??????????, ?а????? ??????? ?????????????
?????? ??????. ??????? ?????? ?а???????????? ?а?????????? ????????? ?????? ????????????? ????????? ????????? ???????? ???????? ??????????, ?????? ??? ?????? ????????? ????????????? ?????????? ?????????. ??? ?? ??????? ??????, ????????????? ?????????
?????????, ???????????, ?????????????, ????????? ?????, ???????
????? ??а????? ???????????? ??а??????????? ???????? ?????????????? ????????? ?а??????? ?????????.
?????????? ???????????? ????????? 1999а?., ?а??????? ?а????????? ????? ???????????? ?а????????????? ????? ???????? ?????
????????????? ????????? ?????????, ?а????? ???????? ??????????
?????????-????????????? ??????? ?????? ??I ?. ?????????????
???????????? ?????????? ????? ????? ??????????????? ???????????, ?а?????? ???????? ??????????? ?????? ?а?????????? ???????
???????? ?????????? ??????????? ???????????? ??????, ?????????
????????????? ???????????? ????? ?а?????, ????, ??? ??????????.
?? ????????? ??????????? ?а???????????? ???????????? ???? ??????
??а????????, ????????? ???????????? ????? ????? ?а???????? ???????????? ???????????? ???????, ?????????????? ?????????????,
??????? ???????? ??а?? ??????????? ????????? ?а????????????, ?????
?????? ??????????????? ??а????? ?а???????? ??????????, ???????????
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???????? ???????????? ??а???????? ??????? ??????????? ????????????, ????????? ???????????? ???????.
?????????? ????????? ??а???? ?????????? ?????????? ???????????? ????????? ?????????? ???? ????????, ?а????????????? ?????????? ??????? ???????????? ?????? ????????? ?????? ?????????????
????????? ?????????. ?????????? ?????? ?а????? ?????????? ???????????? ????????? ????????? ??????? ???????? ???? ???????, ??????????? ??а???????? ??????????? ???????????, ????????????????????? ????????????? ???????????????, ???????? ????? ???????????.
?????????? ?????????? ???????????? ????????????????, ???????
????? ????????? ???????? ??? ????????????? ????????????? ????????? ?????????, ??????? ?????????????? ?а????????? ????????????, ????????? ?????????? ???????????????, ??????????????????
?а????????????????? ?????? ????, ??????????? ?? ??????????? ????????? ????????????? ?????????? ????????????? ???????? ?????,
?????????? ???? ???????????? ?а???? ????????? ?????????? ??????????. ??? ???????? ???????? ??????????? ?????????? ??????? ?а?????????? ????, ??? ??? ???????? ????? ????????? ???????????.
?????????? ???????????? ????????????? ????????? ?????????
??а????????? ?????????? ????????? ???????????????? ?а?????? ???????????? ?а???????????? ??? ????????????? ????????????? ????????? ?????????, ???а???????? ?а????????????? ??????.
????? ???????? ????????????? ?????????, ??????? ????? ?????
???????????? ????????, ??????? ?????????? ????????????, ??а??????????? ???????? ??????? ?а??????? ????????? ???????. ?????
?а???????????? ????????????? ?????? ?а???????????? ?????????
1999а?. ??? ??????? ??????????? ???????????? ??????? ?а??????? ????????? ????????????? ????????? ?????????.
?а?????????????а?????????? ??????? ???????? ????????? ?????? ????????????? ????????? ????????? ?а??????? ???? ???????
?.?.а???????????, ?.?.а???????1, ?.?. ???????2. ????????? ?????????????? ??????? ????????????? ????????? ????????? ??????1
? ??.: ??????? ?.?. ???????? ????????????? ????????????? ?????????. ?.: ????.
???., 1981. 286 ?.; ?? ??. ??????? ????????????? ????????? ????????? ??????????,
?????? ?а??????а// ????????????? ????????? ?????. ??. 2а/ ??? ???. ?.?. ???????
?а?.?. ????????. ?.: ?????, 1981. ?.а145?190.
2
? ??.: ??????? ?.?. ??????????????? ??????????????? ??? ????????????? ??????????. ?.: ?????, 1987.
9
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?? ?а???????? ?а70?80-? ???? ??????? ?.?. ????????, ?.?.а??????????, ?.?.а??????????1, ?.?. ??????? ?а??.
??????????? ???????? ????? ????????????? ????????? ????????? ???? ?????????? ?а??????. ?а???????????? ??????? ??????????
???????, ??????????? ???????? ????????????? ????????? ?????????, ??????????, ???а???????, ????????? ?????? ???? ????????? ???????? ????? ????????????? ????????? ???????? ?????, ????????????
????????????? ?????????? ?????????? ???????? ????????, ???????????? ?????????? ??????2.
??????? ???????????? ??????????? ?.?. ??????? ??а??????????????? ?????????? ??????????? ??а?????????? ????? ????? ?а????????
????????? ??? ????????????? ??????????3. ?????????????? ?а?????? ?????? ??????? ??а?????????? ?.?. ???????? ????????? ???? Ф????????? ???????? ??????????????? ??????????????? ?а????????????? ???????? ??????????╗4. ????? ?????, ??????? ?????? ?????????
?а??????????? ???????????????? ??а????????????? ????????? ?????????? ?????????? ?.?. ????????? ?а????? ????? Ф????????? ????
???????????? ?а????????????? ??????? ?????╗5. ?????? ?.?. ???????????6 ????????? ?а?????????? ????????? ??????????.
1
? ????? ??а??????? ????????? ??? ???????? ?а?а????????? ????? (??.: ???????????
?а???????????? ??????? ?????????? ?????????, ????? ??????? (???????????)а/ ?.?.а?????????, ?.?. ????????, ?.?. ??????? ?а??.; ??? ???. ?.?. ?????????, ?.?.а????????. ?., 2010).
2
? ??.: ?????????? ?.?. ??????????-???????? ??????????????? ?а?????? ??????????????: ???????. ???. ... ????. ????. ????. ?., 2010; ??????????? ?.?. ?????????????????? ????????????? ????????? ????????? ????????? ????? ?а?????????: ???????.
???.а? ????. ????. ????. ?., 2011; ???????? ?.?. ??????????-???????? ?????????????
????????? ?????????а// ????????????????. 2006. ?а4; ????????? ?.?. ??????? ????????????? ????????? ????????? ????????? ?а??????: ???????, ???????????, ???????
????????? ?????????????: ???????. ???. ? ????. ????. ????. ?., 2011.
3
? ??.: ?????? ?.?. ??????????????? ?????????? ??????????? ??а?????????? ????? ????? ?а???????? ????????? ??? ????????????? ?????????: ???????. ???. ... ????.
????. ????. ?., 2009.
4
? ??.: ??????? ?.?. ???????????? ?????????: ???????????? ?????????? ?????????? ??????? ?а????????? ??????? ??????????????? ??????????????? ?а????????????? ???????? ??????????а// ?????????? ?????? ?????????????? ?????. 2004. ?а2.
5
? ????????? ???? ???????????? ?а????????????? ??????? ?????а/ ??? ???. ?.?.а???????. ?.: ??????, 2008.
6
? ??.: ?????????? ?.?. ??????? ?????????. ?.: ??????, 2001; ?????????? ?.?., ?????????? ?.?. ?????????? ?????. ????? ?????????: ???????? ?а?????????, ??????????,
???????????? ?????????? ?а???? ??????? ?а????? ??????????. ?.: ??????, 2004.
10
Copyright ??? Ф??? Ф??????╗ & ??? ФA???????? K????-C?????╗
????????
? ?????????? ?????????? ????????? ????????? ????????????? ????????????? ????????? ????????? ????????? ?????? ????????? ????????, ???????? ?а????????? ????, ????? ???????? ???????? ?????????? ?????? ????????????. ?а2010а?. ????????? ???????? ????????????? Ф??????? ??????╗ ???????? ????? Ф???????????? ?????????╗,
???????? ??????? ???????? ????????? ?????? ???????? ??????
?а?????? ???: ?????? ???????, ??????? ????, ?????а????????????, ?????? ????????-???, ??? ?????1. ?????? ???????????? ????? ??????????? ??????????? ???????????? ????????? ?а???????
???????? ???????? ?? ??????????. ?а??? ?? ???? ?а?а??? ?? ???????????? ???????????? ??????? ?????? ??????? ?????????2. ?????
??????? ????????? ?????? ????????????? ????????? ?????????
???????? ?а??????? ????????? ?а????????3. ??????? ?????? ??????? ???? ?????? ???? ?????? ?а??????? ??????4. ?????? ??а?????? ????????????? ???????????? ????????? ????? ????????? ?????????? ?????? ?а??????? ??? ?????5 ?а???????????? ??????????
?а??????? ????????? ????????? ????? ?????6. ???????? ??????????????? ?????????? ??????????? ????????? ???????????? ????? ?????
????? ???????????? ?????? ???? ??????, ????? ?????, ????а??????, ?????????? ????? ?.а????? ?а??????????? ????? ???? ??????. ????? ????, ????????? ????????? ????????? ?????????????
????????????? ????????? ????????? ????????? ???????? ?а?????????? ????????????? ???????? ??а?????????? ?????, ??? ???????????? ?????? ????? ????????? ???????? ?????? ?а?????????,
???а???? ??????, ??? ????, ????? ?????, ?.а?????????, ??????
??????, ?. ???????, ?. ??????? ?а??.
?????? ?????? ?????????? ???????, ???а???????, ????? ?????????? ????????. ???? ????????? ??а??? ??????????? ????????? ?????1
? Giemulla E., Schmid R., Muller-Rostin W., Dettling-Ott R., Margo R. Montreal Convention. Austin; Boston; Chicago; New York; The Netherlands: Wolters Kluwer, 2010.
2
? Tompkins George N., Jr. Liability Rules Applicable to International Air Transportation as
Developed by the Courts in United States. From Warsaw 1929 to Montreal 1999. The Netherlands.: Kluwer Law International BV, 2010.
3
? Shawcross & Beaumont on Air Law (4th ed. rev., 2009, Lexis Nexis).
4
? Dempsey P.S., Milde M. International Air Carrier Liability: The Montreal Convention of
1999. McGill University. Institute of Air & Space Law. 2005.
5
? Unmack Tim. Civil Aviation: Standards and Liabilities. London, Hong Kong. LLP.а1999.
6
? Whalen Thomas J. The New Warsaw Convention: The Montreal Conventionа// Air &
Space Law. Vol. XXV. Number 1. 2000.
11
Copyright ??? Ф??? Ф??????╗ & ??? ФA???????? K????-C?????╗
????????
???????? ??????? ????????????????? ????????? ????????????? ????????? ?????????.
?????? ????? ???????????? ????? ?????? ??????????? ???????????? ????????????, ???????????? ??а?????????? ????? ?????? ???????? ????????? ?????? ????????????? ????????? ?????????. ???????
?а?????????? ?а?????????? ??????????? ?????????? ?а??????????????? ????? ?????????? ????????????, ???????? ?????? ?а?????? ????????? ?а???? ??????? ???????? ??????????? ?а?????? ?? ????????????? ??????????. ?а????? ????????? ?????????? ???????????, ?????
???а?а???????? ????? ??????? ?????????? ??????????, ???????????? ????????, ???????????? ?а?????????? ????????????, ??????????? ??????????? ?????????? ?????? ????????? ???????? ?????? ????????????-????????? ?????? ????????? ?????????, ?????????????? ???????????? ?????????? 1999а?.
? ?????? ???????? ????????? ??????????? ?????? ??????????????? ???????? ?????????? ???????а?? (?????а? ??а??, ??) 1997а?.,
????? ?????? ?????????, ?????????? ???????????? ?????? ????????? ?????? ????????????? ????????? ?????????.
?????????? ????? ????????? ?а???????? ??????????-?????????
????????????? ?????????????? ?????????? ?????????, ???????????, ?????????-????????????? ?а???????????? ??????????? ????????????? ?????? ?а???????????? ?????????, ?????????????? ???? ?а??????????? ????????????????? ??????????? ????????????????,
?????????? ????????????-????????? ?????? ????????? ?????????.
? ????? ??????? ???????? ??????? ????????? ??????? ?а???????? ?????????? ????????? ?????? ????????????? ????????? ????????? ?а????? ???????? ????. ???????? ??????????? ???????????
???????? ????????????? ????????? ?????????, ??? ??????????????,
???????? ???????? ????? ?а?????????? ????????, ??? ??????????
?а???????????. ?? ??????????? ??????????????? ???????? ?????????? ?а????????????????? ????, ???????????? ??????? ???????????, ????? ?а??????????? ??????????????? ??????????? ??а????????
????????????? ????????? ?????????, ?а????? ?? ???????????, ??????? ????????????? ????????? ??????????????? ?а??????? ???????????? ?????????? ?а???. ??????? ??????? ?????? ???????????, ?????????? ?????????? ??а????, ??????????? ????? ?а???????? ??????????, ?а?????????? ?????, ?????? ?????????? ???? ?а?????? ??
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???????? ?????????? ???????? ???? ???а????????? ??? ??????????????? ??а???????? ??? ?????????. ?????????????? ????????? ????????-???????????? ????? ???а??????? ????????????? ???????????????
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??а???????? ????????????? ????????? ?????????, ???????? ????? ??
???????? ?а??????????? ????????.
? ?????? ???????? ??????????? ?????? ???????????, ?а?????? ????? ????????????, ????? ????????? ????????????? ????????? ?????????, ??????? ????? ?????????? ???????? ??? ?????????????????
??????????? ???????????????? ?а???????? ???????? ?а??????? ?????????? ??????????. ???????? ????? ????? ?????? ???????????? ???? ????????? ?а???????????? ?????????????? ????????? ??????????? ?????, ????? ????? ???????????? ????? ?а?????? ??????? ?????????? ???????????? ????.
Copyright ??? Ф??? Ф??????╗ & ??? ФA???????? K????-C?????╗
????? I. ???????? ??????
?????????????? ?????????? ?????????
????????????? ????????? ????????? ???????????? ??а???? ????????? ??а?????? ?????????? ????, ?а??? ??? ???????????? ?????????????? ????????????.
???? ????? ?????????? ????????? ?????????????? ??????????
?????. ??? ????????? ????? ????????????? ??а?????? ???????????
?????????????? ????????? ?а????????????? ?????????? ????????????, ????? ???????? ??????????? ????????????? ??????? ????????? ?????, ?а????? ???????????? ????а? ????????????? ??????????? ??????????? ???????, ??????? ???????? ??????????????????
??????????? ???.
??? ????? ??????? ?????????????? ?????????? ????????? ???????? ???? ??????? ?а?????? ????????? ????????? ?а?????????????
??????????? ??????? 1944а?. ??? ??????? ???????? ???? ??? ?????????? ??а???????????? ????????? ????? ??????????? ?????????????.
???????????????????? ?????????? ??а???????????? ?????????? ????????? ?а???? ???????, ?????? ??а???????? ???????????? ??????????
?а????????? ????? ?????????? ?а?????????? ????????????, ?????????? ??????????? ???????????, ??????? ????? ???????????? ?????????, ?? ???????????? ????? ?а???????????, ????????????? ?????????
?????, ??????????????? ???????????? ??????????? ??????????? ??????????????? ?????????? ???????????? ???????, ?????????????? ?????? ??а?????????, ??????? ????????????? ????????????, ??????????, ????????? ?а???? ??????? ?????????? ?????????.
?????? ????? ?????????? ????????? ????? ???????????? ????????????? (?????????????) ?а?? ??????????, ????????? ?а??????????
??????????, ?????? ?а??????. ????????? ?а???? ??????? ??????????
???????? ??????????????? ?а????? ?????????? ????????. ??? ???????? ??????????????? ??????????-???????? ?????, ????????????
???????? ????? ????????????? ????????? ?????????: ??????? ????14
Copyright ??? Ф??? Ф??????╗ & ??? ФA???????? K????-C?????╗
Да1. ??????? ?????????????? ?????????? ?????? ????????? ?????????
????, ?а?????? ???????? ??????????? ???? ???????????? ????????,а?
??????????? ?????? ?а?????????? ?а????? ??????????, ??????? ??????????? ???????????? ????????????, ??????????????? ??????????
??????????? ??а????????????? ????? ?а???????? ??????????, ??????
?а?????? ?а??????? ???????????? ?????????? ?а????. ??? ?????????
???????? ????????? ????????????? ?????????????? ???????? ?????
?а?????????????? ???????? ???????????????? ????????????.
????? ???????, ?а??????? ???????? ????, ???????????????? ????????????? ????????? ?????????, ?????????? ?? ?? ?????, ???????
?????????? ??????????-???????? ?????????, ??????????? ??? ????????????? ????????????? ????????. ?????, ?????????? ???????
???? ??????????????, ???????? ??????? ????????????? ?????????
?????????. ???????? ??????????-???????? ????????? ?????? ?????
???????? ???????? ????????? ????????????? ????????????? ????????? ??а???????? ????? ?а???????? ???????? ????????????.
???????? ????? ????????????? ????????? ?????????а? ??? ??????? ???? ?????????????? ???????? ?а???????????? ?????, ???????????? ?????????, ??????????? ????? ?????????? ?????????????, ?а?????
???????, ?а???????????, ??????????????????а? ?а??????, ??? ??????????, ??????????, ????????? ?а??????????? ???????? ?????????????
????????? ?????????, ??????????????? ?????? ??а???????????? ??? ???????????? ?????????? ????????????, ??????? ?????????? ????????????
?????? ?а???????????? ??????????. ?????? ??????????? ???????? ??????????? ?а????????????? ??????? ??????????? ??????????????,
????????????? ??????????????? ?????????, ???????????? ?а???????
????????? ????????????? ?????????????? ?????????? ?????????.
Да1. ??????? ????????????? ?????????????? ??????????
?????? ????????? ????????? ?а?? ??????????
1. ???????? ????? ????????????? ????????? ????????? ?????????? ?а?????? ??а???? ???????? ???? ??????????????? ????????????
?????????????? ????????????. ???????? ????????????? ????????????? ????????? ????????? ??? ?а30-? ????? ???????? ???? ?????????? ??????????? ??????? ???????? ??????????????? ?а???? ?????????? ??????????а? ?????????? ????????????? ?????????, ?????????
?а???? ???????. ????????? ??? ?????????? ????????? ??????, ??15
Copyright ??? Ф??? Ф??????╗ & ??? ФA???????? K????-C?????╗
????? I. ???????? ?????? ?????????????? ?????????? ?????????
???????? ????????????? ????????? ????????? (?????????? ????????? 1929а?.), ??????????? ????? 150 ??????????, ??????? ??????1.
Ф?????????? ???????╗а? ??? ??????? ??????? ??????????, ????????? ??а????? ?????????? ????????? 1929а?., ????? ?????????????
?????????? ?а????? ?????????????? ?????????:
? ???????? ???????? 1955а?.,2 ?????????? ?????????? ?????????;
? ?????????????? ????????? 1961а?.3 ?а??????????, ??????????????
?????, ????, ??? ?????????? ??а????????;
? ???????????? ?????????????? ???????? 1975а?. ?а14, ?????????? ?????????? ?????????;
? ???????????? ?????????????? ???????? 1975а?. ?а25, ?????????? ?????????? ?????????, ?????????? ???????? ?????????? 1955а?.;
? ???????????? ?????????????? ???????? 1975а?. ?а46, ?????????? ?а????????? ???????? ????????? ?????????? ?????????, ?????????? ???????? ?????????? 1955а?.
?????? ??????? ??????????? ?а????? ??а???? ?????????? ??а??????
???????? ??? ??????? ?а??????. ??????? ???????????, ????????, ?а???????? ????????? ???????? ??? ??????? ?а?????????? ?????????, ?????????? ???????? ??????????, ??а?? ???????? ?а??? ??????? ?а????? ?????????? ????????? (?.а2 ??.а??I ?а??III ????????? ?????????). ?? ????? ????????, ???а????????? ????? ???????, ??????????
?????? ?????????? ?????????, ?а????????????, ?????????? ??????
????????? ?????????, ??????????? ??-??? ???????? ????? ???? ??????????. ?????????? ??? ????? ????????? ???????? ??????????????,
1
? ??????? ????????? ??а??????? ???? ??.: ?? ????. 1934. ?а20. ???. 2; ??. ?????: ????????????? ????????? ?????. ??. 2а/ ??? ???. ?.?. ??????? ?а?.?. ????????.
?.: ?????. 1981. ?.а336?347.
2
? ICAO Doc. 7632. ???????? ????????????? ???? ?????? ?????????? ?? ????
?? 09.02.1957 (????????? ?? ????. 1957. ?а6. ??.?136). ??????? ????????? ??а???????
???? ??.: ????????? ?? ????. 1957. ?а8. ??.?217; ??. ?????: ????????????? ????????? ?????. ?.а348?356.
3
? ICAO Doc. 8181. ????????? ????????? ???? 18.09.1961, ?????????????? ??????
?????????? ?? ???? ?? 15.08.1983 ?а9820-X. ??????? ????????? ??а??????? ????
??.: ????????? ?? ????. 1984. ?а7. ??.?113.
4
? ICAO Doc. 9145.
5
? ICAO Doc. 9146.
6
? ICAO Doc. 9148.
16
Copyright ??? Ф??? Ф??????╗ & ??? ФA???????? K????-C?????╗
Да1. ??????? ?????????????? ?????????? ?????? ????????? ?????????
??а???????????? ?????????? ??????????? ?а??? ???????????, ????????????? ?????.
?????? ????????? ?а?????????? ????????? 1929а?., ?а???????? ????????? 1955а?., ?а????? ?а?????????????? ?????????.
???? ??????????? ?????? ??????????? ?????????. ????? ???
??????? ?????????, ??а?????????? ?а????: ????????????? ????????
1971а?., ?????????? ?????????? ?????????, ?????????? ????????
?????????? 1955а?.1, ?а???????????? ?????????????? ???????? 1975а?.
?а32, ?????????? ?????????? ?????????, ?????????? ????????
?????????? 1955а?. ?а????????????? ?????????? 1971а?.
???????? ???????? ???????? ????????? ?а?????????? ????????? ????? ????????????? ????????? ??????????????? ??????????
???????????, ???а???? ??????? ?а??????????? ?????????????? ????????? ????????????, ?????? ???????????? ??????? ?а?????????
?????. ?????? ??????? ????? ?????? ?а???? ??????????? ????????????? ??а????????????? ?????????????? ????????????? Ф????????????????? ??????╗ ???????????? ????????????? ?????, ?????????????? ???????? ?????????????? ?а????????? ????? ???????????? ????????????.
???? ???? ????? ???????, ??а???? ????????? ??????? ?а?????????.
???????? ???????? 1955а?. ??????? ????????????? ?????????? ?????????? ?????? ??????????????? ??????????? ??а????? ?а???????? ????????? ?а2 ????. ?? ?????????? ?а???? ????????????? ???????? 1971а?.
???????? ??? ??? ?а6 ??? ?а????????? ??????????? ??????????????? ??????????? ??а?????????? ????? ????? ?а???????? ?????????? ?а????????????? ??????, ???????????? ?????? ?????? ???????????????
??а????????????? ?а????????? ???????? ?????? ?а?????? ?????. ????????? ????????????? ???????? ??а??????? ????????? ??????, ?а1975а?.
??? ???????? ???????????? ???????? ?а4, ??? ??????????????? ??????????? ??а????????????? ????? ????? ???????????. ????????? ???
???????????? ????????? ????????? ????? ????????, ?????????????
?????????? ?????????? ?а???????????? ???????????, ??а???????
??????? ?а??????? ??????????? ???? ????????????? ??????????????
????????? ?????. ?????????????? ????????? 1961а?. ?????? ????? ????
??????????? ???????????, ??????? ??а???????? ??????? ?????????,
1
? ICAO Doc. 8932.
? ICAO Doc. 9147.
2
17
Copyright ??? Ф??? Ф??????╗ & ??? ФA???????? K????-C?????╗
????? I. ???????? ?????? ?????????????? ?????????? ?????????
??а?????????? ?? ????????????, ????????? ??а??????? ?а???????????
???????????????, ????????????? ??????????? ?????????? ???????.
??????????, ???а??? ???? ???????, ?????????? ?а???????????? ?????????? ????? ?????????????????1, ??????? ??а???????? ?????????????? ??????????, ?а????????? ?? ?а??????? ?????????? ?????????? ????????? ?????????????? ????????? ??а?????? ??????????2.
??? ??а????? ??? ?? ????????? ??????? ????????? ???????? ???????
??а???????????? ??????? ????????????? ?????????????. ?а?????????? ??????????? ????????? ????????? ?? ???????? ???????, ???????
???????????? ??? ??а?? ?????? ?????? ??? ?????????????? ????????,
?а??а???????? ???????? ?????????, ???а?а???? ??????? ???????? ????????? ?????? ?а???????????3.
?????????? ????????? ?????????? ??а??????????? ????? (??.а30),
???????? ????????, ????? ????а? ??а?????????? ?а????????? ??? ?????????? ???????????? ??а??????? ??а??????????? ?????. ???????????? ???????? ?а4 ????? ?????? ??????????? ??????: ??????????,
?????????, ??????? ?а???????????. ????????? ???????????????,
???а?а?????? ??????????? ?????, ???????????? ??а??????????? ?????,
???????? ????????. ???????? ???????? ??????????, ???а??????????
????? ?????????? ?????????? ??????? ???????? ????????? ?????????? ?? ????????????, ?а????? ?а??? ?????? ????? ?????? ?а???????
?а???????? ?????????? ???? ????????????? ??????????.
????? ???????, ?????????? ?????????? ??? ?????????? ????????????, ??а??????????? ??а???? ???????? ?????????? ?????????? ?????????????4 ?а????????? ????????????, ?????????????? ????????????? ????????? ?????????. ?? ????????? ?????? ????? ?а????????? ?????? ??????????????? ??????????????? ??а?????????? ?????
????? ?а???????? ?????????. ?а??????? ?????? ??? ?????????? ???1
? ???????? ????????: ???????????? ?????????? ????? ????????????????? 1966а?.,
?????????? ???? ??а??????????????? ??? ????????? ?????????? ?а?????????? ?а????? ??а?????????? ?????????? ???????????? ???? ??а??????????????? ??? ?????????
??????????, ???????? ??? ?????????? ?????????????? ?а???????? ??????????????
?а1995 ?а1996а??. (IATA Intercarrier Agreement of 1995, Agreement on Measures to implement
the IATA Intercarrier Agreement of 1996).
2
? ??.: ???????? ?.?. ????????????? ??????? ?????. ?.: ?????, 2011. ?.а805.
3
? Hanneke L. van Traa-Engelman. Legal Symposium 99?IATA Airline Conference, Madrid, February 1999а// Air & Space Law. Vol. XXIV. Number 3. 1999.
4
? ??.: ??????? ?.?. ??????????????? ?а????????????? ?????. ?.: ????. ???.,
1975. ?.а191.
18
Copyright ??? Ф??? Ф??????╗ & ??? ФA???????? K????-C?????╗
Да1. ??????? ?????????????? ?????????? ?????? ????????? ?????????
?????? ???????????? ?????????? ?а??????? ????????? ??????????????? ?????????? ??????????? ??а???????????? ??? ???????????? ?????????? ????? ???????????? ??а???????? ????????????? ?????????
?????????. ?????????? ??????????? ????? ???????? ????? ?????????
????? ???????????? ?????????, ??????? ??а?????? ?????? ?а???????? ???????? ????? ??????, ??а??? ??????????? ???????? ?????,
????????????? ??????????? ?????????? ???????.
2. 28 ??? 1999а?. ?а??????? ?????????????? ???????? ??????????
????? ????????? ?????????????? ???????: ?а?????????? ????????????? ?????? ??????????????? ???????????, ??????????? ?а???????????? ????????????? ??????????? ??????????? ??????? (????)
?а???????? ?????????????? 121а??????????? ?а11 ????????????? ??????????? ???????????, ???? ??????? ????????? ??? ?????????? ????????? ?????? ????????????? ????????? ????????? (????????????
????????? 1999а?.)1, ???????????? ???????? ???????? ??????? ????????????? ????????? ????????? ?а??I ?.
??????? ??????? ????????? ???????????? ????????? ???????
?а???, ???а?а????? ???????? ???????? ????????? ???????????????
???????????????, ???????????? ?????????? ?????????? 80 ??? ?????, ??а???? ???????? ????????? ?????????, ????????? ???????? ?????? ???????? ?а?????????? ?????????????? ?????????? ??????????.
?а??? ??????????? ?????????? ?????????? ?а????????????? ??????????????? ??????????????? ?а??????? ??????????? ??????? ???????? ???????? ??????? ?????????? ????? ??????????? ??? ??????????? ?????????????, ???а?а??????? ?а????????????? ?????? ????????? ?????? ????????????? ????????? ?????????, ?????????????
???????????? ??????????.
????? ??а???????????? ??????????? ???????????? ?????????
1999а?. ???????? ??, ???а??? ?а?????? ?????? ?????? ???????? ????????? ??????? ?а??????? ????????? ????????????? ????????????? ????????? ????????? ??????????, ?????? ?а??????, ??????? ?????????
?????????, ?????????????? ?а???? ???????.
????? ???????, ??????-??????????? ????????, ?????? ???????? ?????????????? ?????????? ??????????, ????????? ??????? ??????????
?а???????????? ??? ???????????? ?????????? ????????????? ?????1
? ICAO Doc. 9740; DCW Doc. Noа57, 28/5/99; ??????? ????? ????????? ???????????
?аФ?????????? ??????? ?????????????? ?????╗ (?., 2001. ?а1. ?.а314?399).
19
Copyright ??? Ф??? Ф??????╗ & ??? ФA???????? K????-C?????╗
????? I. ???????? ?????? ?????????????? ?????????? ?????????
????? ?????? ?а????? ?????? ????????????? ??????????????? ???????????. ????? ????????????? ????????? ???????? ?????????? ???????
???????? ???????? ?а?????????? ??????? ?????????? ????? ?????,
???????????? ?а?????????? ??????????? ????????????, ??????? ?????? ?а???????? ???????? ????? ??????????????? ????????????????
??а????????????? ??????, ?????? ?а???????? ??? ?? ????????? ??а????????????? ??????, ???????? ??????????? ????, ??а??? ??????????? ??????? ?????????? ?????????? ????????? 1929а?.
? ??????? ?? ?????????? ?????????? ??????? ???????????? ????????? ????????? ??а???????, ??????????, ????????, ?????????, ????????? ?а??????????? ??????, ?????? ??? ?????? ???????? ?????????????????.
????????? ?????????? ????????? ??????? ??????????? ?а??????
??????????????? ??????????? ?а????????? ?? ?????????????? ???,
??????????? ??? ?????? ?а????????? ??????????? ????????????
????????? 1999а?.
4 ?????? 2003а?. ???????????? ????????? ???????? ?а????. ????? ?????????? ????? ?????????, ?????????? ???????? ??????????
?????????, ???????????? ?????? ?а??? ?????????? ????? 100. ???????
????? ?а?????? ???????????? ???????, ???а?а??????????? ???? ???????? ????? ????????????? ????????? ????????? ??????????????? ???????????? ???? ??????????. ???????????? ????????? ?????
??????????????? ???а?????????? ?а??????? ????????????? ????????????? ????????? ?????????1.
????? ???????, ??а???????????????? ?а???????????? ????????? ?????????? ?????? ?????? ????? ??????? ???? ?????????, ????,
????, ?????????. ?? ????? ??????? ???? ?а????????? ??? ????????? ???????, ?????????? ???????, ???????, ??????. ????????
?а?.а???????? 22 ?????? 2007а?. ??????? ?????? ???? ???????????? ???
Ф??а???????? ???????????? ???????? ??????????? ??????? ?а?????
??а????????? ???????????? ??????? ?а????????????а? ??????????
???╗ ???????? ?а???? ??? ??????. ?а??? ???????? ??????: Ф?????????????? ?????????? ????????? ??а???????????? ??????????? ??????????????? ???????????/????????? ?? ????? ??????????? ?а???????? ??????, ??????????????? ?????? ??????? ??????????????? ???
1
? Cheng B. AаNew Era in the Law of International Carriage by Air: From Warsaw (1929) to
Montreal (1999)а// International and Comparative Law. Quarterly. 2004. Vol.а59. ?а4. P.а859.
20
Copyright ??? Ф??? Ф??????╗ & ??? ФA???????? K????-C?????╗
Да1. ??????? ?????????????? ?????????? ?????? ????????? ?????????
?????????? ?а????????????? ??????????? ?????????, ???????????? ?????????? ?????????? 1929а???? ?а???????? ??????????. ?????????? ????????? ??????? ???? ??а??????????? ????????????
????????? 1999а????╗.
??????? ???????, ??????? ?????? ???? ???????????? ??? ??????? ???????? ??????????????? ????????? ???????????? ??а?????????? ??????, ????????? ?а??????? ?? ??????????? ????????????????
????????? ??????????????? ???????? ??????????????? ???????????
?а???????????? ?? ?????????. ???????????? ??????? ??????? ???????
???? ??а??????????? ???????????? ?????????, ??????? ???????? ??????????????? ??????????? ??? ????????????? ??????????. ???
????? ??????а? ??а????. ???? ????: ?? ??? ??? ???? ??а???????????
???????????? ????????? ??а???????.
??????????? ???????? ????????????? ?а???????????? ????????? ???????, ????????, ??????????? ??а?????? ??а?? ?????????????
???????? ?а??????????, ??а?а?? ????????????????????? ?? ???????????? ?????????? ????? ??а????? ?????????????. ????? ??? ?а?????
???????? ????? ?а????? ??????????? ??????? ????????? Ф????????
???????????? ??????? ?????? (2010?2015а????)╗ ?????? ?????????
????????????????????? ????????????? ???????????? ???????1. ?????? ??????? ??????????? ??????????? ??????????? ????????????????? ??? ??????????????? ??а????????????? ??????, ???????????
?????? ?а??????????? ?????????????, ??????????? ??????????? ????
??а????????? ?а??????????? ??????????? ??а?????????? ?????. ????????? ?????????? ????????????, ????? ???а????????, ??? ?а90-??а???? ???????? ????????, ?? ???????? ???????????? ?????????, ???????????? ?а????? ???????? ?а????????? ?????????? ????????????
????, ????????????????? ??????????????? ??????????? ??а??????,
????????????? ?????? ???? ??????????. ??????? ???????????????
????????? ?а???? ??????? ?????????, ??? ???????? ?????????? ???????????????, ???а?а?????? ????????????а? ????????? ??????????,
?а???????????? ??????? ????? ??а???? ????????????? ??а??????????
??????????? ???????????? ?????????? ?????.
?????????? ???????????? ?а????????????? ?????????????? ???????????? ??????????? ????????????? ?????? ?а???????????? ???1
? ????????????? ?????????????а?? ?? 05.12.2001 ?а848 (???. ?? 18.04.2011) Ф?а??????????? ??????? ????????? Ф???????? ???????????? ??????? ?????? (2010?2015а????)╗.
21
Copyright ??? Ф??? Ф??????╗ & ??? ФA???????? K????-C?????╗
????? I. ???????? ?????? ?????????????? ?????????? ?????????
??????, ?? ????????????? ?а??????? ??????????? ????????????????.
??а????? ???? ??? ?????????? ??а???. ?а?????? ????????????? ??????
?а???????????? ????????? ?а????????????? ????????? ?а??????????? ??????? ?а????????? ????????????? ????????? ????? ???????????
?? ??????? ?????????? ?? ?????????? ?????????? ???????. ????????????? ???????? ?????????? ?????????, ???а????????, ????????
????????? ?????? ?? ???????? ???????. ???????? ?.а4 ??.а15 ???????????а?? ?а?.а2 ??.а7 ???????????? ???????а?? (?????а? ??а??, ??),
??.а3 ?????????? ???????а?? ???? ????????????? ????????? ?????????? ????????? ??????????? ???? ???????, ??? ??????????????? ?????????? ???????, ??а??????????? ??????? ??????????????
????????. ???????????? ????????? ???????? ?????????????? ????????????? ?????????, ??а????????? ??????? ?????????????????????
????? ??? ?? ??????????, ?а??? ??????? ?? ???????????? ????????????? ????? ??????????? ?а?????????? ????????? ???????????????.
??????? ??????????? ???????????? ??? ????? ???? ???? ?????????? ???? ??????? ?а????????? ?????? ?????????????? ?????????.
??а??? ????? ?????????? ????? ?????? ????????????? ?а??????????
????? ?????????, ??????? ?????????? ????????? ?? ???? ?а?????????.
????? ???????, ?а????????? ?????? ?а???? ????????? ??? ????????????? ????????? ???????? ?????? ????????????? ?????????
?????????. ????????? ????? ????????а? ??????????? ????????????
?????????, ???????? ???????? ??????????? ??????????? ???????
??????????, ??? ???????????? ??????????? ???? ????? ?????????.
?????? ?а????????????? ??????????? ?????????? ?????????? ?а???????????? ????????? ?????????? ?????????, ????????? ?? ????? ??????? ??????????? ??????????? ?????? ???????????? ????????????
???? ????? ??а??????? ????? ???????????????? ?????. ??? ??а?????
?????????? ????????? ?а??? ?????????, ??????????? ?? (??? ?????????? Ф?????????? ???????╗), ?????????? ??????????? ??? ?????????? ????? ????????, ???????????? ?а???. ?????? ????????,
???а???? ?????? ?????? ???? ?????? ?а?????????? ?????????? Ф?????????? ???????╗ ????? ????? ???????????? ???????? ??? ?????????? ????? ?????????? ????????, ??а??????????? ??????????????
?а???????????? ?????????.
3. ??????? ???? ????????? ???????? ??????? ????????????? ????????? ?????????, ????????????? ??????????? Ф?????????? ?????22
Copyright ??? Ф??? Ф??????╗ & ??? ФA???????? K????-C?????╗
Да1. ??????? ?????????????? ?????????? ?????? ????????? ?????????
??╗, ?а????? ???????, ?а???????????? ??????????а? ?а??????, ????????? ?????? ?а????????????? ?? ????????. ???? ?????? ???????? ??.а55
???????????? ????????? ?а??????? ????, ???а????????????? ??????????? ?а??? ??а?????? ????????? ????? Ф?????????? ???????╗ ?а????????? ?????? ?а????????? ????????????-????????? ?????????????
?????????, ?????????????? ????? ???? ???????????? ?а????????????,
??а??????? ???? ?????????? ????? ????????? ?а??????????? ????
??????? ?а?????????? ?????????? ????????? 1929а?. ?????????????
??????????? ?а???????????? ????????? ??а??????????? ???????????
?а?????????? ???? ???????????? ?????????? ????????? ?а?? ???????? ??????????????? ?????? ?????? ??????????? ??а????? ?? ??????????.
?????? 55 (?.а1) ???????????? ????????? ??????????????? ?? ???????????????? ???? ?а????????? ????????? ????? ?????????????, ???????????? ?а???, ????? ??????????? Ф?????????? ???????╗. ??? ??????? ?а????????, ??????????? ?а?????????? ??????, ??????????? ?а?
?????????? ????????? ?а???????? ?????????? ?????? ?????????? ???????????а? ????????? ???????????? ????????? (?.а2 ??.а55).
??????? ?? Ф?????????? ???????╗ ???????? ?а???? ?а?????????
?????????, ????? ??????????? ??? ????? ?????????? ??????? ????????? ?а???????????, ??а??????????? ?а????? ????????? ?а???????????
???? ??????? ?а?????????? Ф?????????? ???????╗. ??????? ?а?????
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????????? ????????? ???????????, ??????????? ?а???????????? ?????????, ??а?????? ????????????? ????????? Ф?????????? ???????╗.
?а???? ?????? ?????????? ?а???, ???а?а??? ??? ???????? 40 ?????, ???????? ??а??????? ???? ????????????????1. ????? ?????, ??????????? ?а?????????? ????????? ?а(???) ?а?????????? ?? ??????????,
??????????? ??а?????????? ?а?????????????? ??????????? ??????????
?????, ??????????? ?а???????????? ?????????2. ?????? ?а??????
????? ?????????? ???????????? ????????? ?????????? ?????????
?????????? ?????????? ?????????? ???? ????????.
4. ????? ?????????? ?????????? ????????? ?а???????? ?????????? ?? ?????? 1 Ф???????а? ???????????╗, ?а???????????? ?????????а? ?????? 1 Ф????? ?????????╗. ???????? ??.а1 ????????????
1
? ??.: ???????? ?.?. ????????????-???????? ?????????? ?????? ?????????????
????????? ?????????: ?????? ?а????????а// ????????????????. 2009. ?а1. ?.а29.
2
? Giemulla E., Schmid R., Muller-Rostin W., Dettling-Ott R., Margo R. Montreal Convention. Austin; Boston; Chicago; New York; The Netherlands: Wolters Kluwer, 2010. Art. 2?55.
23
Copyright ??? Ф??? Ф??????╗ & ??? ФA???????? K????-C?????╗
????? I. ???????? ?????? ?????????????? ?????????? ?????????
?а?????????? ????????? ??? ??????????? ??? ?????? ????????????? ?????????, ?????????????? ??а?????????????? ??????????? ?????????? ?????. ????????????? ?????????? ??а?????????? ??????????, ?????????? (??.а101 ??а??) ?а?????????? ????????????????
??????? ??а?????????????? ????????? ????????????? ?????????
?????????. ??????? ???????? ?????????, ??? ??????? ????? ??????????? ?а????? ?????????? ??????????? ?????????????? ??а???????????
???? ?????????? ??? ??а?????????? ?????? ???????????, ???? ????????? ????????? ???????????? ????? ??????? (?????????) ??а?????????? ?????? ???????????? ??????????? (???????? ?????????), ???? ???? ??? ??а????????? ?а?????????. ????????? ??? ???????? ?????????
????? ????? ????????, ???????????? ??а?????????? ?????? ?а????
?? ???????????-?????????, ??а??????????????? ?????? ???????????
???а?????????????. ?а????? ????????? ????????? ??а???????????1.
???????, ??? ??????? ??????? ?а???????????? ????????? ?а????????
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??????? ???????? ??????????? ????????????? ?????????, ???а???
?????? ?а?.а2 ??.а1 ????? ???????????? ?????????: Ф?????????????
?????????? ?а?????? ????????? ????????? ?????????? ?????? ?????????, ??? ???????, ???????? ??????????? ??????, ????? ??????????? ?а????? ?????????? ??? ??????????? ?? ????, ??????? ??? ???
??????? ?а????????? ??? ??????????, ??????????? ???? ??а?????????? ???? ??????????-??????????, ???? ??а?????????? ?????? ?а???? ??
1
?а? ????? ?а???? ?????????????? ???????????? ???????????? ??а??, ????????????
?а??????? ?? 23 ??????? 2005а?. ?а????05-732 ??а????????? ??.а3 ?????????? ????????? (??? ?????????????, ???а??????????, ?????????????? ?а????? ?????? ??а?????? ??
??а?????????????, ?? ??а???????????????? ???????? ?а?????????) ?а??????????? ????????? ????????????? ?????? ?????? ?????????? ????????? (????????? ??а??. 2006.
???????. ?а10). ???????????? ???????????? ???????? ??а?? ?? 17.11.05 ?а???05500 ?????? ??????? ????????? ??? ?????????. ??????????????, ???а???? ?????????????
?.а4 ??.а15 ???????????а?? ???, ???а??? ?????? ??а?? ?а?????? ????, ??а????????????? ???????????? ????????? ?????? ???????????????? ??а??? ?????????? ?????????, ???а???????? ?а????? ???????????? ?а?? ???????, ????????????? ?????????????
???????? ?а?????????. (?????????????? ???????????? ???????????? ???????????????? ???? ???????? ????????? ?????? ?а??????????? ??? ??????????? ??а??????????
??????, ?????????? ??а??????, ?а?????? ?????? ??????. ?????? ????? ??????????????
????????? ?????????? ??????, ?а????? ?а??? ?????? ??а????????? ??а???????? ???????????.) ????????? ?а???????? ?????? ????????? ???? ??. Да4а??. II ????????? ?????.
24
Copyright ??? Ф??? Ф??????╗ & ??? ФA???????? K????-C?????╗
Да1. ??????? ?????????????? ?????????? ?????? ????????? ?????????
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??а?????????? ??????? ???????????, ???? ???? ??? ??????????? ??а???????? ????????????-??????????. ????????? ??? ???????? ?????????
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????????? ???а?????????????╗.
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???а?а?????????????? Ф???????? ??????????? ??????╗ ????? Ф??????╗
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??? ???а??????? ???????????????? ??????. ????????? ?????????? ?а???? ?? ?????? ?а???????? ??????????? ???а??з???? ?????????.
??а????? ?? ???? ?.а2 ??.а1 ?????????? ????????? ?а??????????????
Ф???????? ??????????? ??????╗ ????? ?а???? ??????? ???????? ?????????, ??????? ??????????? ????? ??????????? ?а????? ??????????.
?????? ??? ??? ?????? ??????????,а? ???? ????? ???????? ?а??????????. ?а???? ?? ?а??????????? ??????????? ?????? ??????????
????????? ??? ????? ?????????? ?а????????? ?????3.
????? ???????, ??? ????, ????? ????????? ????????? ??? ???????? ?????????, ??????????, ????? ??? ???????, ?а??????? ??????? ????????????? ?? ??????????????? ?????? ???????????, ?????????? ?а?????????. ??? ????????? ????????? ????????? ????????????? ??а?????????, ????? ???????? ??? ???? ?????????? ?????????
??а????????, ?????????? ?????????? ???????? ????????????? ????????? ?????????. ???? ?? ????????????? ????????? ????? ????????????, ????????, ?а?????? ??????????? ?а?????? ???????????? ???????????? ??? ????????? ??????? ?????????, ????????? ?а?????????, ??????????? ???????????? ?а????? ??????????? ??? ???????????
??????????? ???????.
??? ????????? ?????? ??? ????, ????? ??????????????? ???????
???????? ??? ???????? ?????????, ??????????, ????? ????? ????????1
? ??????????? ????????????? ?????. ?. 3. ?.: ?????????? ??????????? ???????? ?????????????? ?????, 1997. ?.а601?607.
2
? ??????? ??????????? ?????????, ?????????? ?а?????????, ??????????? ????
?а???????????? ?????????????. ???. VIII. ?., 1935. ?.а326?339.
3
? ?????????? ??????? ??.: ????????????? ????????? ?????. ??. 2а/ ??? ???.
?.?.а??????? ?а?.?. ????????. ?.: ?????, 1981. ?. 337.
25
Copyright ??? Ф??? Ф??????╗ & ??? ФA???????? K????-C?????╗
????? I. ???????? ?????? ?????????????? ?????????? ?????????
??? ????????? ?а????? ?? ?????????? ?????????? ?а????????????, ??????????? ?а??????????????? ?????????. ?? ???? ??а????????? ??а???????????????? ??а????????? ????????? ?????? ????? ?????????????,
???? ???? ?? ???? ??а??? ?а??????????????? ????????? ??а?????????.
??? ???????? ????????? ??????????, ??, ???а???????, ????? ?????????, ???????? ????????, ?????????????? ?а????????? ????????? ?а?????
???????????. ?????????? ?? ????, ????? ?? ???????? ?а??????, ??????????? ??? ??а??????????? ?а?????????, ???? ????????? ?????
?а???????? ????? ??? ????????? ?????????, ??а?а???? ?.а2 ??.а1 ?????
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?? ????????, ??? ???????, ???а???? ????? ????????? ?а??????а? ????????? ?????????. ?????? ??????? ?????????????? ?а?????????? ???????????? ??????????????? ?????????1.
????? ???????, ????????? ????????? ?????? ?а?????? ?а?? ??? ???
????? ???????? ????? ???????????? ????????? ??а?????????, ?а???????????? ?????? ?????????? ??????????, ????? ?? ????????????
??? ?? ???????????. ????????? ?????????? ??а?????? ?а?????????
?а??? ????? ???????????? ?????? ??????? Ф?????????? ???????╗.
?а??? ????????? ??????????, ??????, ??а??????? ?а?????? ?а??????? (?????а? ??????а? ?????) ????? ?????????????? ????? ???????????? ??????????, ???? ???? ?? ???????????? ?????????? ??????????????. ????? ???????, ????????????? ????? ?????????? ????? ????? ?????? ?????? ?а?????????? ???????????? ?????????, ?а???????
?????? ??а?????????.
? ????????????? ????? ????????????, ???а????????????? ??????? ??а??????? ???????????? ??? ???? ??? ???????? ???????????, ??а??????????? ??? ??????????. ????? ??? ?????????? ???????????? ?????????, ??? ?????????? ??????? ?????????? ????, ???а???? ??а?????,
????? ???????? ?????????????? ????????????? ?????????, ????????
?????????? ?????????. ?а????? ????? ????????? ????????? ????????????, ???????????2, ?????????3 ?????????, ?????????? ?????, ???1
? ????? ????????? ??????????? ????? ??.: Tompkins G.N., Jr. The Montreal Convention and the Meaning of ФDestination╗ in Article 31 (1)а// Air & Space Law. Vol. XXXII/3,
June 2007. P.а224?226.
2
? ????????? ??? ?а??????? ????????? ??????. (Ф??????????? ???????╗). (????????? ?а???????? 31.03.1978.)
3
? ????????? ?а???????? ????????????? ???????? ????????? ?????? (????) (????????? ?а?????? 19.05.1956.)
26
Copyright ??? Ф??? Ф??????╗ & ??? ФA???????? K????-C?????╗
Да1. ??????? ?????????????? ?????????? ?????? ????????? ?????????
???????? ??????????????? ????? ?? ????????. ???, ???????? ??.а10
???????????? ????????? ?а??????????? 1924а?.1 ?? ????????? ??????
??????????? ?? ??????? ???????????, ????????? ?а????? ??а???????????????? ??????????. ?а???????????? ?а?.а1 ??.а1 ???? ??? ??????????? ?а???????? ????????????? ?????????, ???? ????? ???????? ?????
?а????? ?????? ????? ????????? ?а???? ?????? ????????????, ??а???????
???? ?? ???? ???????? ?????????? ?????????. ??? ???????????? ???? ??????????? ????????? ????? ????????? ?а???????? ???????????
?????, ?????????????? ????????? ??? ?????????? ???????? ?????????, ?а????? ??? ?????, ??????? ??????????? ????????? ??а????????.
? ????? ?????? ???? ????????? ?????????????? ??????????? ?????????????, ??а?а?????? ?????? ???? ?????? ??а???????????? ?????????, ?а??????????? ??? ????? ????????? ???????????? ?????????. ?а???? ??????????? ??????????????? ??????????? ????????????,
???а??? ?а??? ????? ?????????? ?а??????, ??а???? ??а????? ??????????, ??а??? ????????????????? ??????????? ????: ???????????? ?????????? ??? ??????????? ????????, ???а?а???? ?????????????? ????
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????? ????? ?а???????? ?????????. ???????? ?.а1 ??.а22 ??????????
????????? ??????? ???????? ????????? ????? ????????? ?????? ?????????? ?а????????? ????? ????????. ?????? ?а?????????? ??а???????????? ????????? ????? ??????????????? ?а???????? ?????? ??????? ??????????.
???? ?? ????????? ??а?????????? ???????? (?????а? ??????а?
?????) ?????????????? ?????????? ????????????????, ??, ?????????
?????, ?а??????????????? ?????? ????? ?????? ??а?????????? ????????? ?а???????? ???????? ?а???. ???????? ????????, ???а??????????
??? ?а???? ?????? ???????? ????????? ??????????, ????????? ??????? ????????? ???? ??????? ?а?????????? ?????????. ??а????? ??????????? ???, ???? ???? ????? ??????????????? ??????????? ?????.
???????а? ????????? ???????????? ?????????, ?а????????? ????????
??????????? ?а?? ??????????. ??? ????????, ???а?????????? ???????1
? ????????? ??а?????????? ????????? ?????? ?а??????????? (????????? ?а???????? 25.08.1924).
27
Copyright ??? Ф??? Ф??????╗ & ??? ФA???????? K????-C?????╗
????? I. ???????? ?????? ?????????????? ?????????? ?????????
??? ?а??????????? ???? ????? ???????????? ?а??????????????? ??а???????? ???????????? ?????????. ???????? ?а?????????? ??????????
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??????????, ???? ???? ??а?????? ?а???? ?? ??.а26.
????? ???????, ????????? ?????? ?а???????????? ????????? ???????? ?а????, ???а??????????????? ??????????? ??????????????? ?????
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?? ??????????????? ??????????? ??????????????? ????? ??????????,
???????? ????? ??а????????? ??а???????? ??????а? ?????а? ??????, ???????? ?????? ??? ??????? ???? ??????????? ?а??????????
20а000а????. ???. ??????????? ?а?????? ?????????? ????? ?????
?а???????? ?????????? ??? ????? ????? ?????????????? ?а????????????? ?????????? ?? ???? ????????????, ?а?????????? ??????????? ???????????, ??????????????? ????? ?а?????,а? ?а???????? ?а??
???????? ?????????? ?????? Ф?????????? ???????╗.
??? ??? ?????, ????? ?????????????? ???????? ?????????? ??????????? ??????????? ????? ????????????? ??????????? ????????????, ??? ??????????? ????????? ?а???????????? ?????????. ?????? ??? ???? ?а???, ???, ???? ???? ?????????? ???????? ????? ?????
??а??? ????? ??? ??????? ??а???????? ??????а? ?????а? ??????,
???? ????? ??????????? ??а?????? Ф?????????? ???????╗, ????????? ?????? ??а????????? ?а???????????? ?????????. ????? ??????????, ???а??? ?????? ????? ??????? ?????? ????????? ???????? ????????? ?????????? ??????? ?????????? ??????? ?а????? ?????????? ?а??????? ????? ?????? ??а????????? ??????. ??, ???а???????,
????????? ???????????, ??????? ??а???????? ????? ??????????????? ?а???????????? ???????, ???а??? ?????? ????????. ???????????
???????????? ??????????? ???????????? ??а????????? ???? ???????? ??, ???а??????????? ??а??? ????????? ??? ?????????? ????????????? ????????? ??????1.
1
? ??????? ?????? ???? ???????????? ??? Ф??а???????? ???????????? ????????
??????????? ??????? ?а????? ??а????????? ???????????? ??????? ?а????????????а?
?????????? ???╗ (??????? ?а?. ???????? 22 ?????? 2007а?.).
28
Copyright ??? Ф??? Ф??????╗ & ??? ФA???????? K????-C?????╗
Да1. ??????? ?????????????? ?????????? ?????? ????????? ?????????
5. ?а????????? ??????? ??? ???????? ?????????? ?а????????????
????????? ????? ????????? ?а????????? ?а???????? ?????? ???????????.
??? ????????????? ????????? ???????? ?????????, ???????? ???????, ???? ???? ??????? Ф??????? ?а????????? ??? ??????????╗ ???
???? ???? ??а?????????? ???????????????? ???????????? ????????? ????????? ?а???????? ?????? ???????????, ?????? ????????? ??????????? ?а????? ?????????, ?а????????? ????????? ?????????????,
??? ???????, ???а??? ????????? ??????????????? ????????? ????????
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?а????????? ?а???????? ?????? ?????????? ????????????, ??а????????? ????? ????? ?????????? ?????? ????? ??????? ?а?????????????
????? ????????? ????????????? ?а????????? ??? ???????? ?????????.
?????? ??????? ????????? ??а?????? ?????, ????? ????????? ?????????????? ??а????? ?????????, ??а?а???? ?а??? ??????, ????, ????????,
?а?????? ????????? ??????????????? ?а???????????? ?????????????
????????? ?????????? ????? ??? ???? ?????????? ??а???? ??????? ?????????? ???????????. ????? ?????????????? ?????? ???????????????
???? ???а???????? ????????? ?а??? ??????????? ??????? ?????????.
??????? ????????? ????? ???? ???????? ??????????? ???????????
?????????? ???????????? ?????????? ??а????? ????????? ???????????????? ????????????. ??? ????, ???? ???? ??а?????-???? ???????
????????? ??????????? ?????????? ??????, ??? ??? ????? ????? ????????? ????????????? ?а????????? ??? ???????? ?????????.
??? ????????? ????????? ?????? ???????? ??????? ????????????????? ??а????????????? ?????????, ?а???????????? ????????????????. ????, ????????, ??????? ????????? ???????????? ?????????? ??а????????? ??????? ?????????, ??????????? ???????????????,
???а??????? ????????????? ??? ????????? ???а?????? ????????, ????? ???? ???? ?????? ???? ???????????? ?????????? ??? ???????????? ????????? ????? ??????? ?а????? ?а??? ?? ????? ?а?а???? ?а??
?? ?????. ??? ???? ???????? ??? ?????????? ??????????? ????? ?????????????? ???????????????? ??????, ???????????? ?????????
??а?????? ??а???????? ???а??????????????? ?а?.?. ???? ?? ??а???????? ?а????? ?????????? ???????? ??? ???????? (??? ??? ??? ???? ???
??????) ????? ?а????? ?????????? ??????, ????????? ??а???? ???????
??а????? ????????? ??? ?????????, ???? ???? ???????? ??????????? ????????????? ?? ???а?????? ????????. ????? ??????? ???????
29
Copyright ??? Ф??? Ф??????╗ & ??? ФA???????? K????-C?????╗
????? I. ???????? ?????? ?????????????? ?????????? ?????????
????????? ?а????????? ???????? ?а???????? ????? ??? (????????,
???-????) ?а????? ?а????????????? ????? ?????????? ?а??????????? ?????????1.
6. ?? ?????? ??. Iа? II ????? ????????? ????????, ???а??? ????????????? ????????????? ????????? ????????? ?????????? ??????????
??????????? ?а?????????? ??? ?????????????????. ???? ???? ????????? ??????????? Ф????????????? ?????????╗, ??????????? ???
???????? ???????????? ?????????, ??????? Ф?????????? ?????? ?????????, ??? ???????, ???????? ??????????? ??????, ????? ???????????
?а????? ???????????╗, ?????????? ????, ???а??? ???????? ?????????
???? ??а?????. ?????????? ?????????? ?а????????? ????????? ??????????? ?????????? ??а?????? ?????????, ??, ???а???????, ?а????????? ??????????? ????????????? ????????????????, ???????????????
??????????????? ???????????. ?????????, ????????, ??а?????? ??????????? ?а?????? ?????????? ????? ????? ?а???????? ????? ?а?????????, ???? ???????????, ???а??? ?????? ??а???? ?????????? ?????
??? ???????? ???????????. ?а????? ????????? ??????????????? ???????????? ??????????? ????????? ??а??а????????, ?а????????? ?????
?????? ??????????? ???????????????? ??а?????????????? ??????????
?????????? ?????.
7. ?????????? ?а???????????? ?????????, ???????? ?.а1 ??.а1, ??????????? ??? ?????? ????????????? ?????????, ??????????????
??а?????. ??? ??????????? ????? ?а?????????? ??????????, ?????? ??? ???????, ???а????? ????????? ?????????????? Ф????????????
????????? ?????????╗ (?? ??.а1 ???????????? ?????????а? Ф???????????????? ????????????╗). ??????? ???? ?????????? ?????????
?????????????? ?????, ??а??????? ???????? ??????????? ??????
??????? ????????????? ????????????????? ??????????? (????????,
??????? ?а?????? ??а??? ??????? ????????), ??? ??а?????? ?????????
??? ???????? ?????????. ???? ??????????? ???????? ??????????????, ??а??????????? ??????????????? ??а?????????????? ?? ?????????? ????????? ??????? ?? ????, ??????? ?? ??????????????? ??????????? ???????? ?а????????? ?????????? ????????? ?а??????????,
?????????????? ???????????? ???? ??????? ???????????? ??????
?????????? ?????.
1
? Tompkins George N., Jr. Liability Rules Applicable to International Air Transportation as
Developed by the Courts in United States. From Warsaw 1929 to Montreal 1999. Kluwer Law
International BV. The Netherlands. 2010. ?. 86.
30
Copyright ??? Ф??? Ф??????╗ & ??? ФA???????? K????-C?????╗
Да1. ??????? ?????????????? ?????????? ?????? ????????? ?????????
8. ????????? Ф?????????? ???????╗ ?а???????????? ?????????
??????????? ?а??????????, ?????????????? ???????????? ???? ??????? ???????????? ?????? ?????????? ????? (?? ???????????? ?????? ??? ?????????). ?????? ???????? ???????? (??.а??VI), ???????????? ????????? ????????? ??????????? ???????????-????????? ??????? ?а???, ???а?????????? ?????????, ?????????? ?????? ??а???,
??а????? ???????????????? ??а?????????, ?????????????? ??? ??????? ??????? ???????????????? ???????????, ??? ???????, ???а?????
????????? ?????????????? ??а????????? ?????, ??????????????????
?а???? ??????????? ?а????????? ?????????????? ?????? ????????.
??а????, ?? ?????? ????? ???????? ??а??????.
???????????? ????????? (??.а57) ?????? ????? ???????????????
??????????? ???????????-????????? ??????? ???????? ?а????????????????? ????????? ??а????????????? ?????????, ??????????? ????
???????????? ??а?????? ?а???????, ??а?а?а?????? ?????????????? ????? ?а????? ?а?????????????? ?? ????? ?????????? ???????. ?????
???????????? ??? ??????????? ???????????? ????????? ???????????????, ????????, ???, ?????? ?а??? ?????? ??????????. ????? ???????, ???? ???? ????? ?????? ???????? ??а????, ???а?????????? ?????????, ?????????????? ??????????????? ????????????????? ?????????????, ??? ???????? ????????? ??а?????????.
?????????? ????????? ??а??????????? ?а??????????, ?????????????? ?а???????? ??????? ??????? ???????????? ?а????? ????????????
?????????? ????????? ?????, ?а????? ?а??????????, ??????????????
??? ?????????????? ??????????????? ??? ?????? ?????????? ????????-???????????? ???????? (??.а34). ??????????? ?? ?????????
?а?????????, ?а????? ???????????? ????????? (??.а51) ????????? ???
?????????????? ??????????????? ??? ????? ??????? ???????? ??а???????????? ?????????? ?????????? ????????? ????? ????????. ?????????? ?????????? ????????? ?а???????????? ??????????, ??????? ?а????????? ???????????? ??????????????? ????? ??а???????????.
9. ??? ????????? ??????????? ?????? ?а????????? ????????? ??????????, ?????? ?а????? (??.а1 ?????????). ??? ??а?????????? ????????? ????????? ?????. ???????? ?.а2 ?а3 ??.а2 ???????????? ?????????
??? ????????? ???????? ??????????? ?????????? ????? ??????????????? ?????? ????? ??????????????? ???????? ?????????????? ?а???????????? ?а?????????, ???????????? ?а?????????? ????? ????????????? ?а????????? ???????????????. ?а????????? ?????????
31
Copyright ??? Ф??? Ф??????╗ & ??? ФA???????? K????-C?????╗
????? I. ???????? ?????? ?????????????? ?????????? ?????????
????????? ???????????? ????????? ??а??????????? ?а?????????
???????? ???????????.
10. ????? ????????????? ????????? ?а????????? ??????????,
???а?а????? ??????????? ????????????? ???????????????? ??????????,
??????????????? ????? ???????????? ????????. ??? ??????????? ?????????????? ????????????? ?????? ????????? ????????? ?????
???????????? ?????, ??????????? ????????????? ?????????????,
?а????? ?????????? ?????????? ???????????? ??????????, ??????????? ???????? ?а???????, ?????????? ?а?????????????? ???????????? ???????, ???????, ???а????????, ???????? ?????????? ?????????? ?????????. ????? ????, ?а????????????? ?????????? ?а????????? ??????????, ??? ?? ???а?а??????????? ??а?????? ????? ??????????,
?а????????? ??а???????, ??????????, ???а???????????? ?.?. ?????????, ????? ??????? ???????, ?????????????? ?????????????? ?????????? ????????????? ?а??? ??????????????? ????1.
???????? ??.а26 ???????????? ????????? ???????? ???????????????? ?а?? ????????? ??????? ??????????? ?????? ????????, ?????????????? ???????????? ??????????? ?? ??????????????? ??? ?? ???????????? ??????? ???????????????, ????????, ??? ???, ??????? ?а???
??????????. ???????? ??.а49 ???????????? ????????? ????????????????? ???????? ????????? ???????? ????????? ?а?????? ?????? ??????????, ???????????????? ?????????? ?????, ???????? ??????? ????????? ?? ?? ?????? ????????? ???? ????? ??????????? ??????????? ?????????? ??????, ???? ????? ????????? ?????? ?а??????????.
??? ????????? ???????????? ????????? ???????????? ?????????????? ??а??.а23 ?а32 ?????????? ?????????. ???????? ????????? ??.а24
?????????? ?????????, ??.а29 ???????????? ????????? ?????????????, ???а????? ??? ??а??????????????? ?????????? ?? ??? ?????????
(????????, ?????????????? ??? ??а????? ?????? ?????????) ?????
???? ?????????? ???? ?а???????????? ?а????????? ?а?????? ????????? ???????????????, ??????? ????????????? ??????????. ??? ????
????? ?????? ???????, ??а??????????? ?а??????????? ???????????? ?????, ????????? ??а????????. ?а??????? ?? ??.а25? ??????????
?????????, ?????????? ???????? ??????????, ??.а30 ????????????
????????? ?а????? ??????????? ????? ???????????? ???????? ????1
? ??.: ?????? ?.?., ????????? ?.?. ????????????? ??????? ??????? ?????. ?.: ????????????, 1984. ?.а78.
32
Copyright ??? Ф??? Ф??????╗ & ??? ФA???????? K????-C?????╗
Да2. ?????????? ???????????? ????? ?а???????????? ?????
?? ??????????????? ??????? ????? ???????????? ?????????? ?????????? ?а??????? ??????????? (????????? ??.аДа1, 3 ?а5а??. III).
Да2. ?????????? ???????????? ?????, ???????????? ?????,
???????? ?? ???????????? ?а?????????????????
1. ????????? ?????????? ???? ???????? ?????? ??????? ????????????? ????????? ?????????, ?????????? ?????????? ????????
?????????, ????????? ??? ??????? ?, ???????, ??????????????? ??????????? ??а?????????? ????? ????? ?а???????? ??????????, ??????,
????? ?а????????? ?а?? ????????, ?????????? ????????? ????????????? ????????? ?????????.
??????? ??????? ?????????????? ?????????? ?а??????? ????????????? ????????? ????????? ??а????????? ??????? ?а?????????? ??????????? ????? ??????????. ???????????? ?????????? ????????? ????????? ??а???????? ????????? ???????? ???????. ?????? ????? ????????? ????????????? ????????? ?а?????????? ??а??????????? ??????
?????? ???????????? ????????, ????????? ???????? ?? ?а????? ????????????? ??????????? ?????. ??? ????????, ????????, ??????? ???????????? ?????? ?а????????? ?а?????? ?? ?а?????? ??????????, ???????
?????????? ??????????-???????????? ?????, ????????? ?????????, ?а??
?????? ??????? ?а????????, ????????? ?а???????????????? ???????????
(?? ?????, ???? ???, ??????? ????? ??а??????????, ?а?.?.). ????????????? ???? ?????????, ?????? ??????????? ?а??????? ??а?????? ?????????, ???а???????, ??????? ??????? ????????????? ????? ?????????????????? ???????????, ??????? ?? ????? ????????? ??????????
?????? ?????? ??????????? ??? ?????????? ?????????1.
????? ????, ?????????? ?????????? ?????????????? ?????? ??????????, ??????? ????????? ???? ?а?????????? ?????????, ???? ?а???????? ????????? 1955а?. ??? ???? ??????????? ????, ?а???? ?.а2 ??.а??I
?а?.а2 ??.а??III ????????? ????????? ??? ??????????? ??? ????????????? ?а???? ???????????, ??а?????????? ?а?????????? ?????????,
??а???????? ????????????? ?а???? ?????????, ???а????????? ??????????? ?????????? ?????????? Ф?????????? ???????╗ ?а?????????? ????? ????????????а? ?????????? ????????? ????????? ?а????????????а? ?????????? ?????????? ?????????.
1
? ??.: ??????? ?.?. ???????? ????????????? ????????????? ?????????. ?., 1981. ?.а58.
33
Copyright ??? Ф??? Ф??????╗ & ??? ФA???????? K????-C?????╗
????? I. ???????? ?????? ?????????????? ?????????? ?????????
???????, ??????? ???????????, ??????? ??а?????? ???????? ?????? ??а???????? ??????????? ?????????, ?а??????, ?????????? ????????????? ?????????, ??????? ?????????? ??а????????????.
?? ???? ???? ??????? ??????? ?????????? ?а??????????? ?????,
?а????????? ???????????? ??????: ????? ????? ?????? ????????
??????????? ??????? ?????????, ???а???????, ??а???????? ??????
??а???? ??????. ???????????? ????????????? ??а?????????? ??????
???????? ?а???????????? ?????. ??????????? ????????? ?а?????????? ????? ?а??????? ????????? ????????? ??а??????????. ?????????? ?а???????????? ????????? ???????? ?????, ?????????? ?а??????????? ???????????????? ??????????. ?????? ??? ???????????????,
?а???????????? ???????? ?????? ???????? ?а?????? ????, ???????????????? ????. ?????????? ????? ??????? ????????????, ?????? ???
???????? ???? ???????? ??????? ????????. ???????? ????????????
????????? ????? ???? ??????????? ??? ?????????? ???????? ???????? ?а?????? ???????? ????? ??а????????? ???????????????, ???????
????? ???????????? ????? ????????????? ??????? ???????????????
??????????? (?.а6 ??.а22). ???? ?? ??????? ???????????? ?????????
???????????? ????? (?.а4 ??.а33) ?а??????? ?????????? ????? ???????
???????? (?.а2 ??.а35). ?а???????????? ????????? ????????? ?????
???????????? ?????, ?????????? ?а?????? ??????????а? ??????????
????????? ?а????????? ??????????? ?а???????????? ?????? ????
???????? ??????????????? ???????????, ????????????? ?а???????????
?????? ????????????? ??? ?а??????????? ?????????????? ????????
(?.а1 ?а2 ??.а23). ?????? ?а??? ????????? ???????????? ?????, ????????? ?а?????????? ?????????, ?????? ??????????? ?а????????????
?????????. ??? ????????? ??а???? ?????????????? ???????????????
?????????????? ?а????? ?????? ????????? ?а????????? ?а??????????????? ???? ?????????? ?а????????? ????. ?????? ????????????
????? ?????????? ?????????а? ?а??????????? ??????? ??????????
?а???? ????????????? ????????а? ?а???????????? ????????? ??а????? ??а??????????? ?????????????. ?а????? ??а????????? ???? ?? ???????? ???????? ?????????? ??????????? ?а???, ???аФ????????????
????? ??????????? ?а?????????? ???? ???? ?????????? ??а?????????? ????????? ?а????????????╗1.
1
? ???????? ?.?. ???????????? ????? ?а??????? ?????????? ????????? ????????????? ????????? ?????????а// ?????? ??????????? ?????. 2010. ?а8. ?.а120?126.
34
Copyright ??? Ф??? Ф??????╗ & ??? ФA???????? K????-C?????╗
Да2. ?????????? ???????????? ????? ?а???????????? ?????
? ??????? ?? ???????????? ???? ???????????? ?????????, ???????, ???а???????, ???????? ?????????????, ???????????? ????????
??а?????????? ????? ?????????? ???? ????? ????????????? ????????.
????????? ?????? ????????? ???????????? ??????? ?а????????????? ???????????? ????? ?????? ?а??????? ?.?. ????????, ???????? ?а80-? ????? ???????? ????????1. ?????? ??????????? ????????? ?а??????? ?а????????? ???????? ?????????? ????????????? ????????????? ????????? ?а??????. ?? ????????? ????, ?а?????????,
???????? ?а???? ??????? ???? ??????????.
2. ???????????? ???????????? ???? ?а????? ????????????? ????????? ???????? ??????? ????? ?а??????????? ???????????? ????????.
?????????? ???????????????? (??.а1211 ??а??) ??а????? ??????
????? ????? ???????????? ?????, ?????????? ?а????? ??????, ???
????????? ????? ?????????? ??? ???????? ????? ???????????? ???????, ??????? ???????????? ??????????, ??????? ???????? ????????
??? ?????????? ????????. ???????? ?.а3 ??.а1211 ??а?? ????? ???????? ?а???????? ????????? ???????? ??????????. ?а???? ??.а1202 ??а??
?а????????? ??????? ??????????? ????? ??????, ??? ???????????????
????????????-?????????? ????????? (???????????????).
?????? 1212 Ф?????, ?????????? ?????????? ?а???????? ?а???????? ???????????╗ ??а??, ???????? ?? ?.а3, ?а???????? ????????? ??а???????????. ??? ?????? ??????????? ?а????????? ??а???????? ??а?????
???? ????? ??а????????? ?а?????????? (?????????? ?? ????????? ?а????? ???? ????????? ?????? ?????), ?а????????? ??а???????? ?а?????
?????????????? ????????????, ????? ?????????? ????????????? ?а????????????? ??????, ?а?? ?а???????????. ?????? ??? ???????? ??????? ??а????? ????????????.
? ??????? ???????? ?????? (??????, ??????? ????????, ????????? ?а??.) ??? ?????? ?????, ??????????? ?а??????, ???????????
??а???????? ?????????, ?????? ????? ???????? ???????????? ??????
???????????. ??????????? ???? ???? ????????? ????? ????? ?????????? ???????? ?????????, ?????????? ?а???????????? ????а? ?????
????? ?????????? ?????. ???? ????? ????????? ??????? ???? ???????
??а?????????? ?????? ????? ?????????? ?????????, ??? ?????? ????2.
1
? ??.: ??????? ?.?. ???????? ????????????? ????????????? ?????????. ?., 1981.
?.а46?67; Sadikov O.N. Conflict of Law in International Transport Lawа// Recueil des cours.
Vol.а190 (1985-I). ?. 199?270.
2
? ????????? ??.: ??????? ?.?. ????. ???. ?.а13?14.
35
Copyright ??? Ф??? Ф??????╗ & ??? ФA???????? K????-C?????╗
????? I. ???????? ?????? ?????????????? ?????????? ?????????
????????? ???????????? ?????????, ????????????? ?????????
??????????? ?? ????????? ?????????, ??????? ???????? ?а????????
?????????? ????????? ?а????????? ?????????????, ?????????? ??????? ?????? ?а?????? ????????????? ?????????? ??????????? ???????????? ????????, ??????????? ??????????? ????? ????????????
???? ?????????????? ?а?????? ???????????? ????????????. ???а????
??????? ??????? ???????????? ????????? ?а????? ????????????
????????, ???? ??а???????? ??????? ??????? ???????????? ???????
???????????? ?????????1. ???????????? ???????????? ???? ?а?????
?????????????? ?????????? ???????? ?????????? ???????? ????????? ???????? ?????????? ???????????? ????????. ????? ?а????????? ??????? ????? ?????????? ?????????? ??????????, ?а?????? ??а??????? ???????? ?????????? ??????????????? ???????????? ????????: ??????????? ?????, ??????? ?????????, ??????????, ?????????,
????????, ?????? ????? ?а?.?. ?????????? ???? ?????? ?????? ????????? ?????? ???????????? ????????? ?? ????????? ?????????? ???
?????????? ???????????? ????????2.
????? ??????????? ???????????? ????????, ???????????????
?????????????? ???????????? ?а?????????? ?????????????????,
??????? ??????? ????? ?????? ???????????, ????? ?????? ??????????,
?????????? ?????, ????? ??????, ?а??????? ???????????? ?????????
???????? ?????????, ????? ?????? ????????????, ????? ?????? ??????????, ????? ??????, ??? ??????????? ?????????, ????? ???? ?а??.
??а?????? ???????? ????????? ???????????? ????????, ???а???????, ????????????? ???????????? ?а????????????? ??????? ?????
????????????? ?а?????? ??????????????. ???, ????? ?????? ??????????? ????? ????????, ???а???????, ??????? ????? ?????????? ???????? (lexаloci contractus), ????? ?????? ?????????? ?????а? ??? ???????
???????????? ???????? ?????? ??????????????? ???? (lex rei sitae),
????? ?????? ?????????? ???????????? ????? ????? ????? ??????????
???????? (lex loci solutionis)3.
?????? ???????? ????????? ??????????? ???????????? ??????,
??????????? ?а??????????, ??????????? ?а????? ?а???????????
????? ????? ?а???????? ??????????. ????? ???? ???????? ??????????
1
? ??.: ??????? ?.?. ???????? ????????????? ????????????? ?????????. ?., 1981.
?.а59.
2
? ??. ??? ??. ?.а60.
3
? ??. ??? ??. ?.а63.
36
Copyright ??? Ф??? Ф??????╗ & ??? ФA???????? K????-C?????╗
Да2. ?????????? ???????????? ????? ?а???????????? ?????
?????, ???????????? ????? ?а???????? ?????????, ???????????, ?????????? ?а???????????? ???? ???????????? ????????????????? ??????? ????? ?????????? ?????????. ???, ??а?????, ?????????? ?а?????
?а???????????? 31 ??????? 2000а?. ??????????????? ?а?????? (???????), ???????? (???????????? Ф???????????? ?????????╗) ?????????? ??а?????????? ?????? ????? ?????????? ?????. ?????? ?????????????? ??? ?а????????? ??????????? ??????? ??????????? ??а??????????? ???????????? ?????? ???????? ????? ????? ??????????,
?а? ????????? ?????????? ??????????? ???????а? ????? ???????1.
?????? 800 ??а?? ??????? ?????????, ??????????? ?а????? ?а??????????? ????? ????? ?а???????? ??????????, ??а????? ???????????? ????????????? ????????????????, ???????? ??????????????? ??????????? ?а???? ??????? ????? ???????? ??а?????????????? ??а?????????? ????? (??.а59 ??). ??? ???????? ?а????????????? ?????????
????? ??????, ??? ????? ????? ?????????? ????? (??.а1219 ??). ?????
???????? ???????????????? ??а????????? ???? ??.а1219 ?? ??????? ????????????? ??а?????????? ????? ???????????? ????????? ??.а1220а??,
???????????, ?а?????? ?????????? ????????? ??????????? ????????????? ????????? ??? ??????? ??????????? ?????.
???????? ?.а1 ??.а1219 ??а??, ?а??????????????, ???????????
?????????? ?????????? ?????, ??????????? ????? ??????, ??? ?????
????? ???????? ??? ???? ??????????????, ??????????? ?????????? ???
?????????? ?а?????????? ?????. ???????? ?.а1 ??.а4 ??????????а(??)
???????????? ?????????? ?а?????? ?? 11 ???? 2007а?. ?а864/2007
Ф?а?????, ?????????? ?а????????????? ??????????????╗ (???-II)
?а????????????? ??????????????, ??????????? ??а????????? ???????, ????? ??????????? ????? ???? ???????????, ??а?????????? ???????? ???????? ?????.
?.?. ?????? ?????????? ?а??????????????, ??????????? ?????????? ?????????? ????? ????? ?а???????? ????????? ?????????? ?????, ????????? ????? ?????? ???????????, ??????? ???????????????
????? ?а??а??, ???а??????????? ??а????????? ?а??.а1219 ??а??2.
??? ??????????????? ?????????????? ??????????? ??????? ??????1
? Air Crash at Taipei, Taiwan, On October 31, 2000. Case No. 01-MDL-1394 GAF (RCx)
(C.D.Cal.2002).
2
? ??.: ?????? ?.?. ??????????????? ?????????? ??????????? ??а?????????? ????? ????? ?а???????? ????????? ??? ????????????? ?????????: ???????. ???. ? ????.
????. ????. ?., 2009. ?.а10.
37
Copyright ??? Ф??? Ф??????╗ & ??? ФA???????? K????-C?????╗
????? I. ???????? ?????? ?????????????? ?????????? ?????????
??????????, ?а?????? ???? ??????????? ???????????? ?????????? ?а???????? ????.
?????? ???????? ???????? ??????? ???, ???а????????????? ????????? ??а?????????? ??????? ?????????? ?????, ???????????? ????? ?а???????? ??????????, ?а????????, ???? ????? ??????? ????? ???????????? ??а??????? ???????????, ?а??????? ?????? ????? ??????????
??? ??????????? ????????????.
????????? ????????? ?.а1 ??.а1219 ??а?? ?а??????????? ????????? ???????????????? ?????? ?????????? ????? ????? ??? ??????
????????, ??????????? ??? ???????????? ????? ???????? ?????????? ???????????? ????? ??? ???????????? ?????????.
??-??????, ??? ?? ??????? ??.а1219 ??а?? ?????????????????, ???,
?а?????? ???? ?а?????????? ?????????? ???????? ??? ????? ?????????????? ???? ???????? ?а?????? ??????, ??а????? ???? ????????? ?????
???? ??????, ???? ??????????? ????? ????????? ??? ?????? ??? ?????????? ??????????? ????? ?а???? ??????. ????? ?.а1 ??.а1219а? ???????????? ?а??????? ??????????? ?????????? ?? ????? ?????????? ??????????????? ????????а? ?а?????? ??? ??а?? ?????????.
?????? ???????? ?????????????? ?????????? ?? (???-II) ?а??????
?????????? ????? ???????? ?????? ?????????? ?????? ?????????????? ????????? ???????????, ?а??????? ???? ??????? ?????. ?а????????
??????? ?.а1 ??.а4 ?????????? ??????????? ???а????????? ???????????? ?????? ????????? ???????????? ?а?????????????? ????, ?????????? ??? ??????????? ???????? ??? ??????????? ??????????? ?????????? ?????, ????? ????? ???????? ??а??????????? ????? ??????????
??????????. ??а?????? ?.?. ?????????, ??????????? ??????? ?????????? ????? ???????????? ???????????? ?а????????????? ??а????????? ?а???????? ?.а1 ??.а1219, ?а????????? ????????? ???????? ????????? ????????????????, ????????? ?а??????????? ????? ??а????????
????? ??????????? ?????????? (?? ?????? ????? ?????????? ??????????? ???????????? ??????????? ?????, ????? ??????? ????????? ??????????? ????? ?????????????? ?а?.?.)1.
??????, ??а?????? ??????, ?а?????? ?????????? ????? ?????
?а???????? ?????????? (?????????) ??а??????? ??? ???????????,
???а???????, ?????????? ?????? Ф? ?????? ??????╗, ?.?. ??а????? ??1
? ??.: ??????????? ?а???????????? ??????? ?????????? ?????????. ????? ??????. ?????? VI Ф????????????? ??????? ?????╗а/ ??? ???. ?.?. ?????????, ?.?. ????????. ?., 2010. ??.?1219.
38
Copyright ??? Ф??? Ф??????╗ & ??? ФA???????? K????-C?????╗
Да2. ?????????? ???????????? ????? ?а???????????? ?????
???????? ?????????, ??? ??а?????? ???????? ??????? ??? ??? ????????? ??? ?????????. ???????? ???????? ????????? ????????????
????????? ??????? ????????? ?а????????? ????????? ??а???? ?????
?????? ??а???????????? ?? ?????? ????????. ????????, ???а???? ????????а? ??????????, ?????????? ?????? ?????????? ??????????? ??????????? ????? ?а??????????????? ??????????? ???????????, ???
???????? ????????.
???????? ??.а1219 ?? ??? ?????, ??а?? ?????? ????????? ??? ?????. ??? ???????? ?.?. ????????, ?а???????????? ?????? ??????????? ?????????? (????????, ??.а3126 ?? ???????, ??.а40 ???????? ??????
?а??????????? ???????????? ????????) ?????????? ????? ??????,
?а??????? ???? ????????, ????????? ???? ?а???????????1.
????? ???????, ???????? ????????? ??????? ????? ?а???, ???а?а??????? ?а?????????? ????? ?а??????? ?????????? ????? ????? ?а???????? ?????????? Ф???????????????╗ ??????????? ????? ??????????? ?а???????? ???????????.
??-??????, ???????? ?.а2 ??.а1219 ??а?? ?а??????????????, ??????????? ?????????? ?????????? ????? ??а????????, ???? ??????? ???????? ?????????? ??? ???????????? ?????? ????? ?а??? ??
??????, ??????????? ????? ???? ??????. ?????????????, ??? ???????????? ??????, ????????? ?а???????????? ??а??????? ???????
??? ???????????? ???????? ??????????? ?????????, ???????????? ?????? ??????????? ???????????, ?????????? ??? ?????? ????????? ????? ??????.
????? ?.а2 ??.а1219 ??а?? ???????????????? ??а?????? ??а??????????, ??а?а?? ??????????? ?????????? ?а????????????, ???? ??? ???????? ?????????? (????? ????? Ф???????????? ??????????????╗)
?????? ???????????. ??? ???? ????????????, ???а?а?????????? ????
?????-???? ????? ?????????? ??? ??????????? ??????????? ?а????????????, ???????????? ?????????????? ??????? ????????? ?а???
????????????.
???????? ????? ?? ?????? ??.а1219 ??а??, ?а?????? ???? ??????? ????????????? ??а???????? ?????????? ????? ?а??? ?? ??????,
??а????? ????? ?????????? ?а????? ?а??? ?? ??????, ??????????? ????? ???? ??????. ????????? ????? ??????????? ?????? Ф????? ??????1
? ??????????? ?а???????????? ??????? ?????????? ?????????. ????? ??????.
?????? VI Ф????????????? ??????? ?????╗а/ ??? ???. ?.?. ?????????, ?.?. ????????. ?., 2010. ??.?1219.
39
Copyright ??? Ф??? Ф??????╗ & ??? ФA???????? K????-C?????╗
????? I. ???????? ?????? ?????????????? ?????????? ?????????
????╗ ?аФ???????????╗ ??????, ??а?????? ?????????? ??а?????? ???????, ?а??????? ?? ????????????? ???? ?????? ????? ?.а2, ????????
?????? ?????????? ???1.
?-???????, ??? ????????????? ????????, ????? ????? ???????????,
??а?????????? ???????? ????????? ??????????????, ????????? ?????????? ?????, ??а?????????? ???? ??? ??? ??????? ???????? ????????? ?????????, ???, ???????? ?.а3 ??.а1219 ??а??, ????? ???????????? ?а?????????? ????? ?????? ???? ?а????? ????? ?а??????? ????????????? ?????. ??? ???? ??????? ????????? ???????: ???????? ??.а32
?????????? ?а??.а49 ???????????? ????????? ???????? ????????????????? ??????? ???????? ????????? ??? ????? ?????? ??????????,
???????????????? ?????????? ?????, ??????? ????? ???????????
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?а?????????? ????????? ?? ?? ??????, ????????????? ???????????. ??? ??????????? ????????, ???а?а??????? ?????? ??? ??????????? ???????? ?????????? ?????????? ??а???????, ???????? ??а?????
??????? ??.а1219 ??а??, ?????????? ????? ????? ??????????? ?????????? ?????.
????? ???????, ?????, ??????????? ?а???? ??.а1219 ??а??, ?????? ???? ????????? ?а?????? ?????? ???????????, ???????????
?а????????? ?????? ?а??????, ??а????????? ?.а3 ??.а1211 ??а??. ????? ?????????? ??????????? ???????? ???????????? ???????? ???,
????????? ???????????? ?а??????????? ????? ???????? ????????? ?а??????? ??? ??????.
?????? ??а??????? ???????? ?а? ????????????? ??.а1221 ??а??
Ф?????, ?????????? ?????????? ?а??????????????? ??а????, ??????????? ?????????? ??????????? ??????, ?????? ??? ??????╗
???????? ?????????? ???? ?????? ?а??????????? ?а??????????
?????, ???????????? ?????????? ??????????? ??????????????? ???????????????? ??????, ??а?????? ???????????? ??????????? ????? ??????, ??? ????? ????? ?????????? ??? ???????? ????? ???????????? ??????????, ??? ????? ??????, ??? ????? ????? ?????????? ??? ????????
????? ???????????? ???????????, ??? ????? ?????? ?????????? ????????? (??? ???? ????????? ??????, ??????? ??????), ??? ????? ?????? ????? ?????????? ???????? ????????? (??? ??? ?????????? ?????).
1
? ??????????? ?а???????????? ??????? ?????????? ?????????а/ ??? ???. ?.?.а?????????, ?.?. ????????. ??.?1219.
40
Copyright ??? Ф??? Ф??????╗ & ??? ФA???????? K????-C?????╗
Да2. ?????????? ???????????? ????? ?а???????????? ?????
???? ??????????? ??а?????????????? ??????????????? ??? ?????? ?????? ??????, ?????????? ????? ???????????? ?а????????????
??а??.а1219 ??а??.
??? ??????? ??????????? ????? ?а??????????? ?а?????????? ?????, ???????????? ?????????? ????????????? ??? ????????????? ?????????? ?а?????????.
????????? ??.а1221 ??а?? ????? ??????? ????????, ?????????
???? ???? ?а?????? ???? ???????????, ?а?????????????? ???????????? ????????, ?????????????? ?????? ???????????, ???????? ?????
??????? Ф?????? ????????╗. ??????? ???????????? ??????????????? ??????????? ?????? ???????? ?????????????? ??? ???? ?????. ????? ?????? ???????????????? ????????? ????????????? ???????????
?????????? ?а???? ???????1.
? ????? ?а???? ????????? ??????: ?????? ?? ??????????? ??? ???????????? ???? ?а?????????? ???? ????????? ?????????? ???????????? ?????, ???? ???, ????????, ???? ??? ?????? ??????????? ?а???????????? ??? ?????????????? ????? ?????????? ?а????? ?????? ???????
????????, ???а???? ???????????? ???????? ?????????? ????????????, ??а????? ??а???? ?????? ?????? ????, ???а???????, ????????????? ??а????????, ?????????? ???? (??.а1219 ??а??). ???? ?? ?????????? ???????? ???????? ?????? ??????????? ????????, ??а?а????
???????????? ??.а1219 ?а1221 ??а?? ??а????? ?????????? ??а?????????? ??????, ???????????????? ????? ????????.
????????????? ?а???????? ?????? ?????, ????????????? ???????
?????????? ?а?????? ?????, ???????????? ????? ?а???????? ????????? ??? ????????? ?????????, ????????? ???????? ???????? ?????????? ??????? ?а??????????? ???????????? ????????? ?а?????????? ????? ???????????? ????????? ??????? ?????????? ?????????????
????? ??????????2. ??????? ?????????, ???а????? ?????? ????? ????????, ????????, ?а????????????? ?????????? ??????????? ??????
???????????? ????? (?????? ?????? ???????????) ??? ????????????
1
? ??.: ???????????? ?.?. ????????????? ??????? ?????: ???????. 5-? ???., ???????. ?а???. ?.: ??????, 2006. ?.а156.
2
? ??., ????????: ???????? ?.?. ??????????? ???????? ??????? ?????????? ????????????? ??? ??????? ?????? ?????? ????? ???????????а// ???????? ????????????????? ???????????? ????????????????: ????????? IV ????????? ??????? ?????? ?????? ?????????? ?.?. ??????? (??????, 28 ???????? 2009а?.). ?.: ?????????????,
2010. ?.а337?343.
41
Copyright ??? Ф??? Ф??????╗ & ??? ФA???????? K????-C?????╗
????? I. ???????? ?????? ?????????????? ?????????? ?????????
????? ?а?????????? ????? ?а??????????? ?????????????, ???????????? ?????????? ???????. ?? ????? ???? ????????, ?????? ????
???????? ??а????????????? ????????????????? ????????????? ???????? ??????? ?а??????? ???????????? ?????????? ????? ?а??????
?????????? ????? ????? ?а???????? ??????????.
3. ?????? ?????? ?????????? (?????? ?а??? ??а?????????) ??????????? ????????????? ???????? ????????? ?????????? ?а???????????? ????????? ??? ?????? ????? ??????? ?????????????? ????????????? ??? ????? ??а?????????? ????????? ????????? ?а?????????????? ??а????????????? ????????? ?а??????, ??а??????????? ?а????
??????????. ????? ??????????? ?????? ?????????? ?а??????, ???,
?????????, ?????? ?а??1.
????????? ??????? ???? ?????? ?а????? ?????? Ф?????????
????????? ??????????, ??????, ?????? ?а?????╗ ????????? ??????????? ????? Ф????????????? ????????? ????????? ??????????, ?????? ?а??????╗, ?а??????? ?????????? ???????? ????????? ?????????? ????????? ??? ???????? ??????? ?а????????????? ?????????
????. ????? ????? ????, ??-??????, ?????????? ??????????????
??а????????????? ????????? ?????????, ??а??????????? ??? ???????? ?????????? ?????????, ???????? ?????, ????????????? ????
??????????, ?а?????? ????? ?????????? ??????????????? ??????????? ?а?????? ?????????? ?????????? ?????. ??-??????, ???????? ????????? ??????? ?а?????? ?а??????????????????? ???????? ?????,
????????? ?а???????? ?а??????????? ??????? ???????? ?????????
??а?????????? ????. ????????, ???а??? ????????????? ?????? ????????? ???? ????? ?а????? ????????? ?????????? ??? ???????? ?а??????? ????? ??????????? ????? ?а??а?? ?а?????????? ?а??? ???????? ????????? ???????????? ????????? ??? ???????, ???а??????
?а??? ?????????????.
????????? ???????????? ??????????? ???????????????? ???????????????? ??а????????????? ????????????? ?а?????, ???????????
????????????? ????????? ?а??????????, ?????????? ??????? ???????? ??????, ?а?? ?????????????? ??. ????????? ????? ??????????? ????????????????, ???????????? ?????? ????????? ????????????? ???????????? ????????? ??а???? ????? ??????????, ??????????
1
? ??., ????????: The Carriage by Air Acts (Implementation of the Montreal Convention
1999) Order 2002 Statutory Instrument. 2002. ?а263.
42
Copyright ??? Ф??? Ф??????╗ & ??? ФA???????? K????-C?????╗
Да2. ?????????? ???????????? ????? ?а???????????? ?????
?а??.а40 Ф?????????╗, ?а????? ?а??.а59 Ф????????????? ?????????? ?????????? ?????╗.
????????? ??????а?? 1997а?. ???????? ??????????? ??????????
???????, ???????????? ???????????? ?????????? ??????????, ??????? ????????? ??????????, ??????, ?????? ?а?????. ???????? ??.а5
??а?? 1997а?. ????????? ?????????????????а?? ???????????? ?????????, ??????????? ?а????? ?а????????????? ?а??????? ???????
??а??????????а??, ?а????? ?????????, ??????????? ?а????? ?а??????????? ?????????? ????????? ????? ??а????????? ??????????а??,
???? ???? ??а????????????? ???????? ?????? ?????????? ??? ????????????? ?????????а??1.
??а?? ????? ??????????? ????????, ?????????, ????????? ???????????? ?????????? ?????????? ?а?????, ?????? ?а??????????-????????? ??????? ???????? ?а????? ?????????? ?????: ?????????,
???????????? ???????? ???????????????? ????????????? ?а???????? ??????????? ???????, ??????????, ??????? ?????? ??????????????? ????????? ???? ?а?? ???????, ????????? ???????? ?????????????? ?????????? ??????????, ??????? ?? ????????????????
(??. I?VIII). ????? ??????? ???????????? ??????? ?????????, ???????????? ??????? ????????????? ???????????? ???????????? ?????????? ?а??????????? ????????????, ???????? ??????? ?????????,
??????????????? ??????????? ?а???????????????? (?????????????? ??.
I?, ?V ?а?VII).
? ??????????? ?а??а?? ??????? ????????? ?????????, ??????????, ?а?????????, ?а??? ??????????-???????? ????????. ???, ??????????????? ?????а?? ?????? ??????????? ????? ?? 04.12.2007 ?а331?? Ф?а???????? ????????? ?а????????? ?????? ?????????? ?????????╗2. ????????? ???????? ????????? ???????? ?????????????
??????????????? ?????????? ??????????? ??а?????????? ????? ?????
?а???????? ??????????, ????????????? ??????, ?????? ????? ?а?????? ?а????????????? ??????????? ????? ??????????????? (??.а117,а119
1
? ?????????? ???????? ???????????? ?а???, ???аФ??а?? ??а????????? ????????
??????? ??а??????? ????????????? ????????????? ????????? ????????? ?а????? ?а???????? ????????????? ????????? ????????? ?а?????????╗. ??.: ???????? ?.?., ???????а?.?. ??????? ????????????? ????????? ????????? ???а???????? ?????? ???????????? ????????? ????? ????????????? ?а??????????? ?а??????? ????????????? ????????? ?????????а// ???????????? ?????. 2006. ?а4. ?????????? ??????? ??. ?V ??а??,
?а??????????? ?????? ????????? ?????????? ?????????.
2
? ????? ???????????: ??а??. 2007. ?а50. ??.?6244.
43
Copyright ??? Ф??? Ф??????╗ & ??? ФA???????? K????-C?????╗
????? I. ???????? ?????? ?????????????? ?????????? ?????????
?а133). ????????? ???????? ?????????? ?????????, ?????? ????? ?????
?????? ?????????? ??????????? ??? ????????????? ????????? ????????????? (????????? ??. ??. III). ????????? ?а??? ?? ?????? ??????????????? ????? ??? ?????? ?????? ??????????? ?????, ?? 01.12.2007
?а314-??, ?а???????? ????????? ?а??а??, ??????? ????? ?????????? ?а?????? ?????? ?????????? ??????????? ????? ????????????
???????????? ??а????????? ??????????, ??а?????? ??? ????????????
?????????? (??.а105).
????? ??? ??????????-???????? ????? ?? ??? ?а??????? ??? ???????? ?а1997а?. ??????? ????????? ???????????, ??????????, ?????????? ?а??????? ???? ?????? ????????. ?а?????????, ????????? ????????? ??????????? ????????? ?????????, ????????? ?а???????????? ??
????? ?????? ?????????, ????????????? ?? (?????? ????? ??? ???????? ???? ??????????). ??????? ??????????? ??????????????? ?????
???????????? ?а????????????? ??а???????? ??????????? (???????)
?а????????? ????? ???????, ???а??? ???? ??????? ?а?? 1983а?. ?????????? ?????? ?????? ?а?????????? ??????????? ????? ????????????
???????????? ??? ?????????? ??????. ????????? ?.а2 ??.а118 ??а??
?а??????? ??????????? ???? ??????????? ?а????????? ??????????????? ??а?????? ????? ??а????????????? ???????????? ??????????
?а????????????? ????????, ?а????? ????????, ???????? ?а?? ??а?????? ????? ??????????. ??????? ????????????????? ????? ?? ??а??????????????? ?????????? ??????????? ??а????????? ?????????? ???????? ?????????. ????? ????? ??????????? ?? ???????? ????? ???
?????????, ??????? ?????? ??????? ????????????? ????? ????????? ????????? ???????????, ?????????? ??? ??? ??????????? (?.а3
??.а118, ?.а4 ??.а127, ??.а128 ?а??.).
?? ????????????? ??????? ?????????? ????а?? ?? 29.09.1994 ?а7
(???. ?? 29.06.2010) Ф?а???????? ???????????? ?????? ??? ?а??????
???? ????????????╗ ???????, ???а????? ??а?? ?а??????????????? ??????? ??????????????? ??????????? ????? ?????????????? ???????а??
Ф?а?????? ???? ????????????╗, ???????, ?а?????????, ???????????????
??????????????? ??????????? ??а?????????? ?????????? ????? ?а??1.
4. ?а?????? ??????? ????? ?????? ?а???????????????? ???????????? ?????? ?????????? ??????????? ??????, ???????????? ????????????? ?????????, ?а??? ????? ?а?????????. ?? ??????? ?????????
1
? ?????????? ??????. 1994. ?а230.
44
Copyright ??? Ф??? Ф??????╗ & ??? ФA???????? K????-C?????╗
Да2. ?????????? ???????????? ????? ?а???????????? ?????
?????? ??????????? ???????, ???????? ?а1967а?. ?? ???????? ????
????????????? ??????? ????????? ?????????, ??????? ??а?????? ???????? ?а?????? ????????????? ?????????, ????????? ?а???????????? ???????? ???????, ???????????? ???????? ?????????, ????????? ??а????, ??????????????? ???????????. ?а??? ??? ??????? ????????? ?????????, ??????????????? ??????????????? ?а?? ???????????
???????????? ??????????? ??????? ?а????????? ????????? 1971а?.
?а????????? ?????????? ????? ?а???????? ????????? ??????????????? 1977а?., ?а????????а? ?????? ??????????????? 1986а?. ?а?.?. ???
????????? ??????????? ???? ??????????? ?а?????, ???????????
????????????? ?????????, ?а? ?????? ????????? ?а??? ?а??????????? ????????? ?а??????????.
? ??????? ?????-????????????? ????? ????? ??????????? ???? ?????? ?а????????????? ????????? ?????????. ???, ????? ?а?????????
?????????? 1961а?. ???? ?а???????? ?????????? ?????????, ?????????? ???????? ?????????? ?а??????????????. 12 ??????? 2002а?. ?а?????????????? ??? ?????? ????? ?а????????? ????????? (The Carriage
by Air Acts (Implementation of the Montreal Convention 1999) Order 2002)1,
??????? ??????? ?а???? ?а???? ?????????? ?а???? ???????????? ?????????. ?а??? ????????? ??????? ???????? ????????? ?????????
???????????? ???????????? ???????????? ?????????.
? ??????????? ????? ??? ?аФ???????? ?????????╗ ?????????
????????? ???????, ???????? ?а????? ????????а? ?????? ????? ????2, ?а?????????, ??а??????? ?????? ?а????????? ????????? ??????
??а19.05.2011 ?а3393-VI3, ?а?????????? ????????а? ????????? ??????
?? 16.05.2006 ?а117-?.4 ?а?.?. ??а????? ????????? ?а?????????? ??? ???
???? ??? ?????????? ?? ??а??, ????????? ??????? ??? ?? ?????????? ???????? ?? CCC? 1983а?. ?????? ?? ???????????? ????? ??????? ????????? ?а????????? ???????? ?????????? ???????????, ???а????????? ???????? ?????? ???????? ???????????, ??????? ???????????? ?????? ?а?????????? ????????? ????????????????. ??????
??а????????? ?????????? ????? ??????????? ???????? ?а????????
1
? Statutory Instrument. 2002. No. 263.
? ??.: ????????? ?.?. ???????????? ???????????????? ??????????а? ?????????? ???.
?.: ?????, 2007. ?.а118?186.
3
? ????????? ????????? ???? ??????? (???). 2011. ?а48?49. ??.?536.
4
? ???????????? ?????? ???????? ????? ?????????? ????????, 25 ??? 2006а ?.
?а78,а2/1214.
2
45
Copyright ??? Ф??? Ф??????╗ & ??? ФA???????? K????-C?????╗
????? I. ???????? ?????? ?????????????? ?????????? ?????????
???????, ??????????? ?????????? ?????? ???????? ?????????, ?????????? ??????????????? ??????????? ??а????????????? ?а?????????
???????? ????? ?а?????? ?а??.
5. ?????? ?а???????????? ???????????? ???????? ??а??????
??????? ??????????? ????????? ??????????? ???? ??а???????????
???????? ????????????? ???????????? ?????????. ?? ??????????
???????????? ????????? ??, ??????? ?????????? ????? ?????????????? ????????, ?????? ????????? ??а??????????????? ???????????? ??а?????? ??? ?????????? ????? ???????? ????????? ?а??????????
?????????????? ?а?? ???????? ??????. ?а??????????? ????? ?????????
??????? Ф????? ????? ?????????╗ (Regulation (EC) Noа261/2004 of the
European Parliament and of the Council of 11 February 2004 ФNEW AIR
PASSENGER RIGHTS╗1). ??????? ????????????? ??????????? ??????? ??????????? ?????????????? ?а??????? ???????????? ?а???????
????????? ????????? ??????? ???????? ?????????. ??? ???????? ???????? ??????????? ????? ????? ???? ????? (Delay), ???????????????
?????? ????????? ?а????????? ??? ??????, ??а??????? ??а???????????? ?????? ?а??????????? ?а?? ??????? ?а???? ?а?????? ??????? ?????????????? ???????????? (Denied boarding), ?????? ????? ???????????? ??? ???????????????? ??????????? ????????? ??а???? ?а??????????? ???? ????????? ???????? ?а????? ?????????? (Cancellation).
??????? ???????????????? ??а ???? ??????????, ??????????
??а?????????? ?????а? ?????? ??. ?????????????, ??? ????????????,
??????? ???????????, ??????????? ????? ??а?????????? ?????-?????? ??, ?????? ??? ?????????????????. ??? ???????? ??????, ??????????? ?а????????? ?????а? ?????? ?? ??а??????? ?????, ??а???????
??????????? ?????? ?а???????????? ?????а? ?????? ?? ?, ???а??????????????, ??а???????????????? ??а?? ??????????, ?????????? ??????????? ?а????? ??????? ???????. ?? ??????????, ?? ???????????? ????????? ??а????????? ??????????? ?????????? ?????????????
??а????? ?????????? ??????? ??????????? ?????????? ??????, ???????????? ?????????? ?а??????????? ??а??????? ?? ?????????????.
?????? ?????? ??а???????????? ???????????. ??????? ??????????
????????????, ?????????????? ????? ?а??????а? ????? ??, ?а????
??.а5 ??а??, ???????? ?????? ?????? ??????????, ???????????? ?????????, ??????????? ?а????? ?а??????????? ?????????? ??????1
? Official Journal Lа046, 17/02/2004. P.а0001?0008.
46
Copyright ??? Ф??? Ф??????╗ & ??? ФA???????? K????-C?????╗
Да3. ?????????? ?????? ????????????? ????????? ?????????
??? ????? ??а?????????а??, ????? ?????? ????????? ??? ???????.
(????????? ??а???? ???????? ??. Да3 ?а5а??. III.)
21 ?????? 2004а?. ??????????? ????????? ?а????? ????????????
????? ??????? ????????? ?а785/2004 Ф?а??????????? ?а???????????
??????????????? ???????????????? ?а?????????? ????????? ?????╗
????? ???????????, ????????????????, ?а????? ????? ???????? ??????1 (????????? ??. Да6а??. III). 5 ???? 2006а?. ?????? ????????? (EC)
?а1107/2006, ?????????? ???? ????????? ?а??? ?а???????????? ???????????? ??? ????????????? ?????????? ??????????.
???????? ???????????? ????? ????????? ????????????? ???????????? ????????? ????? ?????? ???????? ??? ????????????????? ??????????? ???????????????? ?а??????? ?????????? ?????????? ?а??????
????? ????????? ??? ?????????????? ????????? ?а??????????????
??????????????? ????????? ?а????? ???????????? ?????2.
?????? ????????????? ??????????? ????? ????????? ????????????? ??????? ????????????, ????????? ??а?????? ???? ???????? ?????????????. ??? ?а?????? ??????? ????????? ?а??????? ???? ?? ??а?????????? ?????? ?? ?а??????????? ?а???????? ?????????? ?????????
?а?????? ?????? ??? ?а??????? ??а????, ?????? ??? ?????????? ????????
?????. ??? ?а????????? ????? ?????? ??????????? ?а?????????? ????????????? ?а???????? ??????????. (????????? ??а???? ??. Да3 ?а5а??. III.)
Да3. ?????????? ?????? ????????????? ????????? ?????????
1. ?????? ??а???? ?????? ??а??? ???????, ??????????? ?а???????? ????????? ?????????, ???????, ?а?????????, ??.а102 ??а?? ??????????????? ??????????? ???????????? ????????? ??????????? ??????????? ???????, ??????????? ?а????????? ??????????. ?? ????????? ??????? ?а?????? ??????????? ??????? ????????? ??????????,
?????? ?а?????? ??а????????? ?????? ????, ???????????? ????????
???????????? ??????????? ??????? (???) ???? ?? 16.01.1985 ?а19.
1
? Official Journal Lа138/1, 30/04/2004.
? ??.: ???????? ?.?. ??????????? ?????? ??????а? ??? ???? ?а???????? ????????
????????? ?а???????? ????????? ???????????а// ??????? ???????????? ?????. 2007. ?а2.
?.а14. ??. ?????? Ф????????????? ???? ?а??????? ?????? ??????????? ??а????? ????????????? ?а??????? ?а??????? ?????? ?????????????╗ ?а??????? ?????? ???? ???????????? ??? Ф?а????????? ??????????? ??а?????? ????????????? ??????????а? ?????????? ???╗ (?????? ?аФ????????...╗). ??????? ?а?. ???????? 14.11.2008.
2
47
Copyright ??? Ф??? Ф??????╗ & ??? ФA???????? K????-C?????╗
????? I. ???????? ?????? ?????????????? ?????????? ?????????
??а????????????? ?????? ?????????? ??????????????? ????????????????? ???????????? ????????? ????????????? ????????? ????????? ??????????, ?????? ?а??????, ????????????? ???????? ??? ????
03.01.1986 ?а1/? ?а?????, ??а?????????????? ???????? ??????? ???????????? ?а?????????? ????????. ??????? ????????? ????? ???????
???????? ?????????, ???????? ??а??????????? ????????, ???????????
?????????? ??????????, ?????? ?а??????. ??а????? ????????? ?а?????????? ??? ???? ?????? ?а????????????? ??????????, ?????????????
??а?????? ?? ????????. ?а??????? 2007а?. ???????? ?а???? ????? ??????????? ??????????? ??????? Ф????? ??????? ????????? ?????????
??????????, ??????, ?????? ?а?????????? ?а???????????? ??????????,
?????????????????, ????????????????╗, ???????????? ???????? ????????? ?????? ?? 28.06.2007 ?а82 (?????а? ????? ??????? ?????????)1.
? ????? ???????? ?????????? ????????????? ?????????????
?а?????????? ?????????. ????? ??????? ??????????? ??? ????????????? ?????????? ?а????????????? ????????? ????????? ??????????, ??????, ?????? ??????? ??а??????????, ??????????????? ??????? (????????? ????? ????????? ?а????????? ??????????) ?аФ???????? ??а???????? ??????????? ?????????? ????? (?????????? ???????)
(?????а? ????????? ?????)╗.
???????? ?.а3 ????? ?????? ??? ?????????? ????????????? ????????? ??? ??????????? ?а?????, ??а?????????????? ????????????? ??????????? ?????????? ????????? ?а????????? ?????????,
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48
Copyright ??? Ф??? Ф??????╗ & ??? ФA???????? K????-C?????╗
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? ???????? ?????????? ????????? ????????? ??а??? ?????? ?????????? ??????????? ?а???????????? ??а??.а102 ??а?? ???????? ????? ????????????? ???? ??????? ????????? ?????????, ??? ???????, ???а???
??а???????????? ??????????? ?а?? ???????? ??????? ???????????? ??????????, ????????????????? ?а????????????????. ????????? ??????????
??????????????? ????? ??????? ?????. ?????? ??а????????? ?? ?????????, ????????? ?????? ????????? ?????????. ?а??? Ф????????а? ?????????? ?????????╗ ?а2000а?. ???? ??????? ??????????? ??а?????????
?????????? ????? ?а?????, ??????? ???????? ??????? ???????????????
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?????????? ?????? ????????????? ????????? ?????????.
2. ?а??????????? ????? ????????? ???? ??????? ????????????? ?????????. ??? ??????????????? ????????????? ?а????????? ??а????49
Copyright ??? Ф??? Ф??????╗ & ??? ФA???????? K????-C?????╗
????? I. ???????? ?????? ?????????????? ?????????? ?????????
???? ????????? ?????????, ????????, ????? ????????????? ???????? ?а???????? ???? ???????? ?????? ???? ??????????? (????? ???
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??? ??????????? ????? ?????? ????????? ??????????, ?а??????
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?а??????, ????????????? ????????????? ??????????? ?????????? ??????????а? ????: ????? ??????? ????????? (????????? ?а?????)а? ????????? ???? 1724 ?а??????? ????????? ??????а? ?????????
???? 1601 (?????а? ??????? ????????? ????)1. ????а? ??? ????????????? ??????????????????? ???????????, ??????? ??????? ???????? ?????????? ??????????? ???????????????? ???????????2. ?а?????? ???? ??????????? ????? ??????????? ?а????????? ???????????????? ??????????? ??????? ?а???????????? ??а???? ?????? ????????
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??????? ?????? ?????????? ?????? ??????????? ???????3.
??? ????????????? ????????? ?????????? ????? ??????????????
??????????? ????????????? ???? ?????? ??????? ????? ???????????? ???????????? (????????????? ?????????? ?а???????? ?????????)4.
??????? ?а???????????? ???? ?????? ????? ????? ?????????,
??????????? ??а?????????? ?а?????? ???? ??????????? ????????1
? IATA Recommended Practice 1724. General Conditions of carriage (passenger and baggage). Passenger Services Conference Resolutions Manualа// 21st edition. 2001; IATA Recommended Practice 1601. Conditions of carriage for cargo). Cargo Services Conference Resolutions Manualа// 21st edition. 2001.
2
? ?а????????? ??????? ???????? ???? ?????? ???? ?????? ?а?????? ???????????.
?????? ??????? ???? ????? ???? ???????? ?????? ?????????? ???????????????. ????????? ??а??????????? ??.: ????????????? ????????? ?????. ??. 1. ?., 1980. ?. 232?
234. (?????? ?????а? ?.?. ????????, ?.?. ???????.)
3
? ?????? ????????? ?????? ?? 05.09.2008 ?а141 Ф??а??????????? ???????????
??????????? ?????? Ф??????? ????????? ??????? ?????? ?????????? ?????? ??????????? ???????╗. ???????????????? ?а??????? ?????? 29.09.2008 ?а12356.
4
? IATA Resolution 600bа? Air Waybill Conditions of Contract.
50
Copyright ??? Ф??? Ф??????╗ & ??? ФA???????? K????-C?????╗
Да3. ?????????? ?????? ????????????? ????????? ?????????
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?а?????? ???? ?а19662, ?а????? ?а?????????? ???????????? ????
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??? ????????? ??????????, ???????? ??? ?????????? ?????????????? ?????????????? ?а1995 ?а1996а??.3
1
? Rudolf A. Die neuen IATAа? BefШrderungsbedingungen fur Fluggaste und GepСckа//
Luftrecht. 1971. Nа3.
2
? ????? ?????????? ??.: Zeitschrift fЧr Luftrecht. 1968. ?а1. S.а82?84.
3
? ???????? ?????? ????, ??? ??? ????????? ??аc????????? ???? ????????? ?а???????????? ????? 130 ????????????, ?а??? ????? ????????, ???, ?????? ???????,
??? ?????, ??????? ????????, ?????, ????????, ??????.
51
Copyright ??? Ф??? Ф??????╗ & ??? ФA???????? K????-C?????╗
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60-? ????? ???????? ???????? ???????? ?????????? ?а?????????? ????????? ????????? ??????????????? ??????????? ??а???? ?а????????????? ?????????? ??????? ??????????????? ????????? ??????????????
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? ?????? 70-? ????? ??????? ??? ??????????? ?????? ?????? ???????? ??????, ????????? ????? ???????????? ?а?????? ??? ??????????? Ф???????????? ??????????╗ ???????? ?? 58 ???.а????. ???????
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?????????? Ф?????????? ???????╗ ?а?????? ???? ????? ????????
?а1971а?. ?????????????? ????????? ?а?????????? ????????? ?а????1
? Civil Aeronautical Board (CAB) Order E-23680 (May 13. 1966).
52
Copyright ??? Ф??? Ф??????╗ & ??? ФA???????? K????-C?????╗
Да3. ?????????? ?????? ????????????? ????????? ?????????
????? ??????????????? ????? ???????????, ?а????? ?а??????? ???????????? ?????????? 1975а?., ????????? ??а??????? ?????? ????????? ?а????? ??????????????? ??????????? ??а????. ???????? ????????? ??????, ??????, ??а?????, ??????? ????????????? ?а??? ?????????
??а???????????, ?а????? ??а??? ??а??? ???? ??? ?а?? ???????? ?а????.
??????? ???????? ??????????? ??а?????? ???????? 90-? ?????,
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????? ??????????????, ??????????? ?а?????? ????????????? ?????????? ???????????????? (????), ???????????? (????????? ???
?? 09.10.1997 ?а2027) ?а????????????? (??????????????, ??????)
????? ??????????, ??????????????? ???????? ???????????? ??а????????? ????? ?????? ?????????, ?????????? ?????? ???????????????
??????????????? ??а?????????? ????? ????? ?а???????? ??????????.
?????????????? ???? ??????? ????????, ???а????????? ??? ?????????? ???????????? ???? (1995 ?а1996а??.) ?????? ??? ??????????
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?????????????? ???????????? ?????????? 1999а?.
1
? ?????? ??? Ф????????а? ???╗ ?? 30.03.1999 ?а109.
Copyright ??? Ф??? Ф??????╗ & ??? ФA???????? K????-C?????╗
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???????? ????????? ?а?????????????
????????? ?????????
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54
Copyright ??? Ф??? Ф??????╗ & ??? ФA???????? K????-C?????╗
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Copyright ??? Ф??? Ф??????╗ & ??? ФA???????? K????-C?????╗
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??? ????? Ф????????????? ????????? ????????? ??????????, ?????? ?а??????╗.
?? ????????? ??????? ?а?????? ??????????? ??????????? ??????? ????????????? ????????? ????????? ??????????, ?????? ?а??????, ???????????? ???????? ??? ???? 03.01.1986 ?а1/? ?а?????,
??а?????????????? ???????? ??????? ???????????? ?а??????????
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Copyright ??? Ф??? Ф??????╗ & ??? ФA???????? K????-C?????╗
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? ??.: ??????? ?.?. ???. ???. ?.а146?148.
57
Copyright ??? Ф??? Ф??????╗ & ??? ФA???????? K????-C?????╗
????? II. ??????? ????????? ?а????????????? ????????? ?????????
????????? ?а?????? ???????? ???? (??.а430 ??). ????????? ?????? ?а??????? ????? ?????? ?????????? ?а????????? ?????? ??а??????? ???????
?????????? ??а?????? ??????? ??а?????1. ?а?????????, ????? ????? ???? ?.?. ?????????, ??????? ??? ??????? ???? ??????? ?????????????2.
??? ????????? ????? ?????????????? ?а???? ??????? ??????????? ?????? ????????. ?а?????????, ???? ????? ???????? ????????, ?????????
??а?????? ?а???????????? ??????????? ?.?. ???????????? ??а???? Ф??????????-???????? ????????????? ????????? ????????? ????????? ????? ?а?????????╗3, ??????????? ?????????? ?????? ??????.
? ?????????, ?????????? ???? ????? ?????? ?????????? ????????? ???????? ?????, ??????? ?????????? ????????????????, ?а????????, ???а???????? ?.а3 ??.а308 ????? ????? ?????????????????? ?????
??а?? ????????????? ??а??????? ???????????? ??? ???, ??а??????????? ?а??? ?а???????? ?????? (??? ??????? ???). ???????? ??.а1165 ???????????? ???????????? ??????? ?????????? ????? ???? ?????? ??? ???,
??? ??? ????????. ?а???? ?? ????? ?????????? ???????????? ???????? ?????? ?. ???????? ?а??????????? ??????????? ??????????
???????????? ?а??????? ???????? ?????????? ?????4.
????? ?????????? ????????? ?????? ????? ???????????? ??а??????
????????, ??а???????? ??а???????? ???????????? ??????????? (????????????, ?????? ?а??.), ?а??????? ??????????????? ????????? ????????
?а???? ????? ???????? ??? ????????????? ??а????? ??????????? ???????? ?а????? ????????????? (??.а224 ??а??). ?а???????? ????????? ???? ????? ????????? ?а???????? ?????, ??а????? ?а???????????, ????????? ?а???
???????? ?а????????????? ?? ?а????, ????????? ?а?????????? ?а????
????????? ?? ?????? ????? ??а??????????? ??? ???????????? ???????????? ????? ?а?????????? ???? ?????? ???????????????. ??????????
???????????, ???а???????????? ???? ????? ?????????? ????? ?а??????????? ??????? ???????? ????????? ?а??????????????? ???????? ????????????? ????????????????. ?????????? ?? ?????? ??????????? ?????????? ???а???????? ????, ?а?????? ???????? ???????? ??????? ?????????, ??????????, ?????????? ??а????? ????????, ?а??????????, ???????
??а??? ?? ????????? ?????? ??????????? (??. ?.а2 ?а3 ??.а430 ??а??).
1
? ??.: ?????????? ?.?., ?????????? ?.?. ????. ???. ?.а286?297.
? ??.: ????????? ?.?. ???????????? ?????. ?., 2008. ?.а30?33.
3
? ??????????? ?.?. ??????????-???????? ????????????? ????????? ????????? ????????? ????? ?а?????????: ???????. ???. ? ????. ????. ????. ?., 2009. ?.а7.
4
? GrШnfors K. Air Charter and Warsaw Convention. Hague, 1956. P.а117.
2
58
Copyright ??? Ф??? Ф??????╗ & ??? ФA???????? K????-C?????╗
Да1. ??????? ???????? ????????????? ????????? ?????????
??? ?????????????? ???а?а??????????, ??? ?а?а?????????? ??????????1 ????? ?????? ?????????????? ?а????? ????????????? ????????????? ????????? ????????? ??????????? ?????????? ?а???????????? ????????? (??.а15), ??????? ????????? ????????? ??а????? ?????? ???????? ????????? ????? ???????????? ?а???????????
???а??а?????????? ??а???????? ?????????. ????????? ??????????
???????????????, ???а?? ?????????, ?????????? ????? ???????????? ?????? ?а??? ??????, Ф?? ??????????? ????????? ????? ???????????? ?а???????????, ?? ????? ???????? ??????, ????? ??????? ?????????? ???? ?? ???????????, ???? ?? ??????????╗.
3. ???? ??а??????? ?а??а?? ??????????? ??????? ????????? ?????, ??? ?? ???а?а??????? ????????? ?????????, ????????? ??????????? ????????? ?а????? ??????????.
??????? ????????? ??????????, ??????????? ????????? ???
??а???????? ???????? ??????, ??а?????? ???? ??????? ??????????? ?????????. ?а????? ?????????? ?а?????? ?????????, ????????, ????? ?????? ????????? ?а???????? ??????????????? ????, ??????????????
?а??. ?а???????????? ?а?.а5 ??.а790 ??а?? ?а???????, ????? ?а????????????
?а??????? ??? ????? ????????? ?????? ??????????? ?????? ??? ???????????? ??а????????? ????? ??а????????? ??????, ?????????? ?а??????, ?????????? ?а????? ?а???? ??????? ??????????? ????????????
???????????? ??а???? ??????? ???????????????? ???????2. ??? ??а?????
??????????????? ?????????? ??????????????? ?????? ?????? ?????? ???????? ????????? ????? ??????? ???????????????? ?а?????? ????????? ????????? ???? ?? ?????????? ????????????, ??????????? ??а???
???????. ???????? ?????? ??а?????????????? ??????? ??????????? ???????????? ??????, ?????? ????? ????????? ????????? ??а?????????
??????, ?????????? ?а??????? ?а??????? ??????????????? ???????. ?????????? ???????? ???????? ??а??????? ??????? ?????????????? ???????? ?????????? ?????????? ?.а5 ??.а790 ??а??3.
1
? Giemulla E., Schmid R., Muller-Rostin W., Dettling-Ott R., Margo R. Montreal Convention. Art. 1?18.
2
? ?а??????????? ?????? ?.а5 ?????? ?????? ???????? ????????: ?????? ????? Ф????????????╗ ?????? ???? Ф???????????╗.
3
? ????????????? ??????? ???а?? ?? 22.06.2006 ?а23 Ф?а????????? ???????? ?????????? ???????????? ?????? ???? ?????????? ???????а??; ??????????? ???а??
?? 21.11.2007 ?а 12479/07; ????????????? ??? ??????????? ?????? ?? 14.06.1005
?а??-?40/4803-05; ?? 21.02.2008 ?а?? ?40/426-08 ?а??.
59
Copyright ??? Ф??? Ф??????╗ & ??? ФA???????? K????-C?????╗
????? II. ??????? ????????? ?а????????????? ????????? ?????????
?????? ????????? ?а????????, ?????????, ?а?????????, ?а????????????? ?а???????????? ????? ?????? ?????????? ?????????? ?а????? ????? ??а???????? ????????. ?????? ???????? ???????????????
?аДа5 ????????? ?????.
?????????? ?а???????????? ?????????, ???????? ?.а1 ??.а1, ??????????? ?????? ??? ????????????? ?????????, ?????????????? ??а?????. ?????? ??? ??????????? ????? ?а? ?????????? ??????????, ???
???????, ???а????? ????????? ?????????????? ??????????????????
???????????? ????????? ????????? (?? ??.а1 ???????????? ?????????а? Ф???????????????? ????????????╗).
4. ??????? Ф????????? ?????????╗, ?????? ??.а96 ????????? ?????????, ???????????? ????????????, ????????? ???????? ?????????.
?????????? ?????????? (?.а2 ??.а789 ?а??.а426 ??а??) ????????????????? ???????????? ???????????? ????????????? ????????? ????????? ?а???????????. ???????????? ???????????????? ?????????? ??????????, ???а???????, ????? ???????? ??????? ????????? ???????????
?????? ??????????? ?????????. ?а???? ?.а1 ??.а789 ??а?? ?????????,
?????????????? ???????????? ????????????, ?????????? ?????????? ??????????? ?????? ???????????, ???? ??а??????, ???? ???????? ????? ????????, ???а??? ??????????? ??????? ???????????? ????????? ??????, ?????????? ?а?????? ??а????????? ?????? ?????????? ??? ???????????? ????. ????? ???????, ????????, ?а??????????
???????????????? ??????????? ??а????????? ????????? ????????
??а????????????? ????????? ????????? ?а???????????? ??? ??? ????
????????????? ????????? ????????? ??а?????? ?????, ??а?а??????????? ???????????? ?????????. ?????????? ?????? ???????????? ????????? ??а?????????? ??? ???? ???????????? ?????????????? ???????, ??????? ???????????????? ?а??????????? ?? ?????? ?а??????
??????????????? ????? ?а???? ?????????. ?????????? ?????? ????????
????????? ?а??????? ?????? ?????? ??? ?????????? ????????? ????
?а????????? ????????. ????? ????? ?????? ???? ?????? ??а?.а2 ?а3
??.а426 ??а??, ?а???????????? ?а???????? ????? ???????????? ??????????? ?? ?????????? ?????????? ???????? ??? ??????? ??????????? ???????????? ??????????? ??????????????? ??????, ??????, ????????? ??? ???? ??????????????? ?????? ??а???????????.
??а?? (??.а107) ?а????? ??????? ????????? ??????????????? ????????? ????????? ??? Ф??????????? ???????? ?????????╗ ??а?????????? ??????????? (????????? ??. Да6 ????????? ?????). ????????,
60
Copyright ??? Ф??? Ф??????╗ & ??? ФA???????? K????-C?????╗
Да1. ??????? ???????? ????????????? ????????? ?????????
???а???? ??????????????? ??а?? ??????????????, ?????????? ?????????? ??? ?????????????? ?????? ?? ?????????? ????????, ???????? ?а?????? ?????????? ????????, ??а??? ????? ????? ??????? ?????????? ?а??? ?????? ?а??? ??????????. ????? ???????? ????? ?????????? ??? ?????????? ?а????????? ???????????? ???????? ??? ?????,
????? ??????? ????????, ???а?????????? ??а?????? ?????????? ????????? ????????, ????????? ??а?????? ????????? ????? ???????????
??????????? ???????, ??????????? ??? ??? ?????????, ?а?.?. ??? ????????? ?а????????? ?????????? ??????? ?????? ?а??.
??? ?????????????? ????????? ??????????? ?? ?????????? ?а??????? ???????? ??? ???????????????? ??а????????? ??.а445 ??а?? ?????? ??????????? ?????????? ?а?????????? ??? ????????? ?а? ?????????? ??????????? ???????. ??????? ???????? ??а??, ???????? ???????????, ????????? ???????????? ?????????, ?????? ?????????????.
?????????? ??? ????????? ????? ?????????? ??а????? ?????? ??а????????? ????? ????????????? ????? ?????????? ??????????.
5. ????, ?????????? ??а?????? ???????? ???? ??????????? ??а???????? ????????? ?а?????? ??? ?????????. ??, ?а?????? ???????, ???????? ?а????????????? ??? ?????????? ???????? ????????? ??а????? ????????? ??????????? ??? ???????. ???? ?????????? ?????? ????????
????????? ???а????????? ?? ???? ?а???????????? ?а???? ????????????? ????????? ??????????? ??????????? ????????????? ?????????
?а????????????? ???????????????? ?????????? ?????????? ????????
??????????. ???????, ???а?а?? ?????? ????? ??????????, ??а?????????
?????????? ???????? ??????? ??????????????? ??? ?????????? ??????????? ?????. ??? ????????????? ????????? ?????????? ?????????????? ??????????? ??????????? ??????? ????????? ???? ?а????????????? ??а????? ????? ?а?????????? ???????????? ????????????,
????????????? ??а??????? ????? ????, ???а????????? ?????????????
???????????? ????????, ???????? ????? ??? ??????????? ??а?????,
?а??????????? ?????????????. ???????? ????? ???????? ?????????
???????????? ???????????? ?????????????? ?а?????????? ?????????????? ????? ?????????????????.
?????? ????????? ??????: ???????? ?? ??????? ????????? ?, ?а?????????, ??????? ????????????? ????????? ????????? ????????? ?????????????? ?.?. ???????? ????????, ???аФ??????? ?????????????а?
??? ?????, ?а??????? ?????????? ????????? ??????? ?а???? ????,
???а??а????????? ??а???????? ????? ??????????, ?а?а????? ?????61
Copyright ??? Ф??? Ф??????╗ & ??? ФA???????? K????-C?????╗
????? II. ??????? ????????? ?а????????????? ????????? ?????????
???????? ????????? ?????????? ?????????? ???????? ??????????????? ??????????? ????? ?а??????????╗1. ???? ?? ?а???? ????? ???????????,а? ??? ???????? ???а??? ??????? ??а?а?????? ????????, ?а?
??? ??????????? (??.а428 ??а??).
?.?. ???????2, ???????? ??а??????? ??а?? Ф??а?????? ?а?????????????? ????????? ?а????????? ????????????? ?????? ??????? ?????? 57 ?????? ????????? ??????????, ?????? ?а??????????? ??а??????????? ??????????????? ??????????, ???????????? ???????? ???а??
?? 26.07.2002 ?а30╗, ???????, ???а??????? ????????? ????????? ???????? ????????? ?????????????. ?а??????? ??а?? ???????, ???, ?????????? ????????? ???????? ??? ??????? ?а?????? ???????????? ?????????, ????????? ????????? ???????????? ??? ??????? ????????
????????? ????? ????????????? ?а????????????? ???????? ?а?????3.
???????? ??.а428 ??а?? ???????????????? ?а?????? ???????? ???????
?????? ??????????? ??????????? ??? ????????? ????????, ???? ??????? ????????????? ?????? ??? ??????? ????, ?????? ??????????????? ??а????????? ?????? ????, ?а?.?.
?????? ??? ??? ?????????? ??а?а??????????? ?а??????????? ?а??????????? ???????? ?а???????? ?????????? ?????. ????? ????????
????????? ???????? ??а??????????? ?.а57 ?????? ?????????, ?а???????????? ?а??????? ??????? ????? ??а?? ?????????????? ?????????? ????? ??а????? ???????????? ????????? ??а????????????, ?а?????????? ?????????? ?????? ?????? ?????????????????? ????????
?а???????? ??????????? ??????? ????? ??? ??а???? ???. ????? ????? ?а???? ???? ????????.
? ??????? ?? ?.?. ???????????, ???????, ???????? ??а??.а428
??а??, ???????, ???аФ??????? ????????? ????????? ????????? ?а?????
????????? ?????????????: ??? ??????? ???????????? ?а???????????
??????, ??????????????? ????????????? ?????????????? ?а?????1
? ?а??????????? ??????? Ф????????? ???????╗ ?аФ??????? ?????????????╗ ??.,
????????: ???????? ?.?. ??????? ????????????? ?а????????? ???????: ???????? ??????????? ?а??????????????а// ???????? ????????????????? ???????????? ????????????????: ????????? IV ????????? ??????? ?????? ?????? ?????????? ?.?. ???????. ?.: ?????????????, 2010.
2
? ??.: ??????? ?.?. ???????????? ?????. ?.: ??????? ??????, 2010. ?.а230.
3
? ??????? ?????????? ????а?? ?? 05.06.2003 ?а????03?55 Ф??а?????? ?а?????????????? ????????? ?а????????? ????????????? ?????? ??????? ?????? 57 ?????? ????????? ??????????, ?????? ?а??????????? ??а??????????? ??????????????? ??????????, ???????????? ???????? ???а?? ?? 26.07.2002 ?а30╗.
62
Copyright ??? Ф??? Ф??????╗ & ??? ФA???????? K????-C?????╗
Да1. ??????? ???????? ????????????? ????????? ?????????
???????╗1, ?.?. ?????, ?????? ?а????????? ???????? ?????????????,
?????, ???а????? ??????? ?????? ??????????????? ??? ???????? ?а?????????????? ????????? ??? ??????????? ?????, ??????? ??а???????? ??????????? ?а?? ??????? ????????????? ?а??????. ??????????????, ???а?.?. ?????????? ??????? ????????? ??.а428 ??а??
??а?а?????????? ??????, ?а??????? ????????? ????????? ??а???????? ????????? ???????? ????????????? ??а??.а428 ??а??, ?????????
?.?. ?????2, ??а????? ??????????? ??а????? ????????? ?????????????: ???????????????? ?а?????? ???????? ??????? ??? ??а?????? ??????????? ??????????? ??? ????????? ????????, ???? ???????
????????????? ???????? ???? ??????????????? ??? ???????????????? ??????? ???????. ???????? ?.а1 ??.а102 ?а??.а105 ??а?? ?????????? ???????? ????????? ????????? (??????? ?????????) ?а???????????? ?????????? ??????????????? ???????????????? ????????
?а??????? ??????????, ?.?. ???????????? ????????? ?????????, ????????????? ????????????? ??????????а??. ????? ?? ????? ??????
???? ?????? ?а?а????????? ???????? ??????????????? ?????????.
?????? ?? ??а?? ??а??.а428 ??а?? ??а????????? ???????????? ??????? ??а????? ???? ?а?????????????? ????????. ??а???????? ???????????? ???????? ??а?? ??а????? ???? ?а????? ??????????? ?????? ?????? ???? ??а?????????3.
???????????? ?????, ?а??????? ?????????? ???????? ?????????
?а???????????? ?????????? ???????????? ??а???????????, ??? ??????????? ????? ??????? ???????? ?????????? ??????????? ??????? ????????? ?а????? ????????????? ?????? ?а???????? ????????? ????.
1
? ?????????? ?.?., ?????????? ?.?. ????. ???. ?. 308.
? ??.: ????? ?.?. ??????? ??????? ???????? ?а????????? ??? ???????????
?а??????????????????? ????????????а// ??????????????????? ????????: ????????? ????????? ??????? ?????? ?????? ?????????? ?.?. ???????. ?.: ?????????????, 2008. ?.а79; ????? ?.?. ????? ????????? ?а???????? ?а?????????? ?????????? ???? ?а????????? ???????? ???????????? ????????????????а// ???????? ????????????????? ???????????? ????????????????: ????????? IV ????????? ???????
?????? ?????? ?????????? ?.?.а??????? (??????, 28 ???????? 2009а?.). ?.: ?????????????, 2010. ?.а100.
3
? ??????????? ??а?? ?? 12.08.2003 ?а???03?363 Ф??а?????????? ??? ?????????
??????? ?????????? ????а?? ?? 05.06.2003 ?а????03?55, ??????? ???????? ?а?????????????? ????????? ?а????????? ????????????? ?????? ??????? ?????? 57 ?????? ????????? ??????????, ?????? ?а??????????? ??а??????????? ???????????????
??????????, ???????????? ???????? ??? ?????? ?? 26.07.2002 ?а30╗.
2
63
Copyright ??? Ф??? Ф??????╗ & ??? ФA???????? K????-C?????╗
????? II. ??????? ????????? ?а????????????? ????????? ?????????
?а???? ?????? ??????? ????????????? ????????? ????? ???? ?????????????? ?а???????? ???????? ?????????????.
6. ??? ??а????? ??????? ??????? ????????, ???????????? ?а??????????? ???????? ??????, ??????? ?а???????????? ????????????????
?????? (?.а2 ??.а784 ??а??), ??????????? ?а?? ?????? ??????? ??????????? ?а????????.
?????? 33 ?????????? ????????? ?а??.а27 ???????????? ????????? ?а????? ??????? ?????????? ??????? ??????? ????????. ?а?????????, ???????? ????? ?????????? ?????а?а??? ??а?????? ??????????? ?????????? ?? ?????????? ???????? ?????????. ????????, ???а?????
??????? ??? ??????? ??????? ??а????????? ???????????? ??????????
?????????, ????????????? ???????? ??????????? ???????????? ????????????? ??????????? ???????. ???????? ??? ????????? ?а??????????? ????????, ????? ?????????? ?????? ????????? ???????????
?????? ????????? ??а????? ?????????? ?????, ???а??????? ?????? ???????????? ??????. ?????????, ????????, ????????? ?????????????
???????? ?????? ????? ?????????? ?а?????????? ???????? ????????? ????????? ??? ??????????? ??????????.
???? ?? ??????? ??????????? ???????????? ????? ???????????
?????????? ?а???????????? ?????????, ?а????? ???????, ?а??????????? ???????????? ???? ?????а? ?а??????, ?а????????? ???????
?а??????? ???????? ?????????. ?????????? ?а???????????? ????????? ??????? ?????? ???а????, ???а?а??? ????? ??а?????????? ????????
??? ??????????? ?а????????? ??? ??????????? ?????????? ?? ?????????? ???????? ????????????? ????????? ?????????. ??? ??а????????, ???а????? ????????? ????? ?????? ??а????? ???? ??????????.
?????????? ????????? (??.а33) ?а??.а27 ???????????? ?????????,
??????? ??? ?а?????????? Ф??????? ????????╗, ??????????????? ?????? ?а?????? ??????????? ?????????? ?? ?????????? ???????? ?????????
??? ????? ????????????? ?а???????? ????? ???????, ??а??????????????
?????????? ?????????, ?а???????????? ????????? ???????????????
????? ????? ?????????? ?? ??????? ??????, ??????????????? ??????????? ???? ??????????. ???????? ??а??а???а?а????????? ??????? ????????? ????????? ???? ?а?????? ???????????, ???????? ???????? ?а???? ??????????????? ?????????? ???? ???? ??а??????? ???????????.
????? ????, ????????????? ????????? ?????????, ???а???????,
???????????? ????? ???????????? ?????, ??? ?а??????? ???? ??????????? ?????? ??????????? (???????????????).
64
Copyright ??? Ф??? Ф??????╗ & ??? ФA???????? K????-C?????╗
Да2. ???????? ??????? ?а???? ????????
Да2. ???????? ??????? ?а???? ????????
1. ?????? ?а????????????? ???????? ????????? ?а???????????
??? ?а??????? ????????????? ??????????? ?????? ???????? ?????????? ?а?????????? ?????????? ???????1. ??? ??а?????, ???а?????
?.?.а??????????, Ф?????? ??????? ??а?????????? ????? ?а??? ??????????? ???????╗2. ?? ?????? ?????? ??? ????? ????????? ???? ???????????? ????????????? ?а???????? ????????????? ????????? ?????????, ??????? ??? ????? ??????????? ??????? ??? ??а???????????,
??а???????? ????????? ?????????? ????????????. ??????? ????????
???????? ????? ????????????? ??а????????????? ????? ???????? ?а??????? ???????????????, ???????????? ?а????? ?????????? ??????????.
??????? ????????? ???????? ??????????? ??????????? ???????
????? ????????? ??????????????, ??????????? ??? ?????????????
?????????????? ?????????? ?????????. ???????? ??????? ????????
????????????? ????????? ????????? ??????? ?? ????????? ????????????, ????????? ?а??????????? ??????????? ?????, ????????????
??а??????????? ?????????, ??????????? ????????? ?????.
2. ?????? ????? ??????? ????????? ????????? ?????????? ???????? ?? ???????? ??а??????????? ?????????. ??а?????? ????????????
?????????? ?????????? ?а??????????? ????????????? ???????? ????????? ?????????, ??????? ?????????????? ?а?????????? (????????)
?а???????????? ?????????.
?????? ?????????? ??а???????????? ????????? ???????? ????????, ????????? ?????????????? ?????????? ?а?? ??????? ??????????????? ???????????. ?????????? ?????????? ?????? ?????????????
1
? ??.: ??????? ?.?. ??????????? ??????? ??????????????? ?????????а// ???????
???????????? ?????. 2008. ?а4. (??????????? ??: ??????? ?.?. ??????????? ??????? ??????????????? ?????????а// ????? ?а?????. 1922. ?а2. ?.а29?40; ?а3. ?.а7?19);
?????а?.?. ???????? ????????????? ????????? ?????????: ???????? ?а???????а// ?????. 2008. ?а7; ??????? ?.?. ??????? ????????????? ????????? ????????? ??????????, ?????? ?а??????а// ????????????? ????????? ?????. ??. 2а/ ??? ???. ?.?. ??????? ?а?.?.а????????. ?.: ?????, 1981. ?. 146?147; ?????????? ?.?. ??????? ?????????.
?.:а??????, 2001. ?. 6?27; ?????? ?.?. ??????? ??????????????? ????????? ?????? ??а?????????? ?????. ?., 1958; Abraham H.J. Das Recht der Luftfahrt: Kommentar und Quellensammlung. K?ln; Berlin, 1960. S.а62; Giemulla E., Schmid R., Muller-Rostin W., Dettling-Ott R.,
Margo R. Montreal Convention. ?. Art. 1, 30?31; Riese O. Luftrecht. Stuttgart, 1949. S.а421;
Shawcross & Beaumont on Air Law (4th ed. rev. 2009. Lexis Nexis); Rodiere Renж. Droit des
transports: transports terrestres et aeriens. Paris, 1977. ?. 267?375 ?а??.
2
? ?????????? ?.?. ???? ???????????? ?????. ?. 2. ?., 1902. ?.а94.
65
Copyright ??? Ф??? Ф??????╗ & ??? ФA???????? K????-C?????╗
????? II. ??????? ????????? ?а????????????? ????????? ?????????
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3. ???????? ??????? ???????????? ????????? ??а??????????? ??????????????? ????????? ??????. ??????????? ??а?? ?а??????? ?? ?? ????
1983а?. ?а??????? ?.а1 ??.а794 ??а?? ??а?????????? ???? ?????????. ?????????? ?????? ???????? ????????????? ??.а798 ??а??, ???????? ??????? ?а??? ???????????? ??????? ???????? ?????? ?а?????????, ?? ??????????, ?????, ??????? ???????? ?а???? ??????? ??????????? ?????????. ??????????? ????????? ?????? ??а????????? ?????????? ?????
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?????????? ?.?. ??????????? ??а?????? ????, ???а?а?????????? ????????, ????? ?а????? ??? ???????? ????? ????? ?????????? ????????????? ?а??????? ???????????? ??????????, ?а?????? ??а?? ??а???????
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1
? ??.: ?????????? ?.?., ?????????? ?.?. ?????????? ?????. ???????? ?а?????????, ??????????, ???????????? ?????????? ?а???? ??????? ?а????? ??????????. ?.: ??????, 2004. ?.а165.
66
Copyright ??? Ф??? Ф??????╗ & ??? ФA???????? K????-C?????╗
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??????? ???????????? ??.а794 ??а??. ??? ???????? ??а??????? ???????????????????? ?????. ?????????? ?а??????????? ????? ????????????? ?? ??????????????? ?????????? ????????????? ????, ?а????? ???? ??????? ?????????? ????????? (???????, ???????, ??????????) ?а??????? ????????, ??????????? ??? ??????????? ?????????
?????? ?а???????????? ????????????. ?????? ??????? ????????????
?? ??????????????? ?? ??а??, ?? ??а?? ??а???????????????, ?а?????????? ?????? ??а????????? ??????? ??.а794 ??а?? ??а??????????? ?а???? ??? ?.а2 ??.а793.
??????? ??????????????? ???????? ??????????? ?а????????? ??а??????????? ?????????, ?????? ?? ????????? ?а???? ?????????? ????????? ??????????? ???????? ?а??а?? ??а?????? ??????? ????? ????????? ?????????? ??а???????? ??? ??????? ?а?????? ?????? ?????????? ?? ???? ???????????, ???? ???? ??а????????????? ?????????.
? ????? ??????????? ???????????? ????????? ??а????????? ?????????? ??????????? ???????, ?????????? Ф????-????????╗. ??а????????? ????? ???????? ???????????? ?????????? ???? ??а??????????
????? ??а????? ????????? ??а????? ??????? ?????, ??????? ????????
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?а?? ??а??????????? ?????????. ?????????, ???а???????, ??????? ????????? ??????????? ???? ????? ?? ????? ???????????, ??а????????? ??аФ????-???????╗ ????? ???? ??????????????? ???а?????????.
4. ????????? ????????????? ?а???????????? ?????????, ???????
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?????? 787 ??а?? ???? ????????? ??????????? ????? ????????:
Ф??а???????? ??????????? (??????) ???? ??????? (??????????) ????????? ???????????? ?????? ??????? (????????????) ??а????? ???
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??а???? ??? ????????? ?????? ??? ????????? ??????, ?????????? ?а??????╗.
67
Copyright ??? Ф??? Ф??????╗ & ??? ФA???????? K????-C?????╗
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??????? (????????????) ??а????? ??? ?????????? ?????? ??? ?????????? ?????? ???? ??? ????????? ????????? ????? ???? ????? ??????????
????? ??? ????????? ????????? ??????????, ??????, ?????? ??? ?????╗.
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(??.а97 ????а??), ??а??????? ?????????? ???????? ?????? ??????????? ?????? ??? ????????? ?????? (??.а115 ???а??). ?а????????? ????
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??? ????? ???????????? ??????? ????? ??а???????????.
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???????? ?????????? ???????, ??а??????????. ??? ?? ?а?? ???????,
?а?? ?????????? ?????? ??????????. ??????? ???????? ???????????
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?????? ?а??????? ?? ??????? ??????? ???????????? ?????????? ???????? ????????? ?????????? ?а???????????? ?????? ???????: ??????????? (???????????? ???????????) ?а????????????1. ????????? ??????
??а????????? ?а????? ????????? ?????????2. ???????????? ???а??
?а???????? ???? ??а???? ?а?????????? ????????? ??????? ??????????? ?????????? ????? ??? ?????????? ?а??????? ??????? ???????? ????? ???????? ??а??????????? ???????? ?????????, ????????? ???????
??????????? ??а????????? ?а????????? ????????? ??????????? ?????? ??????????? ?а?? ???????? ????????? ????????? ??? ???????????.
??а???????? ?а?а???????????????? ????????? ?????? ????? ??????
?а????????? ????????? ?????????, ??????? ?а??????? ?? ??????? ???????? ?????? ?????????????? ???????? ????????? ?????????. ?????
????? ???????? ?????? ???а??????? ??????????? ?????????? ?????, ??????????? ????? ????????????? ????? ????? (????????????) ?а????1
? ???????? ??а???????? ???????? ??????????? ?????????? ????? ??.: ?????????а?.?. ????????? ?????? ?а??? ???????а// ????????? ??????????? ?а?????. 1980.
?а1. ?.а126?130.
2
? ??????????? ???а?? ?? 24.01.2008 ?а18125/07 ??а???? ?а?15-1856/06. ??. ?????:
??????????? ???а?? ?? 29.12.2010 ?а???-17823/10 ??а???? ?а?15-2469/09.
68
Copyright ??? Ф??? Ф??????╗ & ??? ФA???????? K????-C?????╗
Да2. ???????? ??????? ?а???? ????????
????????? ?а????? ??????????? ????????? ?????????? ?а??????, ?? ???????? ????????? ?????????, ???????????? ?а?????????? ??? ????????????????? ?а????? ??? ????? ????????? ???? ?? ?????????????,
??а??????????? ??? ?а???????? ???????????. ??????? ??????, ??????, ???, ??а?????? ????????? ?????????, ?????? ??а???? ????????? ????? ???????? ????????, ?????? ???????? ?????????????? ???????? ????????? ?????????
? ???????? ????????? ?????? ??а????? ??????? ????????? ???????? ????????? ??????? ?а?????????? ?? ???? ??а???????? ???? ???,
???а???????????? ??а?????? ??? ??????????? ????????? ??????, ??а????? ?а??? ?????????? ??????????. ??? ??а????? ?????????? ???????
???????????????? ????????? ??????????? ????????????? ??????????????? ???????? ????????? ?????, ????????? ?????? ??????????????
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????????? ????? ????? ?????, ????? ??? ??? ???????????? ??????? ?????????а? ??.а115 ???а??). ???????? ???а?? ??????? ????????
??????, ????????, ?????? ?а???????????? ???????? ????? ????????
????????? ?????.
?????? ??а??а???? ??????? ????????????? ?????????? ?а???????
??????? ?????????. ?а???????????? ?а??????? ??.а1 ?????????????
????????? ??а?????????? ????????? ?????? ?а??????????? 1924а?.
(???????????? ?????????) ?????? Ф??????? ?????????╗ ???????????
????????????? ?а???????? ?????????, ??????????????? ???????????? ??? ????? ???????? ??? ??????????, ?????????? ??????????
??? ??????? ????????? ??????; ??а??????????? ????? ?а???????????
??? ????????? ??? ?????????, ????????? ??а????????? ???????, ?а????
???????, ????? ????? ?????????? ??? ???????? ?????????? ????????? ????? ???????????? ?а?????????? ????? ??????????? ??? ?????????╗. ????????? ??? ?а??????? ????????? ????? 1978а?. (??????????? ?????????) ?а?????????? ????? ????????? ????????? ???????
????? ??а???????????.
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??????????? ??????? ??а???????? ????????? ?????????, ???????? ???
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????????? ????? ???????????? ?а?????????????. ?а???? ????????
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69
Copyright ??? Ф??? Ф??????╗ & ??? ФA???????? K????-C?????╗
????? II. ??????? ????????? ?а????????????? ????????? ?????????
?????????????? ????????? 1961а?. ??а?????????? ?????? ????????????? ?????????, ?????????????? ??????, ??а??????????? ????????????? ??а????????, ???????? ??????????? ???????? ??а??, ???а??
????????? ??а??????????? ????????? ????? ??????????? ?а?????????? ????????????. ??? ????????? ??????????? ?????????, ???????? ?? ???????? ?????????. ????? ????? ????????? ???????? ?а??????? ???????????.
???????? ??????? ???????, ???а??????????, ??? ?а????????, ?а?????? ??? ???????? ????????? ?а?????????? ?а?????????? ???????????
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?????? ?а???????? ????????????? ???????? ?????????1.
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?а?? ???? 1983а?. ??????????? ????? IX Ф??????╗. ???? ???? ?????
??????????????? ??а?????? ??????? ????? ????????, ???????? ?? ?????????. ?????? ?а?????? ??а?? 1997а?. ??? ????? ??а?????. ??????????
????? ?????? ?а?????????? ????????????? ?????????? ??????? ????
????? ??????????.
??????? ?а????????? ????? ??????????????? ???? ????? ???????
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??????? ????????? ?????????.
1
? ??.: ????????? ?.?. ???????? ????????????? ??????????? ????????? ?????: ???????. ???. ? ????. ????. ????. ?., 1980; ?? ??. ???????? ??????? ?????????? ???????а// ????????????? ????????? ?????. ??. 2а/ ??? ???. ?.?. ??????? ?а?.?. ????????. ?.: ?????, 1981. ?.а202?213.
70
Copyright ??? Ф??? Ф??????╗ & ??? ФA???????? K????-C?????╗
Да2. ???????? ??????? ?а???? ????????
????????? ????? ??????????, ????????????? ??? ????????. ????? ??? ????????? ??????????? ?????? ?. ???????, ?. ????, ?????
?а??1. ?????? ?а???????? ????? ?????????????? ?а??? ??? ???? ???
?????????? ????? ?????? ??а???????? ??????? ?????????? ???????. ?а??????????? ??????? ????????????? ???????? ???????? ???????? ????? ????????, ?????? ?а??? ???????? ??? ???????????, ????????? ?а???, ???а??????? ???????? ??????? Ф????????????╗ ?а?????????. ?а?? ?? ????? ?????? ??????????? ?а??????? ??? ???????, ???????
????? ??а?.-?. ????2 ???????, ???а?????? ????? ??????????????? ???????????? ?а????????? ?????????, ????, ????????, ???????? ?а???????????? ????????? ?а????? ????.
?????? ???? ???????? ?????????????? ??а ????????????? ?,
???а??????????????, ???????????? ????????????, ????????? ?????????? ??? ??? ???? ???? ?а?????????? ??а????? ????????? ?а??????????? ?? ????, ????? ?? ?????????????? ????? ????? ??? ????????? ???? ?????? ??? ???? ???. ?а? ???, ?а?а?????? ?????? ????????????
???????????? ?????????, ???????? ?????? ?????????, ?.?. ??????????? ??????? ?????????, ??? ???????? ????????? ??а??????????? ??????? ???? ??а????? ?????????????? ?? ??????????, ?? ????????????
???????????. ????????? ?? ??а??????????? ????? ????? ??????????????? ???????? ?а????, ???????? ?? ????????? ???????, ????????
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????? ??????? ???????? ?????? ??а?????? ???????????? ???????
?.?. ??????? ?????, ???аФ? ???????????? ??а??.а787 ??а?? ?а??.а104 ?????????? ???????а?? (1997а?.) ????????? ??????? Ф???????????╗ ????????? ??????. ????? ?????? ?????? ??а?? ???????????????? ??а???
???????????? ????????????????; ?????????????? ?а???????? ???????? ??????????? (???????) ????? ???а??? ??????? ?????????? ?????,
??? ?а??? ????????. ?а?????? ?????? ???????????? ???????????? ??????????????? ???? ?а??а??, ?а????? ?а????? ????????? ???????а??
?????????????? ??????????? ?????????? ??????? ??????? ??????????? (??????) ?а?????? ????? ????????? ?а?? ?????????????? ??а????
???????? ????, ???????????? ?????? ???????????? ???????. ??????????????? ???? ??.а34 ??а?? ??а??? ?????????, ?????? ????? ???1
? Giemulla E., Schmid R., Muller-Rostin W., Dettling-Ott R., Margo R. Montreal Convention. Austin; Boston; Chicago; New York; The Netherlands: Wolters Kluwer. 2010; GiemullaаE.,
Schwenk. Handbuch des Luftverkehrsrechts. 3rd edition. Cologne, 2009.
2
? Tosi J.-P. L?affrУtement aжrien. Paris, 1977. ?. 125?142.
71
Copyright ??? Ф??? Ф??????╗ & ??? ФA???????? K????-C?????╗
????? II. ??????? ????????? ?а????????????? ????????? ?????????
????, ???????? ?а???????? ??????? ???????? ??????????? ??а?????
?а???????? ??????????? (???????)╗1.
?????? ??????????? ???????????? ???? ???? ?? ????? ??????? ???????????????? ????????? ??? ????????? ???????? ??????? ??????????? ??????????????.
???????????? ??????? ???????, ?.?. ????????? ????? ?????????
?????, ???аФ??? ??????? ?????????? (????????????) ??а????????? ??
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???? ?а?????????????? ??????????? ????????????? ????????. ?а???????? ?????, ???? ???????????? ????????????? ?????? ???????????? ??а?????????????????? ??????, ???????? ?а?????????? ??????
?????????╗2.
?.?. ????????? ????? ????????????, ???а??????? ?????????? ??????? ??а????? ??????? ?????????? ??? ??????????????? ???????????
??а??????????? ????? ?а???????? ?????????, ?????? ?а?????3. ?????????? ??? ????? ??????????????? ???????? ?????? ??????? ?????????.
??????? ??? ?????????? ??а?????????????? ????????? ????? ???????? ??а??????????? ??????????? ??????????? ?????? ???????????
???????? ?????????, ?а?????????а? ?????????. ??? ????????? ???????? ?????????????? ?????????? ???????? ?????????, ?а??????? ????????????-?????????? ????????? ??? ?а???????? ??????????? ??а????????? ?а?????????? ?а???????????????.
? ???????????? ????????? ???? ??????????? ????????? ?????????? ??????? ???????????? ???????, ????????, ????????????? ???
?????-???????? ?????? ?? 13.01.2010, ?а??????? ???????: Ф??????????
?????????? ????????? ??а????????? ??а????????? ????????????? ??????????? ???? ?а????????????, ???????? ???????????????? ?а??????????? ?а?????? ???????? ?????????, ???, ?а???? ???????, ?????????
??????????? ?????????????? ??????????? ???? ?а?????????? ??????, ???????????? ?а?????????? ?????? ????? ?а???????? ???????????1
? ??????? ?.?. ????????????? ???? ?а?????????? ???????????? ??а???????? ?????? ???????????? ???????. ?.: ??????? ??????, 2009. ?.а21.
2
? ????????? ?.?. ???????????? ????????а// ?????? ??????: ????, ??????, ????????. 2009. ?а8. ?. 3?8.
3
? ??.: ????????? ?.?. ??????? ???????? ????????? ?а????? ?????????? ??????????:
???????. ???. ... ????. ????. ????. ?., 1987.
72
Copyright ??? Ф??? Ф??????╗ & ??? ФA???????? K????-C?????╗
Да2. ???????? ??????? ?а???? ????????
??, ?а??????????? ?????? 796 ??а??╗1. ????????? ??????, ???а????????, ????????????? ???????? ??????????????? ??????????? ?а???????????? ?? ?????????? ??????????? ?????. ??? ??????? ????????????
??????????? ????? ?а????????? ??????? ????????? ????????? ??? ?????????? ???????????? ?а??????????? ????? ?а????? ???? (??. ????).
?????? ?????????? ???????? ?????????, ?.?. ?????? ?????????????
?????????, ????????? ???????????? ?а????????? (????????????????)
????????? ???????????????. ??? ?????????? ?а??????? ???????????? ???? ???????????? ????????? ?а1966а?.2
?????? ??????????? ??????? ???????????? ?а?а??????? ????????
??????????, ??? ?????????? ????????? ??????? ??а?????????, ?а???????????? ?????? ??????????? ??? ??????? ????????? ??? ?????? ????? ?а?????????. ??? ?????????, ??а??? ??????, ???????? ?????????????? ???????? ????? ??????????? ?а?????????????? ?????????? ???????? ?????????.
??????? ???????????, ???а??.а105 ??а??, ?а??????? ?? ???а??
(??.а117), ??а??????? ?????? ?а????? ??????????, ?????????????? ??????? ?????????. ????????????????, ???????? ???????? ?????? ?????????? (???, ????????, ???????) ????? ??а????????????? ?????????, ??????????? ??а???????, ???а????????????3.
5. ??????????? ??а?? ?а??.а104 ????????????? ??????????? ???????? ??????????? ?а??????? ??.а787 ??а??, ?а?????????, ??а?????????? ?? ??? ?????, ?? ??????? ?????????? ?а?? ???????? ??????
???????? ????????????? ????????? ??а??????????? ????????? ?????. ????????? ??????: ????? ?а????? ???????? ????? ???? ????????? ?а??????? ?а??? ??????, ???? ?а???? ????????? ?????????????, ????????, ??? ?????????? ????????????? ??????? ?а????????
????????? ???????????? ???????? ??????????? ?а???????? ???????? ????????? ???? ?а?????????? ??????? ???????? ???а??? ??????????, ?????????????? ??????, ??? ?а??????????????? ?????????,
???????????? ?а??????? ??? ????????? ?????????????, ?а??????????, ??????????? ????? ???????????? ?а?????????????, ????? ????
????????? ???? ????????? ??а?? ??а?????? ????????????? ????1
? ????????????? ??? ?????-???????? ?????? ?? 13.01.2010 ??а???? ?а?29-1803/2009.
? Revue francaise de droit aжrien. 1968. ?а4. P.а458.
3
? Tompkins George N., Jr. Liability Rules Applicable to International Air Transportation as
Developed by the Courts in United States. From Warsaw 1929 to Montreal 1999. Kluwer Law
International BV. The Netherlands. 2010. ?. 87?89.
2
73
Copyright ??? Ф??? Ф??????╗ & ??? ФA???????? K????-C?????╗
????? II. ??????? ????????? ?а????????????? ????????? ?????????
???? ?а??????????????? ????? ??а?????????? ?а??????????? ???????????? (??.а632?641 ??), ????? ????? ?а???????? ?????? (??.а34 ??а??)
?а????? ????????? ??а??????????????.
? ?????????, ??а?????????? ??.а611 ??а?? ????????, ???, ???? ?????????? ??а????? ??????????? ????????? ????? ?а????????? ?а??????? ????, ???????????? ?????? ??????????? ?????????? ?а????????????
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??????, ??????????????? ??????????? ??а???????????? ??? ???????????? ?????????? ????? ???????????? ??а??????? ????????? ?????????? ?? ??? ???? (?.а3 ??.а401 ??а??).
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(????????? ???????). ?а?????????? ?????? ??а?????????? ????????
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? ??. ?.а240 ????? ?????? ????????? ?а???. ??????? ????????? ?????? ?? 25.10.2010
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? GrШnfors K. Air Charter and Warsaw Convention. Hague, 1956. P.а117.
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Copyright ??? Ф??? Ф??????╗ & ??? ФA???????? K????-C?????╗
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?.?. ?????????, ?.?. ??????? ???????, ???а????????? ????????? ??1
? Revue francaise de droit aжrien. 1965. ?а1. P.а347.
? Tompkins George N., Jr. Liability Rules Applicable to International Air Transportation as
Developed by the Courts in United States. From Warsaw 1929 to Montreal 1999. ?. 87.
3
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? ??.: ??????? ?.?. ????????? ????????? ????????????-????????? ????????????? ?????????? ??????????а// ?????????? ?????? ?????????????? ?????. 1996. ?а1.
?.а116?117.
2
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Copyright ??? Ф??? Ф??????╗ & ??? ФA???????? K????-C?????╗
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2
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??????????? ????????? ?????: ???????. ???. ? ????. ????. ????. ?., 1978.
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? ICAO Doc. 9626.
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? ??.: ?????????? ?.?., ?????????? ?.?. ????. ???. ?. 270.
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Copyright ??? Ф??? Ф??????╗ & ??? ФA???????? K????-C?????╗
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? ??.: ?????????? ?.?., ?????????? ?.?. ????. ???. ?. 270.
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?.:а??????? ??????, 2008. ?. 4.
2
83
Copyright ??? Ф??? Ф??????╗ & ??? ФA???????? K????-C?????╗
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2. ?? ????????? ??????? ???????? ??.а100 ??а?? ???????????? ??????? ????? ??????????? (??-?????а? ???????? ?????????? ?????),
??????? ????? ???????? ??а????????????? ????????? ????????? ??????????, ??????, ?????? ??? ????? ??а????????? ????????? ????????? ?????????. ?а???????????? ?а?.а3 ??.а61 ??а?? ???????????а? ???
1
? ????????? ????????? ?????а/ ??? ???. ?.?. ??????????. ?.: ????????? ?????????, 1990.
84
Copyright ??? Ф??? Ф??????╗ & ??? ФA???????? K????-C?????╗
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?????? 100 ??а ?? ?а ???. ???????????? ?????? ?? 08.11.2007
?а258-??? ???????????? ???????? ????????????, ???????????????
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?????? Ф???????????╗ ???????????? ????????? ?????????? ?а???????? ??? ??????????? ????????????????. ??????? Ф???????????╗
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? ????????????? ?????????? ???а?? ?? 20.05.2008 ?а412/08 ??а???? ?а?401627/07-126-12.
85
Copyright ??? Ф??? Ф??????╗ & ??? ФA???????? K????-C?????╗
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? ?????????? ?.?., ?????????? ?.?. ???. ???. ?.а280?281.
86
Copyright ??? Ф??? Ф??????╗ & ??? ФA???????? K????-C?????╗
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??????????????, ???а ???????????? ???????????? ??????????? ???????? ?????? ????????-???????????? ???????????. ???????? ??а???? 1961а?. ???????????? ?а???????? ???????? ?????????
???????? ????????-???????????? ???????????. ???????? ?? ????
1983а?. ??? ???????? ??????????? ???????????. ?????????????? ??????? ????????????? ????????? ????????? ??????????, ?????? ?а??????,
???????????? ????????????? ??????????? ??????? ???? 03.01.1986
?а1/?, ?????????? ??????????? ???а??????????? ???????????, ??????? ?????? ???????????? ???????? ?а???????????? ???? ?????????
??????????? ????????????? ????????? ????????? ?а????????????
1
? ????????????? ????????? ?????. ??. 2а/ ??? ???. ?.?. ??????? ?а?.?. ????????. ?.: ?????, 1981. ?.а64.
87
Copyright ??? Ф??? Ф??????╗ & ??? ФA???????? K????-C?????╗
????? II. ??????? ????????? ?а????????????? ????????? ?????????
?а????? ??????????, ?а????? ????????????? ??? ????????? ???????????? ????????????, ????????? ?а???? ??????????.
???????? ??.а100 ???????????? ??а?? ???????????? ???????? ???
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(???????????? ???????????, ???????? ????, ???? ????????????) ?а??.
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??а??? ?? ?????????? ????????? Ф??????????? ????????? ?????????╗
??? Ф???????????????? ???????????╗ (air transport undertaking, enterprise de transport aжrien), ???? ?а????, ???а????????? ????? ????????????
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88
Copyright ??? Ф??? Ф??????╗ & ??? ФA???????? K????-C?????╗
Да3. ?????????? ???а??????? ????????
4. ????????? ????????? ????? (????????????), ??? ???? ????? ???????? ????? ??а????????????? ????????? ?а????? ????????????, ?????? ???????? ?????????? (?????????????) ????????????. ???????? ?.а3
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? ?????? ????????? ?????? ?? 04.02.2003 ?а11 (???. ?? 15.04.2010) Ф??а??????????? ??????????? ??????????? ?????? Ф???????????????? ?????????? ?а??????????
?????, ??????????? ?????, ?????????????? ???????????? ????????? ?????????.
????????? ????????????╗.
2
? ????????????? ?????????????а?? ?? 23.06.2007 ?а397 (???. ?? 24.09.2010) Ф?а?????????????? ????????? ????????? ??????????? ?????????? ?а????????? ?????????
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89
Copyright ??? Ф??? Ф??????╗ & ??? ФA???????? K????-C?????╗
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Copyright ??? Ф??? Ф??????╗ & ??? ФA???????? K????-C?????╗
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91
Copyright ??? Ф??? Ф??????╗ & ??? ФA???????? K????-C?????╗
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?????, ???????????? ?а????????? ????????.
2. ??????? ?????????? ???????? ????????????? ????????? ?????????, ?????????? ???????????? ???????????? ????????? ??. II
???а??????????, ??? ?а???????????? ?????????.
?????? 3а??. II ?????????? ????????? ????????? ?а??????????
????????? ??????????, ?а??.а4а? ????????? ??????. ????????? ????
?????? ????????? ??????????? ??? ????????? ?????????? ?????? ????????? (????????????) ????? (Passenger ticketа? ????., Billet de passageа?
??.), ?а?????????????? ??? ????????? ?????? (?? ??????????? ?????? ?????? ?????, ??????????? ?????????? ??? ????)а? ????????
????????? (Bulletin de bagagesа? ??., Baggage checkа? ????.). ?а???????
?? ?????????? ????????? ??. II ???????????? ????????? ????????
?????? ?????? Ф????????? ?а?????╗ (??.а3), ???????? ??????? ???
????????? ?????????? ???????? ???????????? ???????? (Document of
carriageа? ????., Titre de transportа? ??.), ??????? ????? ???? ?????????????? ??? ?????????. ????? ???????, ???????????? ?????????
?????????? ?? ????????????? ???????? Ф???????????? ?????╗ ?аФ???????? ?????????╗ ?а????????? ????? ????? ????????????. ???????????? ????? ???????? ?????????????? ?????????? ???????? ????????? ?а??? ???????. ??а???????? ???????????? ????? ?а????????
????????? ?????????? ?а????? ?????????. ???????? ???????????
???????? ?а?????? ????????????? ????, ???????????? ?????????
????????????? ??????????? ??????????? ??????? ????????? ????????
????????????????? ????? (Baggage identification tag) ??а?????? ?????
??????????????????? ??????.
???????????????????? ?????а? ??? ????????? ?????????, ??????? ??а?? ????? ???????????, ?а????? ?а????? ??а???? ?????????? ?????.
????????????????? ?????? Ф???????????????????? ?????, ???????
92
Copyright ??? Ф??? Ф??????╗ & ??? ФA???????? K????-C?????╗
Да4. ????? ???????? ?а??????? ??? ??????????
?????? ????╗, ???????????? ???????????? ??????????, ?????????? ???, ???а?а??? ?????? Ф?????╗ ???????? ???а??????????????????
?????, ??? ?а???????????????????? ????? (?.а4 ??.а17). ????????????? ???? ?????????? ?????? ?????? ??????????????? ???????????
??а???? ????? ?а????????? ??????? ????????? ?????????? ?? ???? ?????? ????????? ??????????? ????????? ????????? ?????????? ????????? ???????, ??????????? ?а?????????? ????????????? ??? ???????? ??? ????????? ????? ??? ????????? (??. Да3а??. III).
?????? ????????? ?????????? ????????? ?????????? ?????????? ??а??????????? ?а???????? ?????? ?????? ????????? ??а???????? ????????? ??? ??????? ?????????? ?? ????????????? ???????????? ?????? ???????. ??????????? ????? ??????????????? ??????????
?а???????????? ?а?.а3 ??.а786 ??а??.
3. ??????? ????????? ????????? ????? ??????????? ????????????
???????????? ????????? (Air waybill) ???, ??а???????????? ??????????
?????????,а? ????????-????????????? ????????? (Air consignment note)
??? ???????????? ????? ?а?????????. ?????????? ????????? (??.а5)
??????????????? ????? ??????????? ????????? ?? ??????????? ??????????? ????????? ?а??????????? ??????? ??. ?? ?.а1 ??.а11 ?а?.а3 ??.а12
????? ????????? ????????, ???а???????????? ????????? ?????????
?????? ??????? ???????: ?? ?????????????? ?????????? ??? ???????? ?????????????? ?????????? ????????, ???????? ????? ????????????, ??????? ????????? ?а???? ????? ?????????????? ??а???????????? ?????? ?а????.
????? II ?????????? ????????? ???????? ????? ??? ????????????? ?а????????? ?????????? ???????????? ?????????, ???????
??????????? ??? ????????? ?а?????? ??. II ???????????? ?????????.
??????????? ???????? ??а???????????? ???????? ???????????? ?????,
??????? ??а??????? ?а????????-???????????? ????????. ??? ????????? ???????????????, ???а???????????? ?а???????????? ??????????
?????? ?а????, ???????? ?а???????? ?????, ?а????? ?а????? ???? ????????? ????????????, ????????? ?????????? ??а??????? ????? (??.а11).
???а??????????? ???? ?????? ???????????? ????? ????????? ??а??
???????????. ?????????? ??????????, ???а???????, ?????????? ??????????????: ??????? ??а???? ?????, ??????????? ?????????? ????????????? ?а?.?. ?????? ???????????? ?????????? ?а??????????, ??????
?а????????? ????? ????????? ???????????? ???? ?а??? ??????, ????
?????????? ???????? ?? ???????? ?а??????????? ??????????? ?а?????93
Copyright ??? Ф??? Ф??????╗ & ??? ФA???????? K????-C?????╗
????? II. ??????? ????????? ?а????????????? ????????? ?????????
???? ??а???? ?а???????????? ????????? ??? ?а????????? ??а???? ????
???? ??? ?????? ???????? ???????? ????????? ?????.
?????????? ????????? ???????? ???????? ??????? ???????? ?????????? ???????????? ????????????. ?а???????? ????????? 1955а?.,
???????? ????????? ?а?????????? ?????????, ?а?а????????????
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? ???????? ???????????? ?????????? ???? ??????????????? ???????????? ?????????? ???????????? ?????????? ????? ???? ??
????????, ??????? ????????? ?? ??????, ???????? ?? ????????? ????????????? ?а????????? ?? ??? ??? ??? ?????????: ?????? ????
??????? ?????? ???????????, ?????????? ?а??? ????????????? ?????????. ???????????? ?????????? ???????????? ????????? ?а????????? ??а???? ???????? ????? ???????? ???? ????????.
?? ???????????? ??.а6 ???????????? ????????? ???????, ???а?а???????????? ?а???????????, ?????????????? ???????????, ???????????? ?а???????????? ???????????????? ????????, ?? ???????????
????? ????????????? ????? ???????? ????????? ?????. ?????? ??? ??а??????? ??? ??????????? ?????-???? ???????????? ?а?? ????????? ??а????
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????????????? ????????? ???????? ????????? ?а?? ????????????1.
??? ?????????? ???????? ????????? ????????? ????? ???????????
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?????????? ??а?????? ????????? ???????? ?а????????????? ????? ???????? ?а?????????? (??.а10 ???????????? ?а?????????? ?????????).
?????а??а?????? ???????? ?а??????? ??????????????? ?????????
???????? ?а????????-???????????? ???????? ???????, ???????????
1
? ????????????? ??????????? ??а?????????? ?????. (????????? ??? ?????????? ????????? ?????? ????????????? ????????? ?????????.) ????????, 10?28 ???
1999а?. ?. I. ?????????а// ICAO Doc. 9775.
94
Copyright ??? Ф??? Ф??????╗ & ??? ФA???????? K????-C?????╗
Да4. ????? ???????? ?а??????? ??? ??????????
?а???? ????? ?????????, ??? ???????, ???а????????????? ?????????
????? ?????????? ?а????????? ????????? ??а??????? (??.а31 ?????????? ????????? ?а??.а38 ???????????? ?????????).
???????????? ????????? ??а???????? ?????????????????????? ??????????, ??а???????? ???????? ???????????????, ???а?????а??а???????????? ?????? ?????????? (???????????????????????) ????????????? ?????????. ?????? ???????? ????????????? ??????????? ???????
????????????? ?а????? ???????????? ?????????1. ??????? ???????????? ????????? ??? ??а???????? ???? ????????.
????? ??????, ???????? ?????????, ??????? ??а?????????????????? ?????????????? ??????? (?? ???? ??. ????), ???????? ?????????, ???????? ?????????, ???? ??????????, ???????????? ??? ???????? ????? ??а????????? ????????? ??????????, ??????, ?????, ?????,
??????????????? ???????????? ???????????? ????????. ???, ?????
????????????? ?????? ?а???????? ????????? ??????????? ????????
????????? ?????? ?? 29.01.2008 ?а15. ?????? ?а??? ??????? ????
????????? ?????? ?а?????????? ?а??? ??????????: ???? ??????, ?????
?????, ????? ?а?.?. ??? ???????? ??????????? ??????? ???????? ?????????, ??а??? ?а??????? ???????????. ??????? ?????????? ????????????? ??? ???????????? ????? ???????????? ?????????? ?????????? ?????????? ?а??????????? ???????? ????, ??????? ????????
????? ??????? ????????? ?????????? ?а??????.
???, ????? ???????????? ????????? ????????????, ?????????????? ????????????? ?????????????, ???????? ??а?????????? ????
?а??????? ??????? ???????? ??а???????? ???????, ??????? ?????????
?????? ??????????????? ????????? 600b ????, ?а?а?????? ???????
?????? ??а??????????? ???????????????. ??????????? ??????? ???????? ????????? ????????? ????? (????????? 600b ????) ?а????????? ????? ????????????? ?????????? ???????????? ?????????, ?а?
1 ???? 2010а?. ????????? ?а????? ?а?????????? ?а???? ??????????
??????? ??????????????? ??????????? ??а???? ?? 19 ???2 (?????????
??а???? ??. Да3а??. III).
????????, ???а?????????? ???????????, ??????????????? ????????????? ????????? ?????, ???? ??? ????? ??????????????? ????????????? ?????????? ?а?????? ????? ????????? ??а???????, ??а???1
? ??.: ????????? ?. ???. ???. ?.а333.
?аIATAаResolutionаhttp://www.iata.org/whatwedo/cargo/Documents/Resolution 600b_
FINAL_22 Juneа2010.pdf
2
95
Copyright ??? Ф??? Ф??????╗ & ??? ФA???????? K????-C?????╗
????? II. ??????? ????????? ?а????????????? ????????? ?????????
??? ?????????? ????????????? ?????? ?а???????????? ?????????,
?а?????? ?????????????? ???????? ????? ??????? ???????? ????????????? ????????? ???а??????, ??? ?а?????????? ?а??????????? ????
???????????? ????????????, ????????????? ????.
???????? ???????? ?.а2 ??.а3, ?.а4 ??.а4 ?а??.а9 ?????????? ?????????
?а??.аIII ?аIV ????????? ????????? ??????????, ?????????????? ?а?????
?????? ??а?????? ?? ??а?????????????, ?? ??а???????????????? ???????? ?а?????????, ??????? ??? ????? ????????? ??? ???????? ?????? ?????????. ?.?. ??????? ??????????? ????????, ???а???????????? ???????? ???? ??????? ????????, ??? ???а??? ????????????????
????????? ???????? ?а????????? ??а???????????, ?а???? ??а???????????: ??? ?????????? ??????? ??????? ??а?????? ?????? ???????????? ?????????? ?а???????? ????????????? ?????????1. ?????? ?а????? ???????? ????????? ????????? ?????????? Ф?????????? ???????╗, ??????? ????????? ?а???????????? ?????????, ???????????
?????????????? ????????. ?? ??? ???????, ???а??а????? ????????????? ????????????? ????????? ?а?????????? ????? ??????? ???????????????? ???????? ?а??? ??????? ?????????????. ?? ??????????????
?????????? ??????? ????????? ????????? ???????????, ?а??? ???????
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?????????? ??? ?????????, ????? ???????? ??а???????? ?????????
?????????? ?? ?????????? ?????????? ????? ????????. ?а???? ????? ????????? ??????????? ???????????????? ?а?????????? ?????????????? ???????? ??? ??????????? ??????????? ??? ?????????????
????????????? ?????????????, ???????? ??а?????????? ??.а785, 786
??а?? ?а??.а105 ??а??. ?????????????? ??а?????????? ?а??.а162 ??
?а???????????? ???????????? ?????????? ????? ??????.
?????? ??? ??????????? ???????????? ?????????? ????? ???????? ????????? ?а????????? ?????????? ?а??? ?????????? ?????? ????????? ?????????? ???????????.
??а????????? ?????????, ???? ?????????? ?????? ?????????, ?????
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? ????????????? ????????? ?????. ??. 2. C. 165?166.
96
Copyright ??? Ф??? Ф??????╗ & ??? ФA???????? K????-C?????╗
Да4. ????? ???????? ?а??????? ??? ??????????
?????? ??а?????????, ?????????????? ??? ???????????????. ???? ??
?????????? ????????? ??????????????? ??????? ??????????? ?????????? ????? ?а?а?????? ???????а? ???????????? ?????? ??а????????????
?????????? ???????????? ???????????? (??. Да4а??. IV).
???????? ????????? ?????????? Ф?????????? ???????╗, ???????? ???????? ?????? ?????????? ???????? ?????? ????????? ?а?????????? ???????????? ?????????? ?а????????????? ???????? ????????? ?????????? ?а?? ??????????? ???, ???а??????????????? ???????????
???????? ????????????. ???, ?а??????? ?????? ??а???????????? ????? ??а???? Warren v. Flying Tiger Line, ???????? ????? ??? ?а1965а?.,
???? ??????? ?????????: ???????? ??а???? ??????????? ??????????? ???????????? ?а????????? ??????????????? ??????????? ?а???
????????????? ????????????? ?????????????? ?? ??????????? ??????;
??? ????? ?????????? ??а???????? ?????????? ??????? ?????????? ????????? ???????????? ??????????? ?а???????? ???????????????. ?а1966а?., ?а?????? ??????? ??а???? Lisi v. Alitalia ????????????
??? ????? ??а???????? ??????? ??????????????? ??а?????????? ?????????, ???????? ???????? ??а??????????? ??????????????? ???????????? ?а?????? ????? ???????, ???а??? ?????????? ???? ?????????.
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?????? ??а??????????? ??????????????? ???????????1.
???????? ??а???????????? ???? ???????????? ????????????, ??
?????????? ???????? ???????? ??????? ?????????. ?? ??????? ???????????? ?????? ??????? ?а???????, ???а??????? ?а????? ????????????? ????????????? ????????? ?????????.
???????? ???????? ?????????????, ???????????? ???????, ????????? ?а?? ???????????, ?????????? ?????????? ????????????????
?а?????? ????????????? ???????? ??????????? ????????????? ???????????? ???????, ?????????? ??????? ?????????? ???????????
?а?????????? ????????????? ????????.
Ф?????? ??????? ????????? ????????????? ???????????? ?????? ?а???????? ????????????? ?????????, ??????????????? ?????????? ???????? ????????????? ????????? ?????????, ?а????????????? ???????? ???? ??????????? ??а??????????????? ???????????, ????????? ????????????? ???????????? ??????????? ???????
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? ????????? ??.: ??????? ?.?. ????. ???. ?.а29?30.
97
Copyright ??? Ф??? Ф??????╗ & ??? ФA???????? K????-C?????╗
????? II. ??????? ????????? ?а????????????? ????????? ?????????
(????) ?а???????? ?а1999а?.╗1. ?????????? ?????? ????????, ??????, ???а?????? ????? Ф????????╗ ?а????????? ????????????? ?????? ???? ????????????? ???????? 1971а?.2, ?а? ????????? ???????? ?????????а? ?????????? ?а???? ???????????? ???????? 1975а?. ?а43
?а?????????? ?????????.
????????? ???????????? ????????? ??а?????????? ????????
????????????? ????????? ????????? ???????????? ??а??????????
?????????????? 1971а?. ?а????????????? ?а4 ?а?????????? ?????????, ????????? ?? ????????? ?а???????????? ????? ?????????????
????? ?????? ?а???? ???????.
???????????? ????????? (?.а2?5 ??.а3 ?а?.а2 ??.а4), ???а?а????????? ?????????, ????????? ??????????? ??? ?????????? ????????
????????? ?????? ?????????? (????????????? ?????????) ?а???????????? ????????? ???????????? ????? ?????? ????????, ???????????
?????? ?а??????????? ?????????. ?а???? ??????? ?????????? ?????????? ??????????? ????????? ??а??? ??????? ?????????? ?????????
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??а????, ??????????? ???????? ???? ?а???????? ?????? ?а??????????, ?????????? ?а?????????. ???????????? ????????? ??? ??а???????? ????????? ?а????? ??????????? ????????? ?? ??????????? ??????????? ????????? ?а??????????? ??????? ??. ??????, ???? ??????? ????? ?????? ????? ????? ?а???? ????????? ???-???? ???????????,
??а????????????, ???а?а?а?????????? ?????????, ??????????? ?????
????????? ?? ??????????? ??????????? ????????? ???????????? ????????? ??а?????? ?????. ??????????????, ???? ???????????? ??????????? ???????? ?????????? ????????, ??? ???????????? ???????????? ?????????? ???? ????? ???????????? ????????? ???????????1
? ??.: ???????? ?.?., ??????? ?.?. ??????????? ?????а? ????? ????? ??????????
???????? ????????????? ????????? ?????????. ??????????? ??? ??? Ф???????????????╗, 2006.
2
? ICAO Doc. 8932.
3
? ICAO Doc. 9148.
98
Copyright ??? Ф??? Ф??????╗ & ??? ФA???????? K????-C?????╗
Да4. ????? ???????? ?а??????? ??? ??????????
?? ??? ????? ????????? ?? ??????????? ?????? ????????? ?????????
??а?????? ????? ?????.
???????? ????? ??????? ????????? ?а??????????????? ???????
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?? ????? ?????????? ??????????? ????? ???????????? ?? ??????????????.
?? ?????????? ?????, ???????????? ????????? (?.а5 ??.а3 ?а??.а9)
???????, ???а???????????? ?????????? ?а???????????? ?а??????
?????????? ????????? ?????????, ?????? ??? ?????, ?.?. ???????????? ????????? ??.а3?8 ?????????, ??а?????? ??а?????? ??а????????????? ??? ???????????????? ???????? ?????????, ??а?а?? ??????????
?????? ????????? ??а??????????? ??????????????? ???????????.
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??????? ?а??? ????? ??а????????? ????????? ???? ?????????? ?а???????????????, ??????? ?????? ????? ????????? ????????? ??????????????? ??а???????????? ???????????? ??????????????? ???????????. ?????? ??а???? ?????????????????? ???????????? ?????????? ?????? ??????????? ??????????????? ??????????? ?????????
??????? ???????? ?? ??????????? ?????????????? ?????? ?????????? ?а???????????.
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?????? ???????????? ?????????, ??????? ?????? ???? ??????? ?а????????? ?????????? ???????????? ???????????? ?????????, ???????
?а???, ???, ????????? ?????????? ??? ??????????? ??????????? ???????????? ?? ?????????? ?а???????????? ????????????, ??? ??????
??? ???????????? ?????????? ???????? ???????????? ?? ??????????????. ??? ????? ??????????? ??????????? ?????? ??????? ????????? ????? ???????????? ?а??????????? ????????????? ?????????? ??а?????????, ??????????? ??? ?? ????????.
?????? ?????? ???????????? ?????, ?а???????? ???????? ??????
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Copyright ??? Ф??? Ф??????╗ & ??? ФA???????? K????-C?????╗
????? II. ??????? ????????? ?а????????????? ????????? ?????????
?? ???????????? ?????????, ??а????? ??????????? ????????????
??????????? ??????? ?????????? ?????????, ????????? ?а?????? ??
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??????????????? ??????????? ??а??????, ??????????? ??????,
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?????????. ????????? ?? ??????????? ??????????????? ???????????,
??????????????? ??а????? ???????? ?а??????, ????????? ?????, ??????????? ???????? ??????? ??а??????????? ??????????????? ??а???????? ???????????? ?????????. ????? ?????????? ??а?а????????? ?????????? ??????????? ?а????????? ????????????? ?????????? ????????????, ????????? ?????? ??а????? ????????????? ?????????????.
?????????, ??????, ??а???????? ???????? ???????????????? ?????а?
???????? ??????????? ?а???? ????????????? ????????? 1975а?. ?а4
?а?????????? ?????????, ????????? ???? ???????? ??????? ????????
??????? ??? ???????????? ?????????? ???????? ?????????. ??????
?????? ?а??? ????? ??а?????????.
4. ??? ???????? ?????????? ?????????, ??а?????????? ???????????????? ??????? ??????? ????????? ?а????? ??????, ??? ??????? ?????????? ?????????? ????? ?? ??????????. ?а???????????? ??а??.а785, 786
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?????? ????? ?????????? ????????? ?а?.а2 ??.а434 ??а?? Ф????? ????????╗. ???????? ????? ?????? ??????? ?а?????????? ?????
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Copyright ??? Ф??? Ф??????╗ & ??? ФA???????? K????-C?????╗
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Copyright ??? Ф??? Ф??????╗ & ??? ФA???????? K????-C?????╗
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? Hotchkiss C. International Law for Business. New York, 1994. P.а194.
102
Copyright ??? Ф??? Ф??????╗ & ??? ФA???????? K????-C?????╗
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Copyright ??? Ф??? Ф??????╗ & ??? ФA???????? K????-C?????╗
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?а????05-732 ??? ????????? ?????? ???? ???????? ??????????104
Copyright ??? Ф??? Ф??????╗ & ??? ФA???????? K????-C?????╗
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? ????????? ??а??. 2006. ?а10.
105
Copyright ??? Ф??? Ф??????╗ & ??? ФA???????? K????-C?????╗
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? ????? ?а???? ?а????????????? ???????? ???????????? ?????????????? ???? ?? 06.07.2009 ?а 09??-7692/2009-?? ??а ????
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? ????????????? ???????? ???????????? ?????????????? ???? ?? 06.07.2009
?а09??-7692/2009-?? ??а???? ?а?40?85803/08?65?792.
106
Copyright ??? Ф??? Ф??????╗ & ??? ФA???????? K????-C?????╗
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?????? ??? ??????????? ?????? ?а????????????? ?? 02.04.2010
?а??-?40/2486-101, ?????????????? ??????????? ??.а64, 102, 106
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107
Copyright ??? Ф??? Ф??????╗ & ??? ФA???????? K????-C?????╗
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???????????????? ????а?? ?? 20.12.2011 ?а29-?4, ??????? ???????
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? ??????? ?.?. ????. ???. ?. 115.
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4
? ??а??. 2012. ?а2. ??.?397.
108
Copyright ??? Ф??? Ф??????╗ & ??? ФA???????? K????-C?????╗
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? ????????? ??.: Revue francaise de droit aжrien. 1972. ?а1. ?. 64?66; ????????? ?.?.
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?., 1981. ?.а213?222.
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Copyright ??? Ф??? Ф??????╗ & ??? ФA???????? K????-C?????╗
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Copyright ??? Ф??? Ф??????╗ & ??? ФA???????? K????-C?????╗
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? ??., ????????: ????????? ?.?. ?а?????? ???? ????????? ?а?????????? ?а???????????? ???????????? ????????????а// ????? ?а?????????. 2000. ?а9.
116
Copyright ??? Ф??? Ф??????╗ & ??? ФA???????? K????-C?????╗
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??? ???????? ???????, ?????????? ??????? ?а??????????1, ????? ????? ???? ????????? ?а??????? ??а?? ?? 17.05.2006 ?а????06-4982,
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? ??.: ????????? ?.?. ??????????????? ??а????????? ?????????? ?????????????
??а????????? ??а????????? ??????????а// ????????? ?а?????. 2005. ?а12.
2
? ????????? ??а??. 2007. ?а9. ??????? ????????? ?а???? ???????????? ????????? ??а?? ???????????? ?? 08.08.2006 ?а???06-276 Ф??а?????????? ??? ?????????
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? ????????? ??а??. 2007. ?а9.
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Copyright ??? Ф??? Ф??????╗ & ??? ФA???????? K????-C?????╗
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Copyright ??? Ф??? Ф??????╗ & ??? ФA???????? K????-C?????╗
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Copyright ??? Ф??? Ф??????╗ & ??? ФA???????? K????-C?????╗
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Copyright ??? Ф??? Ф??????╗ & ??? ФA???????? K????-C?????╗
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Copyright ??? Ф??? Ф??????╗ & ??? ФA???????? K????-C?????╗
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Copyright ??? Ф??? Ф??????╗ & ??? ФA???????? K????-C?????╗
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Copyright ??? Ф??? Ф??????╗ & ??? ФA???????? K????-C?????╗
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128
Copyright ??? Ф??? Ф??????╗ & ??? ФA???????? K????-C?????╗
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????????????? ?а??? ???????? ???????????????, ??а?а?? ????? ??????????????? ??????? ??????а? ????????? ???????????? ??? ?? ??????????????? (??.а25 ?а27).
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129
Copyright ??? Ф??? Ф??????╗ & ??? ФA???????? K????-C?????╗
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Copyright ??? Ф??? Ф??????╗ & ??? ФA???????? K????-C?????╗
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???????????????. ??????????????? ????? ???????????, ?????????????????? ?а????????????????? (?????а? ??????????????) ??а?????, ???1
? ??.: ??????? ?.?. ????. ???. ?.а18?19.
? ??. ??а????: ???????? ?.?. ??????????? ????? ?????????. ??????????-???????? ?????????????. ?.: ?????, 1979. ?.а96.
2
131
Copyright ??? Ф??? Ф??????╗ & ??? ФA???????? K????-C?????╗
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Copyright ??? Ф??? Ф??????╗ & ??? ФA???????? K????-C?????╗
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??????, ???????????????? ?а??????? ??????????? ???????????? ???????? Ф????╗,
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2
? ??.: ??????? ?.?. ????. ???. ?.а21.
133
Copyright ??? Ф??? Ф??????╗ & ??? ФA???????? K????-C?????╗
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?????????????? ?????2.
??????? ??? ??? ???????????, ???а????????? ????????????? ??????????????? ??????????? ??? ????????????? ????????? ??????????? ?а???, ???а????? ??????????? ???????????????? ?а???????? ??????????? ?а??? ?????? ?а?????, ??а??????????????? ?????????????? ???????????. ?????????? ??????? ??????????????? ???????????
??? ????????????? ????????? ?????????, ??????????? ??? ????????
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????? ??? ???????? ??а????????3.
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1
? ??????????? ?????: ???????. ?а2 ?. ?. II. ??????? 2а/ ???. ???. ?.?. ???????.
2-?а???., ???????. ?а???. ?.: ??????? ??????, 2005. ?.а424.
2
? ??.: ???????? ?.?. ????. ???. ?.а13.
3
? ??.: ??????? ?.?. ???????? ????????????? ????????????? ?????????. ?.: ????.
???., 1981. ?.а69; ??????? ?.?. ????????????? ????????????? (???????? ???????). ?.,
1982. ?.а98.
134
Copyright ??? Ф??? Ф??????╗ & ??? ФA???????? K????-C?????╗
Да1. ???????? ?а???????? ???????????????
????? ?а?.?. ????? ??????????????? ???????? ????????? ?а???????????? ??а?????? ???????????????? ??????? ???????????? ????????????? ?????. ?а???? ??????? ????? ???? ??????? ?????????? ?????????
?????????????, ?????????? ??????????? ????????? ?а?????, ??????????? ??????????? ????????? ?????? ??????? ????? ??а??????????? (??????? ????????? 1952а?.), ?а???????? ?а??? ?? 1978а?. ???а????????? ??а???????? ?????? ???????? ?????????, ???а??????????
?????????, ?????? ?а??? ????????? ???????????? ?????????? ??????????, ??????? ??????1. ?а?????? ???? ????????? ?????? ??а???????? ????? ????????? ?а???? ???????, ??????? ?????? ?? ????? ??????????????? ??? ???????? ????? ??????????2. ?а2009а?. ?а????-????????
???? (????????) ?????????? ??????????????? ???????????, ??а??????? ???? ??????? ??? ????? ????????????? ????????? ??а???????? ?????????? ?????, ???????????? ??? ???????????? ??????????
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????????? ????????? ????????????? ???? ??????????? ???????
??? ?????????? ??????3. ??????а? ????????? ?а?????????? ??????, ???????????? ?????????? ?????? ??????? ????? (????????? ??????? ?????????????).4
????? ????????? ??????????? ?а???????? ????????, ??а???????????? ?а??????? ?????????, ?а?????? ????? ???. ??? ??????????????? ??????????? ?????? ??????????? ?????? ???????????, ?а???
????? ?а?????????? ????? ??????????, ??а???? ???????? ????? ??а?????????????? ?????? ?а??????????, ?????????? ?а?а??????????? ??????? ?????????????? ??????????????? ?????????? ????????? ?????.
??????????? ????? ??????? ??а????, ???а??????????????? ??????????? ??а????? ?а???????? ????????? ????? ?????? ?????????? ???????. ??? ?а???? ????? ???? ???? ?????????? ??? ?????? ????? ???????????? ????????? ????????? ??????????? ???????????? ?????,
1
? ???????????? ???? ???????? ???? ????????? ??????????? ????? ??а?????? ?????
?????????? Ф????????????? ????????? ?????╗ (??? ???. ?.?. ??????? ?а?.?. ????????. ?.: ?????, 1981. ?????? ?????а? ?.?. ?????? ?а?.?. ??????????).
2
? Kjellin H. The New International Regime for Third Party Liabilityа// Air & Space Law.
Vol. XXXIII/2 (April 2008). P.а63?80.
3
? ICAO Doc. 9920: http://www.aviadocs.net/icaodocs/Docs/9920_mu.pdf
4
? ICAO Doc. 9919: http://www.icao.int/DCCD2009/docs/DCCD_doc_42_ru.pdf
135
Copyright ??? Ф??? Ф??????╗ & ??? ФA???????? K????-C?????╗
????? III. ??????????????? ????????? ????????? ?а????????????? ??????????
????????? ??? ??а???????? ???????? ???????? ????????? ?????????.
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????????? ??а????????? ?????????? Ф??????????? ?????????? ??????????╗ (obligation de resultat)1.
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? Rodiere Renж. Droit des transports: transports terrestres et aeriens. Paris, 1977. P.а748?763.
? ??.: ?????? ?.?. ???????? Ф??????????? ?????╗ ?а??????????? ???????????
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Copyright ??? Ф??? Ф??????╗ & ??? ФA???????? K????-C?????╗
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142
Copyright ??? Ф??? Ф??????╗ & ??? ФA???????? K????-C?????╗
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???????? ??????????, ??????????? ?? ????? ?а?? ???? ???????????╗.
? ???? ????? ???? ??????????? ????????????????, ??????? ??????????, ????????????? ??????????????? ????? ??????????? ?а???????????????? ??а???????? ????? ????????, ?а????? ???????, ???? ???
??а????????? ????? ??????????, ????? ??????????. ???????????????
??????????????? ??????? ??? ???????? ??????????? ?а??????????
????????? ??а?????????????. ?????? ????? ???????? ??????????
????????? ?а?????????? ???????? ???????? ???????? ???? ??а???????????????, ????? ?а????? ?? ????????? ???? ?а?????????????? ??????????????? ????????????? ?а???????? ???????????. ?а????? ?а????
144
Copyright ??? Ф??? Ф??????╗ & ??? ФA???????? K????-C?????╗
Да1. ???????? ?а???????? ???????????????
???????? ???????? (??.а25?), ???????????? ????????? (??.а30) ???????? ??????????? ??????? ?а?????? ??????? ?а???????? ???????????
????????? ?а????? ??????? ??а????????????? ??????????? ??????????? ???????????????.
???????? ????? ??????? ??.а30 ???????????? ?????????, ???????
??????????? ???аФ????????, ??????. ????? ????? ?????╗, ???? ???
?????????? ?а????????? ??? ?????? ???????????, ????? ???????? ???
?????, ???? ??а???????, ???а??а?????????? ?а?????? ????? ?????????
????????????, ????? ????? ????????? ??а??????? ?а??????? ???????????????, ??а??????? ????? ????? ????????? ??? ?????????? ??а????????? ?????????. ????? ?????, ??????? ????? ???? ???????? ?а???????????, ??? ???????? ?а???????, ??а?????? ?а???? ?????? ?????????
????????????? ?????????? ????????.
??? ????????? ??а???????????, ???? ????? ??????? ?????? ????????? ??? ?????? ??? ?? ????, ?????????? ?а??????? (?.а3 ??.а30 ???????????? ????????? ?а?.а3 ??.а25? ????????? ?????????). ????????
???????????? ?????????, ????????????? ????????? ?а4 ?????????
?????????? ??а????????? ??? ????????? ????? (????????? ??. Да3 ????????? ?????).
7. ???? ?????????? ????. ?????? ????? ????????? ????????, ?????
???? ???????????? ?а?????????? ????????? ????????? ????????????? ??а?????? ?а???????????? ?????????, ??а?а? ???? ?????, ??????? ????? ????? ?а??????????? ??????. ??а????????, ????????,
?????????????? ???? ?а??????? ?????????? ????????? ?????????,
?????????? ?а?.?. ?а??????? ?? ?????????? ???????????? ?????????
???????????? ??????????? ????? ?????, ??????? ?????????? ???,
????????? ??а??????? ????????? ?а??? ????? ?а???????????? ???????
??????? ???????? ??????????? ????? ??? ?????, ?а??? ???????????.
???????????? ???????????? ????????? (??.а37) ?????????? ?????????, ???а????????? Ф?? ?????????? ??????? ?а???, ????? ?? ????, ????????????? ??а???? ?а???????????? ?а?? ???????????, ????? ????????
?????? ?????? ??????? ????╗. ????? ???????, ??????????, ???????????? ????, ?????? ???????????? ??? ?????????, ??????, ?????????????? ??????????????? ?????????? ???????, ?????????? ??????????
????? ?????????? ?а????? ?????.
8. ?????????????? ???, ??????? ???????????????. ????????? ???????? ?????????, ?а???????????? ?а??????? ?а?????? ?????? ????,
???????? ???????????????, ??? ?а?????????? ????? ?????????????
145
Copyright ??? Ф??? Ф??????╗ & ??? ФA???????? K????-C?????╗
????? III. ??????????????? ????????? ????????? ?а????????????? ??????????
?а??? ??????????????? (??.а27 ?????????? ?????????) ??? ?а?????,
??а???????? ????????? ?????????????? ??? ????????? (??.а32 ???????????? ?????????). ????? ??? ????? ???? ?????????? ?????? ???
?????????? ??????? ??????????????? ?????????. ?????????? ?????????? ?????? ???? ?????? ???????? ?а?????? ?а???, ???а??? ??????????? ???? ?а???????, ????? ????, ????????????? ??а?????????? ?????, ???????? ??????????.
?????? ???? ?????? ????? ??????????? ?????????? ??????????
??????, ???????????? ????????????? ???????????? ???? ?а????????? ?????? (????????, ??.а57 ??а??), ????? ????? ?а???????????
????????? ?а?????? ???????????? ??а????????? ????????????? ????
??? ??????????????? ???????. ????? ????, ?а?????????? ????? ??????? ??????????? ????????? (??.а1093 ??), ?????????? ??????????
????? ?а?????? ??????????? ???????????? ????, ??????????? ?а????????????? ??????? ????????????? ??а????, ??????????? ????? ???
????????. ???, ?а?????? ??? ????????????? ??????????? ??а??????? ??????????????? ???????? ????? ??? ?????????????. ?а???? ?? ????????????? ?а?????????? ?а?????????? ?????. ?а?????? ?????????? ?????? ???????????? ???? ??????????????? ??????? ?????? ???? ???????????????? ??? ??????? ?? ????????????.
9. ??????????????? ????????? ?а????????????????. ??а??????????????? ????????? ???а??????? ???????? ????????? ?? ??????????,
?? ???????????? ?????????? ??а??????? ??????. ??? ???????? ????
????????? ?????????, ?????????? ??????????????? ???????????,
????????????? ????????? ??? ??????????????, ??????? ?????? ??????????????? ???????????. ?? ???? ??а????????? ??а?????????? ??????? ??? ???????? ???? ???????????????. ???????, ????????, ????????? ??.а27 ?????????? ????????? ?а??.а32 ???????????? ?????????
?а?????????????? ??а????????? ?а??????? ??????????????? ????????? ??? ???????????.
???????????????? ???а??????? ???????? ????????? ????????? ????? ??????????????? ??а???????????? ??? ???????????? ??????????
????? ????????????. ??-??????, ???????? ??.а10 ?????????? ?а???????????? ????????? ??а???????? ??а????????? ?????, ????????? ??-??
?????????????? ???????? ?а?????????, ??????? ????????? ?а???????????? ????????? ??? ?а?????????. ??-??????, ??????????? ????? ??????????????? ??а??????, ??????? ????? ???? ????????? ???????????
?а????? ?а???????????, ??????????? ??? ??????????????? ???????146
Copyright ??? Ф??? Ф??????╗ & ??? ФA???????? K????-C?????╗
Да1. ???????? ?а???????? ???????????????
???, ??????????? ??? ?????????? ?????????? ??????????? ??????????? ?а???? ?????????????, ??????? ??а?????? ????????? ?а???????? ????????? (??.а16 ?????????).
????? ???????, ??? ????????? ?????? ??? ?????, ??????? ?????
???? ????????? ??????????? ?????????? ??? ?????????????????, ??????????? ??а???????? ???????????? ??????????? ????? ??????????.
???, ??а??????????? ???????????????? ?????????????? ?????? ????? ????? ??????????????? ??а??????????????? ??????? ?а????????????
??а????????? ?????, ??????? ?????????? ?а?????? ????????? (??.а395 ??).
??а????? ?????????? ??????????? ???????????????? ???????? ?а???????????????? ????? ??????????????? ??а??????????? ??? ????? ?а?????
??????????? ??? ????????? ?????????, ????????? ?????????? ????
?????? ????????? ?а?????????? ??????, ?????????, ?а?????????, ???????? ???????????? ??????? ???????? ???????????????? ????????,
??а??????????? ??? ???????????? ??????? ?а?.?.
??????????? ???????? ????? ??а???????????? ??? ???????? ???????? ?а???????????? ????????? ???????? ?а?????, ?а????????? ????????? ????????? ????????? ??? ???????? ??а???????????? ??????????. ?? ?????? ??.а121 ??а??, ???????? ??а????? ?????????? ??
????????????, ????????, ???а?а???? ?????? ??????????? ????????? ??????????? ??????, ????????? ?а?????????? ?????????? ?????????. ??? ??????????????? ?????? ???????????? ?????? ??а????????? ?????????? ?а??????????????? ???????????? ?????????? ????? ??а????????.
??а?? ??а???????? ???????? ??а?????????? ??????????????? ??????????????? ????? ?????????????. ?? ?? ????? ??????? ??а?????
???????? ?????????, ???????? ????????? ????. ???????????? ??а????????? ?????????? ????? ?а????? ??? Ф????????╗ ??????????? ??????????? ??????????? ?а?????????? ?????????? ??????, ?????????
??а?? ????. ??? ?????????? ????? ??????????? ???????? ?а????????
??? ???????? ????????? ?????? ???? ?????? ???????, ??????????????
?????? ??????????? ??а?? ??а??????????????? (?.а3 ??.а401) ?а?????? ????, ???а??????????? ?а?????????? ????? ????????, ???а???????,
?????????????????.
???????? ????? ????? ???? ????????? ?а??????????-????????
??????????????? ??а????? ?????????? ??????????? ?????, ???? ???????? ???????? ????? ????????? ??????? ?а????????????? ??????? ?а???????????.
147
Copyright ??? Ф??? Ф??????╗ & ??? ФA???????? K????-C?????╗
????? III. ??????????????? ????????? ????????? ?а????????????? ??????????
Да2. ???????????????? ????????? ???????????
? ???? ????????? ????????????
1. ??? ?????????????? ???????? ???????? ????????, ??????? ????????? ?????????????????. ?????????????? ???????? ????? ??????
????? ???????????, ???? ???????????????? ????????? ???? ???????????
???????????? ???????. ????????????? ?????? ???????????, ????? ??
????????? ????????? ??????? ?а??????? ???????? ??????????????.
?????????????, ?????? ???????????? ????????? ?????????????, ?????????? ?? ????, ???????? ??? ?????? ??? ?????????, ??????????? ???????? ??? ??????????????? ??????????? ??????, ???????? ?????????????? ?а???? ????????? ??????????? ????????? ?????????? ??????????????? ?а?????????? ??????????? ??? ???????1.
?? ?????????? ?????????? ????? ???????, ???а??????????????
????????? ??????????? ??а?????? ?????????? ?а???????????? ????????? ??????????? ?а???????????? ??? ???????????? ??????????
????? ?????????? ??а???????? ????????????? ????????? ????????? ???????????? ??а????????? ?а????????????? ????????? ?????????? ?????? ?а??????. ?????????????? ????????? ??????????? ?????????? ?а??? ????????? ??? ???????????2, ????????? ?????????????
?????, ??????, ?????????? ????? ????? ??? ???????? ??????????, ???????? ??? ?????????. ????????????? ???? ????????? ??????????
???????????? ???????? ??а????? ??????? ?а???????? ????????????.
2. ?????????? ????? ????? ?а???????? ?????????. ???????? ???????????? ??.а17 ?????????? ????????? ?????????? ???????? ??а????, ??????????? ?а?????? ??????, ??????? ??? ????????? ??????????? ?????????. ???????? ??а????? ??? ?????????????? ????????? ??а???????
?а????????? ?????, ??????????? ?????????? ?а???? ???????, ???????????? ??.а17 ?????????? ????????? ???????????? ????????? ?а???????????? ????????? ??а?????????? (????????? ???? ????? Ф???????╗, ????????? ???????? ??????????? ???????? ?а???? ??? ???????).
????????? ?????????????? ????????? 1971а?., ???????? ????? ???????? ?????????? ?????????, ??а?а???? ??? ?а?? ???????????, ?????Г
1
? ??.: ??????????? ?????: ???????. ?. Iа/ ??? ???. ?.?. ????????. ?.: ??????????? ????? Ф????????╗: ?????-?, 2006. ?.а437.
2
? ?????? ?.?. ??????????????? ?????????? ??????????? ??а?????????? ????? ????? ?а???????? ????????? ??? ????????????? ?????????: ???????. ???. .. .????. ????.
????. ?., 2009.
148
Copyright ??? Ф??? Ф??????╗ & ??? ФA???????? K????-C?????╗
Да2. ???????????????? ????????? ??????????? ?а???? ????????? ????????????
?????????? ??????????????? ??????????????? ??а??а???????? ???????????, ?а?? Ф??????╗ (?а????. ?????? ????? Фbodily injury╗ ???? ???????? ??аФpersonal injury╗). ????? ?????? ???????? ????? ?????????
?а?????????? ?????? ??????????????? ???????????????, ????????????? ?????????? ??????????, ?а????? ?а???? ?????????? ??а???? ??????????????? ??а??????????? ??????? ????????? ??? ?????????????,
????????? ??? ?????????????????? ??????. ?а????????? ???????
Ф?????? ????╗ (Фpersonal injury╗) ??а30-? ?????? ???????????? ???????? ???? ??????????? ?????? ????? ??????????, ???а??а????? ?????? ?????????????? ?а??????? ?????? ?????, ??а????????? ?а??????????????????? ???????? ?????? ?????. ??? ???????? ?????? ?????????????? ????????? ??????????? ??? ?а?? ?????? ????????? ??а???????
???? ?????? Фpersonal injury╗, ??????? ?а??? ??????? ??????а? Ф???????? ???????????╗. ??????, ???????? ????????? ?а????????? ????? ?????????? ?а?? ?????? 1974а?., ?????????????? ???????? ?а???
1990а?. ?а??????? ???????? ????? ?????????? ?????? Ф???????? ???????????╗, ???????? ??а??, ???а?а?????????? ?????? ???? ?????????? ????????? ?аФpersonal injury╗.
????????, ????? ??????????? ?????????????? ????????? ????? ????? ??а?????? ??? ??????? ?а?а1997а?., ?а???? ????????????? ??????????? ??а30-? ?????? ???????????? ???????? ????, ?????????? ??????????? ????????? ??????????? ?????? ???1.
????? ??? ?????? ?а?????????? ?????, ?????????? Ф????????????╗ ????????????? ???????? ??????????, ?? ?а???? ???? ??а??? ????
?а???????? ???, ????????? ?а????? ?????? ????? ??а?? ??????????
?а??????? Ф???????? ???????????╗. ??а???????????? ??????????????? ??????????? ?а1999а?. ?????????????? ???? (?????????????
?????????? ?????????? ??????????) ??????????? ????????? ?????
??????, ??????????? ??????????? ?????????? ?????? ??????????????? ???????????????, ????????? ?????? ??????????? ??????
?а???????? ?а????????? ?а?????? ????? ????????? Ф????????????
???????????╗ ?а???????? ?????????? ???? ?????, ??????????? ??????????2. ?а?????????? ??????????? ?а??????? ????????????? ??????3
??а??????? ??????? ???? ????????? ?????? ???????????? ??????1
? ICAO Doc. 9693-LC/190.
? DCW Doc. No. 10 4/5/99.
3
? DCW Doc. No. 50 25/5/99.
2
149
Copyright ??? Ф??? Ф??????╗ & ??? ФA???????? K????-C?????╗
????? III. ??????????????? ????????? ????????? ?а????????????? ??????????
???? ?????????. ?????? ????? ????????? ???????????? ????????
Ф????????? ???????????╗ ??? ????? ???????????? ?????????, ???????????? ???????? ??????? ???????, ?????????? ??????????????
????????? ????? ?а?????????? ??????????, ???????? ?а?????????.
?аФ???????? ????????????╗ ????????? ????? Ф??????????? ???????????, ????????? ?а???????? ????????, ?а??????????? ???????????, ??? ?????????? ????????, ?????? ??????????? ????????????
????????????? ??????????? ??а???????? ?????????╗. ????? ???????, ??????????? ???????? ??а??????????? ??????????? ??аФ??????????? ???????????╗, ???? ??? ??????? ?а??????????? ????????
????????? ??? ???? ???????? ??????????? ??????? ?а????????????
??????? ????????. ??? ??а????????????? ??????? ?????????? ????????? ?а?????? ???????, ??????? ??? ??а30-? ?????? ????????????
???????? ???? ?????????? ????????????, ???????? ?а??????????
????????????????: Ф?????????? ????? ????? ?а????????╗. ????? ????????? Ф????????? ???????????╗, ??????????????? ?а??????????,
??????? ??????????1, ??????? ????????????? ??????????? ??а?????????? ????? ??а157-? ?????? ?????? ????2, ?????? ???? ?????????? ?а??? ??????? ???????? ?а??????????? ???????????? ?????,
??????? ???? ?????????. ??? ??????? ??????????? ??????????????,
???????? ??а??, ???а???????????? ????????? ????????? ?а???????
Фbodily injury╗ (Ф???????? ???????????╗), ???????????? ?????? ?????????? ??????????, ?????????? ????? ??????? ?а?????? ?????????
??а???????????? ??????????? ?????? ????? ????, ????? ?????????, ??? ??? ????????? ?а????????? ???? ?????????. ??? ???????
??????????? ??????? ??а???????3, ?? ????????? ????????? ??? ???,
?????? ??????????????? ???????????? ??????????? ?????4. ?????? ??????????? ?а???????, ???а????? ???????? ????????? ???????
Ф???????? ???????????╗ ??а????? Ф???????? ???????????? ??????? ??а??????????? ???????????? ?????????╗5. ????????, ????????, ?.а4 ??.а31 ??????? ????????? ?а????? ????????????? ????????? 1969а?., ??????????????? ????? ??????? ?????????? ?????????,
1
? DCW Doc. No. 35 18/5/99.
? ICAO Doc. C-WP/11155 11/6/99. p. 2.
3
? Cunningham McKay. The Montreal Convention: Can Passengers Finally Recover for Mental Injuries? Vanderbilt Journal of Transnational Law. 2008 [Vol.а41:1043].
4
? Cunningham McKay. Op. cit. ?. 29.
5
? Whalen Thomas J. Op. cit. P.а17.
2
150
Copyright ??? Ф??? Ф??????╗ & ??? ФA???????? K????-C?????╗
Да2. ???????????????? ????????? ??????????? ?а???? ????????? ????????????
Ф??????????? ???????? ????????? ??????? ?а??? ??????, ???? ???????????, ???а????????? ????? ????? ?????????╗.
?????????? ??????, ???а?????? Ф??????????? ????╗, ???????????
?а?????? ?а???, ???????? ????????????? ??????? Ф????????? ????╗,
????????????? ?а?????????? ????????????????, ?а???????????????
?????1. ?а?????????? ?а?????-???????????? ???????? ???????? ????????? ?????? ????????? ??????????, ???а????????? ???? ?а??????
???????????? ????????? ?????????? ??а????????, ????????? ??
??????????????? ??????????? ????? ?????? ????????????2.
? ????? ?????? ??????????? ????? ??????? Ф????????? ????╗
?аФ??????????? ???????????╗ ??????, ?????? ?????????????, ????????? ????? ?а?????? ??????????. ????????? ????? ????? ?????
?????????? ???а?????????, ??? ?а???????????? ???????????. ?а?????? ?????? ??а???????? ??????????, ?а?? ??????а? ???. ??? ?????
??????????? ?????? ??????????? ?????????? ?????????? ??????????? ?а??????????? ???????????? ?? 01.10.99 Ф????? ????? ??? ????????╗ ???????? ????... ???????????? ?а????????? ??????, ????????
???????????, ???????????, ?????????? ???????????? ??? ?????????????????? ???????╗. ?????? ??а???????? ??????????? ???????????? ??????????? ???? ???????, ????????? ?а???????? ?????????, ???
??????????????????? ?а?.?., ?????????, ?а?????????, Ф???????????
????????????╗ ?????????, ??????? ??????? ???????????? ????????????? ??????????? ??а??? ????????. ?? ???? ???? ??????? ?а???????????
????????? ???????????????, ?а? ???????????а? ????????????? ????????? ????????? ??????????. ??? ???????? ?????????? ?????, ???????
????? ????? ??????????, ??а???????????? ???????????????? ?????????? ??а???????? ?а???????????? ?а??????? ?а??????? ??????????????? ????????????? ????????? ?а??????????? ????????????????.
?????? ??? ????? ???? ??????????? ?????? ?а???????????, ????????? ??????????? ????? ??????????????? ??????????? ??а???????? (????????? ??. Да3 ?а6 ????????? ?????). ???? ?? ??????????????????
?????? ??а??????? ?????????? ??????????? ??а???????? ????????? (??
??а????????? ?а?????, ??? ?а????????? ?????????? ???????? ???????????? ?а?.?.), ??а?а???? ?????? ??а???????? ????????????? ?????????
????????? ???? ?????????? ??а????????.
1
? ??.: ??????????? ?.?. ??????????? ?????????? ?????: ???????????. ?., 2000.
?.а40?56.
2
? ?????? ?.??. ????. ???. ?. 320.
151
Copyright ??? Ф??? Ф??????╗ & ??? ФA???????? K????-C?????╗
????? III. ??????????????? ????????? ????????? ?а????????????? ??????????
????? ???????, ??а ??????? ????????? ?????????? ?????????????????? ?????? ???а??? ?????????????? ?а????????? ???????
???а??????, ?????????? ??????????. ??? ???? ??? ????????? ??????? (?????????) ????????????? ??????????????? ???????????. ?????? ?а???? ??????? ???????? ????????????? ?????? ?а?????????? ?????????? ????? ??????????? ??? ????????????? ????????? ?а??????
???????????? ?????????.
3. ????????????? ????? ?а??????. ?????? ?????????? ????????????,
??а??????? ?????????? ????? ??????????????? ??а???????? ????????????? ????????? ?????????, ???????? ????????????? ?????, ??????, ?????? ????? ?а???? ????? ?????????, ????????? ?а??? ??а????????? ?????. ???????? ??.а18 ??????????, ??.а17 ?а18 ????????????
????????? ?????????? ???????? ??а????, ??????????? ?а?????? ???????????, ????? ??? ??????????? ??????, ?????? ????? ?????????,
?а????? ?????, ????????? ?а?????????. ???????????? ??????????? ???????????????? (??.а118 ??) ????????? ????: Ф??????, ?????????, ??????????? (?????)╗. ??????????????, ???а???????? ??? ??а????????
?????? ??????? ??а????????. ?а????????? ???? ????????? ????????
??а?? (??.а796) ?????????? ?????????? ??????а? Ф?????????????╗
????? ?а??????.
Ф??????????? ?а?????╗ ????? ??? ?????? ????????????? ??????
Ф??????╗. ??? ??????? ?????????? ????????????? ?????? ???? ???
????? ?????????? ??? ????????? ?а??????? ????????????? ?????. ??
?????? ?????????? ?а???????????? ????????? (?.а3 ??.а13) ????????, ???а???? ???? ?а????????? ????? ?????????? ???? ??????? ????
??а???, ????? ???? ?????? ??? ???????, ??? ???????, ???а?? ????????? ?????? ????? ????? ?????? ????? ??а???? ???????? ????? ????????????. ???? ???? ???????? ???????? ??????? ??а????????? ?а????????????? ?а?????????? ??????. ???????? ??.а796 ??а?? ???? ?????????
??????????, ???? ??а?? ?????? ?а????? ?????????? ??а????????? 30
???? ?а???? ???????, ????? ??а?????? ??? ???????. ?????? ??а?????????? ????????? ????????? ???? ???? ?????????? 10 ????, ????????? ??? ??а??? ????????? ?а???? ??.а126 ??а?? ?а?????????? ??????????
????? ??а???????????? ????????? ??а?????? ?????.
??? ???????? ??????, ??а??? ????????? ??? ?????????? ?.а3 ??.а17
???????????? ?????????, ?.а154 ????? ?????? ????????? ????????????? 21-??????? ????. ?????????? ????????? ??а??????????????? ?а???? ????????? ?????-???? ??????.
152
Copyright ??? Ф??? Ф??????╗ & ??? ФA???????? K????-C?????╗
Да2. ???????????????? ????????? ??????????? ?а???? ????????? ????????????
Ф?????????╗ ???????? ??????? ??????? ?а???? ??? ?????????? ????? ??? ??????, ????????? ?а????????? ?а????????? ?????????? ???
????????? ??а?????? ????????????? ?????????, ?а?? ???? ????? ???????? ????????? ???????. ??? ???????? ????????????? ????????????, ???????????? ?????????? ??????, ?????? ?????, ????? ??????????? ?а??????????? ??????????? ??????? ?????????? Ф??????????? ?а?????╗.
??????? Ф??????????? (?????)╗ ???????? ?????????????? ????????
?????????? ????? ??? ?????? ??? ???????? ??? ???????? ?а?????????
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? ??? ????????? ?а????.
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?????? ????????????? ???????????????? ????????????? ???????????
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?????? 795 ??а?? ?????????? ?????? ??????????????? ??а????????
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??????????? ?????????╗, ??.а795 ??а????? ???? ??????????????? ??????????????? ??????????? Ф?? ???????? ??????????? ?????????????
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Copyright ??? Ф??? Ф??????╗ & ??? ФA???????? K????-C?????╗
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????????? ?а??? ??????????? ??????????????? ??????????? ??а??????
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???????, ??????????????? ??????????? ??а???????? ??????????? ????????? ?а?????. ????? ??? ??? ????????? ??????????????? ?????????? ??????????????? ???????????, ????????? ?????? ????? ??????????
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??????? ??????????? ?а????, ??? ????????, ???а??? ?????????? ??????
?.а1 ??.а795 ??а?? ?????????? ???????? ???????????????? ?????????? ?а??а??1. ??а??? ?????? ???????? ?????? ??????, ?.?. ?? ???????? ????? ??????????? (??. ?.а6 Да3 ????????? ?????).
??????? ???????????? ????? (Regulation (EC) Noа261/2004 of the
European Parliament and of the Council of 11 February 2004)2 ?????????1
? ??.: ??????????? ?а??а??а/ ??? ???. ?.?. ????????. ?.а427; ???????????
?а??а??а/ ??? ???. ?.?. ???????? ?а?.?. ????????. ?.а507?508; ?????????? ?.?., ??????????а?.?. ????. ???. ?. 335.
2
? Official Journal Lа046, 17/02/2004. P.а0001?0008.
154
Copyright ??? Ф??? Ф??????╗ & ??? ФA???????? K????-C?????╗
Да2. ???????????????? ????????? ??????????? ?а???? ????????? ????????????
???? ??????? ???????????? ?????????? ?а??????? ????????? ???????
???????? ?????????, ????????? ?а???????? ??????????? ????? ????? ???? ????? (Delay). ???????????? ????????? ?????????????? ????? ????????? ?а????????? ??? ??????, ??а??????? ??а????????????
?????? ?а??????????? ?а?? ??????? ?а???? ?а?????? ??????? ?????????????? ???????????? (Denied boarding), ??? ???????? ?????????????
????????? ??а?????????. ?? ??? ?????????????? ????????? ????????????????? ??????? ??????????? ?а????????????? ???????. ??????????? ????????????? ????? ?а?????? ?????? ????? ????????????
(Cancellation) ??? ???????????????? ??????????? ????????? ??а????????? ??????????. ???? ?????? ????? ??? ???????? ?????????????
????????? ??а?????????.
?????? ???????? ???? ???????????? ????? ?? 19.11.2009 ??????????, ???а??? ????? ???? ??????, ?.?. ??? ??????? ?????????? ???????????, ??????? Ф????????╗ (Delay), Ф????? ?а???????╗ (Denied boarding)
Ф?????? ?????╗ (Cancellation) ???????????? ?а????? ?????????? ???????? ??????????? ?а???? ??????? ???????????1. ????? ????, ???
????, ???а???? ?а?????????? ???????? ???????? ?????? ?а????? ?????????? ?а?????????? ????? ??? ??а??? ????, ??а?? ????? ????? ??а???????????, ??????????????? ????????? ??а?????? ???????? ???????????. ??? ????? ????? ???????? ??? ???????? ?? ??? ??? ???????
????????????? ??????????????? ??????????? ??а???????? ?а???????
??????????? ??а????? ????????? ?а??????? ??а???? (?????????а??. Да3
?а5 ????????? ?????). ??? ??????? ?а?????????????? ???а???????????
????????????, ??? ?а????? ???????????? ??????????? ????????????
?а??????? ????????????? ?????2.
??????????????? ??????????? ??а?????????????? ????????, ??????????????? ????????? ???????????. ???????? ?????? ?????????
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?а?????????? ?????? ?а?????, ??????????? ????? ???? ???????????, ?????? ???????? ????? ?????? ?а???????????? ??????????????.
?????????? ???????????? ???????? ?????????????? ????? ?????
??????, ???а???? ???? ???? ?а???????? ??? ?????????, ??а??????????? ???????????? ?а?????????? ?????????. ?????? ?? ??, ?? ??????
??а???????? ?????????? ?а???????????, ????????? ?а??????? ???1
? Official Journal Cа24/5. 30.1.2010.
? Balfour John Airline Liability for Delays: The Court of Justice of the EU Rewrites EC
Regulation 261/2004. Air & Space Law. Vol. XX?V. Number 1. 2010.
2
155
Copyright ??? Ф??? Ф??????╗ & ??? ФA???????? K????-C?????╗
????? III. ??????????????? ????????? ????????? ?а????????????? ??????????
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????????? ????????? ?????????. ?а???? ?????? ??????? ????????????????? ??????????, ???????????? ?????????????????, ????????????
??????????? ???????? ??? ???????????? ?????????????.
???? ???????? ??а??????? ?????????? ???? ??а?????, ??а???????
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??????????? ???????????????? ???????????????? ?а???????????? ???????? ?а???????????? ??? ???????????. ?????? ???? ?а???? ?? ???????? ???????????? ???? ?????????? ???? ???????? ???????? ????????? ?а????? ?????????? ?а?? ?????????? ?а????? ??а???, ??а?????? ?????
?????????, ????????? ?а?????????? ???????? ??? ?????????, ???? ???
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????? ?????? ???????? ?????????????? ???????? ????????? ???
?а??????????? ???????????? ?????????. ?а???? Weiss v. El Al Israel
Airlines, Ltd ????? ????????? ??а???, ???а????? ????????? ?а?????????
??а????? ????????????????? ???а???????? ?а?????? ??.а19 ???????????? ?????????, ?а??????? ????????? ?????????? ??а???????? ?а???? ?????? ??????????????? ??а?????? ???????????? ????????????????
??? ?а?????? ?????. ???, ????????????? ????????? ????????????
????????? ??? ?????????? ?????????????????, ??? ??а????? ???????
??????????? ?????????? ??????????. ???????? ??а???? ???????????
?????? ???????? ?????????, ??? ?а???? ???????? ?????????? ?а??????? ?????1. ????? ???????, ??? ??????? ??а????, ???а??? ??????????
??? ??а??а??????????????? ??????????? ??? ????????????? ????????? ?????????, ?а? ??? ??????????????? ?а?????????? ??????? ?а????? ?а??????????? ??????? ????????? ?? ????? ?????????. ???????
????????? c?. 29 ???????????? ????????? ?а???? ????????? ?а????
?????? ?????????? ??а?????????.
?. ???????? ???????, ???а?а???????? ????? ?????? ?????????????? ??????? ?а????? ??????? ??а???????????2. ?????? ???????? ????
1
? IATA Liability Reporter, February 2007. Vol.а10. ?. 6?7.
? Tompkins George N., Jr. ФBumping╗а? Denied Boardingа? and Article 19 of the Montreal
Conventionа// Air & Space Law. Vol. XXXII/3. June 2007. P.а231?232.
2
156
Copyright ??? Ф??? Ф??????╗ & ??? ФA???????? K????-C?????╗
Да2. ???????????????? ????????? ??????????? ?а???? ????????? ????????????
???????? ??????????, ???а???????, ??????? ????????????? ???????? ???????? ?а???????? ???????, ??а??????????? ??? ???????? ??.а19
???????????? ?????????, ???а???????, ????????? ?????? ?????, ????? ?????????? ??а?????????? ??????????????? ???????? ??????????
????????? ?а?? ?????? ????????? ?а??????????? ??????? ?????????.
5. ????????? ???? ????????????. ????? ???????, ????? ?????????? ?а?????????? ?????????? ??????????????, ???????????? ?????? ???????????, ?????????? ???? ????????? ???????? ????????????? ????????? ?????????, ?????????? ?а????????????? ??????????????? ???????????. ??а????? ??а??? ????????? ?а????????????
?????????: ?.а3 ??.а10 ???????????????, ???а?????????? ????? ?????
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?? ??? ????? ?а????????? ??а???? ??? ?а??????, ??????????? ???????????? ?????????? (?а?????????? ????????? ??? ????????? ???????????). ?????? ????? ????? ?????? ???????????? ??? ????????????? ?????????? ????????, ?????? ??а??????????????? ?? ??????????, ?? ???????????? ???????????. ????? ???, ????????, ?????
????????? ????????? ?а????????????? ????? ?????????? ??? ?????????????? ????????? ????? ?а?????????? ?????? ???????????? ???????? ?????????? ??????, ????? ????????? ?а????????? ??? ??????,
??а??????? ??а???????????? ?????? ?а??????????? ?а?? ???????
?а???? ?а?????? ??????? ?????????????? ????????????, ?????? ?????
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?????, ???????? ????? ??а?а????? ??? ??????????, ?????? ????????????
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?????????. ??? ??????? ???????? ????? ?????????? ???????????
????? ??????????, ???а?????????? ?а?????????? ?????? ????????????? ??????????? ??а???????? ?????????? ????? 1929а?., ??а???????
???? ????????? ?????????? ?????????1.
??????????????? ??????????? ??а??????????????? (????) ?????????????? ???????????? ??????????, ?????? ???? ??? ????????
1
?аTompkins George N., Jr. Liability Rules Applicable to International Air Transportation as
Developed by the Courts in United States. From Warsaw 1929 to Montreal 1999. Kluwer Law
International BV. The Netherlands. 2010. ?. 231.
157
Copyright ??? Ф??? Ф??????╗ & ??? ФA???????? K????-C?????╗
????? III. ??????????????? ????????? ????????? ?а????????????? ??????????
Ф???а?????????╗, ?.?. ?а???? ?????????? ???????????? ????? ???????????? ??а????????. ???, ??????????????, ?????????? ??а???????
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??а????????? ?а???????????? ?????????? ???? ??? ??????????
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(??.а17?19), ?.?. ???? ??а??????????????? ???????????, ??а??????????? ???????????? ??? ????????? ??????????????, ???????? ??? ???
??????????? ?а???????? ????? ??????? ?а????????????? ?????, ??????,
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??????? ??????????????? ??????????? ??????? ????????? Ф???????????????╗, ?а???????????? ??? ??а???????? ????????????? ?????, ???????? ???????? ??????? ?????????2.
???, ?а?????? ????????????? ??????? ?а?????????? ????????????
???????? ??????????? ?а????????????? ????? ??? ?????????, ??????????? ??? ?????????? ?????????, ?????? ??????????? ?????????? ????? ??????????????? ??????, ???? ?????? ?????????? ??а??????? ?а?????????????? ????? ??? ????????? ??? ?????????, ?????????
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??????????? ?а????? ??????? ?????????? ??????? (??.а15, 393а??), ??1
? ??. ??а???? ?????: ??????? ?.?. ????. ???. ?.а176.
? ??. ??? ??.
2
158
Copyright ??? Ф??? Ф??????╗ & ??? ФA???????? K????-C?????╗
Да3. ????? ??????????????? ??????????? ?а??????? ?????????? ?????
???????? ??а??????? ???????????????????? ????? (?.а3 ??.а401 ??),
????????? ??????????? ???????? ??а???? ???? ?? ?а??, ?? ?а?? ??а??????????. ???? ????????? ???? ????????? ???????? ???????????
??? ???????????? ??? ??????? ???? (??.а15 ?????? ?а?????? ???? ????????????).
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??? ??????????? ????????? ???? ???? ???????????? ?а??????????????? ??а?? ??????????????? ??????????? ?????????????? ??а??????????? ??? ?????????? ??????? ???????????? ???????????. ???, ????????, ?а??????????????? ?????? ????????????? ??????? ?а??????????
???????????? ???????? ??????????? ?а????????????? ????? ??????????????? ??????????? ??? ?????????, ??????????? ??? ????????????
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???? ????????????? ?????????????? ????????? ????? (???) ??а1 ??
????? (??. Да3 ????????? ?????). ??а????????? ??????: ?????? ????????? ???? ???????????????? ???? ???????????? ?????????, ???а?а??????????, ??????????????? ?????? ????????? ??????????????? ??а????????????? ????? ?а???????? ??? ??? ?????????. ?????? ??а???????????? ????????? ??? ????????? ???????? (??. Да5 ????????? ?????).
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Copyright ??? Ф??? Ф??????╗ & ??? ФA???????? K????-C?????╗
????? III. ??????????????? ????????? ????????? ?а????????????? ??????????
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? ??????????? ?а???????? ????? ?????????? ??????????. ?. Iа/ ???. ???. ?.?. ????????, ?.?. ???????. 4-? ???., ???????. ?а???. ?.: ????????. ?????????, 2004. ?.а462.
160
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???? ?????? ????? ?????????? ??? ?????????????? ??????????? ????? (?.а2 ??.а15 ??). ?? ????????????? ?а?????????????? ?????? ???1
? ??????????? ?а??а??а/ ??? ???. ?.?. ????????. ??.?15.
161
Copyright ??? Ф??? Ф??????╗ & ??? ФA???????? K????-C?????╗
????? III. ??????????????? ????????? ????????? ?а????????????? ??????????
??? ???? ???????????? ???????????? ????????, ????????????????,
?а???????? ??????? ????? ???? ???????????? ????? (???????????) ?????? ??а?????????? ??????????? ???????, ?????, ?????; ???????, ???????????? ?????? ??????????????? ??а????????? ????????????, ?а?.?.
?????? ????????????? ?????? (????????? ??????) ?????????? ?????????? ?а?????? ???????? ??????, ??????? ???????? ?????? ??? ???????, ???? ?? ????????????? ???? ????????? (?.а10 ?а11 ?????????????
???????? ??а?? ?а???а?? ?а6/8)1. ??? ?????????? ??????????
?????? ??? ???? ??????????? ??? ???????? ?????????? ????? ??????? ???????? ?????????? ??????????? ????????? (?????), ???????
??а???? ???? ??????????? ??? ????? (??.а1085 ??а??).
????? ???????, ?а????? ?????? ??????????? ????? ?????????
?????? ???????? ?????????? ?а?????? ???????????? ?????????
???аФ??????????? ????╗. ???? ????? ?????????????? ?а?????????? ?а??????????? ??????? ???????????? ????????? ??а?????? ??????, ??????? ?а?????? ????????? ????? ????? ???????? ?????????
????? ??.а29, ?????????? ?а????????? ?? ?????????????, ?????????? ????????????? ????????? ??а??? ???? ?а????????? ???????? ????????. ???, ????? ????????? ??а??????????? ?а?????????? ?????
???????, ???а??а???????? ????????? ?????, ??а????????? ?а???????????? ????? (...dommages Яаun titre autre que la reparationа? ??., noncompensatory damagesа? ????.). ?????? ??????? ????? Ф???????????╗
??? ?????????????? ?????? ?а???? ???????????? ?????? ?а????????????? ?????? ???????????? ?????????а? ??? ??а????????? ?????????? ?????? ??а??????? ?????. ???????? ???????????? ???????????? ?????????? ????????? ?а??????????? ???????????? ?????????
???????, ???а????, ??????, ?????????? ??????????, ???????? ????
?????????? ?????? ???? ????????, ???? ????????? ?а??????????? ?а?????? ??????. ???? ????? ????? ??????? ???????????? ???????? (??.а?.а3 ?а4 Да3 ?а?.а3 Да4 ????????? ?????)2.
????? ???????, ???????????? ?а??.а29 ???????????? ????????? ?????? Ф??????????? ????╗ ?а????? ?????? ??????????? ?????,
???а??????????????, ????????, ???а????????? ??а???????? ?????? ???1
? ????????? ??а??. 1996. ?а9; ??????????? ?а??а??а/ ??? ???. ?.?. ????????. ??.а1064.
2
? Wegter J.J. The ECJ Decision of 10 January 2006 on the Validity of Regulation 261/2004:
Ignoring the Exclusivity of the Montreal Conventionа// Air & Space Law. Vol.аXXXI/2 (November 2006). P.а133?148.
162
Copyright ??? Ф??? Ф??????╗ & ??? ФA???????? K????-C?????╗
Да3. ????? ??????????????? ??????????? ?а??????? ?????????? ?????
?????? ????? ?а??????, ???????? ??а????????? ?а????????????? ????????? ???????????? ?????????????. ?? ?? ????????????? ?????????? ??????????????? ??а?????.
?????? ?????????????? ?????? ??????????? ?а???, ?????? ?? ?а????????? Ф???????????? ?????╗ ????????? ?????, ??????? ?????????
?а?????? ?????????? ????? ????? ?а???????? ?????????, ????????????? ??? ?????? ??? ???????? ??? ?????????. ??? ??????? ??????? ?а???, ????????? ?? ???????????? ?а?????????? ????????? ??????????? ?????????? ?????????? ??????, ??????? ???????? ??а????, ???а??????????? ???? ???? ???????? ??а?????? ??????????????,
??а?а??????? ?????1. ?? ?????? ???????? ???????????? ?а?????????
?????????-???????? ?????????2. ??а??????????? ????????????????
????????? ????, ????????, ???????? ??????????? ??????, ?а???????????? ????? ??? ??????? ?а???? ????? ??а?????????? ??? ???? ??????
?????????. ?? ????? ???? ???????? ?????????? ?????????????
??? ?????? ??????????????? ????. ?а??????? ?????????? ?????????? ????? ?????????? ?????? ??????????????? ???? ???????????
??? ??????????? ????? ????????????? ??.а151 ??а??. ??? ????????? ????????????? ???? ??????????? ?????????? ????? ?????????? ????????, ???????????????? ?????????? ???????. ?????? ?а???
??????????? ????????? ????????????? ??????????? ?????????? ????? ???а???????????????? ??????? ?????? ??????????? ???? ????????????? ??? ???????????? ???????????? ?а?????? ??????? ?????????.
????? ?? ?? ??? ????? ??????????????? ??????????? ?а??????????? ?????, ??????????? ??? ?????????, ?????? ????????????????
?????????? ?а????? ???? ??????? ??????????? ?????????. ???????? ??.а29 ?????????? ?а???????????? ????????? ????? ??? ??а???????????????, ?????????? ?? ??? ?????????, ????? ???? ??????????
???? ?а???????????? ?а?????? ????????? ???????????????, ???????
????????????? ???????????.
??????????????? ??????????? ??а?????? ??????? ?а????? ?????? ?????????? ????? ???????????? ????????. ???, ??а??????????? ???????????????? ??а????????????? ????? ?а?????? ??? ?????????????? ??????????
???????????????? ????? ?а??????. ??? ??????? ??.а796 ??а?? ????????
???????? ??а?????? ??????? ?????????? ??????? (??.а15 ?а393а??а??)
1
? ??.: ??????? ?.?. ????. ???. ?.а5.
? ??.: ???????? ?.?. ????. ???. ?.а34.
2
163
Copyright ??? Ф??? Ф??????╗ & ??? ФA???????? K????-C?????╗
????? III. ??????????????? ????????? ????????? ?а????????????? ??????????
?а???????????? ?????????? ???????? ????????????? ?????. ???
????????????????? ?а?а????????????? ???????????1.
????? ????, ????????????? ????????? ?а???????????? ??????
?????? ??????????, ??????? ??????, ???????????? ???????????????
?????????? ??????????? ?????????, ??????????? ?а????????? ????????? ???????? ??? ?а???????????? ?????? ??????????. (??????
?а????????? ????????, ?а??????? ???????? ??????? ???????????????, ???????? ??????????????? ?а?.а7 ??????? ?????????.)
????? ??а??????? ????? ???????? ?а1929а?. ?????????? ?????????
???? ????????????? ?????????? ???????????? ?????? ???????????????, ??????? ????? ???? ????????? ??а??????????????? ?а??????????? ????????????, ???? ??а???????????? ??????, ??а??????, ???????
?а?????? ??????? ??? ??а?????? ????????. ????????????? ?????????? ?а???????????? ??????????? ??????? ??????????????? ????
??????????? ??? ??????????? ??? ??????????????? ??????????? ?????????? ????? ??????? ?????? ?????? ?а???????, ??????? ??а???????
?а?????? ???????????? ??? ?????????? ?а???????? ??????? ??????????? ????????????-?????????? ???? ?????????2.
??а???????? ??????? ???????????????, ????? ??????????? ?????????????? ???а????? ???????, ??????????????? ?а?????????? ?????, ????????? ??????????? ??????? ?????? ??????, ???????????
???????? ?з????? ????? ??????????. ????????? ??а??????, ??????
????????????? ????????, ?????????? ????????????, ??а????????,
?????????????, ??а?????????, ??? ???????? ??????? ?????????????
???????????? ??????. ?а???? ??????????? ????????????? ???????
?????????? ??????????????? ?????????????? ??????????? ?а?????????? ????????????????? ???????? ??????????????? ???????????????, ??????? ??????, ????????, ??а???????? ?????????? ??????????
??????? ??????? ??????????, ???????? ????? ???? ???????? ?????????? ????? ????? ?а???????? ??????????.
1
? ??., ????????, ??.а23 ?????????? ?а????????????? ??????????????? ????????
????????? (????).
2
? ?а???????? ???????????? ?а??????? ???????? ??????????????? ??????????? ??.:
??????? ?.?. ???????? ????????????? ????????????? ?????????. ?.: ????. ???., 1981.
?. 86?87; ??????? ?.?., ??????? ?.?. ????????????-???????? ????????????? ??????????????? ?а????????? ?????а// ????????? ??????????? ?а?????. 1968. ?а11. ?.а69; JenksаC.
Liability for Ultra-hazardous Activities in International Lawа// Recueil des cours, t.117, 1967.
p. 84); Drion H. Limitation of Liability in International Law. 1954. ?. 13, 17, 28?31.
164
Copyright ??? Ф??? Ф??????╗ & ??? ФA???????? K????-C?????╗
Да3. ????? ??????????????? ??????????? ?а??????? ?????????? ?????
? ?????? ???????, ????????????? ??????? ??????????????? ?????
??????????? ????????? ?????????????? ?????????? ?а???????????, ???????? ?а???????????? ????????? ?а????????? ??????????? ????????
?а???????? ??????? ???? ???????? ????????? ???????????? ??а????? ?????????? ?а??????? ?????????????? ????????? ?????????? ???
???????????????, ??? ??????????? ?а???????? ??? ??????????? ??????. ???????? ??? ???????? ????????? ?????? ?а??????.
??а????? ???? ??????? ???????? ??????????????? ??а???????? ?????????????? ??????? ?? ???? ?а?????? ????????????? ??????. ????????? ???????? ?????? ???????????? ????? ??? ???????. ???????
???????? ??????????????? ?????????? ??????????? ??а??????? ?а???????????? ???? ??????????? ???????? ?????? ????????????? ???????????? ?????? ?а?????????????? ??а???????? ?????? ??? ??????? ??
Ф?????????????╗.
????? ?????????????? ???????? ???? ??????????? ???????????????? ??а??????????? ??????? ??????????????? ??????????? ?? ????????? ????????????? ????????? ?а???? ??????? ???????? ??, ???а??????
???????? ??а??????????? ??????????????? ?????????? ???????????? ????? ?а??????, ????? ???а?????? ???????????? ?????????? ??????? ?????????, ??????? ?????????? ?а???????? ???????? ????????.
??? ???????? ??????????????? ??а?????????? ????? ????? ?а????????
??????????, ??а?а??????? ?? ??????????? ????????????????, ???????
??????? ??а??????????????? ?а????? ?а???? ?????-???? ???????????,
?????????? ????????? ????????????? ??????? ????? ???????????????, ?????????? ?а??? ?? ???????? ????????.
?????? ?а????????? ??а?? 1997а?. ?а??????????? ?а???? ???????????? ????????? 1999а?. ???????? ???????? ??????????. ?а?????????? ????????? ???????????????? (??) ????????????? ???? ??????????? ?????????? ??????? ?а????, ?а?????? ?а?????? ??????? ??????????????? ??????????? ?а????????? ???????????? ?????, ??????
?а?????? ?????, ?а????? ????????????-???????? ????? ????????????? ????????? ????????? ????? ??а??????????????? ?????-???? ???????? ??????????? ?????, ???????????? ????? ?а???????? ??????????.
2. ??????? ??????????????? ??а?????????? ????? ????? ?а????????
??????????. ?????????? ????????? (??.а22) ???????????? ??????????????? ??????????????? ??? ????????? ?????????? ?????? 125 ???.
???????. ???????? ?????????? 1955а?. ??? ????? ???? ????????? ?????
?а????????? 250 ???. ???????. ????????? ????? ???????? ??????165
Copyright ??? Ф??? Ф??????╗ & ??? ФA???????? K????-C?????╗
????? III. ??????????????? ????????? ????????? ?а????????????? ??????????
???? ?????????????? 10а???. ?а20а???.а????. ???. ??а???????????
?????, ???а????????, ?а???? ??.а800, 1064 ??а?? ?а??.а117 ??а?? ????,
??????????? ????? ?а???????? ????????? ?????????? ?????, ???????? ?????????? ?а?????? ?????? ?а??????????? ??а????????. ?????? ?????????? ?????? ???? ???????? ???? ??? ??????? ???????,
??????????????? ??.а1083 ??а?? (?????? ?????????????? ???????????? ?а?????????? ???? ??????????? ????? ?а???????, ????? ??? ??????????????? ????????? ?????????? ?? ????). ????? ?????? ??????????? ??а?????????? ????? ??????????? ?????????? ???? (???, ??????,
??????, ??????, ????? ?а??.; ??. Да5 ????????? ?????).
??????? ?????????????, ???а?а????? 60-? ????? ???????? ????????
????????????? ?????????? ?????????? ?????? ??????? ??????????????? ??? ???????????? ????????? ????????? ?????????????. ?????? ??????????? ?а???? ??? ????????? ??????????????, ????? ???????????????? ???, ??????????? ?????????????? ?????????, ?????? ????????? ?а???????? ????????? ?????????? ??.
?) ???????? ???????????????, ???????? ?а???, ???????? ???????????? ??????????? ??????????? ????? ????????? ????? ?а?????????????? ??????????? ???????, ??????????????? ??????? ??а????????
????????????. ??а??? ?? ???????? ???? ????????????? ???? ???????
?а????????? ???????????, ??????????, ??????? ?????????? ?????????
????????? ?а?????? ?????, ??????????????? ??????? ??а????????? ???
???????? ????????? ?????????? ????????? (??.аДа1 ????????? ?????).
?) ???? ????????? ?????????? ????? ????????? ????????? ???????? ??????? ?а????????? ????????????. ???, ?а??? ????????? ???????? ???? ?а???????????????? ?а????????? ?а??? ????????????
Ф????? ??????╗ ???????? ??????? (punitive damages) ?а????? ?????????? ???? ??????????? ??а???????????? ????. ?????? ?????????????? ????????? ????? Ф???????????╗ ??????? ?????? ??а???????
??????????? ??????? ?????????? ???????????1.
?) ????????? ????? ?? ????????????? ????????????? ?????? ????????? ???????? ?????? ???????? ?а?????? ??????, ??????????? ??а???? ?????? ?????????? ?????, ???а??????? ?а???????????? ?????????? ???????? ??????????????? ??????????? ??а????????? ?а?????????, ???????????? ??а??????????? ????????? ???????????? ?????
(??. ?.а5 Да3 ????????? ?????).
1
? ??.: ??????? ?.?. ????. ???. ?.а35.
166
Copyright ??? Ф??? Ф??????╗ & ??? ФA???????? K????-C?????╗
Да3. ????? ??????????????? ??????????? ?а??????? ?????????? ?????
?) ??????????????? ????? ?а??????? ??????? ????? ????? ?????????????? ????? ????? ?а????????? ???????? ????? ???????????????. ??? ??????? ??????? ??а?????? ?а??? ?????? ??????????? ????
????????? ????????? ?а1966а?. ?а???????? ?????????? ?а?????????
????? ??????????????? ??а????????? ????? ???????? ?????????. ??????????, ???????? ??а?.а1 ??.а22 ?????????? ?????????, ?????????
?????? ??????????????? ??????????? ?? 75 ???.а????. ??? ?а??????
????????? ???????? ????????, ??? ?? 58 ???.а????. ??? ??? ???????? ???????? (??. ?.а4.4.5). ?????????? ???????????? ???? 1995а?.,
????????? ??? ?а2027 ?? 09.10.1997 ???????? ?????? ?????? ??????????????? ??????????????? ??а?????????? ????? ????? ?а????????
??????????. ?????? ??????, ?????? ???????? ??????????????? ??а????????????? ?.а1 ??.а22 ?????????? ?????????, ??????? ??????? ????
?а??????????? ?? ????????. ??а??? ?????? ?????? ?????????? ?????? ????????? ?а????????? ???????????? ?????????? ????????????
???? ?а?????????? ?????????? ?а???? ????????? ??????????????
????????????????, ??а?????? ?????? ?а???????????? ????? ??????.
?) ??????? ????????? ????????? ??а?????????????????? ?????? ????? ?????????? ????????????? ????????? ?????? ?а??????????
?а???????? ????????? ?????????? ?а?????????? ????????? ??а?????? ???????? ??а???? ????????? ???????. ????????????? ????????
1971а?. ?а???????????? ???????? 1975а?. ?а3 ???????? ?????? ??????????????? ??????????? ??а?????????? ????? ????? ?а???????? ????????? ?? 100а???. ???, ??а?? ??????? ???????????? ?????????? ??????????? ?а?а???? ??? ?а?? ????????.
?) ??? ????????? ??? ?а????????????? ???????? 1971а?. ?а?????????? ????????? ???? ???????? ?????????, ???????????????
??????? ??????????? ??????? ?а???? ??а???????? ?????? ??????? ??????????????? ?????????? ?????????? ?а?????? ?????????? ????? ??
????????. ???, ?????????????? ??????????????? ???? ??? ?????????????? ?????????????? ?????????? ?а??????? 200 ???.а????. ???.
?а?????? ??????? ???????????????, ?????????????? ?????????????
?????????? 1971а?. ?а???????????? ?????????? 1975а?. ?а3, ?а?????? ?????????? ?? ?а???? ??????????? ????????? ????? ??????????
????????? ?? ?а?? ????? 320 ???.а????. ???. ????? ???????, ???????????? ????? ???????, ????????????? ??????, ????????? ??????
????????????? ?????????? 1966а?. ?а3 ????, ?а??????, ???????????????
???? ????????, ???????? ?????? ????? ?????????? ????? ??? ?а4,5 ????.
167
Copyright ??? Ф??? Ф??????╗ & ??? ФA???????? K????-C?????╗
????? III. ??????????????? ????????? ????????? ?а????????????? ??????????
????? ????, ???? ?????????????? ?????????????? ??????? ?????????? ?????????? ?а??????????? ????????. ?а?????? ??????????????
?????, ??????? ??? ????? ???????????? ?а?????, ????? ?????????????? ???? ?а??????? 2а????. ?а??????? ?????????? ??а?????????????
?????????, ?????????? ??а?????????? ???. ?а?????????? ???? ?????
?????????????? ????????? ?? 50 ??????. ?????????? ????? ???????????? Prudential Insurance Company of America (????????????? ?????)
?а???????????? ?а??????????? ?а??????????????-????????????? ???????????, ?????????? ??? ????????????? ?? 20.07.1977. ??а????? ?????????? ???????????? ???? ??????? ?????? ??????????????? ????????? ?а???? ?????? (??????? ?????????), ??????, ?а?????????, ?????? ?????????? ?????. ????????????? ????? ??? ?????? ???
???????????? ????? ?????????? ??????? ??????????????? ??????????? ??????????? ??????? ??а??????? 60 ???? ?а??????? ????????? ?????????????? ????????????? ????? ??????. ??? ???? ??а????????????
?????????? ?????? ??????????? ???????? ?????? ??????1.
?????? ???? ?????????????? ????????? 1971а?. ?а?????????????
????????? 1975а?. ?а3, ?????????? ???????? ??????????? ??????????????? ???????????, ??????????? ?а???????????? ????????? 1999а?.,
??????? ????????? ??? ????????.
???????????? ????????? ??а??????????????? ?????-???? ????????
??????????????? ??????????? ??а?????? ?а???????? ??????????? ????????? ?а????????????? ?????????????, ???а???? ?????? ????????????
????? ??а????????? 100 ???. ???, ??а????? ??????????????? ?????????
??? ??????? ?????? ???? ????? ?????????? ???????????? ????? ???
?????????, ?.?. ??а???????? ?????????? (?.а1 ??.а17 ?а?.а1 ??.а21). ?а????? ??????????, ??????????? 100 ???. ???, ??????????, ????????
?.а2 ??.а21 ?????????, ????????????? ?? ???????????????, ???? ??????? ???? ???????????? ?а?????????? ????? (???????? ??а??????????
??????????????? ??????????? ??. Да5 ????????? ?????)2.
?????????? ?а???????????? ????????? ???????? ???????????????
??а?????????? ????? ????? ?а???????? ?????????? ??? ????????????? ????????? ?????????? ?а???????? ??а?????? ???????? ??????-??
1
? American Bar Association before the US Senat Foreign Relations Committee.
Recommendationа// Documents of American Bar Association. Governmental Relations Office.
WashingГton, D.C. 1981. ?. 3?8.
2
? ?а1 ?????? 2010а?. ????? ?????????? ?а??????????? ?а????? ??а??????? ??? ???????? ???????????? ?????? ????????? ?????? ?? 113 100 ???.
168
Copyright ??? Ф??? Ф??????╗ & ??? ФA???????? K????-C?????╗
Да3. ????? ??????????????? ??????????? ?а??????? ?????????? ?????
??????? ?????????, ?????????, ???а??? ???? ???????, ?а??????????
???????????????? ?а????? ??????????? ?????????? ?а???? ??????? ??????????? ??????? ??????? ?????????? ?????. ??????? ??????????????? ??а?????????? ????? ????? ?а???????? ??????????, ?????????
?а???????????????? ????????? ?????, ???? ??? ?а??????????? ??а?????????? ??????????, ??а?а???????? ??а???????? ?а??? ???????? ?????????? Ф?????????? ???????╗ ???? ??????????????? ????? ??????????????? ????????? ??а?????????? ?????????. ????? ???????,
??????????? ??????? ??????? ?????????? ?????, ???????????? ????? ?а???????? ???????, ?, ???а?? ?????????????, ???? ??????? ??????????? ?????????? ???????? ??а????? Ф???????????╗, ???а????????
?????-??, ???? ??????????.
???????????? ?????????, ?????? ??????????? ???????????????
???????????????, ????????? ???????? ???????? ???????????????,
?????? ????????? ????????? ????????? ?????, ????????? ?а??? ????????? ???????? ?????? ???????????, ??????? ??а????? ???? ???????? ????????????? ?????? ?????????. ?????? 29 ????????? ?а???????????? ??????? ???????????? ??????? ???????? ??????????? ?????, ????????? ???????? ???????, ??а??????????? ?а???????????
???????????? ???????????? ?????. ?а?????????? ?????? ???????????? ??????????????? ??а????????????? ????? ?????? ???????????:
???????? ?а?????????????? ??????? ????????????? ???????????? ?а???? ????????? ??????.
? ??????????, ??? ???????????? ???????? ?????? ?а?????????? ????????????????, ??? ???? ????? ???? ?????????? ?а????????
?а???? ????????? ???????????????. ????????????-??????????? ??? ??
???????????, ????????? ??????????? ??????????? ?????, ???????
??????????? ????????????? ???? ?????? ?а??????? ???????? ??? ??????????. ????? ????? ?????????? ????????????? ??.а37 ???????????? ?????????
3. ????? ??????????????? ??????????? ??а?????????? ????? ?????
?а???????? ?????????? ??а??????????? ?а???????????? ?????. ??????
??????????? ??????????????? ??????????? ??а?????????? ????? ?????
?а???????? ?????????? ???????????? ?????????? ??????????? ???????? ???? ????????????? ??????????? ????? ??? ??????????? ??????? ??? ?????????? ?а?????? ??????????????? ???????????.
???????? ??.а800 ??а?? ?а??.а117 ??а?? ??????????????? ??????????? ??а?????????? ????? ????? ?а???????? ????????? ??? ?????????
169
Copyright ??? Ф??? Ф??????╗ & ??? ФA???????? K????-C?????╗
????? III. ??????????????? ????????? ????????? ?а????????????? ??????????
????????? ???????????? ?а???????????? ?а??????????? ??.а59а??а??.
????? ???????, ?????????? ??????? ?а?????? ?????????? ????? ????? ?а???????? ?????????? ?????????????? ??а???????? ??.а1085?
1091а??а??.
????? ?а???????? ?????????? ?????, ???????????? ???????????? ???????? ?????????, ?????????? ??.а1085 ??а??: Ф??? ?????????? ?????????? ?????? ??? ???? ??????????? ??? ???????? ?????????? ???????? ?????????? ??????????? ????????? (?????), ??????? ??а???? ???? ??????????? ??? ?????, ?а????? ?????????????
?????????? ???????, ????????? ???????????? ????????, ?а??? ?????
??????? ??а???????, ?????????????? ???????, ???????????? ????????,
??????????????, ??????????? ????, ?????????-????????? ???????,
???????????? ??????????? ???????????? ???????, ?????????? ?а?????? ?????????, ???? ???????????, ???а??????????? ????????? ?а????
????? ?????? ?а????? ?а?? ????? ????? ??а?? ?????????? ?????????╗.
??? ??????????? ??????????? ????????? (??????) ?????? ??а????????????, ?а????? ?????? ??????, ??????? ?а???? ???????? ???????,
??????????? ???а??, ??? ?а????? ?????????? ????? ????????, ??а??????????? ??а???????? ?а?? ?????? ?????????? ??????? ??????????
?????. ?а???? ?????????? ????? ??а????????????? ????? ????????? (?????), ?????????? ??????????? ????? ??????????? ????????. ?????
?а?????? ?????????? ?????, ?????????????? ????????????, ?????
??а????????? ?а??????????????? ??.а1085 ??а?? ????????????? ??????? ??? ?????????, ??а?? ????? ???? ?????????.
????? ??.а1086 ??а?? ????????????? ??????? ??????????? ????????? (??????), ??????????? ?а?????????? ??????????? ???????? ?????????. ?????? 1087 ??а?? ?????????? ??????? ?????????? ????? ???
??????????? ???????? ?????????????????? ??????????, ???а??????? ??а??????? ????????? (??????). ??????????? ????????? ??????? ?????????? ????? ?а?????????? ???? ?????????? ?????????????
??.а318, 1090 ?а1091 ??а??. ?????? 1094 ??а?? ??????????????? ??????? ?????????? ???????? ??а??????????.
?????? ???????? ?.а1 ??.а117 ??а?? ?а???????? ?????? ?? 04.12.2007
?а331-?? ?????? ??????????????? ??????????? ??а????, ???????????
??? ????????? ????????? ????? ??? ???????? ????????? ?????????? ?????, ???????????? ?????? ??а???????????, ?а????????? ????????. ??? ????, ??????, ???а?????????, ????????? ?а?? ????? ???????, ??????????? ??а?????? ??????????, ??а?а????????????? ????170
Copyright ??? Ф??? Ф??????╗ & ??? ФA???????? K????-C?????╗
Да3. ????? ??????????????? ??????????? ?а??????? ?????????? ?????
?????. ???????? ????? ???????????? ?.а1 ??.а117 ?? ??? ??????????,
??????????? ??? ???????? ????????????? ?????????а??, Ф??????
???????????????╗ ???????????? ?????? ?????????????? ??????????. ?? ???????????? ??????????? ????? ?а???????? ????????? ????????? ????????????? Ф????? ??????? ??????╗ ????? ???????????????
??а??????????? ????? ??? ???????? ????????? ????. ????? ??? ??
???? ????????????? ???????а?? ??а????????????? ?????-???? ???????? ??????????????? ?????????? ???????????. ?????????????
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????????????????? ?????? ?????????? ??????? ??????????????? ??????????? ??????? ????????? ???? ??а???????? ??????????? ??????????????? ??????????? ???????????? ???а??????? ??????? ?? ?????
??а???? ??????????. ??? ?????, ???а???????, ????????????? ???????? ???????????????, ????????????? ??????????? ??? ????????
??а??????????????? ????? ????????????????? (? ??????????? ???????? ????????? ???? ?а????????? ?????? ??. Да7 ????????? ?????).
?????? ??????????????? ??????????? ?????? ???????????? ????????
???????????? ?????, ????? ??????????? ???????? ??????????? ??а????????????. ?? ?????, ???????????, ??????? ??? ??????????? ???????????? ?????????. ??????? ???????? ????? ???????? ??.а117 ??
?а???, ???аФ?????? ??????????????? ???????????? ????????????? ?????????а?? ??? ?а???????????? ?а????????? ????????╗, ????? ????
??????????? ???а??????????? ?????????? ?а???????????, ??????????????? ????????????? ?????????, ??????????????? ?? ???????? ??????? ?а?????? ????????, ????????????? ???????????.
????? ???????, ????????? ?????? ??????????????? ?????????? ??????????? ?? ????? ??а????????????? ?????????а?? ??а????????????,
??????? ????????? ???? ??????????? ?????????? ?????? ?.а1.1 ?а1.2
??.а117 ????? ???????? ??а?? ?а? ????????????? ??????????, ????
??????????? ??????, ???? ??а?????, ????? ??а??????.
????? ??????? ??????????????? ??????? ??????????? Ф??????????? ?а???? ?????????? ?????, ???????????? ??? ????????? ?????????╗ (?.а1.1 ??.а117 ??). ??????????? ????????????? ?а???? ????????????? ????? ?а?? ??????????? ??????????? ?? ??????????? ?????????? ????? ?а?????, ??????????? ??? ?????, ?????, ??????? ?????
??а?????????? ????? ?а?????? ?????? ????????? ?а??????? ??.а1087 ??.
171
Copyright ??? Ф??? Ф??????╗ & ??? ФA???????? K????-C?????╗
????? III. ??????????????? ????????? ????????? ?а????????????? ??????????
?а????? ?а???? ??а?????????????? ????????? ??????????? ?а???????,
???а????? ??????????? ???????? ???????? ??????????????? ??????????? ??а????? ?а???????? ?????????1.
? ?????? ?????? ????????? ??? ????????? ????????? ????? ?????
??????????? ?????????? 2 ??? ???. ????? ???????, ??а?? ??????????????? ?????????? ?а??????????? ???????? ???????, ?.?. ????????? ?а???? ???????????? ???????? ?????????, ?????????? ?? ???????
??????? ?а?? ???????. ?????? ???? ????????? ???????????? ???????.
??????? ???? ?????????, ???а????????? ????????? ?а?? ????? ????
????????? ?а????????????? ?????????, ??а????????? ?????? ?а??????????? ????????????? ?????? ?а???????????? ?????????, ??????? (??.а29) ????????? ????? ???????, ??а??????????? ?а??????????? ???????????? ?????.
? ?????? ??????????? ???????? ????? ??????????? ???????????? ?????? ??а????????? ?а??????? ??????? ??????????? ???????? ?а???????????? ?а???????????, ??????? ?????? ?????????? ?????????????а??. ?????? ?????? ??????????? ?а?????? ??????????? ????????
??а????? ????????? 2 ??? ???. ??? ????????? ???????? ?а???? ?а1 ?????? 2010а?. ???????? ?а2008а?. ??????????????а?? ??????? ???????
????????????? ??????????? ??????????? ??????????????? ??????????? ????? ?????????? ?????????? ????? ???????????? ??а??, ???????? ????? ??????????? ???????, ???????? ?а??????????? ???????????? (????????? ??. Да6 ????????? ?????).
? ?????? ?????? ????????? ??? ????????? ????? ?а?????? ??????????????? ??????????? ?а???????????? ??????? ???????????? ?????? ???, ??????? ????? ??а?????????? ?????. ?а?????????? ?????
???? ?????? ???????? ?а??????? ??.а1088 ?а1089 ??а??, ???????????? ?????????? ????? ?????, ???????? ????? ?а?????????? ??????
?????????. ?????? 1088 ??а??, ????????????????? ??????? ?????????? ????? ?????, ???????? ????? ?а?????????? ?????? ?????????, ?????????????? ?????????? ?а???? ???, ??????? ????? ??а???????????? ?????????? ?а?????? ?????? ?????????. ????? ??а?????????? ????? ?????:
? ???????????????? ????, ?????????? ??а????????? ???????? ???
??????? ?? ??? ??? ?????? ????? ??а????????? ?? ???? ??????????;
1
? ????????? ???? ???????????? ?а????????????? ??????? ?????а/ ??? ???. ?.?.а???????. ?.: ??????, 2008. ?.а127.
172
Copyright ??? Ф??? Ф??????╗ & ??? ФA???????? K????-C?????╗
Да3. ????? ??????????????? ??????????? ?а??????? ?????????? ?????
? ??????? ????????, ?????????? ????? ??? ??????;
? ???? ??а?????????, ?????? ???? ?????? ???? ????? ??????????
?? ??? ????????????????, ??????? ??а???????? ?а????? ?????? ??а????????????? ??а????????? ???????? ??? ??????, ???????, ????????
?а????????, ??а?????????? 14 ??? ???? ???? ?а?????????? ?????????? ????????, ??а??а?????????? ??????????? ??????? ????????????
??а????????? ???????? ?а??????????? ?????. ??? ???? ???? ??а?????????, ?????? ???? ?????? ???? ?????, ??а??????????, ??????? ?????? ?а??????? ???????????????? ?а?????? ????????????? ?????, ????????? ????? ??а?????????? ????? ????? ?а????? ????????? ?????
??а?????????? ??????;
? ????, ?????????? ??а????????? ???????? ?а??????? ????????????????? ?а??????? ???? ??? ????? ??? ??????.
???????? ?.а2 ??.а1088 ??а?? ?????????????????? ???? ??????????? ?? ?????????? ??? 18 ???, ???????? ?????? 18 ???а? ?? ????????? ????? ??а????? ????? ????????, ??а?? ????? ??? ?? 23 ???, ???????? ?????? 55 ??? ?а???????? ?????? 60 ???а? ??????????, ?????????а? ??а???? ????????????; ?????? ??а?????????, ??????? ????
??????? ????? ?????, ???????? ?????? ??а????????????? ??а????????? ???????? ??? ??????, ???????, ???????? ?а????????,а? ?? ?????????? ??? 14 ??? ???? ????????? ????????? ????????.
? ?????????? ??????????? ?????????? ??????????? ??? ??????????, ???а???? ???, ????????????? ??.а1088 ??а??, ????. ??а???? ?а???? ???????? ???? ???????????????? ?а?? ??????? ????????? ?????? ????. ????, ????????, ??????? ????????? ????????, ??? ?????????
???? ?? ?????? ????????? ??????????? ??????????? ?????????? ?а?????????? ???????????, ???? ???? ?а???? ???????????????? ?????? ?????? ??а????? ???????? ??????????? ?????????? ???? ??????????????,
???????????? ?????????? ?????????? ?????? ??????? ?а??????? ???????????? ????? ????????. ?а??????????? ???????? ????? ?????????
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?????? ??????????? ???????? ?а???? ???????????????, ??а?????????? ?????????? ??а?????????? ????????? ????1. ???????? ????????? ??????? ?????? ??а???????? ??????? ???????????, ???? ??а??????? ?????????? ?????????? ?????.
1
? ??.: ?????? ?.?. ??????????? ??????? ?????????????а// ??-?????.а2008. ???????. ?а41; ????????? ?.?. . ????? ???????????????? ?а?????????? ????????????
??? ????????? ????????? ?????а// ?????. 2008. ?а4.
173
Copyright ??? Ф??? Ф??????╗ & ??? ФA???????? K????-C?????╗
????? III. ??????????????? ????????? ????????? ?а????????????? ??????????
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????? ????????? ?????????? ?????????????? ?????, ?????? ???????????? ????? ???????????? ??????????? ???????? ???????????? ??????????? ??????????? ?? ???????. ??????, ?а???? ???а??? ?а???????
???? ??а?????? ???????????? ????????? ??а??????? ???????????????
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????????? ?????. ????? ??? ??а???????, ?а????????? ?а???????? ????? ???, ??? ?а?????? ???? ???????? ????? ??а?????????? ???????,
???? ??????????? ?????????????? ???? ??????????????? ?а???, ???а???
????? ???????????? ?????????? ????????? ?? ????????? ?????????.
???????? ????? ???????? ??.а117 ??а?? ??? ?????????? ???????,
??????? ????? ??а?????????? ????? ?а?????? ?????? ?????????, ????? ????????? ??????? ??????????? ?а??????? 2 ??? ???. ?а?????? ????? ???????? ????????, ??????, ???? ???????? ?????????, ?а???? ???????? ??а???? ???????????????? ??????а? ????????, ?а??????? ??а????????? ??а????????? (?.а1.1). ??????????? ??? ????????????? ???,
????? ??????????, ????????? ?????? ???????, ????????, ????? ???????? ????????? ???????????, ???? ?????????????? ???????????? ??????????? ??, ??а???????? ??? ????????? ??а?????? ?????????
?????????? ?а?????? ?????? ?????????.
??? ???????? ??????????, ??а?????? ?????????? ????? ?а???? ?????????? ?????-???? ??? ??????????? ??? ??????????????? ???????? ????? ??????????? ???????????? ?????? ????????????? ????? ??????? ???????????. ?а???? ?????? ???????? ?а????????? ?????
??????? ??????? ??????????????? ?????????? ??????????? ???? ??
???????????.
????? ????????? ????????????????? ??????????? ???????????
???????????? ??.а1087 ??а?? ???? ???, ??????? ????? ????????? ?????????? ?а?????? ?????? ?????????, ??????, ?????? ?а????? ???????
????????????? ????? ????????? ???????????. ?а???? ?????? ?????????, ????????? ?а??а??, ??????? ????????????? ?а??? ??????????
??????? ?????????? ????? ?а??????? ?.а3 ??.а1085 ??а??, ?а??? ????????? ??????? ??????????????? ?????????? ??????????? ??а????????? ?а????????????? ??а?????? ????? ??????????, ?а??? ??????? ?а?????????? ???????????????? ?а????????? ??????????????.
??????? ???????????, ???а????????, ??????, ???? ???????? ?????????, ??а???????????? ??а??? ?????????, ????? ????? ??а????????? ??????????? ?????? ?а??? ??????, ???? ??????????? ?????????,
174
Copyright ??? Ф??? Ф??????╗ & ??? ФA???????? K????-C?????╗
Да3. ????? ??????????????? ??????????? ?а??????? ?????????? ?????
??? ??а??????????????? ????? ???? ???????????, ???? ????? ????????? ???????, ??а???????????? ?? ??????????? ?????????? ?????
2 ??? ???.
?????? 29 ???????????? ?????????, ???????? ????? ????, ??а?????????? ??а???????? ?????????, ?????????? ???????????, ???а????? ?????? ????? ??а?????? ??а??????????? ????? ???, ??????? ????? ????? ??а???????????? ????. ?а?????? ????????? ???????: Ф??????
??? ??а???????????????? ????? ???? ?????????? ???? ?а????????????
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??????? ????? ????? ??а???, ?а?? ??????????????? ????╗. ???????
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?а?????? ?????? ?????????? ?а????????? ?????????? ??????1.
?????? ???????? ?а?????? ????????? ?????? ??.а29 ?????????, ???? ???????? ??а?????????????? ?? ??????????: ?????????? ??? ??а????????? ????????? ????? ????? ????, ?????????? ??????? ?????
(???????) ?а????????? ????? ????? ?????????? (????????????) ??????????? ?а??????????? ??????. ?????? 29 ???????????? ????????? ?а????? ????????? ?????? ????????? ?????-???? ???????????
?а????????? ????? ???, ??????? ????? ????? ??а??????????? ???????????? ?????. ?????? 24 ?????????? ????????? ????????????? ????? ?? ???????, ??а?????? ???? ?а????????? ????? ??а??????????
????? ????? ?а???????? ??????????, ?а?? ????? ???????, ???а??а?????????? ????????? ??????????? ????? ????? ??? ?????????? ?????????? ?????? ????? ???? ??????????? ?????? ??а?????? ????????????? ?????????? ??а????????? ????? ?а??????.
????? ???????, ?????????? ?а????? ?????????? ??????? ???, ??????? ????? ??а???????????? ?????????? ?а?????????? ????? ?а?????
???????????? ??.а29 ???????????? ?а??.а24 ?????????? ?????????
???????? ????????????? ???а????? ?????? ???? ??? ??????? ??????????? ????????? ????????? ??????????? ???????????? ??????.
1
? Tompkins George N., Jr. Liability Rules Applicable to International Air Transportation as
Developed by the Courts in United States. From Warsaw 1929 to Montreal 1999. ?. 36.
175
Copyright ??? Ф??? Ф??????╗ & ??? ФA???????? K????-C?????╗
????? III. ??????????????? ????????? ????????? ?а????????????? ??????????
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????????, ???а??? ???????????? ???? ??а???????? ????????????? ????????? ????????? ????????? ?а??????????? ?????, ??????????????? ???? ???, ??????? ????? ??а???????????? ??????????
?а???????????, ??? ?????? ??????????, ???????? ?? ????????????
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???????? ??а??????? ??.а31 ??????? ????????? ?а????? ????????????? ????????? 1969а?., ?????? ????????? ???????????? ?а?????????? ????????? ?а????? ??????? ?а????? ???? ????????????? ?????????, ?????? ??а?? ???? ?а??????????, ????? ?? ????? ??а???? ?????????????? ?????????? ???, ??а??????????????? ???????? ??.а1088
??а??, ?????? ?а?????? ??????. ???????? ????? ?????? ???? ??????? ?а??????? ????????? ??????????? ????????? ?а????????????? ???????????? ????????????? ??????, ?????????? ?а??????? ?????????
??? ????????????? ?????????, ??????????? ??? ???????? ?????????. ???? ?????????? ??а????????? ??? ?????????? ?????????????? ?????????? ?????? ??????????????? ????? ?а??????? ???????
???????????? (????.а2 ?.а2 ??.а264 ???а??)1, ???а??? ?????????????
??.а28 ???а??. ?????? ?а??????????? ?????????????? ??????????
????????? ???????? ?а??????????????? ????? ?????? ???????? ????? ?????, ?а?????? ??????? ??????, ?????? ??????????? ???? ????????????? ?а???????? ?а?? ??????? ?а??????????? ????????? ??????????? ???????????????? ?а?????????? ?????????? ?????, ??????? ????? ?????? ???? ?????????? ??а????? ???????? (?????????
??. ?.а6 Да4 ????????? ?????).
??????? ????? ????????? ????????? ?а??а?? ????????????? ?????????, ??????????? ???? ???, ??????? ????? ??а????????? ???1
? ??.: ??????????? ?а??а??а/ ??? ???. ?.?. ????????. ??.?1088.
176
Copyright ??? Ф??? Ф??????╗ & ??? ФA???????? K????-C?????╗
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?????? ??????? ??а??????????? ????????, ?а??????? ?? ??????? ???????? ????????????, ????? ?? ????? ???????? ?????????
?аДа2а??.а59 ??а??, ??????????? ???? ???, ??????? ????? ??а????????? ??????????.
? ????? ?а???? ???????????? ????? ???????? ??.а1088 ?а1089 ??а??,
?а??????? ?????????? ?????? ????????? ????????? (???????? ????????).
?????? 1088. ?????????? ????? ?????, ???????? ????? ?а?????????? ?????? ????????????
1. ?а?????? ?????? ????????????а? ????????? ????? ??а?????????? ????? ?????:
???????????????? ????, ?????????? ??а????????? ???????? ???
??????? ?? ??? ??? ?????? ????? ??а????????? ?? ???? ??????????;
??????? ????????, ?????????? ????? ??? ??????;
???? ??а?????????, ?????? ???? ?????? ???? ????? ?????????? ??
??? ????????????????, ??????? ??а???????? ?а????? ?????? ??а????????????? ??а????????? ???????? ??? ??????, ???????, ????????
?а????????, ??а?????????? 14 ??? ???? ???? ?а?????????? ?????????? ????????, ??а??а?????????? ??????????? ??????? ????????????
??а????????? ???????? ?а??????????? ?????;
????, ?????????? ??а????????? ???????? ?а??????? ????????????????? ?а??????? ???? ??? ????? ??? ??????.
???? ??а?????????, ?????? ???? ?????? ???? ?????, ??а??????????
?а??????? ?????? ??а??????, ???????, ???????? ?а???????? ????????
?а??????? ???????????????? ?а?????? ????????????? ?????, ????????? ????? ??а?????????? ????? ????? ????????? ????? ??а????? ??????.
2. ????? ??а?????????? ????? ????? ????? ??а?????????? ??а????????? ???????? ????????, ??????, ???? ????????, ???? ????, ?а? ?????? ?????? ????????????, ??а???????? ???????????????? ??????,а? ????????, ?а??????? ??а????????? ??а?????????.
3. ???? ???????????:
??????????????????а? ?? ?????????? 18 ???;
???????? ?????? 18 ???а? ?? ????????? ????? ?а??????? ??????????? ??а????? ????? ????????, ??а?? ????? ??? ?? 23 ???;
???????? ?????? 55 ??? ?а???????? ?????? 60 ???а? ??????????;
?????????а? ??а???? ????????????;
177
Copyright ??? Ф??? Ф??????╗ & ??? ФA???????? K????-C?????╗
????? III. ??????????????? ????????? ????????? ?а????????????? ??????????
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?????? ??а????????????? ??а????????? ???????? ??? ??????, ???????, ???????? ?а????????,а? ?? ?????????? ??? 14 ??? ???? ????????? ????????? ????????;
?????, ????????? ?а?.а2 ????????? ??????,а? ????????????? ??? ?а???? ????????????? ????????.
?????? 1089. ?????? ?????????? ?????, ??????????? ?а?????? ?????? ?????????
1. ?????, ??????? ????? ??а?????????? ????? ?а????? ??а??????? ?????????, ???? ??????????? ?а??????? ??? ???? ????????? (??????) ????????, ????????????? ??а???????? ?????? 1086 ???????, ??????? ??? ???????? ??? ????? ????? ???????? ??а???? ?????????? ???
??? ?????. ??? ??????????? ?????????? ????? ???? ????? ?а??????
??????? ???????? ?????? ?а?????????? (???????) ?????????? ?????????? ?? ??? ????? ??????, ??????????? ?????????? ?а?????? ???????? ???????.
2. ??? ??????????? ??????? ?????????? ????? ??????, ??????????? ????? ?а????? ??а??????? ?????????, ?а????? ?????? ???? ??????, ??????????? ???а??, ??? ?а????? ?????? ?????????, ?а????? ????????? (?????) ?а?????????, ?????????? ????? ??????, ?а???? ?????????? ?? ????? ??а?????????????.
3. ????????????? ??????? ??а??????? ????? ??а?????????? ?????
?а????? ??а??????? ????????? ?????? ?????????? ??а???????? ??????????? ???????????, ????? ???????:
???????? ??????? ????? ?????? ?????????;
?????????? ??? ??????????? ??????? ?????????? ?????, ???????
?????? ??а??????, ???????, ???????? ?а???????? ???????? ?????????.
4. ???????, ????????? ??? ????? ?????? ?????????? ????? ???? ????????.
?????, ??????? ????? ??а?????????? ?????, ????????? ?а?.а2 ?????? 1088, ???? ??????????? ?а??????? ??????????? ????????????? ??????. ??? ??????????? ??????? ??????????? ????? ?????? ???????????
?????????? ?????????? ?а??????????????.
?????????? ?????? ?а????????? ??????????? ????? ???, ??????? ????? ??а?????????? ????? ?а?????? ?????? ?????????, ??????????? ?а????? ?????? ?????????? ?????.
??? ?????? ????????? ?. ????????? ?а34 ??????? (?????а? ???
???????) ??? ???????????? ???? ????????????? 30 ?????, ????????
178
Copyright ??? Ф??? Ф??????╗ & ??? ФA???????? K????-C?????╗
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1
? ?OF. Vol.а4. Feb. 2000. 46 USC App, par. 761.
179
Copyright ??? Ф??? Ф??????╗ & ??? ФA???????? K????-C?????╗
????? III. ??????????????? ????????? ????????? ?а????????????? ??????????
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? ???????????? ????????? ????????? ????? ??????? ??.а28 Ф??????????????? ???????╗: Ф? ?????? ???????????? ????????????, ?????????? ?????? ??? ??????????? ??????????, ??????????, ???? ???
1
? IATA. The Liability Reporter. February 2007. Vol.а10. P.а7.
180
Copyright ??? Ф??? Ф??????╗ & ??? ФA???????? K????-C?????╗
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???. ???.
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Copyright ??? Ф??? Ф??????╗ & ??? ФA???????? K????-C?????╗
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Ф????, ??????????? ?????????? ??? ????╗ (?.а2 ??.а22 ????????????
????????? 1999а?.). ????????? ?????? ??????? ??????????????? ??????????? ???????????????? ???а?? ?????? ????????????? ??????, ???
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1,131 ??? ??а?????????.
182
Copyright ??? Ф??? Ф??????╗ & ??? ФA???????? K????-C?????╗
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1
? Statement of J.E. Landry. Air Transport Association of America Before the US Senate
Foreign Relations Committeeа/ American Bar Association. Governmental Relations Office,
Washington, D.C. 1981. ?. 25.
183
Copyright ??? Ф??? Ф??????╗ & ??? ФA???????? K????-C?????╗
????? III. ??????????????? ????????? ????????? ?а????????????? ??????????
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?????????.
???????????? ????????? ??а??????? ??а??????????? ?а???? ?????????????? ????????? 1971а?. ?а?????????? ????????? ?????? ??????????? ?????? ??????????????? ??????????? ??а???????? ??? ??????????? ?а????????? ?????????. ?а???? ??????? ??????????????? ??????????? ?а????????? ??????? ????????? ????????????? ??????????????
?????????? ?????? 4150 ???3.
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???????????? ??????? ????? ??????????????? ??а???????????????.
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? ?а1 ?????? 2010а?. ?????? ??????????????? ??а???? ?????????? 19 ??? ??а1 ??.
? ????????? ???????? 1978а?. ?а????????? ????????? 1956а?. ?а???????? ????????????? ???????? ????????? ?????? (????) ??????? ????? ?а??????? ??????? ??а?????????? ?а???, ?????? 8,33 ??? ??а1 ?? ???? ?????? ??????????? ??? ?????????????
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?????????? 4694 ???.
2
184
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185
Copyright ??? Ф??? Ф??????╗ & ??? ФA???????? K????-C?????╗
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1751). ?????????? Ф?╗ ?а??? (Table of Weights) ????????????? ???????????? ??????????? ????? ???? ????????? ?????? (????????, ??????
???????а? 1,87 ??, ???? ???????а? 1,40 ?? ?а?.?.). ?????? ??а???? ??????, ???????????? ????? ??????????? ?а????????????? ??????????? ???????? ??? ?????????????? ?????????, ????????? ?а????????????, ??????? ??????.
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?а???????? ??????????? ??????? ?? 29.04.2002 ?а42-??, ?? 26.11.2002 ?а152-??,
??а01.10.2003 ?а127-??).
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? ??.: ??????? ?.?. ???????? ????????????? ?а???????? ????????а// ????????
??????????? ???????????? ?????????. ?.: ?????, 2005. ?.а307.
186
Copyright ??? Ф??? Ф??????╗ & ??? ФA???????? K????-C?????╗
Да3. ????? ??????????????? ??????????? ?а??????? ?????????? ?????
???????? ?????????? ??????? ?? 04.12.2007 ?а331-?? ??.а119
??а?? ????? ??????????????? ??????????? ??а????????????? ?????
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192
Copyright ??? Ф??? Ф??????╗ & ??? ФA???????? K????-C?????╗
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??? ????????? ??????? ?????????? ????а?? ?? 29.05.2008 ?а????08-1212, ???????
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193
Copyright ??? Ф??? Ф??????╗ & ??? ФA???????? K????-C?????╗
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??????????, ??????, ?????? ?а?????????? ?а???????????? ??????????, ?????????????????, ????????????????╗, ???????????? ???????? ?????????а?? ?? 28.06.2007 ?а82╗.
1
? Official Journal Lа44/1, 17/02/2004.
2
? Judgment of the Court of Justice in Case C-344/04, 10 January 2006.
3
? ???, ????????, ?????????? ??????????????? ?????? ?а??????, ???а??.а20 ?????????? ?????????, ???????????? ????????? ??????????????? ???????????, ??а?????????
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194
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????? ???????, ???????? ??.а5 ???????????? ?????? ?? 19.06.2000
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??????????? ???????????? ?????????. ?.: ?????, 2005. ?.а307.
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Copyright ??? Ф??? Ф??????╗ & ??? ФA???????? K????-C?????╗
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? Balfour John. Airline Liability for Delays: The Court of Justice of the EU Rewrites EC
Regulation 261/2004а// Air & Space Law. Vol. XX?V. Number 1. 2010.
200
Copyright ??? Ф??? Ф??????╗ & ??? ФA???????? K????-C?????╗
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???????? ????? ???????????? ???????? ??????? ????????????? ????????????? ????, ?????????????? ??????????? ?????????? ?? ????? ?????????? ????????????? ??а???????? ?????????.
7. ????????? ??????? ???????? ???????????????. ??????? ??????????????? ??????????? ?а?????????? ????????? ?а???????? ????????? ???????? ??а???????, ??????? ???????? ???????? ???????? ????????. ??? ??????????? ????? ????????, ????????? ??а65,5а???????????? ?????? ????? ????????? ????????. ??????? ?????????? ????????
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?а?ontinental Airlines Contract of Carriage: http://www.continental.com/web/en-US/
content/co_contract_of_carriage.071410CoC.pdf; United Airlines Contract of Carriage http://
content.united. com/ual/asset/ COC31Dec10.pdf
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Copyright ??? Ф??? Ф??????╗ & ??? ФA???????? K????-C?????╗
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??????. ?а?????????, ????? ???????? 125 ???., 250а???., 250 ?а5а???.
??????? ???????? ?????????????? 10 ???., 20а???., 20 ?а400а????. ???.
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???, ????????, ??а?????? ????, ?????????? ??а?????? ??????
??????????? ?????????? ?????????? ??а1996а?., ?????? ??????????????? ?а????????? ??????? ?????????, ????????????? ?????????? ??????????, ?????????? ???????? ??????????, ?а250 ???. ??????? ??????? (17 ???. ???, ??? 20 ???.а????. ???) ?а????????? ?а?????? ?а????????? ??а????????? ???? ?????? ??? ????????? 180 ???.а????. ???1.
??????? ??????????? ?????? ???? ???????? ????? ??????? ?????????????? ???? ??? ??а???? Franklin Mint Corp. v. TWA (1982), ??????? ??? ?????? ??????????? ????????????? ?????-???? ???? ??????? ?????????, ????? ????????? ???? ??а??????, ?????????? ??а??????????? ???????????????? ???, ????????? ????? Ф????? ??????1
? ICAO Doc. AT-WP/1769, 4/1/96.
202
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? ?????? ??????? ???????????? ???? ????? ????????? ????????
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???? ????????????? ????????? ????? ?????????? ??????????, ?????????? ??а????????? ???? ??а??????. ??????????? ??а?????????? ???????????? ?????????? 1975а?., ??????? ???????? ????????????? ?а??????? ??????? ??????? ?????????? ????????? ?а???, ????
?????????? ???????????? ??????????? ????? ??????????? ????? ???????? ?????????? ?????????? ??? ???????????? ?????, ???????????????? ??????? ??а???? ??????????? ???????????? ???. ????? ????????????? ????????????, ??????? ?а????? ???????? ????????? ?????? ????????, ?????????? ?? ?а???????????? ??????, ????????? ?.а4
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?????? ??????????????? ??? ????????? ??????????, ?????????????
???????????? ?????????? 1975а?. ?а3 ?а?????????? ?а100 ???. ???,
????????????? 1500 ???. ??????? ??????? ????????, ?????????????
????????????? ?????????? 1971а?. ?????????????, 125 ???. ???????
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?а????????????? ????????, ??????? ???? ?????????? ?а?????????? ????? ???????????? ????????? 1999а?. ????????? ???а?? ?а?????????????? ?????? ?? 16.02.1998 ?а29 Ф????? ???????-??????????? ???????? ?????????? ?????? ??а????? ?а???????? ??????????? ???╗ ?а?????
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???????? ????????а? ??????????? ????? ????????????? (???)1.
????, ???????, ??? (SDR-special drawing rights) ??? ??? (??????????? ????? ?????????????)а? ??? ??а??????????? ???????? ????????.
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1
? ??.: ?????????????? ?????? ?????????? ???а?? ?? 16.02.1998 ?а29 Ф?????
???????-??????????? ???????? ?????????? ?????? ??а????? ?а???????? ???????????
???╗а// ??????? ???а??. 1998. ?а4; ??????????? ?????????? ?а???????? ???а??.
2003. ?а11 (?.а2).
204
Copyright ??? Ф??? Ф??????╗ & ??? ФA???????? K????-C?????╗
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??????????? ???? ?????? ??а?????????? ?????? ????????????? ??????????? ???? ??? ?а????? (?????? ??а?? ?? 24.05.1999 ?а??-191).
?????? 23 ???????????? ????????? ??????????????? ????? ??????? ???????? ???? ???????? ???????????????, ????????? ?а???, ?а???????????? ??????, ??????????? ???????? ??????????, ???????????
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? ??.: ????????? ?.?. ?а????????? ???????? ?????????? ???????????? ??????
????????????? ?????????а// ??????? ???а??. 1997. ?а7.
205
Copyright ??? Ф??? Ф??????╗ & ??? ФA???????? K????-C?????╗
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? ???? China Airlines Ltd v. Phillips Hong Kong Ltd, ????????????? ????????????? ????? ????????? (Singapore Court of Appeal) ?а2002а?., ?????
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?а???????????? ?????????????. ?.: ??????? ??????, 2008. ?.а290.
206
Copyright ??? Ф??? Ф??????╗ & ??? ФA???????? K????-C?????╗
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? ??.: ?????? ?.?., ????????? ?.?. ????????????? ??????? ??????? ?????. ?.: ????????????, 1984. ?.а207.
207
Copyright ??? Ф??? Ф??????╗ & ??? ФA???????? K????-C?????╗
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208
Copyright ??? Ф??? Ф??????╗ & ??? ФA???????? K????-C?????╗
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Copyright ??? Ф??? Ф??????╗ & ??? ФA???????? K????-C?????╗
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?? ???????? ?????????? ????? (??.а35).
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210
Copyright ??? Ф??? Ф??????╗ & ??? ФA???????? K????-C?????╗
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??????????? ???? ??????╗1.
?.?. ?????????, ??????????? ??.а796 ??а??, ?????, ???а????????
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??.а796 ??а??, ??а??????????? ?????-???? ??????????? ??????????????? ??????????? ?а?????? ?????????????? ????????? ????? ??? ??????.
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??а????? ?????????? ??????? ??????? ?????????? ?????????????????
?а??? ???????). ?а???? ????????? ????? ????????????? ???????????????? (?? ?????, ?? ????, ????? ?????????????? ?????????? ?????
1969а?. (??.а138), ??????? ????????? ?????????) ????????????? ???????, ???????? ????????, ???? ????? ????????, ???а??????????? ?????????
????? ??? ?????? ????????? ?? ?????????????? ?????????, ??????????
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1
? ??????? ?. ???????? ????? ???????? ????? ??????а// ?????. 2000. ?а9. ?. 54.
? ??.: ??????????? ?а??а??а/ ??? ???. ?.?. ???????? ?а?.?. ????????. ?. 511.
2
211
Copyright ??? Ф??? Ф??????╗ & ??? ФA???????? K????-C?????╗
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1
? ??.: ??????????? ?а??а??а/ ??? ???. ?.?. ???????? ?а?.?. ????????. ?. 512.
? ??. ?.а38 ????????????? ??????? ???а?? ?? 06.10.2005 ?а30 Ф?а????????? ???????? ???????? ?????????? ???????????? ?????? Ф????? ???????????????? ?????????? ?????????? ?????????╗.
2
212
Copyright ??? Ф??? Ф??????╗ & ??? ФA???????? K????-C?????╗
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????????????????? ???а??????????????? ?????????? (??.а1102 ??а??).
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???????? 17 ??? ??а1 ??., ??????????? ???????????? ????? ????? ????? ??????? ????????? ?а?????????????????? ?а???????? ????? Ф??????????╗ ????????????? ?????? ?а???????? ?????????? ?а??????? ??????????? ????????? ?????, ??????? ??? ??а????? ?????? ??????????????? ??????????????.
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Copyright ??? Ф??? Ф??????╗ & ??? ФA???????? K????-C?????╗
????? III. ??????????????? ????????? ????????? ?а????????????? ??????????
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??????. ???, ??? ????????? ???????? (??????) ???????????? ????, ????????? ?а?????????????? ?????? (????????????? ?????????). ??а????????????? ???? ?????????, ???а??????? ????????? ????????? (?????)
?????????? ?а??????????? ????? ?а?? ???????? ?????-???? ????????
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??????????? ??а????? ?а?? ???? ??????????? ??? ????????????. ?????????? ?а???? ?????? ???????? ??а?.а5 ??.а3 ???????????? ?????????.
?????? ???, ?????? ??а?????????? ??????? ????????, ????????????
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???????, ???????????? ?а????????1. ???? ???, ??а?????? ??????, ?????? ?а??????????? ??????? ?а???? ????, ??? ??????????? ????????
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?????? ??????????? ?????? ????????? ?а?????????????????? ?а????????. ???????? ????????? ?????? ??????????????? ????? ?а???? ??????
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1
? The Liability Reporter. February 2007. Vol.а10. ?. 4?5.
214
Copyright ??? Ф??? Ф??????╗ & ??? ФA???????? K????-C?????╗
Да3. ????? ??????????????? ??????????? ?а??????? ?????????? ?????
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??????????, ?????? ???? ??? ?????, ??????? ?????? ???? ????? ????????? ??а??????????? ????? ???????????????.
????? ???????, ???????????? ???????????? ?????????? ????????? ??? ???????????????? ??а?????????? ?????????????????? ?а???????? ????? ??? ?????? ???????? ??? ????? ?????????? ??? ???????
??? ????? ????????? ??а??????????? ????? ??????????????? ??а???????????? ?а?????????? ??????????.
???????????? ???????? ????? ?????????? ?а????????? ??????????? ??????????????? ??а???? ??а?????????? ?????????, ??????????
???????????? ?????????? 1975а?. ?а4, ????????? ???????? ??? ?.а2
??.а24 ??????? ??????????????? ??а???? ??а????? ???? ???????? ?? ???
????? ???????????????. ?? ????? ??????? ?а???????????? ?????????.
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??а????????? ?а??????????????? ??????????? ?????????? ??????????????.
?????????? ????????? (??.а25) ?????? ??????????? ????? ?????????
??а?? ?????????, ?????????????? ??? ???????????????, Ф????? ????
????????? ?????????? ??? ?????? ??? ?????????? ????, ??????? ???????? ?????? ????, ?а??????? ?????? ???, ??????????????? ???а???????????? ??????╗. ????? ?????????????? ????? ????????????? ??а??????
????????? ????? ??а?????. ????? ????? ?????????????? ?а????????
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???? ??????? ?????????? ??.а25 ?????????? ?????????, ?а???????? ????????? ?????????, ?а?а???????? ???????????? ??? ???????215
Copyright ??? Ф??? Ф??????╗ & ??? ФA???????? K????-C?????╗
????? III. ??????????????? ????????? ????????? ?а????????????? ??????????
????? ?.а5 ??.а22 ???????????? ?????????. ??? ????????? ??а???????? ??????? ?а?????? ????, ?а??????????? ??????? Ф????, ???????????? ??????╗ ?а????? ????? ??????.
??? ???????????? ???????? ????????? ???? ?????-????????????? ?????1. ???????? ?? ????????????? ?????? ??????? ??????????????? ??????????? ??а???????????, ???? ????? ????????, ???а???? ?????? ??????????? ?????????? ???????? ??? ??????????? ???????????,
??? ???????? ?а??????? ?а????? ????????? ????? ???? ??? ??????????? ?а? ????????? ????, ???а?а?????????? ????? ???????? ?????????? ????? ?????. ???? ???????? ??? ????????????? ??????? ????????
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?? ??????????? ????????? ?а??????????.
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?а????????? ??а???? ??????????? ??????? ?????????? ???????????? ?????. ??? ????????? ??? ??????? ?????? ????????? ?????? ???????, ?а????????? ??? ?????????? ?? ?а???? ??????????????? ?????????????, ???, ????????, ????? ???????????? ?????????? ?? ???????
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????????? ??????? ?а??????????????? ???????????? ?а?????? ?????? ????????? ????? ???????, ??????????? ?? ?????????2.
???????? ???????? ??? ??????? ??а????, ???а?????, ??????????? ??????????? ???????????????, ??а???????? ?????????? ??? ?????????? ??.а25 ?????????? ?????????, ????????? ???????? ????? ??1
? ??.: ??????? ?.?. ????. ???. ?.а183; Guldiman W. Internationales Lufttransportrecht:
Kommentar. Zurich, 1965. P.а147.
2
? ??.: ????????? ?. ???????: ????? ?а???????? ????????????? ????????. ?.,
1993. ?.а332.
216
Copyright ??? Ф??? Ф??????╗ & ??? ФA???????? K????-C?????╗
Да3. ????? ??????????????? ??????????? ?а??????? ?????????? ?????
????????? ??а????? ??????????????? ???а??????????? ?а?????? ?????
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???????? (???) ??а?????? ????????????? ??а???? ?????? ????????????? ???????????? ?а????? ?а??????????? ??????? ????????? ???????????? ??????-747, ??????? 1 ???????? 1983а?. ??????? ?а????????? ???????????? ???? ?а?а??????? ??????? ????? ???????? ??????
?а?????????? ??????????????? ??????? ????? ??????2.
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???????????? ?????????, ?????? ?????????? ?????????????
????????? 1975а?. ?а4, ?????? ????? ?????? ?????????? ??а???????????????? ??????? ??? ???????? ??????????????? ??????????? ??а????????????? ?????? ?а????????? ?а?? ????????. ???????? ??????????
?????????, ?????????? ???????????? ?????????? 1975а?. ?а4, ????????????? ?????????? ??????? ??????????????? ??????????? ??а????
???????? ????????????? ?а?? ????? ???? ????????? ?? ??? ?????
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???а??????? ??????????????? ??????????? ??а???? ???????? ??????????, ???? ???? ????? ??????? ????????? ?????? ??????????? ??? ???
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1
? ????????? ?. ???????: ????? ?а???????? ????????????? ????????. ?., 1993. ?.а119.
2
? Tompkins George N., Jr. Liability Rules Applicable to International Air Transportation as
Developed by the Courts in United States. From Warsaw 1929 to Montreal 1999. Kluwer Law
International BV. The Netherlands. 2010. P.а120.
217
Copyright ??? Ф??? Ф??????╗ & ??? ФA???????? K????-C?????╗
????? III. ??????????????? ????????? ????????? ?а????????????? ??????????
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????????? ?????? ??а???????? ?????? (???), ?????????? ??????????? Ф?╗ ?а????????? ?а????????????? ?????????? ??а???????? ?????? (?????), ?а??.).
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? ??.: ?????? ?.?., ????????? ?.?. ????????????? ??????? ??????? ?????. ?.: ????????????, 1984. ?.а216.
218
Copyright ??? Ф??? Ф??????╗ & ??? ФA???????? K????-C?????╗
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?? ????????????? ?а?????? ???? ????????? ???????? ???????????????: ???????? ???????? ?а1929а?. ?????? ??????????????? ??а????, ????????? ??????????? ??????? ??? ????????????? ?? ??? ????? ???????????????. ???-???? ????????????????, ???а???????, ???????????? ???????????, ??а????? ?????? ??????? ?а????????, ???а????????. ?а?? ??
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???????? ??? ????????, ?????????????????? ?а????????.
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???????? ????????? ????????????1. ????? ?????? ???????????? ????????? ??????? ??????????????? ??????????? ??а????. ??????, ???? ?? ????????? ??????????????? ??????????? ???????? ??????
???????????????, ??? ?????? ??а??????? ?? ?а????????? ?????????
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??а?????????, ?а??? ?????? ?????? ???????????. ????????, ???а???????????? ?????? ??????? ??? ?? ?????? ??????????? ??а???????
?????????? ????????? ??????? ?????????.
??? ?? ?????, ????????? ??????????? ??а????????, ???? ??а????????????? ?????? ???????????? ?????????, ?????????? ??????????? ?а????????? ??????????.
??а???????? ????? ?????????????? ???????????? ?????????
???????? ?????????????? ???????? ?????????? ????? ?а??????????
1
? Koning Ingrid. Liability in Air Carriage. Carriage of Cargo Under the Warsaw and Montreal Conventionsа// Air & Space Law. Vol. XXXIII. 2008. ?а4?5. P.а325?333.
219
Copyright ??? Ф??? Ф??????╗ & ??? ФA???????? K????-C?????╗
????? III. ??????????????? ????????? ????????? ?а????????????? ??????????
????????????? ???????????? ?а???????? ????????? ?а?????? ??????
???????? ???? ?????. ?????? ?????????? ????, ?????????? ?а????????????? ????????? 1971а?., ??????????? ?????? ?а?????????? ??????????, ?а???????????? ????????? 1975а?. ?а4, ??????????? ??????
?а?????????? ??????, ?а?????? ?????????, ??????? ??????? ??, ?а???????? ???????? ????????? ??а?????? ????????.
? ???? ????? ?????? ?????? ????????? ????????????? ??, ??????? ??? ?а1997а?. Ф????????????╗ ?а??????? ??????????????? ???????? ???? ???????????? ?????????. ??? ?а??????? ?????? ????????
??а?? ???????????? ????????????? ?а????? ???????????? ????????? ?????????????? ???????? ????????????? ????? ?а?????????
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??? ????? ????? ???????????! ??? ??? ?????????? (??. ?.а5 ?????????), ??а?? (??.а119) ???????????? ??????????????? ?????????? ??????????? ??а??????, ????????? ??? ??????????? (?????) ?????? ?а?????
???????? ?а??????? 2 ???? (??????а? 600 ???.) ??а1 ??, ?а?????? ????? (?????, ??????????? ??? ?????????)а? 11а???. ???. ??а?????? ?????????. ??? ???? ?а??а?? ??????????? ?????-???? ???????? ?а????????? ?????? ???? ???????? ??? ??????? ?????? ??? ?????? ?????????????? ???????????, ???? ???? ???? ???????? ??????. ??? ??????,
???а?????? ??????????? ????????? ??? ?????? ?????????????? ???????????, ?а????? ???????а? ??? ??????????, ?????? ??????? ?а?????????? ???????? ????????? ?????????.
?? ?????? ???? ?? ????????? ?а?? ???? 1983а?., ???????, ??????????? ??????????????? ??????????? ?????????????? ?????????? ????? ?а??????, ??????????????, ???а??? ??а????? ????????? ????????,
??????????????? ??????? ?????????. ????? ???????? ??????? ???
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?? ???? ??а???????????, ???? ???? ?? ????????, ???а???? ??????
?????????? ?????? ??? ?????? ?????????????? ???????????.
?????? ???????, ????? ????????? ?????????? ????????? ?а????????? ????????? ??а??????????? ??????????????? ??????????? ??а?????????, ???????? ???????????? ?? ?????? ?????????? ???????? ?????????. ??а???? ???????? ?????????? ?а??????? ?а????? ????????
?????????. ?????? ???????????? ???????? 1975а?. ?а4 ???????? ???
????????? ?????????? ????????? ??? ?????????? ????? ????????,
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220
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100 ???. ???, ???? ????? ?????????? ????? ??а???? ?????????? ?а?????????? ???????? ??а????????? ???????????????.
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(100а???. ???) ?а????? ??а??????? ??? ???????? ???????????? ?????????. ??????????????? ??.а21 ????????? ?а????????? ??????????????? ??а????? ?а???????? ????????? ????? ??????? ???????????? ????? (100 ???. ???) ??а???????? ???????? ??????????????? ???????????.
????????????? ???? ????????? Ф?????╗ ???????????? ??? ?????????????? ??????? ?? ???????? ??????????????? ???????????, ????????????? ?????????? ?????????? ?а???????? ??????????, ?а????? ???1
? Whalen Thomas J. Op. cit. ?. 19.
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?????????? ???????? ??????????????? ??????????? ??? ?????? ????? ?????????3. ?????? ?а2009а?. ??????? ???????? ?????? 10,31%, ??????? ???? ????????? ??????????? ??а????.
? 1 ?????? 2010а?. ???????? ????????? ????????? ???????? ?а????
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???? ?? ?а??????? ???? ??????? ????? ??????????? ??????????? ??????????-?????????? ??????? ?а????? ??????????, ????????? ??а????1
? ICAO Doc. SGMW/1. ?. 18.
? ICAO Doc. C-WP/11155 11/6/99. ?.3.
3
? Koning Ingrid. Liability in Air Carriage. Carriage of Cargo Under the Warsaw and Montreal Conventionsа// Air & Space Law. Vol. XXXIII. 2008. ?а4?5. P.а325.
2
223
Copyright ??? Ф??? Ф??????╗ & ??? ФA???????? K????-C?????╗
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9. ??????????? ?????????? ?????. ??? ????????????? ????????? ??????? ????????? ????????, ????? ?????? ?????? ?а????????????? ??????????? ?????????? ??????, ???????, ?а?????????, ?????? ??????????? ?????????? ??? ?? ????????????? ?а?????????? (???? ?????
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? ??. ??а????: ????? ?.?. ?????????? ???? ????????????? ????????? ????, ???????????? ????????????? ??????????? ???????????а// ????????? ????????? ?????а/ ??? ???. ???. ?.?. ??????????. ?., 1990.
224
Copyright ??? Ф??? Ф??????╗ & ??? ФA???????? K????-C?????╗
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? ??.: ???????? ?.?. ????. ???. ?.а50?51; ??????? ?.?. ??а???????? ?а?????????? ???????? ?????? ???? ???????а// ????????????. 1975. ?а5; ??????? ?.?. ????????????? ??а?????????? ????? (??????????? ????? ?а?????? ?? ????)а// ????????
????????????????? ?????. 1939. ?а1.
225
Copyright ??? Ф??? Ф??????╗ & ??? ФA???????? K????-C?????╗
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??а?? ?? 20.12.1994 ?а10 ????????? ????, ?а?????????, ????? ??????????? ?а???????????? ???????????? ?а????? ?а??????? ?????????????,
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? ??.: ???????? ?.?. ????. ???. ?.а34.
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? ??. ?.а1 ????????????? ??????? ??а?? ?? 20.12.1994 ?а10 Ф????????? ???????
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226
Copyright ??? Ф??? Ф??????╗ & ??? ФA???????? K????-C?????╗
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227
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?? ?????????? ???? ????????????? ??????? ??а?? ?? 20.12.1994
?а10, ?????????? ???????? ?????????? ???????, ???аФ????????? ????,
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228
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????? ????????????? ??а????????? 3000?4000а????. ??? ??а?????? ????????? ?????????. ?????? ??????? ????????? ??????, ?????
????? ?????????? ?????????? ?????, ???????????? ?????, ????????? 10а000а????. ???. ????? ?????????? ????????????? ????????? ????????????? ???????? ?????????? ?а?????????????? ???????? ?-310 ??? ?????????????? ?а1994а?. ?.?. ???????? ????????
?????????? ???????? ?????????? ?????????? ????? ?а????? ?а??????????? ???????? ???????????, ??????? ??????????????? ?а???,
???а???????????? ????????? ????? ?????????? ?а????? ?? ?. ?????????? 720 ????, ?.?. 72а000а???.2
1
? ??.: ?????? ?.?. ?а????????? ?????а// ??????????? ?а?????. 1993. ?а3. ?. 33;
???????? ?.?. ??????????? ?????????? ????? ?а?????????? ?????????а// ???????????
????????. 2002. ?а6; ??????????? ?.?. ????????? ???? ?а??????????? ??а?????????.
?., 1997. ?.а40?56; ?? ??. ??????????? ?????????? ?????. ???????????. ?., 2000 ?а??.
2
? ??.: ???????? ?.?. ??????????? ?????????? ????? ?а?????????? ?????????а//
??????????? ????????. 2002. ?а6.
229
Copyright ??? Ф??? Ф??????╗ & ??? ФA???????? K????-C?????╗
????? III. ??????????????? ????????? ????????? ?а????????????? ??????????
? ?????? ???????? ??????? ?а?????????? ?????????? ????? ????????????? ???????? ?а??????????????? ??? ??????????????? ??????? ?????????? ?????? ???????????? ???? ??а???????????? ?????????????? ??????????? ?а???????????? ???????????? ?а???????? ??????????? ??????, ??????? ?????? ???????? ?а??????????? ?? ???????,
??????????? ?????????? ?????????????? ??????. ?????? ????????, ???а?а??????????? ?? ?????????? ????????????? ?????? ??????????? ?????????? ?????, ????????????? ?????, ????? ???? ???? ??????? ?????????????? ?????1.
????????????? ??????? ?? 04.12.2007 ?а331-??2 Ф?а???????? ????????? ?а????????? ?????? ?????????? ?????????╗ ???????? ?????????, ????????? ?а??????????? ?а????? ???????????? ?????????
??????? ??а???????? ????????????? ??????????? ??? ???????????????
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?а?????-?? ????? ??????????? ?????????? ????? ???????????? ????
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? ?????? ?????????? ????? ???????? ????????? ?????? ?????????
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?????????????а??. ?????? ????????? ??????? ??а????? ?????????
2а??? ???. ?????? ?????а??а???????????? ??????????? ????????? ?????????? ??????????????? ?а???????????, ???? ??????????? ?????,
??????? ????????? ????, ????????? ????????? ?????3.
????, ??а??????????? ????? ?а???? ??.а800, 1064 ??а?? ?а??.а117
??а?? ????, ??????????? ????? ?а???????? ????????? ?????????? ?????, ??????????? ?а?????? ?????? ?а?????? ??????????? ??????????? ??а????????. ?????? 1100 ??а?? ????????? ??а????????? ????????? ?????????? ????????? ??????????????? ??а?????????? ?????????? ????? ?????????? ?? ??? ????.
??? ????????????? ??????????, ??????????? ??? ???????? Ф?????????? ???????╗, ??????????? ?????????? ????? ?????? ??????????????, ?????????? ?? ??????????? ????????? ??а??, ?????? ???
1
? ??????????? ?а??а??а/ ??? ???. ?.?. ????????. ??.?1099.
? ????? ???????????: ??а??. 2007. ?а50. ??.?6244.
3
? ???????? ?а?????? ??.: ????????? ?.?. ????? ???????????????? ?а??????????
???????????? ??? ????????? ????????? ?????а// ?????. 2008. ?а4.
2
230
Copyright ??? Ф??? Ф??????╗ & ??? ФA???????? K????-C?????╗
Да3. ????? ??????????????? ??????????? ?а??????? ?????????? ?????
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?????????? ????????? (??.а 22) ???????????? ???????????????
??????????????? ??? ????????????? ????????? ?????????? ??????
125а???. ??????? ??а??????? ?????????. ???????? ?????????? 1955а?.
?а????????? ??? ????? ???? ????????? ????? ?а????????? 250 ???.
??????? (??. ?.а2 ?????????). ??????? ??????????? ?????????????? ?а?????????? ????? ?????? ??????????? ?а???? ????????.
???????????? ????????? ??а??????????????? ?????-???? ???????? ??????????????? ??????????? ??а?????? ?а???????? ???????????
?????????. ?????? ????????? (?.а1 ??.а17 ?а?.а1 ??.а21) ?????????????, ???а???? ?????? ???????????? ????? ??а????????? 113 100 ???,
??а????? ??????????????? ????????? ??? ??????? ?????? ???? ????? ?????????? ???????????? ????? ??? ?????????, ?.?. ??а????????
??????????. ?а????? ??????????, ??????????? 113а100 ???, ??????????, ???????? ?.а2 ??.а21 ?????????, ????????????? ?? ???????????????, ???? ??????? ???? ???????????? ?а?????????? ????? (4.4.2.2).
????? ???????, ?а?????? ?????????? ???????????? ????????? ???
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??????????, ??????????? ??? ???????????? ?????????, ?а??????
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?а?????? ?????????? ??????????????? ??????????? ?а?а?????? ?????????????? ?????????? ?????? 100а000 ???. ?а????????? ??????????, ??????????? ????????? ?????, ?????????? ??????????
???????? ???? ???????????. ?а????? ?????? ??.а1100 ??а?? ??????????? ????? ??а??????.
????????? ?а??????????? ????? ????????? ????????????? ?????????? ?????????? ????? ??? ?????????? ?а???????? ???????? ??а????? ?????. ?а???? ??????? ?а?????????? ????? ???? ???? ?а??????? ???????? ??????????? ??а????, ??????? Ф?? ???????? ?????????????╗
(Да847 ???). ????????? ??? ???????? ?????? ????????? ?аФ??? ?????????? ??????????? ??а?????????╗, ?а???????? ???????????? ????? ?????? ФSchmerzensgeld╗а? Ф?????? ??а?????????╗ ??? Ф????????
??????????? ??а?????????╗. ?????? ??? ??????????? ?????????????
???? ??? ???????, ????? ????? ??????????????? ???? ????????? ?а?????????? ?????????????? ????????, ???????????? ???????? ?????231
Copyright ??? Ф??? Ф??????╗ & ??? ФA???????? K????-C?????╗
????? III. ??????????????? ????????? ????????? ?а????????????? ??????????
?????? ??? ???? ???? ???????? ???? ???????????? ??????????????? ??????? ????????????1.
?? ??????????? ???????? ???????? ?а???????? ???????? ????,
??????????? ?????? ??????????????? ?????? ?а??????, ????????? Ф????????? ??????╗ (Фdommage moral╗), ???? ?а????????????????
(??????????? ??????????? ???????) ???? ??????????? ?а???????? ????? ?????????, ?а????????????? ??? ??а????????????? ?а??????????????? ??а????????????2. ??а???????????? ????? ???????????? ????? ????????? ??????????? ?????????? ?????, ??? ??????? ?????????? ?????????? ??? ???????????? ?????????. ??????? ??????????
????? ??а??????????? ???????? ???????? ??а?????? ????????? ?а??????????? ???????? ??????????? ?????. ?а?????? ?????? ?????????
????а? ??? ???????? ??????????????? ???? ?а????; ??а??????а? ?????????, ??????????? ????????? ???????????????, ?а? ????????? ??????? ?а????????????? ???? ?а????. ??? ???????? ????? ????????????
???????? ?а??????? ??????????? ?????????? ?????, ????????? ??????????? ??????? ?????????? ????? ??а?????? ?????? ??? ???????????
?а?????? ??????????? ?? ??????? ?а???????????? ????????? ?а?????
?а????????? ??? ??????????????? ????3.
??? ???????, ??????????? ????? ??????????????? ??а?????????
???? ?????? ?а???????, ????? ???????? ??????????? ???????? ??а????? ????????? ???????? ????????????, ?а? ?????? ?????? ?????????а?
??? ??????? ?????????????4.
? ???????? ???????? ???, ??????? ????? ?????? ????????????
?????????? ?а??????????? Ф???????????? ???? ?а????????? ?????????╗, Ф?????? ?? ????????╗ (loss of society), Ф???? ?????????? ?????????????╗ (survivor?s grief) ?а?.?. ????? ?????????? ?????????????
???????? ?а?????????????? ?а???????? 1983а?., ??????-747, ???????????? ?????? ????????????? ???????????? ?а007, ??????? ????????? ???????????? ???, ??а???? ???????? ????????? ????? ???
?а???????? ?????????? ??????????????. ???, ??????????? ??а??????? ??.а17 ?а24 ?????????? ?????????, ?а????? ???????? ???????????
????? Ф?а??????? ?а???????? ????╗ (Death on the High Seas Act), ????1
? Lorenz E. Immaterieller Schaden und Фbillige Entschadigung in Geld╗. Berlin, 1981. S.а33.
? Zweigert ?., Kotz H. Einfuehrung in die Rechtsvergleichung: auf dem Gebiete des Privatrechts. Tubengen, Mohr, 1996. S.а699.
3
? ??.: ??????????? ?.?. ??????????? ?????????? ?????. ???????????. ?.а40?56.
4
? ??.: ??????? ?.?. ????. ???. ?.а36.
2
232
Copyright ??? Ф??? Ф??????╗ & ??? ФA???????? K????-C?????╗
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??? ?а????, ????? ?а?????? ?а???, ???а?????????????? ???????? ?????? Ф?????????? ????????╗, Ф?????????╗ (Legally Cognizable Harm)
????? ????????????? ?????????1.
? 2000а?. ????? ????? ??????? ?????????, ??? ????????????? ????????? ???????? ???, ?а???????????????? ?????? ?????? ???? ?????? ???? ??????? ?????????, ???????? ??????????? ?????????? ????????????? ????? ???????????????? ?????????, ?????? ???аФ?????? ????? (??????????????), ???????, ????????╗. ?????? ?????????? ?????????? ?????,
?????? ???аФ???????????? ???? ?а????????? ?????????╗, Ф????????? ??????????? ?а????╗ ?а?.?., ???????? ?????????????? ??а??а???? ??????.
?????? ?????????? ???????? ???????? ?????????? ?????????? ?????? ????????? ??????????? ??????? ?????????? ?????. ????? ??? ??????????? ????? ????? ??????? ?? ????????????? ?????? ????? ?а?????????????? ??????? ?????, ?????? ??????????? ????????? ??????????? ??????????? ??????. ???, ??? ?а1996а?. ?а??? ????????? ????
??а???? ?????? ?а?????? ????????? ????????? ??????????? ?????
?а007 ???????? ?????-747 ???????? ?а??????? 70а000а????. ??? ?????? ????????? ?а?а??????? 28 000а????. ???а? ??????2. ?а????????
????? ??? ????? ????? ??????????? ????3.
????????, ???а??? ????????? ??? ?????? ?а?????????? ???????????????? ?????????? ??а?? ?а??????? Ф?а?????? ???? ????????????╗ ?????????? ????? ?????????? ?а?????? ???????????? ???????? ???
?? ?????????, ???????? ???? ??? ??????? ?а?????????? ????????????
??? ????????, ??????????? ??????????? ????????????, ??????????? ?а????????? ?????????????, ???????? ?????????, ????????????? ????????????? ????????? ?а???????? ?????????. ??? ??????
?????????????? ???а????????? ?????????? ????? ????? ??????????,
??? ?а?а??????????. ?.?. ????? ?????, ???а???????? ??????????? ????????????? ???????? ??? ????????? ??? ???????? ?а????? ?????????? ???? ????????? ??? ???????????? ?а??????????? ?????????? ?а?????????? ????????? ?????????? ?????, ?????????? ????????? ???????????
????????????? ???????? ??? ?????????? ??? ???????? ?а????? ??????????4. ???????? ???????? ??а??????????? ????? ??а?? ??а?????1
? IATA. The Liability Reporter. February 1999. Vol.а2. Nа1. ?. 18?19.
? Larsen Paul.B., Sweeney Joseph C., Gillick John E. Op. cit. P.а419.
3
? IATA. The Liability Reporter. February 2007. Vol.а10. P.а61.
4
? ??.: ??????????? ?а??а??. ????? ?????? (???????????)а/ ??? ???. ?.?. ??????,
?.?. ?????????. ?., 2006. ??.795.
2
233
Copyright ??? Ф??? Ф??????╗ & ??? ФA???????? K????-C?????╗
????? III. ??????????????? ????????? ????????? ?а????????????? ??????????
?? ?????????? ?????????, ???????????? ??а??, ???а????????? ??????
????? ??а?????????? ?????????? ????? ??а???????????????1.
??? ????????????? ????????? ??????????? ?????????? ?????
??а???????? ??? ????????? ????????? ?????? ??????????? ?????? ???
??????? ???? ???????????, ??????? ???????? ??а?????? ??????????
(??.а20 ?????????? ?????????, ??.а19 ???????????? ?????????, ??.а15
?????? Ф?а?????? ???? ????????????╗), ?а?а?????? ????????????? ??????????? ???????? ??????????????? ??????????? (4694 ???а? ?а????????? ??????? ????????? ??а???????????? ?????????, 250 ???.
??????? ??????? (????? 20 ???.а????. ???)а? ??а????????? ????????? 1955а?.).
? ???????????? ?а???????????????? ????, ?????????????? ??а??,
???????????? Ф??????????? ??????????╗ ???????? ??а????????? ?????? ??а?????????, ??????? ???????? ???? ??а?. ????? (????? ?????),
?а????? ?а??? ???????? (?????) ??? ???????? ?????????? ?????????????? ?? ????? ?а?? ????? ?????? ???????????? ?а?? ?????? ??????
???????????? ?а????????????? ???????????????? ??????. ??а??
???????????? ?? 28.08.1998 ??а???? ?а64-?98??-8 ?????? ???????????
??????? ??????? ????-???????????? ?????????? ???? ?? 29.12.1997
?а??????????? ???????? ???????? ??а??????????? ????? ???????????? ?????????? ???? ?? 24.02.1998, ???????, ???????? ??а??, ???а?????????? ????????? ??а???????? ???????? ?а??????????? ?????????? ?????????? ?????, ????????????? ?????????? ????? ??а?а?????? ??????2.
??а??, ??????? ?????????? ?????????? ?а??????? ?????? ????? Ф?а?????? ???? ????????????╗, ??????, ???а?????????? ?????????
Ф????????????? ???? ????????? ??????? (??? ??????? ??а?? ????????
?а??????????) ?а?? ?????????? ??? ??? ?????????? ????????? ?????
???????????? ?а???????????? ???????????? ??????╗. ?а???????????????? ?? ??.а19 ?а24 ?????????? ????????? ?????????????? ?? ??????? ?????? ??а?????? ???????? ??? ?????????, ?а?? ?????? ?????. ??????? ????????? ?а???? ???????? ???? ?????? ??а?????????. ???
????? ????????? ?а????? ??????????? ??а??.
??????, ?а???????, ???? ?? ???????????? Ф??????????? ??????????╗ ?????????? ?? ???????? ????????? ????????? ?????? ?????? ????????????, ?????????? ?????????, ????????? ?а????????? ?????????,
1
? ??.: ???????? ???????? ??а??????????? ?????. 1993?1996. ?., 1997. ?.а212?213.
? ????????? ??а??. 1999. ?а5. ?.а9.
2
234
Copyright ??? Ф??? Ф??????╗ & ??? ФA???????? K????-C?????╗
Да3. ????? ??????????????? ??????????? ?а??????? ?????????? ?????
??????????????? ?? ??а???????? ?????????? ?????????, ???, ???????, ????? ??а????????? ?????????? ??????????? ????????????????
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??.а22 ?????????, ?????????????? ??????????????? ??????????? ????? ?????????? ????? ?????? 20 ???.а????. ???. ????????, ???а???? ????? ???????? ????? ??????????, ??а?????????? ??????????????? ???? ?????? ????????????, ??????? ???? ????????????? ??????
?а???????????? ?????????.
??? ????? ??????? ???????? ??????????? ??? ?????????? ?????????? ?????? ?а?а?????? ???????? ???????? ?????? ?а??? ????????????? ??? ????????????? ?????????. ?????? ??????????? ??????????????? ???????????, ????????????? ??????????? ?а???? ???????, ?????????????? ?????? ???????? ?????????? ?????????? ?????, ???????
???? ?? ???????? ?????? ?а???? ???????? ???? ???????.
?????? ?а?????????? ???????? ???????? ??? ???????? ??а???????
???????. ???, ????????????? ???? ????????? ?а???????? (???????),
???????? ???????????? ?????????, ??????? ????? ??????????????? ?а???? ?????? ???????. ?????? ??а??? ?а2007а?. ?????, ???а????????? ???? ??а?????? ?????? ?????????? ????????, ??а?а????????
1000 ??? ??а?????????. ??? ???????? ????????? ????????? ?????
????? ?????????????? ???????????? ?????????? ???????, ????????
??а??, ???а?.а2 ??.а22 ????????? ??а???????? ???????? ??а???????????
?????????? ?????????? ?????. ????? ???? ??а???? ??.а29 ?????????,
??? ?????????, ???а????? ??? ??а??????????????? ?а??????????? ????? ???? ?????????? ?????? ?а???????????? ?а???? ?????????, ??????? ??????????? ??????????1.
????? ??? ???????? ???????? ??? ??????? ??а????, ???а??? ???????? ?а????????? ????????? ?????? ??? ????? ??????????? ???????? ?????? ???????????? ?????, ??????? ?а?????????? ????2.
?? ?????? ?????? ?????????? ?????????? ????? ??а?????????????
?????? ??? ?????????, ??????????? ??? ???????? ???????????? ?????????, ?????? ??????????? ??а??????????????? ?? ????? ???????
1
? Tompkins George N., Jr. Liability Rules Applicable to International Air Transportation as
Developed by the Courts in United States. From Warsaw 1929 to Montreal 1999. ?. 73.
2
? Ibid. P.а237?239.
235
Copyright ??? Ф??? Ф??????╗ & ??? ФA???????? K????-C?????╗
????? III. ??????????????? ????????? ????????? ?а????????????? ??????????
(?? ????????? ?а?????????? ??????????) ???????? ???????????????
??????????? (??. ?.а2 ??.а17 ???????????? ?????????).
??? ?????????? ????????? ??????????? ?????????? ????? ?а?????? ????????????? ?????? ????? ????????, ?????? ?а???? ???????????
?????????? ????????????????? ??????????????? ??????????? ?????????? ?????? (??.а796 ??а??) ?а???????? ?а600 ???. ??а1 ?? (??.а119
??а??) ????????????.
? ?????????, ??а??????????? ??? ???????? ?????????, ?а????????? ??? ?????? ??? ?????????????? ?????, ???????????????? ????????? ????????????? ?????????, ????????? ???? ???????? ?????????? ??а?????? ???????????? ??????????? ????? (????????? ??а????
??. Да3 ????????? ?????).
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??????????? ?а??????????? ??????
1. ?а??????????? ????? ?????????? ????????? ?????? ?а?????????
????? ???а??а????? ??а??????? ??????????? ???????????????1. ??а??
?????? ????? ??????? ???????????? ?????: ?????????? ????????
?????? ??? ????, ??????????????? ????????? ?а?????????? ??? ???????????? ???????????. ?????????? ??а???????? ????????????? ?????
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???а?? ?????? (???? ??а????????, ???? ??? ?????) ??????????? ???????
???????? ?а?????, ?????????????? ???????????а? ????????? ???????????????? ?????????? ?????. ?????, ???????? ?????????, ???????????
?????, ??????, ??????????????? ?? ???????? ?а????? ?????????? ?????????? ?????????? ?? ???????????, ??? ???????? ??? ???????????. ??????? ????????????? ?????????, ?????????? ????????????????а??
?а?????? ????? ???????? ????????? ?????????, ?????????? ???????
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1
? ??.: ?????????? ?.?. ?????????? ?.?. ?????????? ?????. ????? ??????: ?????
?????????: 2-? ???. ?.: ??????, 2003. ?.а718; ????? ?.?. ????????????????? ?????.
?.,а1975. ?.а118?120; ??????????? ?.?. ?????????? ?????, ???????????? ??????????
?????????? ?????????. ?.: ????. ???., 1966; ??????? ?.?. ????????? ?????????????????? ???????????????. ?., 1970. ?.а137; ???????? ?.?., ???? ?.?. ????? ??????
??а?????????????. ?., 1950. ?. 307?319 ?а??.
236
Copyright ??? Ф??? Ф??????╗ & ??? ФA???????? K????-C?????╗
Да4. ????????? ????? ????? ?????????? ??????????? ?а??????????? ??????
??? ???????????? ??????????? ?а?????????? ?а???? ????????? ???????? (??????). ?????? ?а??? ??? ??????? ?????????? ????? ?а?? ?????? ?????? ?????????? ??????????? ?? ?????????????? ?????????,
???????? ??а??????? ???????????????? ????????.
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?????, ??????????????? ???????????? ??????????, ???????????????
??????????? ?? ??а????? ??????? ??а????????? ??????. ??? ???????????? ???????? ??? ???????????? ??????? ??а??????????????? ??????????? ??а????? ?а???????? ?????????, ??а????? ?а????.
2. ?????? ??????????????? ???????????. ?????? ????? ??????????????? ??а??????????? ????? ???? ????????? ?????? ?а??? ??????, ???? ?????? ??? ???? ???????? ??а????? ?????????. ?????? ?????????,
????? ????? ????????? ??????????????? ??????????? ??а??????????
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? ?????? ?????????? ????? ????? ?а???????? ?????????? ????????
??.а17 ?????????? ????????? ?а?.а1 ??.а17 ???????????? ?????????
?????????? ????? ???????????????, ???? ?????????? ????? ????????? Ф?? ????? ?????????? ????? ??? ??? ?????????? ????? ???????? ??а??????? ?а??????? ?а????╗. ?а???????? ?????????? ????? ????????? ????????? ??? ?????? ????? ???????? ????????? ??????????.
?.?. ???????, ?. ????????? ??????? ??а????, ???а????????? ?а??.а17
?????????? ????????? ????????? ?аФ?????? ????????? ??? ???????
?а???????╗, ??а??????? ??????? ?а??????? ?????? ??????????? ?????????????1. ?? ??????????? ??????????? ?????????? ?????? ??????????????? ??????????????? ??а?????????? ????????? ??????????
???а?????????? ????????? ?а???????? ?????????2, ?а??????, ??а?а?????? ???????????. ??????????, ???а???????, ????????? ??????? ?????
??? ??????????? ???? ?а?????????????? ??а??? ????????, ???????????? ?а?????????????, ??????????????? ??? ??????, ???????, ??????? ?а??????? ????????? ????? (??., ????????, ??.а40 ??а??). ?????
???????, ??а??? ??????, ???????? ???????????? ??????? ?а?????? ??????? ??????????????? ??????????? ?????? ????????? ?а??????? ???????? ????????? ??а????????, ?а??? ?????????? ?????????а? ?а?????1
? ??.: ??????? ?.?. ???. ???. ?. 177; Guldimann W. Op. cit. ?. 102.
? Renж Rodiere. Droit des transports: transports terrestres et aжriens. Paris, 1977. ?. 766.
2
237
Copyright ??? Ф??? Ф??????╗ & ??? ФA???????? K????-C?????╗
????? III. ??????????????? ????????? ????????? ?а????????????? ??????????
?? ?????? ????????? ??а?????? ???? ?а????????????? ????????? ???
????????????? ???????????.
? ???????? ???????? ??? ??? ???????? ?а??????????? ???????
??????????????? ???????????. ???????? ??а??????? ????? ????????
????? ?????????? ????????? ?а???? ??????, ?????????????? ?????
????????????, ???????????? ?? ???? ??? ?????????, ????? ?????????
?????????? ??????????? ??????, ??????????? ??????????? ??а????
?а??????????-??????????? ?????? ?а??? ?????? ?а?.?.1 ????? ???????,
??? ??????????? ??????? ??????????????? ??????????? ??? ???? ??????? ??а?????? ???????????????? ????????.
? ???? ????? ?????????????? ?????? ???????? ?а??????? ??????
?.а?????????, ???????? ??????? ?????? ??????????????? ???????????
?????????? ?а??????? ????? ????????? ??а???????? ??? ??????? ?а??????? ?а????????? ?а??????? ?????? ????????? ??а????????? ?а??? ????????? ????? ???????. ???? ?? ???????? ??а??????? ?а??????? ???????????? ?а??????? ????????, ??а?????? ??????????????? ??????????? ?????????? ?а??????? ?????? ????????? ??а?????? ??????????? ???
??????? ?а??????? ?а????????????? ?а?????? ????? ????????? ?а??????
??????????? ????? ??????? ??а????????2. ??? ????????, ???а?????? ??????????????? ?????????? ?а???????, ????? ???????? ???????? ???
???????? ???????????, ?а????????????? ?а???????, ????? ??а???????
??-??? ????. ????? ?????? ??????????? ?а???????? ????? ???3 ?а??????? ???????? Ф?????? ????????╗.
??а?? ????????? ?, ??а??? ??????, ???? ???? ?????????? ??????
????????? ?????????, ????????? ???а???????? ???????? ??? ??????????, ??? ?а??????????????? ??????. ???????? ?.а1 ??.а117 ??а?? ????? ????????? ???????? ?а???? ?????? ?а??????? ??????????? ?????????? ?????????? ????? ????????????? ???????? ??? ??????? ??а????????? ????? ?а?? ???????, ????? ???????? ?????????? ????? ???
??????????? ?????????????? ??? ??????????? ??????? ????????.
????? ?????? ??????? ??а??????????, ???????? ????? ?а??????????
??????????. ????? ??? ???????????? ??????? ?????????? ??а??????
???????????, ?а?????? ?а?а?????????? ?????? ???????????? ??? ???1
? ??., ????????, ??????? ??а?????: Evangelinos v. Trans World Airlines Inc., 550 F.2d
152 (3d Cir. 1977); Aquino v. Asiana Airlines 105 Cal. App. 4th 1272, 130 Cal. Rptr. 2d 233 (2003).
2
? Tompkins George N., Jr. Liability Rules Applicable to International Air Transportation as
Developed by the Courts in United States. From Warsaw 1929 to Montreal 1999. ?. 135?136.
3
? Ibidem.
238
Copyright ??? Ф??? Ф??????╗ & ??? ФA???????? K????-C?????╗
Да4. ????????? ????? ????? ?????????? ??????????? ?а??????????? ??????
?? ?а?????? ??????????? ??? ?а??????, ??а??????? ?? ?????? ???????
??а????????? ?????. ?а???? ??????? ?????? ??????????????? ???????????, ???? ??? ?????????? ?а??????? ??????????? ????????????????
(?.а1 ??.а117 ??) ??а?????? ????????????? ?.?. ??????? ???????????????? ???????1, ????? ???????????, ???а?а???? ??????? ????? ???????? ?а?????????????? ?????????? ??а??????????? ???????????????
??а?????????? ????? ????? ?а???????? ??????????.
????????, ???а????????? ???????????????? ????????? ?????????
??????? ?? ?????????? ???????????? ?????????? ?а??????????, ??????? ????? ???? ??????. ????? ??????????, ??а??? ??????, ????????
??а??????????? ?а??????????? ??????????? (??? ??? ???????) ???????????? ???????? ??? ?????????? ?????????? ?а???????????? ?? ????????????. ??? ?????? ?????????? ??????????? ???????????? ????,
??? ????? ???????? ??????????????. ??????????????, ???а??? ????????????????? ????????? ????????? ??а?? ????????????? ????????
??а????, ???а?????????? ????? ????? ??????????????? ??а????? ?а???????? ????????? ?????? ?????, ????? ????????? ????????? ?а????? ???????????? ???????????, ?????????????? ??? ?????????? ??? ??? ???????????????. ??? ??? ??? ?а?????????? ???? ??а????????? ?????, ???? ??а????? ???????? ??а??????? ?а??????? ????????? ?а?????? ?????,
????? ?????????? ?????? ?а?????????? ?а????????? ???????????? ?????? ?а???????????? ?????????. ?? ????? ??????????????? ?????????
??????? ??? ????????? ??? ???????????? ??????? ???????????????
??????????? ???а??а?????????? ????? ????? ?а???????? ??????????,
??? ?а?? ????????????? ????? ?а??????.
????? ???????, ?а????? ?????????? ?????? ???????? ???????????? ??а?????? ?????? ???????????? ????? ????????? ????????????
??????? ??????????????? ??????????? ??а????? ?а???????? ?????????
??а???????? ???а?????? ????? ???? ??????????? ???? ?а?????? ?????????? ?????? ?а?????? ???? ????????????? ???? ????????? ???????
??????? ????????? ????? ????? ?????????? ??????????? ?а??????????? ??????.
? ?????? ????????????? ??????????????????? ?????? ??? ????? ?????????? ???????? ??а?????? ????? ??? ???????, ???? ??? ????????
??а????? ????????? ?????????. ?????? ????????? ????????? ?а????
1
? ??.: ?????? ?.?. ??????????????? ?????????? ??????????? ??а?????????? ????? ????? ?а???????? ????????? ??? ????????????? ?????????: ???????. ???. ? ????.
????. ????. ?., 2009. ?.а8?9.
239
Copyright ??? Ф??? Ф??????╗ & ??? ФA???????? K????-C?????╗
????? III. ??????????????? ????????? ????????? ?а????????????? ??????????
?????? ??? ?????? ??????????????? ??????????? ????????????? ??????????? ?????.
? ???????????? ?а?.а2 ??.а17 ???????????? ????????? ??а???????????, ????? ??? ??????????? ??????????????????? ?????? ??????????
???????? ?????? ??? ???????, ???а??? ????????? Ф?? ????? ?????????? ????? ??? ??а????? ?????? ???????, ?а??????? ???????? ?????????????????? ????? ????????? ??? ??????? ???????????╗. ????? 2 ??.а18
?????????? ????????? ???????? ????? ?? ??????? ?????????? ??????? ????????? ????????? ????????????? ?а??????????????? ??????????? ??а?????.
?? ???????? ?.а3 ?а4 ??.а18 ???????????? ????????? ?а?.а2 ?а3 ??.а18
?????????? ????????? ???????, ???а??а??????????? ????? ??????????
???????? ?а?????? ????????? ?????????, ??????? ?????????? ?????????? ???????, ?а??????? ???????? ???? ????????? Ф??? ??????? ??????????? (?????????? ?? ????, ???????? ?? ???? ?а?????????, ??а?????
?????????? ????? ??? ?а?????-???? ???? ????? ?а?????? ??????? ???
?????????)╗. ?а?????? ??????? ????????? ????????? ????? ??а?????????? ????????? ???? ????? ??????????, ?????????????? ??? ?????????. ?????? ???? ????? ????????? ?????????????? ??а??????????
???????? ????????? ????????? ?а????? ????????, ?????? ??? ??????????, ??а????? ???? ????????? ???????????? ??а????? ?????????
????????? ?? ?????????????? ??????????. ?а??????? ????????? ????????? ????????? ????? ????????? ???? ????? ??????????, ???? ?????????????? ??а???????? ??? ???????? ??????????? ???????????? ?????
?????? ????????? ??? ????????.
????????? ?а????????????? ???????????? ?а?????? ???????
?а???? ?????? ?????????? ?????????? ????????????????, ????????????, ???а??????????????? ??а??????, ????????? ??? ??????????? (?????) ?????? ??? ????? ?????????? ????? ????? ???????? ?? ?а?????????
????????? ?а?? ?????? ??????????????? (?.а1 ??.а118 ??а??).
???????? ?.а3 ??.а118 ??а?? ?????????? ????? ???????????????
??а??????, ????????? ??? ??????????? (?????) ?????? ??? ?????, ???? ??а???????, ???а??? ????????? ??а??а????? ????????? ?????????.
?????? ????????? ??? ??????????? ?а????????? ???????????, ????????? ???? ??? ?????, ??????? ??????? ?????????? ??? ???????????????? ??? ???????????
????????, ???а??? ??????? ?????????? ?а??????????? ?????????,
??????? ??????? ??а????, ???, ???? ????? ??? ???? ??? ?????? ?????240
Copyright ??? Ф??? Ф??????╗ & ??? ФA???????? K????-C?????╗
Да4. ????????? ????? ????? ?????????? ??????????? ?а??????????? ??????
?? ?а?? ?????? ?? ??? ??????????, ??а???? ?а?????? ???????????? ??????????? ????????????? ??????????????? ????? ??????????? ????
?????, ???а??? ????????? ??а????? ????????? (?.а1 ??.а26 ??????????
????????? ?а?.а1 ??.а31 ???????????? ?????????).
?????????????? ??????? ?.а3 ??.а118 ??а?? ??а?????? ???????????????? ??а????????????? ?????????, ??????????? ??? ???????? ????
?????????, ?а??????? ??????????.
?? ?????????, ?? ??а??, ?? ??????? ????????? ??а???????????
??????? ??????????????? ??????????? ??а????????????? ?????, ??????????? ??? ?????????. ????????? ??? ?????? ?????????? ??? ????????? ?????????, ??????? ????????????, ???а??????????????? ??а??
??????????? ??а??????????? ????? ???? ????????? ?????? ?а??????
?????????? ????????? ??а????? ?????????? ????? ??? ??? ?????????? ???????? ??а??????? ?а??????? ?а????.
??????????? ??а????????????? ?????? ?а????????-????????????
????? ????? ?????????? ??????????? ?а????????, ????????????
?????????? ???????? ??? ?????????. ??????? ??????? ?а???????????
????????????? ???? ?? ????????????, ???а????? ????? ???????????
?а?????????????? ????? ????????? ???????????? ??????? ????????
????????? ?а?????? ?? ?????? ?а????????? ?а??? ??????, ???? ???????? ???????????? ?????? ?а????? ??????????? ???????????, ?а????
?????? ???????????.
3. ??????? ????????????? ????? ?а???????. ?? ?????????? ?.а1 ??.а17
???????????? ????????? ?а??.а17 ?????????? ????????? ???????,
???а?????????? ???????? ??а?????????? ????? ????? ?а???????? ????????? ?????? ??? ??????? ???????????? (accident), ??????????? ??????, ??????? ?????? ???????? ?????? ??? ????????? ???????????. ?а???????
???????? ?????????? ????????? ????????????? ?????? Ф??????????
??????╗. ??????? ????? ???????????? ????????? ????????? ??????
Ф????????????╗. ?????????? 13 ?а????????? ?а????????????? ??????????? ??????? (??????, 1944а?.) ?????????? Ф??????????? ????????????╗ ???а?????????? ????????? ???????? ??????????? ??а??????????? ??????? ??? ????????? ???????? ??????????? ?а??????????
?????????? ??а????????? ?????, ???????? ?а??????-???? ??? ???????,
?????? (?? ??????????? ??????? ?????????? ????? ????????? ?? ?????
???? ?????? ??????????, ?а????? ??а??????????? ??????? ??????????
????? ??????????? ??????????). ?????? ?????????? ?а????????????
????????? ??????? ?а??????? ???????????? ??? ?????????? ??????.
241
Copyright ??? Ф??? Ф??????╗ & ??? ФA???????? K????-C?????╗
????? III. ??????????????? ????????? ????????? ?а????????????? ??????????
?????? ?а????????? ????? ????? ?????????????? ?????? ?????
?а??????????????? ?????????? ??????????? ???? ????????? ?????????? ????????? ?а?? ???????????? ??????????? 1999а?.
? ???????? ?????????????? ????????? ???????????? ??.а17 ?????????? ????????? ????????????? ??????????? ??????????????? ??????????? ???????? ???????? ??????? (event) ??а????? ?????????? ????? ???
??? ???????/??????? ?????????, ?а?? ????????????? (accident). ?????
?????? ?а?????? ?????????? ?а???? ?????????????? ????????? ??? ??
???????? ?а?????????????? ?????????? ??а??????????? ??????????????? ??? ????????? ?????????? ??а????, ??????????? ??? ????????????? ?????????? ????????-???????????? ????????, ?.?.а??а????,
??а????????? ?а?????????? ???????????? ?????????? ????????????? ????????, ?а?????????, ????????, ??а??????? ????????? ????????
?????? ?????????. ???????? ??????? ?????????? ?а???????? ????????. ????????, ????? ??????????? ?????????????? ????????? ?????
????? ??а?????? ??? ???????, ?а?а1997а?. ?а???? ????????????? ??????????? ??а30-? ?????? ???????????? ???????? ???? ??????????
??????????? ????????? ??????????? ?????? ????????????? ?? ?а??????? ?????????1. ????? ???????, ???????????? ????????? ?????????
?????? ???????? ?????????? ????????? ???????????? ?????????
????????? ????? ???а?????? ??а??????? ??????????????? ??????????? ??а?????????? ????? ????? ?а???????? ?????????. ???????????
????????? ??а????? ??а???? ?????????????? ?????????, ??а?а?? ???????? ??а????, ???а????????????, ??????? ????? ???????? ????????
????????????? ??????????????? ???????????, ?????? ???? ??????????? ?а????????? ????????? ?????????.
? ????????????? ?????????? ??????????, ???а????????? ?????????? ??а????? ??????????????? ??а??????????? ???????????, ????????????? ?????????, ??????? ??а????? ?????? ?????, ?а???? ??????????? ?а???????? (????????) ??????? ?а?????????? ???????????2.
? ?????????? ???????? ???????? ?а???? ??????? ??? ????????????, ??? ???????? ????????? ??????? ?а?????????? ??????? Ф????????????╗.
? ??????????? ??????? ???? ??????????? ?а???, ???а?????????
?????? ??????????? ?????? ?а?????? Ф???????????? ????????????╗,
1
? ICAO Doc. 9693-LC/190.
? ??.: ????????? ????????? ?????. ?.а226.
2
242
Copyright ??? Ф??? Ф??????╗ & ??? ФA???????? K????-C?????╗
Да4. ????????? ????? ????? ?????????? ??????????? ?а??????????? ??????
?.?. Ф?????????? ??????╗ ?????? ???? ???????? ?????? ?а??????????? ?????????????, ??????? ?а??????????? ??????. ?а???? Air France
v. Saks 1985а?. ????????? ????? ??? ???? ??????????, ???а??????????????? ??а??.а17 ?????????? ????????? ????????? ???? ?а??????,
???? ???? ????????? ??? ???????? ??????????? ??? ?????????
????????, ??????? ???????? ??????? ??а????????? ?а?????????1.
??? ????? ?????????, ???а?????????? ????? ???? ??а???? ??а????????
?????????????. ???????? ?а???????????? ????? ?????? ???????????? ?.а????????2. ????? ???????? ????, ???????? ?????????? ??а????, ???? ???????? ????? ??а????? Ф????????? ???╗ (??????? ???????????), ??а???????? ?????????? ??? ????????????? ??????????????? ???????????3.
? ????? Harley Price v. British Airways 1992а?. ?аBrandi Wallace v. Korean
Air Lines 2000а?. ???? ?????????? ???????? ?????? ???????? ???????????, ?????????? ??а????? ????? ????? ???????????, ?а??????????? ????????????? ??а????? ?а???????? ??????????? ??? ???????
Фaccident╗ ?а?????? ??.а17 ?????????? ?????????, ????????? ??????????? ???? ??а???? ????????? ?а?????? ?а?????????? ?????????
??????, ?а??????????????? ????? ??а???????? ???????????? ??? ???????????????4. ?????????? ??????? ??а???? Harley Price v. British Airways ?а?? ???? Brandi Wallace v. Korean Air Lines5. ??а???? ??????? ????? ?????????? ????6.
??????? ????? ??? ???????, ?а??????? ???? ???????, ???а???
???????? ????????? ?????? ????????? ????? ???????????? ?а???????? ??????? ???????????????, ???а??а?????????? ???????????.
????????????? ????? ?????????? ???????, ???????? ??а?????????
?а???????, ???????????? ??? ?????????? ??????????. ????????,
1
? Unmack Tim. Op. cit. P.а249. 219; Dempsey P.S., Milde M. International Air Carrier Liability: The Montreal Convention of 1999. McGill University. Institute of Air & Space Law.
2005. ?. 134?151.
2
? Tompkins George N., Jr. Liability Rules Applicable to International Air Transportation as
Developed by the Courts in United States. From Warsaw 1929 to Montreal 1999. ?. 136.
3
? Tompkins George N., Jr. Article 17 and the Warsaw Conventionа? When is an ФAccident
Фis not an Article 17 Compensable ФAccident╗а// Air & Space Law. Vol. XXXII/1 (June 2007).
P.а228?229.
4
? Willcox David. Warsaw Convention Article 17. Update. Beaumont and Son, Lloyds Chambers. London, 20 May 2001.
5
? Wallace v. Korean Air, No. 98 Civ. 1039, 1999 WL 187213 (S.D.N.Y. Apr. 6, 1999).
6
? The Liability Reporter. February 2004. Vol.а7. P.а17.
243
Copyright ??? Ф??? Ф??????╗ & ??? ФA???????? K????-C?????╗
????? III. ??????????????? ????????? ????????? ?а????????????? ??????????
?????????? ????? ????? ????? ?????????????, ??????????? ???
???????? ????????? (Abdul Rahman Al-Zamil v. British Airways Inc.)1.
????? ??????? ??????? ????? ??? ?????????????? ?????? ?? ??????? (Girard v. American Airlines, Inc.2; Scala v. American Airlinesа? ????
?а?????????? ????? ?????????, ???????? ??а?????? ???????? ?а???
??????????? ???????3).
????????? ???? ??? ??а????? ????? ??????????? ????????????? Ф???-???╗ ?а??????????? ????, ??????? ?а1998а?. ???? ?????????, ?????????????? ???????? ?а??????????? ????????? ?а?????????
??????? ????? ??????? ?а????-????, ???????, ???, ????????? ?а?????? ?????? ??а???? ???????????? ?а?????? ?????????? ?????????,
?а????? ???????? ???????????, ?????????? ?????????? ??а????????
?????????????? ??а????????? ???? ?????????. ??? ???? ??? ??????????, ???а?????????? ????????? ????????? ?????? ???? ??а?????? ???????? (?????????????) ?????. ?? ???? ??????? ??????? ?а?????????? ????.
? ?????????, ?????????? ???????????? ?а???????? ???????? ?а???????? ????? ?????-???????????? ??????? ????? ?а???? ??????? ??????????? ?а?? ??? ????, ??? ?а???????? ?????????? ????????????
?????????4. ?????????? ??????? ????????????? ????????? ?????????
??????????????? ??????????? (??????? ????, ????????? ?????, ??????????????), ??????? ????? ????? ????? ????????????? ????? ?????
?а?????????? ?????, ???????? ?а????????????? ??????????? ???????????? ??????? ???????? ???????, ?????? ?а???? ????????? ???????????? ?а???????????? ?? ?????????? ?а????? ?????? ????? ?????
??????????????? ??????, ??????? ??????????.
???????????? ??????, ?а??????? ??????? ??????? ?????????? ????????,а? ??? ???????? ?????????? ?а??????????? ?а?????????? ?????
?а????? ????????? ?????? ???????????, ?????????? ???????? ????????? ??? ?????????? ?????????. ????? ???? ?а??????? ?????-???????????? ??????? ????? ?????????????? ??а????????5. ??а???? ????1
? Abdul Rahman Al-Zamil v. British Airways Inc 770F 2d 3 (US Court of Appeals, 2nd
Circuit, 1985).
2
? Girard v. Am. Airlines, Inc., No. 00?CV4559, 2003 WL 21989978 (E.D.N.Y., Aug. 21,
2003).
3
? Scala v. Am. Airlines 249 F. Supp. 2d 176 (D. Conn 2003).
4
? Leloudas Georges. Risk and Liability in Air Law. London. Informa Law. 2009. ChapterаV.
5
? Ibidem.
244
Copyright ??? Ф??? Ф??????╗ & ??? ФA???????? K????-C?????╗
Да4. ????????? ????? ????? ?????????? ??????????? ?а??????????? ??????
??? ????? ?а??????????? ????. ?а?????????, ???????? ????? ???????
(??????) ?????? ?????????? ??????????, ??????????? ?а????? ????????????? ?????? ??а??????, ?а???????????? Ф??? ?????╗, ???????? ??? ?????, ???????????? ?????????. ??? ???? ?а????? ??????? ???????? ?????? ??????????? ??????, ????????? ?????? ???????, ???????????? ???????????, ????????? ?а???1.
???????? ?а???????? ????? ?????? ???????????? ???? ?а????????,
????? ?????????? ?а??????????? ??а????????? 100а???. ??? ?а??????????? ?а?????? ?????? ?????????? ???????????????, ????????????? ???????????? ??????????. ?а????????? ??????? ??? ??а?????
????????? ?????????. ?а?????? ??????????? ?????????????? ???????? ??? ??????? ??????? ?а??????????? ??????????? ?а??????????????? ????? ??? ???? ???а????????? ????? ??????????????? ?а(???)
???? ?????????? ????????? ??а?????, ??????? ??? ??????? ??а?????.
??? ??????? ????? ???? ????????? ??а?????????? ????????-???????????? ????? ???? ????? ??а?????? ??????? ?????????? ?а???????????? ?? ??????????????? ???????????, ?а?????? ??????????? ???????? ?????? ??????????? ???????????? ????????? ??а????? ?а???
???????/???????.
???? ???????? ????????? ??? ????????? ????? ??? ??????. ??? ??????????? ???, ???а??????? ????????? ????????? ?а????? ????????????? ??а????????? ?????? ?а??????? ????????? ????? ???????? ?????????. ????? ???????? ????? ?а?????? ?а????????? ??? ?а?????? ???? ????????? ?а??????? ???????????, ??????? ?????? ?????????? ??
???????????. ??????? ??? ?????????? ??а??????????? ??????????????? ??а????????????? ????? ?а?????? ?????????? ?????????????? ?????
?? ??????, ????????? ??? ??????????? ?????????? ?? ??????? ??? ??
?????????? ???????????? ????????????. ?????????? ???????? ??а????? ??????, ???????, ??????? ???????? ?????? ?а???????????? ?????
???????? ????? ??? ?????? ?а????????? ????????? ?а?? ?????? ???????????????. ???????, ???а?????????? ??????? ?.а1 ??.а18 ??????????
????????? ?а????? ?.а2 ??.а17 ???????????? ????????? ??????????
?????? Фevent╗, ?.а1 ??.а18 ?????????? ????????? ?а???????? ??а??????? ????а? Ф?????????? ??????╗, ?а?????????? ???????? ???????????? ?????? Фoccurrence╗, ?а? ????????? (???????????)а? Фжvжnement╗.
1
? Tompkins George N., Jr. Liability Rules Applicable to International Air Transportation
as Developed by the Courts in United States. From Warsaw 1929 to Montreal 1999. ?. 72?73.
245
Copyright ??? Ф??? Ф??????╗ & ??? ФA???????? K????-C?????╗
????? III. ??????????????? ????????? ????????? ?а????????????? ??????????
Да5.а????????? ???????????? ???????????
?? ???????????????
1. ???????? ?.а1 ??.а20 ?????????? ????????? ?????????? ??а?????
???????????????, ???? Ф???????, ???а?? ?а????????????? ?? ??????
???? ??????? ??? ??????????? ???? ?а????, ????? ???????? ?????,
??? ???а?? ???? ?????????? ?? ???????╗. ????? ???????, ??? ????????????? ??????????????? ??????????? ??а?????????? ????? ?????
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?а????? ?????? ??? ??????????????. ????? ??????????? ??????????
???? ????? ??а???????????. ??????? ???? ????????????, ??????????
????????????? ?? ???????????????.
????? ????, ??? ????????? ????? ?????????? ????????????? ?? ??????????????? ??а????????????? ??????1, ?.?. ???? ???????, ???а???????? ????????????? ????? ??? ????????? ?а??? ???????? ????????
?????? ?а????????????? ?????????? ????? ??? ?а????????? (?.а2 ??.а20
?????????? ?????????). ?????????? ??а?????? ????????? ??а????????????? ?????? ?а???????? ?????????????? ????? ???????????? ?а??????? ?????????? ????? ????? ?а???????? ??????????, ?????????????
?????? ?а???????? ??? ?? ?????????.
????????? ?а????????????? ?????? ??????????? ?????? ??? ?????????? ????? ?????????????, ??а???????????? ?а??????????? ?????????? ?????????? ?????????. ??? ???????? ?????????? ????????????? ?????? ????????? ??а????? ?????????, ????????????? ??????????? ?? ???????????????.
???????????? ????????? 1999а?., ???????, ???а?а????????? ?а????????? ?????, ????????? ?а?????????? ????????? ????????????
?????????? 1975а?. ?а4, ??????????????? ??????????? ????? ??????? ??????????????? ??????????????? (????? ?????????? Ф???????????╗, Ф??????????? ?? ????╗) ??а?????????? ????? ????? ?а????????
??????????, ??а????????????? ?????? ?а?????. ????? ??????? ???????? ????????? ?????????? ?????? ?а???????? ??????????????, ??????,
1
? ????????? ??.: ?????? ?.?. ???? ???а??????? ?????????? ???????????????
??????????? ??а?????????????? ?????????? ?????а// ????????????. 1977. ?а3.
?.а107?111.
246
Copyright ??? Ф??? Ф??????╗ & ??? ФA???????? K????-C?????╗
Да5.а????????? ???????????? ??????????? ?? ???????????????
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??????????? ????????1.
????????? ??????????????? ??а???????? ??? ????????? ?а???????????? ????????? ???????? ???????????.
?????? 20 ???????????? ????????? ?а??.а21 ?????????? ?????????
????????????? ??? ???? ??????????????, ??????? ???????? ???а????????? ????????? ??????????????? ??????????????? ???а??а??????????
????? ????? ?а???????? ?????????, ????????????? ????? ??? ??????,
??? ?а?? ????????? (????????) ?а?? ????????. ????? ???????????????
???????? ???? ????????????. ????????? ???????? ????? ??а?????????? ????? ?а??? ???????, ?а????? ??? ????????, ???а??? ???? ?????????????? ?????????? ????? ??? ????????????? ???????. ?????
?????????????? ???? ???????????? ????? ??????????. ????? ??? ????????? ????? ???????????? ????????? ??а??????? ??????? ?а???????????? ??????? ?????????? ?? ??????????????? ??????????? ?????????? ????????? (??. ?.а6 ?????????? ?????????).
?????-???? ???? ????????? ???????????? ??????????? ?? ??????????????? ???????????. ??? ????????? ???????? ??а??.а26 ???????????? ????????? ?а??.а23 ?????????? ?????????.
2. ????? ?а???????? ??????????. ?а????????? ????? ?а????????
?????????? ???????????? ????????? 1999а?. ?????????????, ???а???? ?????? ???????????? ????? ??а????????? 100 000 ???, ??а?????
??????????????? ????????? ??? ??????? ?????? ???? ????? ??? ??????????. ?а1 ?????? 2010а?., ???а??? ???? ???????, ????? ??????????
?а??????????? ?а????? ??а??????? ??? ???????? ???????????? ?????? ????????? ?????? ?? 113 100 ???.
? ????? ??????????, ??????????? ???? ?????, ?????????? ????????????? ?? ???????????????, ???? ??а??????? ???? ????????????
?а?????????? ????? (?.а1 ??.а17 ?а?.а1 ??.а21 ???????????? ?????????).
????????? ????????, ??? ?? ?????? ?????????????? ??????????
?а??????? ??????????, ??????? ?? ??????????????? ????? ??????? ??????????????? ???????????, ??????????? ???? ??? ??????? ????????????? ????????????? ????. ????? ??????????????? ?а?????? ???? ????? ???????????????? ???а??????????, ???? ??? ?а????????? ??
????????????? ?????? ??а?????? ???????. ??????? ????????? ?а??????????? ??????????????? ??а??????? ????? 1963а?., ????????? ??1
? Leloudas Georges. Risk and Liability in Air Law. Chapter VI.
247
Copyright ??? Ф??? Ф??????╗ & ??? ФA???????? K????-C?????╗
????? III. ??????????????? ????????? ????????? ?а????????????? ??????????
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??????????? ????? ??? ?????????.
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??а??????????? ???? ????? ?а???????? ?????????? ??? ?????????
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???????? ?????? ?а?????? ?????????? ??????, ??????? ??????? ?????????????? ???????????? ?а???????, ???а???????, ???????????? ??????????? ?????????? ??????????? ?а???????, ????????, ?? ???????? ??????????? ????????? ?????? ????????? ????? ?а?????????????
???????. ?????? ????, ???а????????? ?????????????? ????? ????????
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? ???????????????, ????????????? ??????????? ?? ???????????????, ?????????? ??а????????? ?????????? ????????? ??? ??????????????? ?????????? ?????????????????, ????????? ????? ????
??????? ???. ?а???????????? ?а?.а2 ??.а1079 ??а?? ???????? ?????????
?????????? ????????? ??а???????? ??а????, ??????????? ???? ??????????, ???? ???????, ???а???????? ????? ??а??? ????????? ?а?????????? ?????????????? ???????? ?????? ???, ??????? ?а????? ??????? ?а????? ??????????????? ??а????, ??????????? ?????????? ?????????? ?????????. ????? ????????? ???????????? ??????????? ??
??????????????? ??а?????? ?.а1 ??.а17 ?а?.а1 ??.а21 ???????????? ?????????? 1999а?. ??а???????????.
? ?????????, ????? ??а??????? ???????????? ??????????? ?? ???????????????, ??????? ?????????????? ??.а20 ?????????? ?????????, ??.а1079 ??а??, ???????? ??? ??????????? ????????????? ?а???????????? ?а??????? ???????, ?а????? ??????а? ???????????????? ????, ???????, Ф????╗ ????????? ?????. ???? ??а?? ??????????????
?????????????, ?а?????????, ??????????? 17 ?а????????? ?????????
?а????????????? ??????????? ???????, ??. ?II ??а?? ?а?.?. ?а?????????, ??????????? ??????? ???????? Ф??????? ????????╗ ??? ???248
Copyright ??? Ф??? Ф??????╗ & ??? ФA???????? K????-C?????╗
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?????? ?а????????? ????? ?а???????? ??????????, ???? ?? ??????????? ??????????? ?а???????? ??????????? ????????? ??? ??а?? ??????????. ??? ???????? ?а???????????????? ???????????????? ?.а2
??.а1079а??а?? ???????????? ?? ??????????????? ????????? ????????? ?????????? ?????????, ???? ????? ???????? ???????? ??????????
?????. ??????, ?а?????? ???? ????? ?????????? ???????? ?????????
?????, ?а??? ????????а? ???????????????? ???????? (???????????? ???????????), ??????? ???????? ????? ???????????? ??????????, ?????
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?????????? ???????????????? ?????, ??????? ??а?????????? (?? ???????????? ????????) ??????????????? ????? ????????, ????????????
?а???????????? ?????????, ?????????????? ?????? ????????????.
?? ???????? ???????? ???????? ?????? ????? (???, ???, ??????? ?а??.) ???? ?????????????? ?????????? ????????? ?.а1 ??.а20 ?????????? ?????????, ????????? ??????????? ????????????? ??а??????
?а???????? ??????????? ????????? ??а????? ?????????? ????? ???а???
?а?????????? ?????????? ????? ?????. ??? ????????? ???? Herman v.
TWA (1974а?.), Evangelinos v. TWA (1976а?.) ?а??., ??? ???????? ?????????? ??? ????????? ???????? ??????? ??????? ?????? ?а????????? ???????????? ??????????? ??а??????????? ?????? ????????????
?????????? ??а????? ?????????1.
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??а???????? ????? ??????? ??????????? ???????????? ?а???????????? ??????????????? ?????????? ?а??????????, ??????????? ???????
?а????? ???????????????? ?????????? ?а????????????????? ?????????? ?а?????? ???а???????????? ??????? (????.а? safety), ??? ?а??????????? ???????????? (????.а? security)2.
?????? ?????? ???????????????? ??????? ?????????? ??????
???????? ?????? ?а????????????? ??????????? ?? ???????????????
1
? ??.: ??????? ?.?. ???. ???. ?.а25.
? ?а????????? ?а???????? Ф???????????? ???????╗ ?аФ??????????? ????????????╗ ??.:
????????????? ?????. ????????? ?????: ??????? ??? ?????а/ ?.?. ???????, ?.?.а???????, ?.?. ?????? ?а??.; ???. ???. ?.?. ??????, ?.?. ????????. ?.: ??????, 2010. ?.а205.
2
249
Copyright ??? Ф??? Ф??????╗ & ??? ФA???????? K????-C?????╗
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?????, ??????????? ??????? ?????, ??а????????? ???????? ??а?? ????????. ?????? ?????????? ???? ?а?а???? ??????? ????? ????? ????????? ??????????????? ??а??????????? ????????? ??? ????????1.
???? ?а???, ???а?????????????? ????????? ??????????? ??????? ????????? ????? ???????? ????????? ??????? ????????? ????? ??? ?????????? ???????? ?????. ????????, ?а???????????? ?а?.а1
?.а1 ??.а58 ??а?? ???????? ?????????? ????? ????? ????? ?????????
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???????????????? ?????? ?????? ??????? ??????????? ??????????
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??? ????????? ?????? 1 ???? 2002а?., ?????? ???????????? Ф?????????? ?????????╗ ?а???? ????????? ????????? ?а???, ???а???????
??????????? ??а?? ???????? ??????? ????????? ??????????, ?а???????? ????????? ????????? ????????? ??????????.
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? ????????? ????????? ?????. ?.а228 (????? ?????а? ?.?. ???????).
250
Copyright ??? Ф??? Ф??????╗ & ??? ФA???????? K????-C?????╗
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????? ???????? ?а????, ???а???????????? ???????? ????? ??а???????
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?????? ?а??????? ?????? ??????? ??-154 ???????? ???????? ??????????? ?а????? ???? ????????? ?а???????? ?????????? ????????.
??????? ?????? ????????????? ??а????? ?а?????????? ????????? ?????????? ???????? ????? ?а???????? ?????????? ???????? ?? ????????????? ???????? Sky Guide ?????? ?а??????? ????? 150 ???. ????
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???????? ????????????? 30 ??????????? ?а?????????? ??? ????????? ?????? ???????? ???????????? Ф?????????? ?????????╗
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Systems╗)2. ??а????????? ?????????? ?????? ?????????? ???????????
?????? ??????????? ????????????, ?????????????? ??а????????, ?????? ??? ?????????, ???а???????????? TCAS ??а???????? ?????? ???????? ?а?????????? ????? ???????? ??? ??????????????? ?? ?????????? ??????? ?????????? ????????? ?????????. ?????? ?????????? ??а??????? ??а30 ???????? ????????? 1а247а661,88а????.
???????? ?а2010а?. ???????? ????????? ??? ?а?????? ???? Ф????????╗а? 60% ?а??????? ???????? Ф?????????? ?????╗а? 40%, ???????? ??????? (20%) ???? ????????? ??а??????????, ???????? ??????
?????????? ?? 348а660,35а????.
1
? http://www.dw-world.de/dw/article/0,,2111435,00.html
? Bashkirian Airlines flight 2937? DHL Airways flight 611 mid-air collision: AаSpanish court
applies U.S. law to determine liability and damagesа? aаparadigm shift as to forum non conveniens or much ado about nothing?а// Condon & Forsyth LLP, Special Edition Spring 2010.
2
251
Copyright ??? Ф??? Ф??????╗ & ??? ФA???????? K????-C?????╗
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??????? ???????? ??? ??????????? ????? ?а?.?. ??? ??а????? ????????? ??????????????, ???????? ??????? ???, ??????? ????? ?? ??????????? ?????????? ??????????? ?? ??????????????? ????? ???????????, ?????????? ??????????? ???????. ??? ?????????? ?а?а????????
??????????1.
??????? ?а??????????? ???????? ??????? ?????????? ??????????? ?? ???????????? ???????? ????? ?а?????? ?????????? ????? ????? ?а???????? ?????????? ????????? ??а???? ????????????, ????????????? ????, ???????? ??????? ??? ??? ??а????????, ??а??? ??????,
???-?? ??????????????????. ?.?. ??????? ?????, ???а??????????? ??
?????? ??????????????? ??а???? ??????????, ????? ???? ???? ??а??????????????? ?????????? ????? ???????????. ?а???????? ????????? ???
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??????????????? ???????2.
??? ???????? ?????????? ??????? ?????????? ????? ??????? Ф???????????╗, ??????????? ???????????????. ????????? ??????????
???????? ????, ???а????????? ????????? ???????????????, ????????
????? ???????? ???????? ????????? ?а????? ?а????????? ??????????3.
1
? Tompkins George N., Jr. Liability Rules Applicable to International Air Transportation
as Developed by the Courts in United States. From Warsaw 1929 to Montreal 1999. ?. 35?36.
2
? ??.: ??????? ?.?. ???????? ????????????? ????????????? ?????????. ?.а85?
92. ??. ?????: ?????? ?.?. ???? ???а??????? ?????????? ??????????????? ??????????? ??а?????????????? ?????????? ?????а// ????????????. 1977. ?а3. ?.а107?111.
3
? ??.: ?????? ?.?., ????? ?.?. ????????????? ??а?????????? ?????а// ???????????
?а???????? ????? ????????????????? ??????????а/ ??? ???. ?.?. ?????????. ?.:а????????.
?????????, 1993. ?.а432.
252
Copyright ??? Ф??? Ф??????╗ & ??? ФA???????? K????-C?????╗
Да5.а????????? ???????????? ??????????? ?? ???????????????
? ?????? ??I ?. ???????????? ????????? ??а??????? ?????????
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??????????????? ??а???? ???? (??. Да6 ????????? ?????, ??.а50 ???????????? ?????????). ??????????? ??????????? ????? ???????????????, ?????????? ?????????? ?а????????? ???????????, ??????????
???? ??а???? ?а?????? ????????? ?а??????????? ??? ????? ?а????????
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1
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?????. ???????? ????????????? ?????????? ??????????? ????????????? ???????????????? ??? ??????????? ???? ???????????. ???????
?????????? ?????, ????? ???????, ??а???????????? ??а?????? ????.
??????????, ???а????? ???????, ??а??? ??????, ?????????? ??????
????? ???????? ???????? ????????? ???????? ????????, ??а???????? ??????????? ?а????????????? ?????????? ?????????? ???? ?????
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?????????? ?????????? ????? ?а???????? ?????????, ???????????????? ?????? ????? ????????? ?????????????? ?а??????? ???1
? Documents of American Bar Association. Governmental Relations Office, Washington,
D.C., 1981. ?. 18?19.
253
Copyright ??? Ф??? Ф??????╗ & ??? ФA???????? K????-C?????╗
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????????????? ???? ???????? ??а?????????? ???????? ????????
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?????? ?а????????????, ?а?? ?????? Ф?????????╗ ?????????? (???????? ???? ?????? ?????? ?а???? ????? Ф???????????╗ ????????????а?
?????????????? ???????????).
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??????????????? ??а???????????? ?????????? ??а????? ?? ?????????.
? ????? ????? ??????????, ??????????? 100 ???. ???, ??????????????? ??????????? ????????????, ???а?а??????, ??а???????? ????. ???????? ?.а2 ??.а21 ????????? ??а????????????? ?? ??????????????? ??а????, ??????????? ?а?????? ?????? ?а????????? ??????????? ?????????, ???? ???????, ???а????? ???? ??а??? ???????? ??а????
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254
Copyright ??? Ф??? Ф??????╗ & ??? ФA???????? K????-C?????╗
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?? ??????????????? ??а????????????? ?????? ?а?????. ????? ?????????? ???????????? ??????????? ?? ??????????????? ???????? ?????1
? DWC Doc.18. ?а18. ?. 2.
? ??.: ?????? ?.??. ????. ???. ?. 321.
2
255
Copyright ??? Ф??? Ф??????╗ & ??? ФA???????? K????-C?????╗
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? Whalen Thomas J.S. Op. ?it. ?. 18.
? ?????????? ?.?., ?????????? ?.?. ????. ???. ?.а482?483.
2
256
Copyright ??? Ф??? Ф??????╗ & ??? ФA???????? K????-C?????╗
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? ?????????? ?.?., ?????????? ?.?. ????. ???. ?.а339.
257
Copyright ??? Ф??? Ф??????╗ & ??? ФA???????? K????-C?????╗
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? ??.: ??????? ?.?. ????. ???. ?.а178.
258
Copyright ??? Ф??? Ф??????╗ & ??? ФA???????? K????-C?????╗
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(??., ????????, ??.а186 ???а??), ??????? ???????? ???????? ?????,
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259
Copyright ??? Ф??? Ф??????╗ & ??? ФA???????? K????-C?????╗
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1983а?., ?????????? ??????? ????????? ???????????????, ???а?????????? ????? ??????????????? ??а????????????? ??????????? ??? ????????? ????? ???? ?а??? ??????, ???? ????? ????????, ???а??????, ????????? ??? ??????????? ???? ????? ????????? ??а???? ???????????.
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Copyright ??? Ф??? Ф??????╗ & ??? ФA???????? K????-C?????╗
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1
? Whalen Thomas J.S. Op. cit. P.а18.
261
Copyright ??? Ф??? Ф??????╗ & ??? ФA???????? K????-C?????╗
????? III. ??????????????? ????????? ????????? ?а????????????? ??????????
??а?? ?? 29.09.1994а?. ?а7 ??? ??????? ??????? ??а?????????? ??????????????? ??????????? ??а???????? ??????????? ????????? ???????
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??? ?а??????? ????????? ?????? 1978а?. (??????????? ???????) ?а??.).
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262
Copyright ??? Ф??? Ф??????╗ & ??? ФA???????? K????-C?????╗
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?а?? ???????????? (?.а76).
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??????? ????????????? ?????? ?????????? ?????? ????????? ?а?????? ?? ??????? ???????????? ?????1, ???????? ??? ?????? ????????? ??????????? ?а????????? ??а?? ??а?????????? ??? ??????????????? ??а???????? ?а?????????. ?.?. ????????? ??????? ???????? ??????????????? ??а???????? ?????? ??? ????????, ?????????? ?????????
??? ??????????????, ????????????? ??????????? ?? ???????????????,
Ф? ???????????? ?а?????????? ????????????? ????╗, ?аФ???????? ?????? ?????????? ??????????????╗ (??????? ?а???? ????????? ??а??
?а??а??). ?а????????????? ????? ??????? ????? ???????? ?????????????? ?а?????????? ????????? ????????????? ???????? 1971а?.,
??.а11 ????????? ?а???????? ????????????? ????????? ??????????
?а?????? (??????, 1973а?.) ?а??.а5 ????????? ?а???????? ????????????? ????????? ?????????? ?а?????? ??а?????????? ?????? ?????
(??????, 1976а?.)2.
?????? ????????? ?????? ????????? ?а??????????????? ???????????
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????????, ?а???? ??? ?а?? ??????????, ?? ?????????? ??? ???????????? ????????? 1999а?., ?? ?????-???? ?????? ?????-???? ???????????1
? ??.: ????????? ?.?. ??????????????? ???????????? ??????????? ??а????????? ???????? ?????????а// ????????? ?а?????. 2004. ?а3. ?.а116?117; ?????? ???????????????? ?? 26.08.2008 ?а01/9311-8-32 Ф?а???????? ??? ??а?????? ???? ??????????????,
???????????? ?а?????????? ???????? ??????????╗.
2
? ??.: ????????? ?.?. ?а?????? ???? ????????? ?а?????????? ?а???????????? ???????????? ????????????а// ????? ?а?????????. 2000. ?а9. ?.а118.
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? ??.: ??????????? ?а??а??а/ ??? ???. ?.?. ????????, ?.?. ????????. ?.а508.
? ??.: ????????? ?.?. ????? ???????? ???????? ??а??????, ????????? ?а?????????
?????????? ??????????, ?????? ?а??????а// ????? ?а?????????. 2007. ?а1.
2
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????? ??? ???? ??а???????? ???????????????? ?????? ???????? ?а?????????а? ??? ??? ?????????? Ф????????????????╗ ????? (??1
? IATA The Liability Reporter. 2001. Vol.а4. ?. 38.
? Ibid. 2000. Vol.а3. ?. 33.
3
? Tompkins George N., Jr. Liability Rules Applicable to International Air Transportation as
Developed by the Courts in United States. From Warsaw 1929 to Montreal 1999. ?. 241?242.
2
265
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??а?????. ?а???????? Ф????????????????╗ ????? ??????????? ??????????? ?а??????????????? ??а???????? ?а?????? ???????????? ?а?????????? ????????? ???????? ?????? ?а??????, ???? ???????? ??а????????? ?? ?????????, ?а?????????????? ?????? ??????, ???????????? ????????????. ???????????? ?а???? ?????? ?????????? ?а???? ?.а5
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of the European Parliament and of the Council of 11 February 20041 ФNEW
AIR PASSENGER RIGHTS╗ ????????????? ??????? ??????????? ???????????? ?а?????? ?????? ?а??????? ?????????? ??а???? ??? ?????????? ????????????. ????????? ??????????? ??а????? ?а?????????
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1
? Official Journal Lа046, 17/02/2004 P.а0001?0008.
? ??.: ????????? ????????? ?????. ?.а196 (????? ?????а? ?.?.а???????).
2
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?????????????, ???????? ?????????? ??? ???????????? ??????????? ?? ???????????????.
???????? ??а??а???а???????????? ?а?????????? ????????? ??????????????? ???????? ??????????????? ??????????? ??а???????? ???
????????? ??? ???????????? ????? ?а??????? ?? 19.11.2009 ??а????????????? ?? ???? Sturgeon v. Condor, and Bock v. Air France (C-402/07 and
C-432/07) ????????????? ????? ??????, ?????????? ????????? ??????????????? ??????????? ??а?????? ??????, ??а???????? ????????
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??????, ???а????????? ?а??????????? ?????? ???????????????? ????? ??а?????? ???????? ??????.
1
? Balfour John. Airline Liability for Delays: The Court of Justice of the EU Rewrites EC
Regulation 261/2004а// Air & Space Law. Vol. XX?V. 2010. ?а1. ?. 71?75.
267
Copyright ??? Ф??? Ф??????╗ & ??? ФA???????? K????-C?????╗
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? Whalen Thomas J. Op. cit. ?. 18.
? Balfour John. Airline Liability for Delays: The Court of Justice of the EU Rewrites EC
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2
268
Copyright ??? Ф??? Ф??????╗ & ??? ФA???????? K????-C?????╗
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?????? ?????? ?а???????, ??????????? ???????????????? ?????????, ??????? ????????, ?????????? ?а????????? ?а??. ???????????
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????????? ?????? ??????????????? ?????????? ??? ????????
?????????????? ?????. ?????????? ?????? ??а?? ??????????????
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???????, ?????????? ?????????? ????? ???????????? ?????????? ??????????, ?????????? ??а?????? ?????? ???????. ??? ???????? ??а??????????? ???????????? ????? ??????????????? ????????
?а?????????? ??????, ???а?????? ?????? ?????????? ??? ??????of Laws on the Issue of Delay in International Air Carriageа// Air & Space Law. Vol. XXXV/3
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Copyright ??? Ф??? Ф??????╗ & ??? ФA???????? K????-C?????╗
????? III. ??????????????? ????????? ????????? ?а????????????? ??????????
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???????????? ?????????? ????? ??? ????????????? ????????? ?????????. ?а?????? ?????? ???? ??????? ?а???????? ???????????????
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? Wegter J.J. The ECJ Decision of 10 January 2006 on the Validity of Regulation 261/2004:
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(April 2006). ?. 60?78.
2
? ??????? ??а?? ?? 29.05.2008 ?а????08?1212 Ф??а?????????? ??? ?????????????? ????????? ?а????????? ???????? ????????????? ?????? 99 ??????????? ??????????? ?????? Ф????? ??????? ????????? ????????? ??????????, ??????, ?????? ?а?????????? ?а???????????? ???????????, ?????????????????, ????????????????╗, ???????????? ???????? ?????????а?? ?? 28.06.2007 ?а82╗).
270
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? ??.: ????????????? ??? ??? ?? 18.01.2007 ?а?08-7152/2006 ??а???? ?а?323743/2006-50/40.
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? ICAO Doc. 6024-LC/121. ?. 239.
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Copyright ??? Ф??? Ф??????╗ & ??? ФA???????? K????-C?????╗
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2009-?7; ????????????? ?????????? ???а?? ?? 13.04.2010 ?а16996/09 ??а???? ?а?4327008/200839-731а// ??????? ???а??. 2010. ?а8.
277
Copyright ??? Ф??? Ф??????╗ & ??? ФA???????? K????-C?????╗
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280
Copyright ??? Ф??? Ф??????╗ & ??? ФA???????? K????-C?????╗
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281
Copyright ??? Ф??? Ф??????╗ & ??? ФA???????? K????-C?????╗
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????? ???? ????????? ????????? (?????????? ??? ?????????????).
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282
Copyright ??? Ф??? Ф??????╗ & ??? ФA???????? K????-C?????╗
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????????? ???????????? ??? II ?????? ????????????, ???????????
????????????, ????????????? ????????? ?????? ?а?.?.;
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Copyright ??? Ф??? Ф??????╗ & ??? ФA???????? K????-C?????╗
????? III. ??????????????? ????????? ????????? ?а????????????? ??????????
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(?.а14 ??.а133 ??а??).
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?а?????????, ??????? ?а???? ??????????? ???? ??????????а?? ??
07.07.1992 ?а750 ??а???????????? ?????? ??????????? ?? ??????????
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?а??????? 120 ????. ??? ????????? ?????? ?а?????????? ???????????
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284
Copyright ??? Ф??? Ф??????╗ & ??? ФA???????? K????-C?????╗
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Copyright ??? Ф??? Ф??????╗ & ??? ФA???????? K????-C?????╗
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????????? ??? ??????????????? ???????????, ??????? ?а???? ???????? ??? ?? ????????????? ?а??????? ????? ??????????. ??а??????????? ???????? ??????????? ????? ?? 01.10.1999, ????????, ??????????? ?????? ?????????? ??????????? ????????? (?????), ???????
??а???? ???? ??????????? ??? ?????, ????????????? ??????????
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? ??.: ????????? ?.?. .??????????? ???????????? ??? ????????? ?????????? ?????а// ?????. 2008. ?а7. ?. 52?55.
286
Copyright ??? Ф??? Ф??????╗ & ??? ФA???????? K????-C?????╗
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Copyright ??? Ф??? Ф??????╗ & ??? ФA???????? K????-C?????╗
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? ??.: ?????? ?. ??? ???????? ??????????а// ??-?????.а2005. ?а26.
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Copyright ??? Ф??? Ф??????╗ & ??? ФA???????? K????-C?????╗
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? ??а??. 2012. ?а25. ??.?3257.
? Whalen Thomas J. Op. cit. P.а24?25.
3
? Official Journal Lа138/1, 30/04/2004.
2
289
Copyright ??? Ф??? Ф??????╗ & ??? ФA???????? K????-C?????╗
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? Official Journal Lа138/1, 30/04/2004.
290
Copyright ??? Ф??? Ф??????╗ & ??? ФA???????? K????-C?????╗
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291
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Copyright ??? Ф??? Ф??????╗ & ??? ФA???????? K????-C?????╗
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??? ?? ?????????, ???????? ?????????? ?аДа1а??. III. ?а????????? ?????
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293
Copyright ??? Ф??? Ф??????╗ & ??? ФA???????? K????-C?????╗
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?????? 29 ???????????? ????????? ???????? ??????????? ???????? ?а???, ???а??? ??а?????????????? ?а?? ???????????? ???? ???,
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294
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???????? ????? ??а?????????? ????? ?а????? ??а??????? ?????????, ?а??????, ????????? ??????? ??а?????????? (??.а1088 ?а1094 ??).
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1. ??? ????????, ?????? ?????????? ??????????? ???? ???????????? ???, ??????????? ??? ??? ?????????? ???. ??????????? ???1
? Koning Ingrid. Liability in Air Carriage. Carriage of Cargo Under the Warsaw and
Montreal Conventionsа// Air & Space Law. Vol. XXXIII. ?а4?5. 2008. ?. 335?334; TompkinsаGeorgeаN.,аJr. Liability Rules Applicable to International Air Transportation as Developed by the Courts in United States. From Warsaw 1929 to Montreal 1999. 2010. ?. 224?225.
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Copyright ??? Ф??? Ф??????╗ & ??? ФA???????? K????-C?????╗
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297
Copyright ??? Ф??? Ф??????╗ & ??? ФA???????? K????-C?????╗
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? Giemulla E., Schmid R., Muller-Rostin W., Dettling-Ott R., Margo R. Montreal Convention. Austin; Boston; Chicago; New York; The Netherlands: Wolters Kluwer, 2010. Art. 31-4.
304
Copyright ??? Ф??? Ф??????╗ & ??? ФA???????? K????-C?????╗
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1
? Giemulla E., Schmid R., Muller-Rostin W., Dettling-Ott R., Margo R. Montreal Convention. Art. 31-23.
2
? Guldiman W. Internationales Lufttransportrecht: Kommentar. Zurich 1965. Art. 26, noteа11;
Giemulla E., Schmid R., Muller-Rostin W., Dettling-Ott R., Margo R. Op. cit. Art. 31-14, 15.
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Copyright ??? Ф??? Ф??????╗ & ??? ФA???????? K????-C?????╗
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?????????? ???????? ???????????? ??.а31 ???????????? ????????? ?а??.а26 ?????????? ????????? ???????? ?????????? ?а????????
???????? ?а?????????? ??????? ?????? ??а??????? ?а???, ?????????
??? ????????? ??????? ????????? ???? ????????????? ??????????
?а???????????? ??????????, ??а???????? ?? ??? ????? ????????? ?а??????????????, ??а???????? ?? ??? ?????????, ????????????
??а????????????? ???????????? ??????????? ?? ???????????????, ???? ??а????????? ??а???????????? ?????????????? ??????? ???а?? ??????????????, ?????????????? ???????????? ???? (??. ??.а26 ???????????? ?????????). ?????? ????? ??????????? ?а???????? ???????,
??????? ?????????? ????????????? ????????? ?????? ?????????
??а????????? ??.а29 ?а27 ???????????? ?????????. ?а??????????? ???????? ?????????? ????????? ?????? ???? ???????? ???????? ?. ???????. ????? ?????????? ?а??? ????? ??????, ?а???????????? ?а???????
????????? ??.а31 ???????????? ????????? ??? ?? ??а???????????????
????????????? ?????????????? ??????? ?а?????? ?????? ?а???????????
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???????????? ?????????????. ?а?????????, ????? ?а?????? ??????????
??????? ????????? ?????????????? ???????????? ???????, ???а??????????? ??????????? ?????????? ??????????? ?а?????? ???????????
?????? ?а????????? ?????? ????? ?????? ?????????1.
1
? Giemulla E., Schmid R., Muller-Rostin W., Dettling-Ott R., Margo R. Op. cit. Art. 31-13-18.
307
Copyright ??? Ф??? Ф??????╗ & ??? ФA???????? K????-C?????╗
????? IV. ???????????? ?????????? ??а???????? ????????? ?????????
?????? 31 ???????????? ????????? ?а??.а26 ?????????? ????????? ????????????? ???????????? ????? ???????????? ?????????
?????? ?а?????? ????????? ???????????? ?????? ??? ????? ?а???????? ?а?? ????????. ???????? ??????? ?????, ???а?а?????? ?? ???????????, ?.?. ??????, ?????, ???????????, ??????????????? ??? ????????
?????? ?????????? ????????? Ф?????????? ??а??????????? ?????╗.
??????????? ??? ?????????? ????????? ???????. ????, ?а???????,
???? ??а??? ????? ?????????? ?а???? ???????? ?????????? ????? ?а????? ??????????, ?а????? ??????? ?а?????????? ????????? ????? ?а??????????? ?????????? ?????????? ????????? ?а??????????? ?а?????
?а??????? ?????, ??а?????? ?????? ???? ?????? ????? ???????? ?а?????????? ??? ??????? ???? ????. ???????? ?.а12.2.4 ??????? ?????????
???? ?????? ????? ?????????? ?????????? (?????????) ?а?????????????? ????????? ??? ??а???, ????? ???? ?????? ??? ??????? ?а?????
??????????. ???????????? ?.а2 ??.а127 ??а?? ?????????? ??? ???????? ?????? ??????? ????? ???????????? ????????? ???????????: ??а???
???????? ?????????? ????? ?а???????? ?????? ??????????, ??а???,
????? ????????? ????? ?????? ???? ???????, ??? ??а??? ??????????? ????????? ?????????.
????????????? ??? ????????, ?????????? (?а???????? ????)
??а????????? ?????????, ????? ???? ???а??????? ????????? ??????????? ??а?????? ????? ??? ??????, ??а?????? ????????? ?а???????? ???????? ????? ??а???. ??????????? ?????????? ?????? ?????? ?а???????????? ??? ??????? ?????????????? ??????????? ????
?????????? ????????? ??? ??? ??????????? ?????????? ?а??????????? ?а???????????.
?????? ??????????? ?а???????????? ?а??????????????, ????????????? ?а??? ?? ???????? ????????? ????, ?а????? ???????? ?а???????????? ??????? ????????????? ?????????? ?а???????? ?????????? ????? ???????????? ????????? ?а?????? ?????? ????? ?а??????
(??. ????). ????????, ???а?????????? ????????????? ????????? ?????
??????? ?а??????? ????????? ??????, ????????? ??а?????? ?????????
???????? ????? ??????????? ???????? ?а??????? ????????? ????????,
????????????? ??? ??????? ???????. ???????? ??.а27 ????????????
????????? ?????а?а??? ??а???????????? ??????????? ?????????? ?? ?????-???? ??????????????? ?? ??????? ??????.
?? ?????? ???????, ????? ??? ??????? ?а???, ???а???? ??????? ?а?????????????? ???????? ????, ??? ??????? ?????????????? ?а???????
308
Copyright ??? Ф??? Ф??????╗ & ??? ФA???????? K????-C?????╗
Да2. ????????????? ??????? ?????????? ??????
?а??????????? ?????. ?????? ??????? ??? ????????? ??????????????? ????? ?а??????????? ?????????????? ?а????????? ?????????? ????????? ?????????? ??а??????????? ?????, ??а?? ???? ??а??? ??а????????????? ?????-???? ??????????? ??? ?????????????? ??? ????????? ??а?????? ?????????? ????????? ????????? ??? ?????? ????? ???
??????. ?????? ?а???????? ?????????? ????? ??? ???????????? ?????????, ????????????? ??а?? ?а????????? ????????? ???? ??а?????? ?????? ?????? ?а????? ??? ????????????? ?????????. ????????
?.а2 ??.а127 ??а?? ????? ????????? ????? ???? ??????????? ?а???????
18 ???????, ?а????????? ????????? ???? (?.а12.2.4) ???? ???????????? ????????? ?????????????? 120 ????? ??а???, ????? ???? ??????
??? ??????? ?а????? ??????????. ?????? ??????? ????????? ???????????? ??? ??????? ??а????, ???а??????????? ???? ??? ???????????? ????????? ?а?????? ??????????? ?????? ??????????? ?а? ??????? ??? ?????? ??????.
? ??????? ?????, ???а???????, ??????????? ??????? ????? ???????
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?????? ?а????????? ??????????????? ?а??????????, ???????? ?????? ???????? ??????????? ??а???????????? ???? ?а?????, ????????? ????????????? ????, ??а????????? ???????? ???? ?а????? ????????? ??????????? ?а?????????? ?????? ????????????? ?????????? ?????????????? ??? ?????????, ???? ??? ????????.
?????????????????? ????? ????????? ??????????, ???? ??а?? ???????? ??а????????? 21 ???????????? ??? ?а????, ????? ??а?????? ???
??????? (?.а3 ??.а17, ??.а52 ???????????? ?????????, ?.а154 ?????
?????? ?????????). ?????????? ????????? ??а????????????? ??????
????????? ?????? ??????????. ???? ?????? ?????? ???????????? ????????? ????????? ????????????, ?а????????? ?????? ??а??????? ?????????? ??? ??????????, ???????? ?????? ???????? ???????????
??а???????????? ????? ??? ????.
????, ???????? ?.а3 ??.а13 ?????????? ?а???????????? ?????????,
????????? ??????????, ???? ??а?? ?????? ??а????????? ????????????
????? ??а???, ????? ??а?????? ??? ???????. ?????????? ????? ??????? ?????????, ?а??????? ?? ???????, ??а??????????????? ??????,
??а????????? ??????? ???? ????????? ??????????. ??????? ?а?????309
Copyright ??? Ф??? Ф??????╗ & ??? ФA???????? K????-C?????╗
????? IV. ???????????? ?????????? ??а???????? ????????? ?????????
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?????????, ?????? ??????????? ??.а796 ??а??, ???????? ???????
???? ????????? ??????????, ???? ??а?? ?????? ?а????? ??????????
??а????????? 30 ???? ?а???? ???????, ????? ??а?????? ??? ???????.
????????? ??.а126 ??а??, ???????? ???????? ?а?????????? ?а??????
?????? ????? ????? ??а???????????? ????????? ?????????? ??? ?????
?????? ???? ??а????????? ????? ??? ????????, ??????????? ??а?????,
????????? ??? ????????? ?????? ?а????????? ????????? ??а?????????? ?????????.
7. ??а???????? ??????? ????????? ????????? ??? ??????? ???????
?а???????????? ????????? ????????????? ??????. ????????, ???а?????????? ???? ??а????????????? ????????????? ???????????? ????????????????? ??????????? ????????????? ????? ???а??????????????1. ???, ???????? ?.а1 ??.а126 ??а?? ???? ???????????? ?????????
?а??????????? ??? ?????????? ????????? ?????????? ?????????? ?????
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? ????? ?а???? ??????? ?????????? ???????????, ???, ???? ????????? ????????? ??? ???????? ??????????????? ????????????? ?????????, ?а??????? ?????????? ????????????? ?????, ?а??????????? ???? ??? ????????? ??? ???????? ???? ?а????????????, ???? ?????????
???????? ?а?????????? ????????????? ???? ?????????? ????????????? ??????. ???????? ?.а4 ??.а31 ???????????? ????????? ?а??.а26
?????????? ????????? Ф??? ?????????? ?????????? ?а?????????????? ????? ??????? ???? ?????? ??????????? ??а???????????, ?????
?????? ?????? ??а??????? ??????????╗. ????? ???????, ??????????
?????? ?????????? ?????? ??????, ????? ??????? ????????? ????????
??????????? ????? ?а????? ?????? ??а??????? ???????????.
8. ????????????? ?????????, ??????? ????????? ???? ??а???????? ?????-???? ?????????????? ???????? ?а??????? ????????????
????????? ?а????????? ??????? ??????????, ??????? ?????? ??????????? ?а?????????, ?????? ?? ???????????? ????????????.
1
? ??. ?.а28 ????????????? ??????? ???а?? ?? 12.11.1998 ?а18 (??????? ???а??.
1999. ?а1).
310
Copyright ??? Ф??? Ф??????╗ & ??? ФA???????? K????-C?????╗
Да2. ????????????? ??????? ?????????? ??????
?????????, ???а???????, ??????????????? ??? ???????????? ?????????? ???????????? ????????? ??? ????????? ??а????. ???????
???????????? ???????? ??????????????? ???????????? ??????????
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???????? ????????? ??? ????????????? ????.
? ?????? ?????? ????? ?.а2 ??.а125 ??а?? ?????????, ???а?????????
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? ?????????, ????????????? ???????????? ?а????????? ??????,
???????? ?.а2 ??.а125 ??а?? ??????????? ?????? ?????????????? ??????????????? ???????????? ?????????, ?а????? ?????????, ?????????????? ???? ?????????? ???????? ??????????? ?а??????? ?????????? ??????????.
????????, ???а?????? ??????? ?????????? ???? ????????? ????
????? ??а???????????? ?????????, ??а?? ????? ????????????? ?? ??????????????.
??????????? ???????????? ??а????????? ?????????? ????? ?а????? ??? Ф????????╗ ????????????????? ???????? ???? ??? ???????????? ????????? ????????????, ??? ???????, ???а?а?????????, ?а?????
?а??????? ???? ???????? ?????????, ??а????????? ??????? ??????????? ???????????. ???? ???? ?????????? ??.а797 ??а?? ????? ??????
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311
Copyright ??? Ф??? Ф??????╗ & ??? ФA???????? K????-C?????╗
????? IV. ???????????? ?????????? ??а???????? ????????? ?????????
9. ?а?????? ??????? ??? ?????????? ?????? ?а?????????????? ????????? ???????????? ?? ????????? ?????? ?????????? ?а???. ????????
??.а29 ???????????? ????????? ??? ?а???????????, ?????????? ?? ???
????????? (???????, ?????????????? ??? ????? ?????? ?????????),
????? ???? ?????????? ?????? ?а???????????? ?а????????? ?а??????
????????? ???????????????, ??????? ????????????? ??????????.
Да3. ??????? ????????
???? ??????? ???????? ??? ????????????? ????????? ?????????? ?????????? ??? ????. ???? ???? ???????? ???? ?а??????? ????????
?????????, ????? ??? ?????? ??а??????????, ??? ??а???, ????? ????????? ????? ?????? ???? ???????, ??? ?а??????? ??????????? ?????????. Ф??? ??а??????????????? ?????? ???? ?????????, ??? ???????
?????? ????? ??а???, ?а??????? ???? ??? ?а??????? ???????? ??а??????????, ??? ??а???, ????? ????????? ????? ?????? ???? ?? ???????,
??? ?а??????? ????????? ?????????╗ (?.а1 ??.а35 ???????????? ????????? ?а?.а1 ??.а29 ?????????? ?????????).
????????? ????????? ????????? ???????????????? ???а?? ?????????? ?а?????????? ?????, ???????????? ????? ?а???????? ?????????, ?а????????? ??????? ??а??????????? ???????????????? ??????? ????????, ???а????????, ??а????????? (??.а208 ??а??), ??? ?а?? ?????????? ??а????????? ????? ?а??????.
??а?????? ??????, ?????????? ????????? ?.а1 ????????? ??????
????????????? ????????? (??.а431 ??а??) ???? ????????? ??????? ????? ?а???, ???а???? ??????? ???????? ??а????? ???? ??????? ??? ????????????? ??а?????? ??????????? ?????. ????? ?????? ?????????
?????? ????????? ??????? ?????? ?аФ??????? ?????????? ?????╗. ???????? ?.а2 ??.а34 ???????????? ?а?.а2 ??.а29 ?????????? ?????????
??????? ??????, ?а???? ??????? ?????????? ???, ???????????? ?????? Ф??????? ?????????? ????? ??????? ????????╗. ???? ??????????
???????? ????? ??????, ??????????? ?????? ??.а11 ??а?? Ф?????????? ??????╗. ???, ????????, ???????????? ????? ?????? ??????????? ??? ??????? ??????? ??а????????? ?????, ???? ??а????????
??а?????????, ??????????? ???? (??.а193 ??а??), ?а?.?. ??????????
??.а12 ??а?? Ф??????? ????????╗ ???????????, ????????? ???? ??????? ???????? ?????????? ???????????? ?????? ?.а1 ????????? ??????
312
Copyright ??? Ф??? Ф??????╗ & ??? ФA???????? K????-C?????╗
Да3. ??????? ????????
????????????? ?????????, ??а??????????? ????????? ??? ??????????????? ?????.
???? ??????????? ????????? ??????? ??а?????????? ????? ?а????????? ??????? ?????????? ?????, ??????? ???? ?? ??????? ??а????
?а?а????????? ??????????? ??? ???????????????, ?????????. ??а???
??а??????? ?????. ???????? ?????????? ?????????? ?????????????? 1929а?. ?? ????????? ????? ????? ????? ?а????????? ???????????
?а???????????? ???????????? ??????? ?????????? ?????? ???? ??????? ????????, ??????? ??а??? ?? ??????????? ???????????? ??а???????? ??????????? ???????????????? ??????????. ??а?????? ??????,
???? ?????????? ???? ????? ??????????? ??а??????????????? ?????????? ???? ????????????? ?????, ???????? ?а???????, ????? ??????? ?????????? ?????? ?а????? ????? ?????????????? ????????.
?????????? ?а???????????? ????????? ?а???????????? ?????
??????????????? ???????????? ????? ???????????? ???? ?а????????? ???????? ??????????????? ???????????, ?а??????? ???? ??????
?а????????? ?????????. ???? ?? ????????? ???? ????, ??а??????????? ????????? ????? ??????? ?? ??а???, ???, ????????, ???? ??????? ?а????????? ????????? ?а???????? ????????? ?????? 1956а?.
(???? ??? ???). ???????? ?.а3 ??.а32 ???? ????????? ??????????????? ????? ?????? ???? ???????????? ??????? ????. ?? ?? ????? ????????? ?а?????????? ????? ?????.
? 1952а?. ??????????? ??????? ????????? ??а??????, ??????????? ???????????? ?????????? ?????? ??????? ????? ??а???????????, ???????? ?а??? ????????? ?а????? ??????? ???????? ??а?????????, ??а?????????? ???????? ????????????? ??.а21: Ф1. ???а?????,
????????????? ???????? ????????? ?????????, ??????????????? ????
???????? ?а??? ???? ?а???? ????????????, ?а?????????? ???????? ???????? ?????. 2. ????????? ??? ??????????????? ?а???????? ???????? ????? ????????, ?????????? ?а?????? 1 ????????? ??????, ???????????? ??а?????? ????, ???????????????? ?????? ???, ?????? ?а????? ?????? ????? ??а???????????? ???? ???????????? ??а?????????
???? ??? ?а???? ????????????, ?а?????????? ???????? ???????? ?????╗.
??????? ?а?????????? ?????????? ????????? ?. ??????1. ?а?????????? ??????????? ?????????? ????? ??????????? ????????? ????1
? ??.: ?????? ?.?. ??????????????? ?????????? ??????????? ??а?????????? ????? ????? ?а???????? ????????? ??? ????????????? ?????????: ???????. ???. ? ????.
????. ????. ?., 2009. ?.а25?26.
313
Copyright ??? Ф??? Ф??????╗ & ??? ФA???????? K????-C?????╗
????? IV. ???????????? ?????????? ??а???????? ????????? ?????????
?????????? ?????????? ?????????? ????? ??????? ???????? ???а?????????????1. ????? ?????? ?????????????? ?. ????2.
? ?????????? ???????? ???????? ??????? ????????? ????????? ??????? ?а??????? ???????????????? ??????????? ??????????? ?????
??????? ???????? ?а??????????? ??? ?????????. ?а????????? ???????, ???????? ??а???????, ?????????, ???а???? ???? ????? ???????????? ??а???????? ????????????? ????????????????3. ?а????????
???????? ??????? ????? ????? ??????? ??????? ????????? ????????? ?????? ??? ???????????? ?????????, ??????? ?а???? ?????
????????? ?????????? ?????????4. ?а??????? ?????-????????????
??????? ????? ???? ??????? ????????, ????????????? ???????????
?а????????? ??????????, ?????????? ???а????????????5.
???????? ??????????? ????????, ??????????????? ?а?????????????? ???????????????? ?????????????? ???????????? ????? ??????? ???????? ?????????? ?а?? ??????? ??????????. ???????? ?.а6
??.а3 ???????????? ????????? ?а??????????? 1924а?. Ф? ????? ?????? ?????????? ?а????? ????????????? ?? ?????? ???????????????
??а?????? ??? ??????, ???? ??? ??а?????????? ?а??????? ???? ?????
????? ?????? ??? ????, ????? ??? ?????? ???? ???? ?????╗. ?????
??.а3 ???????????? ????????? ?а??????????? 1924а?. ????????? ???? ???????? ?а???????????? ????????? ?????????????? ?? ?????
??????? ????????. ?????? ???? ?????? ????? ?????? ??? ????????
??????? ?????????6.
????????? ?? ??????? ????? ??????? ???????? ???????????? ???? ?а?????????? ?????????? ?а??????????????? ???????????, ?????????????, ?а?????????, ??.а33 ???????????? ?????????? ???????1
? Whalen Thomas J. Op. cit. P.а22; Riese O., Lacour. Prжcis de Droit Aжrien, Paris, 1951.
P.а280; Rodiere R. Droit des transports: transports terrestres et aeriens. Paris, 1977. P.а771?
772; Abraham H.J. Das Recht der Luftfahrt: Kommentar und Quellensammlung. K?ln; Berlin, 1960. S.а376.
2
? Chauveau P. Droit aжrien. Paris, 1951.
3
? Miller Georgette. Op. cit. P.а310 et seq.
4
? Beteta Fernando MC99 Statute of Limitation Court?s Interpretationа// Air & Space Law.
Vol. XXXII/4?5 (September 2007). P.380; First Instance Commercial Court No. 7 of Madrid
judgment 2/3/07а? [EDJ 2007/20138].
5
? Miller Georgette. Op. cit. P.а310?320; IATA The Liability Reporter. February 2006. Vol.а9.
P.а20, 22. February 2007. Vol.а10. P.а30.
6
? ??.: ?????? ?.?., ????????? ?.?. ????????????? ??????? ??????? ?????. ?.: ????????????, 1984. ?. 143?144.
314
Copyright ??? Ф??? Ф??????╗ & ??? ФA???????? K????-C?????╗
Да4. ??????????????? ??????????? ??????
??, ???а????????? ???? ?????? ????? ??а????? ?а??????????, ??а?????? ??????????? ????? ????1. ??????????? ???? ?????????????
???????????? ???? ?а?????????? ?????? ?а??????????????? ??????????? ???а??????????????, ??????????? ??????? ????? ???????
????????. ?а?????? ???? ????? ??? ?????????? ?а??????????? ????,
??а?? ??????? ????? ??а?????????. ??а??????????? ???????????????? (??.а203а??а??) ??????? ????? ??????? ???????? ???????????
????????????? ???? ?а????????????? ???????. ?????????????? ???? ??????? ???????, ??а????? ??а???????????? ?????? ?????? ????
?????????????. ???????????? ???? ?а????????????? ??????? ???????????? ?????????? ?????? ???????????? ???????????????? ?а?????????????????? ?а??????????? ?????? (?а?????????, ??????????????? ???? ???а?? ?а???а??). ??? ?????????????? ?.а15 ????????????? ???????? ??а?? ?а???а?? ?а15/18, ??? ???????, ???а????
???????? ??????????? ???? ?а???? ???, ????? ????????? ????? ?????? ?а??? ?а??????????? ?????????????? ???????2.
Да4. ??????????????? ??????????? ??????
1. ??????????? ??????????? ?????????????? ???????????. ??? ????? ???? ?????????? ?а???????? ?????????? ?????? ??а??????????а?
?????????? ????????? ??а?????? ????? ?а????? ??а????????? ?????:
?) ??а????? ?????????? ??????????? (domicile); ?) ??а????? ??? ???????? ???????????? ????????????; ?) ??а?????, ??? ?????????? ?????
???????????? ??????????? (??????????, ???????), ??????????? ???????? ???????? ??????? ?????????; ?) ?а???? ????? ?????????? ????????? (?.а1 ??.а28 ?????????? ????????? ?а?.а1 ??.а33 ????????????
?????????). ????? 1 ??.а33 ???????????? ????????? ??а???????? ?????-???? ?????????? ?? ????????? ?.а1 ??.а28 ?????????? ?????????. ?????? ????? ????? ?????? ???????????? ????????? ??а???????
????? ??а????????? ?а??????????? ????????? ?????????? ????????? ??а??????? ???? ????????? ????????? ?????????, ??????????
??? ????? ?а?????? ??????????????????? ????????.
2. ?????? ??а????????? ????????? ??????????? ????????????
??а??????, ???? ?а???????? ?????????? ??????????? ????????? ????1
? Giemulla E., Schmid R., Muller-Rostin W., Dettling-Ott R., Margo R. Op. cit. Art. 35-20.
? ????????? ??а??. 2002. ?а1.
2
315
Copyright ??? Ф??? Ф??????╗ & ??? ФA???????? K????-C?????╗
????? IV. ???????????? ?????????? ??а???????? ????????? ?????????
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???????????? ??а?????? ????. ??????? ????? ?????????? ?????? Ф?????
?????????? ???????????╗, ???, ??а??? ??????, ???????? ?????????
???????, ????????? ??? ??????? ???????????? ?а????????? ????????? ???????????? ????????? ?а????????? ?????????? Ф????? ??????????╗, ?.?. ?а?.а3 ??.а33 Фb╗ (??. ??а???? ????). ???????????? ?????? ?????? ??????? ?????????????? ?а?????????? ????????????? ??????, ??????? ?????????? ???????????? ?.а3 ??.а33 b) ??? ??????????
??????? Фdomicile╗1.
?????? ??а??????? ????????? ?аФ?????? ??????????╗ ?????
????? ?а?а???????, ????? ?????????????? ???????? ??????????? ?????. ????????, ???? ???, ??????? ?а??. ?????? ????????? ?а???????????? ??????????????? ???? ?а??????????????? ??а????????? ????, ???а??? ????????? ??? ????? ??????????, ????? ??? ???????????? ??? ??????????? ????? (siege social)2. ???????? ????????,
??а??? ??????, ??а????????????? ?????? ?а?????? ??.а28 ??????????
????????? ?а??.а33 ???????????? ?????????, ??????? ??????????? ?а???, ???а???????????, ??????????? ??????????? ?????, ???
?????? ????????????? ??а??а????? ??? ?????????? ??????????? ???
??????????, ?а?? ????? ??? ???????? ???????????? ????????????.
3. ??????? ??? ???????????? ?????????? ?а????????????, ?????????? ???????????? ??????, ?????????? ???????????? ?????? ??????? ???????????, ??????? ???? ??????????? ?????????? ??? ????
???, ??? ????????? ???????? ????? ??????????????? ?а??????????????? ????????? ???????????????, ?.?. ??а????? ??? ???????? ???????????? ???????????? (siУge principal de son exploitationа? ??., principal place of businessа? ????.).
? ?????? ?????????? ??????????? ?????? ??????? ????????, ???а???
???????????, ???а???????????? ????, ????? ???? ?????????? ??а????? ?????????? ??? ????????? ???????????? ??????????????? ??????, ??? ??????????, ???????? ??.а54 ??а??, ???????????? ????????
??????????????? ???????????.
4. ?????? ??????? ??????????? ????????????? ??????????? ?????????? ??? ?а??????????? ??а????? ?????????? ??? ?????????????
1
? Giemulla E., Schmid R., Muller-Rostin W., Dettling-Ott R., Margo R. Op. cit. Art. 33-11.
? Unmack ?im. Op. cit. P.а278; Miller Georgette. Op. cit. P.а301, 229, 227; Giemulla E.,
SchmidаR., Muller-Rostin W., Dettling-Ott R., Margo R. Op. cit. Art. 33-11.
2
316
Copyright ??? Ф??? Ф??????╗ & ??? ФA???????? K????-C?????╗
Да4. ??????????????? ??????????? ??????
??????????? ??? ???????????? ??????????, ???????, ?????????, ???? ???? ??? ??????????? ??а?а????? ??? ???????? ????????????
????????????, ??а??? ???????, ???а??? ??? ???????? ??????? ?????????. ?а??????? ?? ??????????? ????? ???? ???????????? ??????
??????? ??а????, ???а????????? ?????????? ?а????????? ??????? ???????????? ?????????????????? ????????? ??? ???????? ???????
?а?????? ?????? ??????? ???????????? ???????????, ??? ?а???????? ?а??????????? ?а????????????. ?а1975а?. ??? ????? ????????
(???) ??????? ???? ???????????? ????????????? ??? ?а?????????? ?????????, ????????? ??? ??? ??????? Ф?? ??????? ?????????????╗, ????????????? Ф??? ????????╗, ??? ???????? ??????? ?????????1.
? ???????????? ??????? ????? ?????? ??? ??????? ??? ??? ?????????? ??????????? ?????? ???????????? ?????????, ???????,
???а?а??????? ?????????? ?????????, ?????????? ?????? Фplace of
business╗ ?а??????? ?? ???????? ??? ????????????, ?а??????? ??????????? ??????? Ф???????????╗, Фetablissment╗. ????????? ?????????? ??????????? ???????????? ?а??????????? ???????? ??????? ?????????????? ???????????, ??а???????? ??? ????????
???????? ???? ????? ??аФ??????? ?????????????╗, ??????? ???????????? ????? ?????????? ???? ??????????? ?????????-?????????? ??????????? ??????????? ??? ?????? ??а????? ??????? ??????????, ?.?. ?а????? ?????? ????, ??? ?а??????????? ??? ?? ?????????????????, ?? ?????????. ????? ?????? ???????????? ?а ?????
?а?????????? ?????????? ???а??а??????????????? ?????? ?????????? ?????????2, ??????? ?а?????? ?????? ??а????????? ??а?????? ????????? ???????????.
??????????? ???????? ????????? ?а????????? ???????????? ??????? ?????????? ???????????? ????????????, ??????? ?а?????????
????? ???????? ?????????????? ??а????????????? ????????? ??????. ???? ????????????? ?????????? ??.а33 ???????????? ?????????,
??а?????????? ???????? ????????? ????? ???????? ???????? ?а????, ???а?????? ?????????? ???????? ????? ???? ???????? ????? ??1
? Vergara v. Aeroflot, 13 Avi. 17,866 (D. Neb. 1975).
? ??.: ??????? ?.?. ???. ???. ?.а189; Tillery W. Airline Liabilityа? Warsaw Conventionа? US District Court of Southern of California Holds That The Passenger May Bring Suit
in US Because it?s KLM?s ФPlaice of Business Through Which the Contract Was Made╗: Polanski v. KLM. ? JALC. Vol.а71 (2006), 91.
2
317
Copyright ??? Ф??? Ф??????╗ & ??? ФA???????? K????-C?????╗
????? IV. ???????????? ?????????? ??а???????? ????????? ?????????
???????? ??????? ?а?а????? ?????? ????? ?????????? ????????? ???
???????????? ????????????????. ?а???? ????????? ??????? ???? ???????? ???????1. ??????????? ?????? ??????????????? ??????????
???????? ???????? ???????????, ???????????????? ???????????, ?????????? ?а??????????2 ?а???????? ??? ??а?????? ???? ?????, ???а???????????? ?????????? ????????????? ??????????? Ф????? ??????????╗ ??а????? ?????????? ????????? ??? ???????????? ????? ??а?????????? ????? ??? ????? ?а???????? (??. ????).
5. ????????? ??а??????? ????????? ???????????, ????????????
?????????? ?????????? ?а?.а1 ??.а33 ???????????? ?????????, ???????? Ф??? ????? ??????????╗ ?????????. ?????? ???? ????????????? ????? ?????????? ????????? ????????? ?????? ??а??????????
?????? ??? ?????????3. ????? ???????, ????????, ?????????? ????? ??????????????? ??????????? ?????????? ??? ?а?????? ?????????? ?????????.
??? ???????? ?????, ?????????? ??а???????? ????????? ?????????,
??а??????????????? ?????????? ??????????, ???а???????, ????????
??????????? ?? ???????????? ?а????? ???????????. ????????, ???а???
????????? ????????? ??????????? ?а??????????? ??????? ????????
?????????, ????????????????? ??????????? ????????? ?а????? ??????????? ??а?????????? ????????????? ???????. ???? ?????????
????? ????? ???? ????????, ??а????????? ???????? ????????? ????????? ?а????????? ??? ??????? ??????. ?????? ???? ??а?????????
??а???????? ????????? ?????????? ??а???????????? ??? ??????????
????? ??а???????????? ?а????? ???????????, ?????????????? ????????????? ?????????? ??????????.
????? ????????? ???????? ??????? ?а ??????????? ?????????? ????????? ?а??? ????? ???????, ????????, ??????? ?а???:
Klosаv.аPolskie Linie Litnicze. ?а2007а?. ?а??? ????????? ???????? ???????, ?????????????? ???? ?????? ??? ?а????????? ?????????? ???????????? ?????????4.
1
? Tillery. Op. cit. ?. 91.
? Giemulla E., Schmid R., Muller-Rostin W., Dettling-Ott R., Margo R. Op. cit. Art. 33-17, 18.
3
? Unmack ?im. Op. cit. p. 278; Carthy vаEast African Airways Corp., 13 CCH Avi 17385 (1974,
SD NY); Duff v. Varig Airlines, Inc., S.A., Illinois Appellate Court, 22 Avi, Rollo, 186, 1989.
4
? Baah v. Virgin Atlantic Airways Ltd., 473 F.Supp. 2d 591, 596?97 (S.D.N.Y. 2007); Tompkins G.N., Jr. The Montreal Convention and the Meaning of ФDestination╗ in Article 31 (1)а//
Air & Space Law. Vol. XXXII/3. 2007. P.а224?226.
2
318
Copyright ??? Ф??? Ф??????╗ & ??? ФA???????? K????-C?????╗
Да4. ??????????????? ??????????? ??????
?????????? ?????????? ????????? ???????, ????????? ??а?????????? ????? ?????????? ?а?????? ?????? ??? ??а???????? ?а????????? ??????? ???????????? ??????? ?а??????? ????? Ф? ???? ????? (????? ????? ??а????? ????????? ??а??????? ??????? ?????? Ф???? ?а???????╗).
????? ???????, ??????????? ???? ??а????? ????????????? ????
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? ?????? ????????????? ?????? ??? ???????? ??? ????????? ??????????? ????????? ?????????? ??? ?а??????????? ??? ???????????
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?????? ???????? ?а?????????? ????? ????? ????? ??а???.
?????? ??? ?? ????????? ?????? ?а??????????? ????????? ?????????? ??? ?а??????????? ?а?????? ?????????, ????, ????????, ????????? ??а?????????????. ????????????? ?а???? ????? ??????????, ????,
????????, ????????, ??????? ????? ??а???????? ??????а? ???????а? ??????, ??а?????????? ???????????? ?а????? ???????????
?а?????? ???????. ??? ????????, ???? ???????? ?????????? ?????????? ???? ???. ????????, ???а?а???? ?????? ???????? ?????? ?????????? ??? ?а????????? ???????, ????????? ?а?????????????? ?????? ??? ?????????? ??? ???????? ?а??? ?????, ??? ????? ????? ???
?????? ??? ???? ????? ???????????? ??????????, ?.?. ?????????.
?а????? ?????? ??? ????? ???-????. ????? ?????????? ???, ???????
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????? ???????????? ???? ?а??????????? ?а?????? ?????????? ?????.
???? ??????? ????? ????? ??????? ?а??????, ???? ?????????? ???????? ????? ?????????? ?????????, ??? ???????? ????????? ???????? ?????????????? ?????????? ???????? ????????? ??????. ??????
??? ??а??? ??????, ???? ????????????? ???? ?????? ?а??????? ???????????? ?????????, ?????????? ???????? ?????????? ?????????.
???? ?а??? ??? ??? ???????????? ?????????? ?а???????? ?????????
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319
Copyright ??? Ф??? Ф??????╗ & ??? ФA???????? K????-C?????╗
????? IV. ???????????? ?????????? ??а???????? ????????? ?????????
????????? Ф???????? ????????????????? ?????╗, ??а???????????,
??а????? ??????? ??????????? ??????????? ?????????? ??? ???????????? ?????????? ?а???????????. ??????, ????????? ???????????
???????? ?????????????, ???????????? ??а????????? ?????? ??а????????? ?а????????????? ??а????????? ?????????, ??а?????? ?а??? ?????? ??а???????? ??????? ???????, ????????? ?? ???????? ????????
??????? ?????????? ?????? ??? ??????????, ?????????? ??????? ????????????? ????? ????????????? ?????? ?????? ????????? ?а??????
???????? ??? ?????????.
??????? ???????, ?а?????? ?????? ???????? ????????? ?????????
?а??????????? ?? ?????????? ????????? ????? ????????? ?????????
???????????? ??а????????? ??? ??????, ?????????? ??????? ????????
?????? ????????? ?а???????? ??????? ?а?????? ??а???????, ??? ????? ???????? ?????? ?а???????????? ?а????????? ???????? ?????????. ??????, ???а?????? ????? ?????? ??? ???????? ???????????
????? ????????????? ????????? ?а????????? ??????? ?а??????????? ???? ?.а???? ???? ????????? ?????????? ?????????, ?????????? ?????? ???????????? ???? ?????? ?а???, ?а????? ?а?????????????? ??????1.
6. ?????????? ???????????? ??????????? ????????? ????? ??????? ????? ?????, ??? ??? ????? ?? ????????? ??????????? ??а??????????? ??? ????????????? ????????? ????????? ???? ????? ?а????????, ?????????? ??????? ????????? ??? ??? ?????????? ???????????? ?????????. ???? ?????????? ?????? ????????????? ?а?????
???? ????????? ????? ??????? ??????????? (??? ?????????? ?????
??????????) ?а????????? ????? ??????????, ???????? ???????????
???????????? ???? ?а??????????? ??а????? ?????????? ???????????? ?????????. ???????? ?.а2 ??.а33 ???????????? ????????? Ф? ????????? ?????, ???????????? ?а?????????? ?????? ??? ????????? ??????????? ?????????, ??? ??а??????????????? ????? ???? ?????????
?а????? ??а?????... ??а?????????? ???????????-?????????, ?а???????
???????? ??а?????? ???????????? ????? ???????? ?а?????????? ????? ??????????╗. Ф???????? ?а?????????? ????? ??????????╗, ???????? ?.а3 ??.а33 ???????????? ?????????, ???????? ???? ??????????????? ?а?????????? ????? ?????????? ????????? ??а?????? ???????1
? Guerreri G. WPH 139. Claims: Forums. Case Law Digestа// Air & Space Law. Vol.аXXXII/1
(February 2007). P.а80.
320
Copyright ??? Ф??? Ф??????╗ & ??? ФA???????? K????-C?????╗
Да4. ??????????????? ??????????? ??????
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?а???? ?????????.
????? ??????????? ?а????????? ?а?????????? ????????????????
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??? ??????? ???????????? ???? ???????.
??-??????, ?а????? ?????????? ????????? ?????????? ?????? ???????????? ????????? ?????????? ?????? ?????????? ?????? ????
??а????? ?????? ???????? ??а????????????? ??????????, ??а???????? ??? ????????? ????????????? ????? ??????. ??а???????? ?а?????
??????????? ????????? ?????????? ???????????? ?а????????????
?????? (code-sharing)1, ?а?????????? ???????????? ?????2 ?а?.?. ??????? ?????? ?????????? ?????????? ?а??????? ????????? ?а???????
????????????? ??? ?????????? ??? ???????????? ???? ??а????? ?????????? ????????? ??? ????????????.
??-??????, ?а??????????? ??? ??? ???????? ??а?????????? ?а?????
?????????? ????????? ?????? ??????? ??????????? ??? ???????????? ??? ????????????? ???? ?????????.
????? ???????, ?а????? ?????????? ????????? ?????????? ?????? ????? ??? ???????????????? ???????????? ???????????? ????????????, ????? ????????? ?а???????????? ???????, ??а????????
????????? ????? ???? ?????????? ??????? ??????? ???????? ????????, ?, ???а?????????, ??????????????? ????????. ?????? ?а???? ?????? ??? ??а????? ?????????? ????????? ?????? ??????? ?а???????????? ??? ??? ?а???????????.
????????? ??????????? ?????????? ???? ??????????? ????????
????????????? ???????????? ?а?? ?????? ??????????, ????????? ?а??1
? Franklin Mark. Code-Sharing and Passenger Liabilityа// Air & Space Law. Vol. XXIV.
?а3. 1999. P.а128?131.
2
? ??????? ?.?. ???????? ?????? ???????????? ???????????????а// ?????????????
????????? ?????. ??. 2. ?., 1981. ?. 79?93.
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Copyright ??? Ф??? Ф??????╗ & ??? ФA???????? K????-C?????╗
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7. ?а???????????? ??????????? (??. Да1а??. III) ??? ????? ????
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?а??? ?????? ??????? ????? ???????????? ??????????, ???????????
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8. ?????? 32 ?????????? ????????? ?а??.а34 ???????????? ????????? ????????? ??????????? ?????????? ????? ????????? ????????
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1
? Whalen Thomas J. Op. cit. ?. 21?22.
322
Copyright ??? Ф??? Ф??????╗ & ??? ФA???????? K????-C?????╗
Да4. ??????????????? ??????????? ??????
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??а??? ??? ????? ???? ?????????? ?а????? ????? ??????, ??? ??? ???????? ??????? ?????????, ????????? ??? ??????? Ф???????╗ ?????????? ?????????? ????????????2. ?????????? ??? ????? ?????? ???????? ?????? ????????????? ?а??????????????? ???????????, ????????????? ???????????, ???а?а??????????? ?????????????. ??а?????
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??а???????? ????????????? ????????? ?????????3.
1
? Unmack ?im. Op. cit. ?. 279; Abnett v. British Airways [1997] 1 All E.R. 193; Smith v. Canadian Airlines Ltd. 452 F.2d 798 (1971).
2
? ??., ????????: Eck v. United Arab Airlines, Inc., 360 F.2d 804, 810-11 (2d Cir. 1966);
8аAvi. 18,180 (N.Y. Sup. Ct. App. Div. 1964), rev?d, 9 Avi. 17,364 (N.Y. Ct. App. 1964).
3
? Miller Georgette. Op. cit. P.а294.
323
Copyright ??? Ф??? Ф??????╗ & ??? ФA???????? K????-C?????╗
????? IV. ???????????? ?????????? ??а???????? ????????? ?????????
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? Feng Zhen Lu v. Air China International Corp. (US DC EDNY, 1992; 24 AVI 17,369 1992-5).
? Unmack ?im. Op. cit. p. 412; Milor SRL v. British Airways [1996] 3 All ER 537.
3
? Tompkins G.N., Jr. US Supreme Court Declines to Review Hosaka v. United Airlines Caseа//
Air & Space Law. Vol. XXVIII/3 (June 2003). P.а193.
2
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1
? Tompkins G.N., Jr. Report from the United Statesа// Air & Space Law. Vol. XXXV/1а(2010);
Pierre-Luis v. Newvac Corp., 584 F.3d 1052, 1056 (11th Cir. 2009).
2
? International Air Transport Association. The Liability Reporter. Condon & Forsyth LLP,
New York, Los Angeles. February 2007. Vol.а10. P.а27.
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Copyright ??? Ф??? Ф??????╗ & ??? ФA???????? K????-C?????╗
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335
Copyright ??? Ф??? Ф??????╗ & ??? ФA???????? K????-C?????╗
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336
Copyright ??? Ф??? Ф??????╗ & ??? ФA???????? K????-C?????╗
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Copyright ??? Ф??? Ф??????╗ & ??? ФA???????? K????-C?????╗
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338
Copyright ??? Ф??? Ф??????╗ & ??? ФA???????? K????-C?????╗
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339
Copyright ??? Ф??? Ф??????╗ & ??? ФA???????? K????-C?????╗
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340
Copyright ??? Ф??? Ф??????╗ & ??? ФA???????? K????-C?????╗
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Copyright ??? Ф??? Ф??????╗ & ??? ФA???????? K????-C?????╗
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Copyright ??? Ф??? Ф??????╗ & ??? ФA???????? K????-C?????╗
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Copyright ??? Ф??? Ф??????╗ & ??? ФA???????? K????-C?????╗
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??????? ??а??????????? ?????????? ????????????? ????????? ???
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Copyright ??? Ф??? Ф??????╗ & ??? ФA???????? K????-C?????╗
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?????? ?а???? ?? ???????????-?????????, ?а???? ??? ????????? ??????????????? ????????? ????????? ??а?????????? ??????? ???????????,
???????? ??а??????? ???? ????? ????? ?????????; ?
c) ???????? ???? ????????.
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??????????, ???а??????????? ?? ????? ???????????.
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?а?????? ??? ?а?????? ?????????? ??? ?а???? ????????? ????? ????,
??? ????????????? ?????????? ??????????, ??? ?????? ??????????? ????? ?а???????? ???????????. ??????????? ??а?????? ???????????? ????? ???????????? ?????? ?а????? ??????????? ??? ??????
???????????? ?а?????? ?????????? ??? ???????, ?????????? ??а?????????? ????? ?????.
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????? ??????????? ???? ????? ????????????.
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?????? 13
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????? ???????? ?????? 12, ?????????? ????? ????? ????????? ?? ???????????, ?а??????? ???????? ????? ?а????? ??????????, ?????? ???
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3. ???? ???????????? ???????? ?????? ????? ??? ???? ???? ??а?????? ??а????????? ???????????? ????? ??а???, ????? ??а?????? ???
???????, ?????????? ?????? ??????????? ??а????????? ?а??????????? ?????, ?????????? ??а???????? ?????????.
?????? 14
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?????????? ????????? ?????????.
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??а??????????? ??? ???????, ????? ???? ??? ???????? ??а???? ???????????, ??? ???????? ??? ???????.
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?а????????? ?? ???????? ??? ?????????????.
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?а????? ??а???????, ???а???????????, ????? ??? ??????????? ?????
????????? ?а?????????? ?????? ??? ?????????? ????????????? ???? ?????????????:
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???????? ??? ???????;
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?????. ?????? ?????????? ??а????? ??????????????? ??а????, ??????????? ?????????? ????????, ???? ??а???????, ???а?? ?а??? ????????? ?а???????? ??????? ??? ?????????, ??????? ??????????? ???? ?а????, ????? ???????? ?????, ??? ???а??? ??? ?? ???? ?????????? ??????? ????? ????.
?????? 20
???????????? ?? ???????????????
???? ?????????? ???????, ???а???? ??? ???????? ??? ??? ?????????? ?????????????? ???????????, ???????????? ???????? ??? ??????????? ????, ?????????? ??????????, ??? ????, ?? ???????? ?????????? ??? ??? ?? ?????, ?????????? ????????? ??? ???????? ????????????? ?? ??????????????? ????? ????????? ?????????? ?????
?а??? ????, ?а????? ????? ???????????, ???????????? ???????? ???
??????????? ????????? ???? ??? ?????????????? ??? ??????????.
????? ?????????? ?а?????????? ???????? ???? ?????, ??? ????????, ?а????? ??а??????? ??? ???????? ????????????, ??????????
???? ?????????, ?????????? ?????? ??????? ????????? ??? ???????? ????????????? ?? ??????????????? ?а??? ????, ?а????? ??а???????,
???а???????????, ?????? ???????????? ???????? ??? ??????????? ?????
????????? ????????? ???? ??? ?????????????? ??? ??????????. ????????? ?????? ??????????? ?? ???? ?????????? ??а???????????????
?а????????? ?????????, ??????? ????? 1 ?????? 21.
376
Copyright ??? Ф??? Ф??????╗ & ??? ФA???????? K????-C?????╗
??????????
?????? 21
??????????? ?а?????? ?????? ?
??? ????????? ??????????? ??????????
1. ?а????????? ?????, ???????????? ???????? ?????? 1 ??????а17
?а?? ???????????? 100000 ??????????? ???? ????????????? ??а??????? ?????????, ?????????? ??а????? ????????? ??? ????????????
???? ???????????????.
2. ?????????? ??а????? ??????????????? ??а????, ??????????? ???????? ?????? 1 ?????? 17, ?а??? ????, ?а????? ???? ????????? ??а??????? ????????? 100000 ??????????? ???? ?????????????, ???? ?????????? ???????, ???:
a) ????? ???? ??а??? ???????? ??-?? ???????????, ??? ??????? ????????????? ????????, ??? ??????????? ???????????, ??? ??? ????????, ??? ???????; ???
b) ????? ???? ???????? ????????????? ??-?? ???????????, ???
??????? ????????????? ????????, ??? ??????????? ??????? ???????.
?????? 22
??????? ??????????????? ?а????????? ????????, ?
?????? ?а?????
1. ?а?????? ?????, ???????????? ??? ????????? ??? ?а?????????? ????????, ?а??????? ????????? ?а?????? 19, ??????????????? ???????????
?а????????? ??????? ????????? ?????????????? ?????? 4150 ??????????? ???? ?????????????.
2. ??? ????????? ?????? ??????????????? ??????????? ?а?????? ???????????, ?????, ??????????? ??? ???????? ?????????????? ??????
1000 ??????????? ???? ????????????? ?а????????? ??????? ?????????, ??а??????????? ???????, ????? ???????? ?????? ?а?????? ???????? ??????????????????? ?????? ??????????? ?????? ????????? ?а?????????????????? ?а???????? ?а??????? ?????????????? ????, ????
??? ??????????. ?а???? ?????? ?????????? ?????? ???????? ?????,
??а??????????? ??????????? ?????, ???? ?????? ??а?? ???????,
???а??? ????? ????????? ?????????????? ?????????????????? ????????? ?а????????.
377
Copyright ??? Ф??? Ф??????╗ & ??? ФA???????? K????-C?????╗
??????????
3. ??? ????????? ????? ??????????????? ??????????? ?а?????? ???????????, ?????, ??????????? ??? ???????? ?????????????? ??????
17 ??????????? ???? ????????????? ??а?????????, ??а???????????
???????, ????? ??????????? ?????? ?а?????? ???????? ????? ??????????? ?????? ????????? ?а?????????????????? ?а???????? ?а??????? ?????????????? ????, ???? ??? ??????????. ?а???? ?????? ??????????
?????? ???????? ?????, ??а??????????? ??????????? ?????, ????
?????? ??а?? ???????, ???а??? ????? ????????? ?????????????? ?????????????????? ??????????? ?а????????.
4. ?а?????? ???????????, ?????, ??????????? ??? ???????? ????? ????? ??? ?????? ????????, ????????????? ?а???, ??? ??????????? ??????? ??????????????? ??????????? ??а???????? ??????????? ?????? ????? ??? ???????????????? ????? ??? ????. ?????? ?????
???????????, ?????, ??????????? ??? ???????? ????? ????? ??? ?????? ????????????? ?а??? ???????? ?????? ??а????????? ?????? ????,
?????????? ?а???? ?а?? ?? ???????????? ?????????, ??? ?а?? ?? ?????????, ???, ???? ??? ??а??????, ?а?? ?? ??????, ??????????? ??????? ??????????, ?????????? ?а?????? 2 ?????? 4, ??? ???????????
??????? ??????????????? ?????? ????? ??????????? ??а???????? ????? ??? ?????? ????? ??? ????.
5. ????????????? ????????? ??????? 1 ?а2 ????????? ??????
??а???????????, ???? ????? ????????, ???а???? ????????? ?а?????????? ???????? ??? ??????????? ???????????, ??? ???????? ??? ???????,
???????????? ?а?????????? ????????? ???? ??? ??????????? ?а?а????????? ????, ???а?а?????????? ?????, ????????, ?????????? ????, ???
???????, ???а?а?????? ?????? ???????? ??? ??????????? ????????? ???
?????? ????? ????? ????????, ???а???? ???????? ??? ????? ??????????
?а?????? ????? ????????????.
6. ???????, ????????????? ??????? 21 ?а????????? ???????, ??а???????????? ???? ????????? ?а???????????? ??а????? ??????? ????????????? ??? ??? ????? ???????? ???????? ?а?????? ???????? ??а????????? ???????????????, ?????????? ??????, ??????? ????????. ????????????? ????????? ??а???????????, ???? ?????, ????????????
?а??????? ?????????? ?????, ???????? ???????? ???????? ?а??????
???????, ????????? ?а???????? ????????????????, ??а????????? ?????, ??????? ?????????? ?а?????????? ???? ????????? ????? ?а??????? ????? ??????? ??а??? ?????????? ????? ??? ?? ?????? ?????????
????, ???? ??? ???? ???????? ????? ???????.
378
Copyright ??? Ф??? Ф??????╗ & ??? ФA???????? K????-C?????╗
??????????
?????? 23
??????? ???????? ??????
1. ?????, ????????? ?а??????????? ?????? ????????????? ?а????????? ?????????, ??????????????? ???а??????????? ?а??????????? ?????? ?????????????, ???а??? ?????????? ????????????? ???????? ??????. ??????? ???? ???? ?а???????????? ?????? ?а??????
???????? ?????????????? ???????????? ?а???????????? ??а??????????
????? ????? ?а??????????? ?????? ????????????? ??а???? ?????????
???????. ????????? ?а??????????? ?????? ????????????? ???????????? ?????? ???????????-?????????, ??????? ???????? ?????? ?????????????? ????????? ?????, ??????????? ?а???????????? ?а???????
??????????? ?????????, ??????????? ????????????? ????????
?????? ??? ??? ??????????? ???????? ?а???????? ??а???? ????????? ???????. ????????? ?а??????????? ?????? ????????????? ???????????? ?????? ???????????-?????????, ??????? ??а???????? ??????
?????????????? ????????? ?????, ??????????? ??а??????, ?????????????? ???? ????????????-??????????.
2. ??? ??а????? ???????????, ??????? ??а???????? ??????? ?????????????? ????????? ????? ?а???????????????? ??????? ??а????????? ????????? ????????? ?????? 1 ????????? ??????, ????? ??? ??????????? ??? ????????????? ??? ?а????? ????? ????? ????? ???????,
???а?????? ??????????????? ???????????, ?????????????? ?а??????
21, ??????????????? ?а????? 1500000 ???????? ?????? ??а????????? ??? ???????? ??????????????? ??а?? ??????????; 62500 ????????
?????? ??а????????? ?а????????? ?????? 1 ?????? 22; 15000 ???????? ?????? ??а????????? ?а????????? ?????? 2 ?????? 22; ?а250 ???????? ?????? ??а????????? ?а????????? ?????? 3 ?????? 22. ?????
???????? ??????? ??????? ??а??????????? ???? ?а????????? ???????????? ?????? ????? ????????? ????????. ????????? ????? ?????
???? ?????????? ?а??????????????? ???????????? ?????? ?а??????????? ??????. ??????? ????? ???? ?а???????????? ?????? ?????????????? ???????? ???????????????? ???????????????? ???????????.
3. ???????, ?????????? ?а????????? ??????????? ?????? 1 ????????? ??????, ?а???????, ?????????? ?а?????? 2 ????????? ??????,
??????????? ????? ???????, ????? ???????? ?а???????????? ?????? ???????????-?????????, ????????? ??? ????????, ????? ?? ?????379
Copyright ??? Ф??? Ф??????╗ & ??? ФA???????? K????-C?????╗
??????????
??? ????????? ?????????????? ???????????, ????????? ?а??????? 21
?а22, ????? ????? ???????? ?а?????????? ?????????? ?????? ???? ??????????? ?????? 1 ????????? ??????. ???????????-????????? ??????????? ??????????? ?а?????? ?????????? ???????? ?????? 1 ????????? ?????? ??? ?а??????????? ???????? ???????? ?????? 2 ?????????
?????? ?????????????? ??? ????? ??а???????? ????????? ?а???????????, ????????, ??????????? ??? ????????????? ?а????????? ?????????, ?а????? ????? ??????? ?? ?????????.
?????? 24
????????? ????????
1. ??? ?????? ??? ????????? ?????? 25 ????????? ?????????
?а?а?????? ?????????? ???? ????????? ?????? 2 ??????? ???????????????, ????????????? ?а??????? 21, 22 ?а23, ????????????????
???????????? ?????? ???? ???, ?????? ?????? ????? ????????? ?????????? ?а????? ?????? ???? ????? ???? ?????????? ?а???? ?????????
????????? ???, ???? ????????? ??а???????? ?а???? ?а??????? ????а???
?а????, ????? ??? ???? ??????? ??????? ??? ??????????, ?а???????
??????? ???? ????? ?? ?????????? ?а???? ?а?????????????? ???????????? ????????, ???????????????? ?????????? ?????? ????????
??а?????? ??а??????? ??????????? ??????????, ??? ??? ?????? ??????????а? ?а???? ?????????? ?а???? ?????????. ?????? ?????? ????????, ???????????? ??? ??????????? ???????????? ????????,
??????????? ??а?????? ???????????????? ??????? ?????? ??????????
??? ????????? ???????? ??????????????? ??? ?а????????????, ?????? ??????? ???????? ??????????? ????? ?????????????, ??????????
?а?????? 1 ??????а23.
2. ???? ?а?????????? ??????????, ??????????? ?а?????????? ??????,
???????? ????? ?а???, ???а??????????? ???????? ???????? 10а?????????, ??а??????????? ?????????? ???????????-????????? ??а????????? ???????? ???????????????. ????? ????? ????????? ???????? ?а????
????? ????? ??????? ????? ??????????? ?а??? ??????????-??????????.
???? ?а??????? ???? ??????? ????? ??????????? ?а??? ???????????????????? ??????????? ??????????-?????????? ?????? ?а????? ??????????, ????????? ??а???????? ?а???? ?а??????????? ???????? ??????
?????? ??а???????????? ????????? ??????????-??????????. ????????380
Copyright ??? Ф??? Ф??????╗ & ??? ФA???????? K????-C?????╗
??????????
??? ??????????????? ?????????? ??? ???????????-????????? ?а?????????? ?а???? ?????? ?????????.
3. ???????? ??а????????? ?????? 1 ????????? ??????, ?????????,
?????????? ?а?????? 2 ????????? ??????, ??????????? ?а????? ?????
??? ???????, ???а??????? ??а???? ????????? ????? ?????? ???????????????????? ?а???а??????????? ????????, ?????????? ?а?????? 1,
???????? 30 ????????? ??а?????? ?а???? ??????????? ??????????
??? ?а???? ?????????? ?а???? ????????? ?????????, ???? ?????????
??? ??а??????????. ??????????? ?????????? ?а?????????????? ?????????, ????????? ?а?????? 1 ????????? ??????, ????? ???????????
?????? ???? ???, ??????? ?а????? ?????? ???? ????? ???? ??????????
?а???????????? ?а????????? ???????.
?????? 25
???????? ?а????????? ????????
?????????? ????? ?????????, ???а?а????????? ???????? ????????? ??????????? ????? ??????? ??????? ???????????????, ??? ??????????????? ?а????????? ?????????, ???? ??????? ??????? ??????????????? ??а???????????.
?????? 26
?????????????????? ?????????? ?????????
?????? ????????, ?????????? ?а???????????? ??????????? ?? ??????????????? ??? ?? ???????????? ??????? ???????????????, ????????,
??? ???, ??????? ?????????? ?а????????? ?????????, ???????? ???????????????? ?а?? ????????? ??????? ???????????, ??а??????????????????
???? ???????? ??а?????? ??а????? ?????????????????? ????????, ???????
?????????? ????????? ??? ???????? ????????? ????????? ?????????.
?????? 27
??????? ?????????? ????????
?????а?а????????? ????????? ??а???????????? ??????????? ?????????? ?? ?????????? ???????? ?????????, ?????????? ?? ?????-??381
Copyright ??? Ф??? Ф??????╗ & ??? ФA???????? K????-C?????╗
??????????
?? ??????? ??????, ????????????????? ??????????, ??? ??????????
???????, ??а?????????????? ?????????? ????????? ?????????.
?????? 28
??????????????? ???????
? ?????? ???????????? ????????????, ?????????? ?????? ??? ??????????? ??????????, ??????????, ???? ??? ????????????????? ???
???????????? ?????????????????, ??????????????? ?????????? ??????????????? ??????? ??????????? ???? ??? ?????, ??????? ?????
????? ????????? ???????????, ??? ?????????????? ????????????????
????????????? ???????????? ????? ???. ????? ??????????????? ??????? ??а???????? ????????? ?а????? ???? ?а????? ??????????? ?????? ??????????? ?а????? ?????????? ???????.
?????? 29
????????? ??? ????
??? ????????? ??????????, ?????? ?а????? ????? ??? ??а???????????????, ?????????? ?? ??? ?????????, ???? ??а?? ????????? ????????? ?????????, ????????, ?????????????? ??? ??а????? ?????? ?????????, ????? ???? ?????????? ???? ?а???????????? ?а????????? ?а?????? ????????? ???????????????, ??????? ?????????????
????????? ??????????, ??? ?????? ??? ??????????? ????? ???, ??????? ????? ????? ??а???, ?а?? ??????????????? ????. ??? ?????
????? ???? ??????, ???????? ??????? ??? ????? ?????? ???????, ??а??????????? ?а??????????? ???????????? ?????, ??а???????? ?????????.
?????? 30
????????, ??????. ????? ????? ?????
1. ???? ??? ?????????? ?а????????? ??? ?????? ??????????? ?а????? ?а??????, ?а??????? ????????? ?а????????? ?????????, ????? ???????? ??? ?????, ???? ??а???????, ???а??а?????????? ?а?????? ?????
????????? ????????????, ????? ????? ????????? ??а??????? ?а?????382
Copyright ??? Ф??? Ф??????╗ & ??? ФA???????? K????-C?????╗
??????????
?? ???????????????, ??а??????? ????? ????? ????????? ??? ?????????? ??а????????? ????????? ?????????.
2. ????? ?????, ??????? ????? ???? ???????? ?а???????????, ???
???????? ?а???????, ??а?????? ?а???? ?????? ????????? ?????????
????????.
3. ?? ??????????? ??????? ????????? ?????, ????????? ???????а1
?а2 ????????? ?????? ??а???????????, ???? ????? ????????, ???а????
?????? ??????????? ???????? ??? ??????????? ????????? ??? ??????,
???????????? ?а?????????? ????????? ???? ??? ??????????? ?а? ????????? ????, ???а?а?????????? ????? ????? ???? ???????? ????.
?????? 31
????????????? ???????? ??????????
1. ????????? ??????????????????? ?????? ??? ????? ??????????? ???
?????????? ?????????? ?????????????, ?????? ?? ?????????????? ??????????, ???а????? ??? ???? ???? ?????????? ?а?????????? ?????????
?а???????? ????????????? ????????? ??? ??????, ??????????? ??????? ??????????, ???????????? ?а?????? 2 ?????? 3 ?а?а?????? 2 ?????? 4.
2. ?а?????? ?????????? ????? ????, ??????? ????? ??а?????????
?????, ?????? ????????? ??????????? ?????????? ?????????? ??а??????????? ????? ?а?? ??????? ???? ???? ??а??? ????????? ??????????????????? ?????? ?а???????????? ???? ??а??? ????????? ?????.
?а?????? ???????? ??????? ?????? ???? ?????????? ??а??????? ???????? ?????? ???, ?????? ??а???, ????? ????? ??? ???? ???? ????????
?а??? ????????????.
3. ?????? ?????????? ?????? ???? ???????????? ????????? ?а??????? ??? ?????????? ?а?????????????? ?????.
4. ??? ?????????? ?????????? ?а?????????????? ????? ??????? ???? ?????? ??????????? ??а???????????, ????? ?????? ??????
??а??????? ??????????.
?????? 32
?????? ????, ???????? ???????????????
? ?????? ?????? ????, ???????? ???????????????, ??? ?а?????????? ????? ????????????? ?а???????????? ?а????????? ?????????
383
Copyright ??? Ф??? Ф??????╗ & ??? ФA???????? K????-C?????╗
??????????
????????? ?а?????, ??а???????? ????????? ?????????????? ???
?????????.
?????? 33
??????????
1. ??? ??а??????????????? ?????? ???? ?????????? ??а?????? ????? ?а???????? ?????????? ?????? ??а??????????-?????????? ???? ?а???? ??а????? ?????????? ???????????, ??а????? ??? ????????? ????????????? ??????????? ??? ??а?????, ??? ??а????? ???????????? ???????????, ??????????? ???????? ??? ???????? ???????, ???? ?а????
????? ?????????? ?????????.
2. ?а????????? ?????, ???????????? ?а?????????? ?????? ???
????????? ??????????? ?????????, ??? ??а??????????????? ?????
???? ????????? ?а????? ??а?????, ?????????? ?а?????? 1 ?????????
??????, ??? ??а?????????? ???????????-?????????, ?а??????? ???????? ??а?????? ???????????? ????? ???????? ?а?????????? ????? ?????????? ?а?а??????? ??? ??а???????? ?????????? ????????????? ??????, ????????? ?а????????? ?????????? ?????????? ????
??а??????????? ????????? ?????, ???? ??а????????? ????? ???????
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???? ?????????? ???????????? ????????????, ????????? ?а????????? ?????????? ??????????, ????????? ?????????, ??????????
????? ???????????? ??? ?????? ????????????, ?а??????? ??а????? ???????????? ??????????, ??? ????????????? ??? ??? ??????
??????? ???????????.
3. ??? ????? ?????? 2:
a) Ф???????????? ??????????╗ ???????? ?????????? ????? ?????????????, ????? ?????????? ??????????, ?????????? ?????????????? ?? ?????????? ?????, ????????? ?а?????????? ???????????
??????????;
b) Ф???????? ?а?????????? ????? ??????????╗ ???????? ???? ??????????????? ?а?????????? ????? ?????????? ????????? ??а?????? ????????????. ??????????? ????????? ??а???????? ???????????? ???????? ?а???? ?????????.
4. ????????? ???????????? ??????? ????, ?а??????? ?????????? ???.
384
Copyright ??? Ф??? Ф??????╗ & ??? ФA???????? K????-C?????╗
??????????
?????? 34
????????
1. ?а?????? ????????? ????????? ?????? ??????? ?а???????? ????????? ????? ????? ??????????, ???а????? ????, ?????????? ??????????????? ??????????? ??а????????? ?????????, ???????? ?????????? ?а?????????. ????? ?????????????? ??????????? ?а?????????? ?????.
2. ??????????? ??????????????? ??а?????? ????? ?????????? ?а????? ??а???? ?а???????????? ?а???????????? ?????, ???????????????
?а?????? 33.
3. ?????? ??? ??????????? ???????? ????????? ????????? ????????? ?????????.
4. ????????? ??????? 2 ?а3 ????????? ?????? ????????? ????????? ?????? ????? ??????????? ???????? ??? ??????????????, ?а????? ??????? ????? ???????? ??? ??????????????, ????????????? ?а????, ???????? ????????? ????????????????.
?????? 35
??????? ????????
1. ??? ??а??????????????? ?????? ???? ?????????, ??? ???????
?????? ????? ??а???, ?а??????? ???? ??? ?а??????? ???????? ??а??????????, ??? ??а???, ????? ????????? ????? ?????? ???? ?? ???????,
??? ?а??????? ????????? ?????????.
2. ??????? ?????????? ????? ????? ???????????? ??????? ????,
?а??????? ?????? ???.
?????? 36
???????????????? ???????????
1. ?а??????? ?????????, ???????????? ???????????? ?????? 3 ?????? 1, ???????????? ??????????? ????????????????? ?????????????, ?????? ??????????, ??????????? ??????????, ????? ??? ????,
????????? ??? ???????? ??????, ????????????? ????????? ??????????, ?а??????????????? ?а???????? ????? ??а?????? ?а???????? ????385
Copyright ??? Ф??? Ф??????╗ & ??? ФA???????? K????-C?????╗
??????????
?????, ????????? ???? ??????? ????? ????????? ?а????? ?????????,
??????????? ??? ??? ?????????.
2. ?а?????? ????? ????????? ???????? ??? ????? ????, ???????
????? ???????????? ??а??????????? ?? ??? ?????, ????? ?????????
???? ???? ?????? ???????????, ?????????????? ?? ?????????, ?а??????? ??????? ????????? ???????????? ??? ????????, ??а??????????? ??????, ????? ??а???????????? ??????? ?????? ?????????? ?????? ??????????????? ??а???? ????.
3. ?а????????? ?????? ??? ????? ???????? ??? ??????????? ?????
????????? ???? ?????? ??????? ???????????, ?а???????? ??? ??????????, ??????? ????? ??а?????????, ? ?????? ??????????; ?а??? ?а?????? ?????, ????? ????, ???????? ?а???????????, ???????????? ?????????, ?а??????? ??????? ????????? ???????????, ?????, ???????????
??? ????????. ??? ??????????? ????? ????? ?????????? ??????????????? ????? ???????????? ?а???????????.
?????? 37
????? ???????? ?????? ??????? ???
????????? ????????? ?? ?а???? ???? ??а?????????? ??????? ?а???,
????? ?? ????, ????????????? ??а???? ?а???????????? ?а?? ???????????, ????? ???????? ?????? ?????? ??????? ????.
????? IV. ????????? ?????????
?????? 38
????????? ?????????
1. ?а?????? ????????? ?????????, ?????????????? ???????? ????????? ?а???????? ?????-???? ???? ???????? ?????????, ????????? ????????? ????????? ??????????? ?а?????? ?????? 4 ??????а18
???? ?а????????? ?????????, ???? ?????? ????????? ???????? ???????? ?????? 1.
2. ?????а?а????????? ????????? ??а?????? ???????? ?а??????
????????? ????????? ???????? ?а????????-???????????? ????????
386
Copyright ??? Ф??? Ф??????╗ & ??? ФA???????? K????-C?????╗
??????????
???????, ??????????? ?а?????????? ????? ????????? ?????????, ???
???????, ???а????????? ????????? ????????? ????? ????????? ?а????????? ????????? ????????? ??а???????.
????? V. ????????? ?????????, ?
?????????????? ??????, ?? ???????????
????????????? ?? ????????
?????? 39
?????????? ??а????????. ??????????? ??????????
????????? ????????? ????? ??????????? ?а??? ???????, ?????
???? (?а?????????? ????????? Ф???????????? ??а????????╗) ?а???????? ???????? ??????? ????????? ??????? ?????????, ???????????? ????????? ??????????, ?а??????????, ??? ????????????, ???
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378
Copyright ??? Ф??? Ф??????╗ & ??? ФA???????? K????-C?????╗
??????????
?????? 23
??????? ???????? ??????
1. ?????, ????????? ?а??????????? ?????? ????????????? ?а????????? ?????????, ??????????????? ???а??????????? ?а??????????? ?????? ?????????????, ???а??? ?????????? ????????????? ???????? ??????. ??????? ???? ???? ?а???????????? ?????? ?а??????
???????? ?????????????? ???????????? ?а???????????? ??а??????????
????? ????? ?а??????????? ?????? ????????????? ??а???? ?????????
???????. ????????? ?а??????????? ?????? ????????????? ???????????? ?????? ???????????-?????????, ??????? ???????? ?????? ?????????????? ????????? ?????, ??????????? ?а???????????? ?а???????
??????????? ?????????, ??????????? ????????????? ????????
?????? ??? ??? ??????????? ???????? ?а???????? ??а???? ????????? ???????. ????????? ?а??????????? ?????? ????????????? ???????????? ?????? ???????????-?????????, ??????? ??а???????? ??????
?????????????? ????????? ?????, ??????????? ??а??????, ?????????????? ???? ????????????-??????????.
2. ??? ??а????? ???????????, ??????? ??а???????? ??????? ?????????????? ????????? ????? ?а???????????????? ??????? ??а????????? ????????? ????????? ?????? 1 ????????? ??????, ????? ??? ??????????? ??? ????????????? ??? ?а????? ????? ????? ????? ???????,
???а?????? ??????????????? ???????????, ?????????????? ?а??????
21, ??????????????? ?а????? 1500000 ???????? ?????? ??а????????? ??? ???????? ??????????????? ??а?? ??????????; 62500 ????????
?????? ??а????????? ?а????????? ?????? 1 ?????? 22; 15000 ???????? ?????? ??а????????? ?а????????? ?????? 2 ?????? 22; ?а250 ???????? ?????? ??а????????? ?а????????? ?????? 3 ?????? 22. ?????
???????? ??????? ??????? ??а??????????? ???? ?а????????? ???????????? ?????? ????? ????????? ????????. ????????? ????? ?????
???? ?????????? ?а??????????????? ???????????? ?????? ?а??????????? ??????. ??????? ????? ???? ?а???????????? ?????? ?????????????? ???????? ???????????????? ???????????????? ???????????.
3. ???????, ?????????? ?а????????? ??????????? ?????? 1 ????????? ??????, ?а???????, ?????????? ?а?????? 2 ????????? ??????,
??????????? ????? ???????, ????? ???????? ?а???????????? ?????? ???????????-?????????, ????????? ??? ????????, ????? ?? ?????379
Copyright ??? Ф??? Ф??????╗ & ??? ФA???????? K????-C?????╗
??????????
??? ????????? ?????????????? ???????????, ????????? ?а??????? 21
?а22, ????? ????? ???????? ?а?????????? ?????????? ?????? ???? ??????????? ?????? 1 ????????? ??????. ???????????-????????? ??????????? ??????????? ?а?????? ?????????? ???????? ?????? 1 ????????? ?????? ??? ?а??????????? ???????? ???????? ?????? 2 ?????????
?????? ?????????????? ??? ????? ??а???????? ????????? ?а???????????, ????????, ??????????? ??? ????????????? ?а????????? ?????????, ?а????? ????? ??????? ?? ?????????.
?????? 24
????????? ????????
1. ??? ?????? ??? ????????? ?????? 25 ????????? ?????????
?а?а?????? ?????????? ???? ????????? ?????? 2 ??????? ???????????????, ????????????? ?а??????? 21, 22 ?а23, ????????????????
???????????? ?????? ???? ???, ?????? ?????? ????? ????????? ?????????? ?а????? ?????? ???? ????? ???? ?????????? ?а???? ?????????
????????? ???, ???? ????????? ??а???????? ?а???? ?а??????? ????а???
?а????, ????? ??? ???? ??????? ??????? ??? ??????????, ?а???????
??????? ???? ????? ?? ?????????? ?а???? ?а?????????????? ???????????? ????????, ???????????????? ?????????? ?????? ????????
??а?????? ??а??????? ??????????? ??????????, ??? ??? ?????? ??????????а? ?а???? ?????????? ?а???? ?????????. ?????? ?????? ????????, ???????????? ??? ??????????? ???????????? ????????,
??????????? ??а?????? ???????????????? ??????? ?????? ??????????
??? ????????? ???????? ??????????????? ??? ?а????????????, ?????? ??????? ???????? ??????????? ????? ?????????????, ??????????
?а?????? 1 ??????а23.
2. ???? ?а?????????? ??????????, ??????????? ?а?????????? ??????,
???????? ????? ?а???, ???а??????????? ???????? ???????? 10а?????????, ??а??????????? ?????????? ???????????-????????? ??а????????? ???????? ???????????????. ????? ????? ????????? ???????? ?а????
????? ????? ??????? ????? ??????????? ?а??? ??????????-??????????.
???? ?а??????? ???? ??????? ????? ??????????? ?а??? ???????????????????? ??????????? ??????????-?????????? ?????? ?а????? ??????????, ????????? ??а???????? ?а???? ?а??????????? ???????? ??????
?????? ??а???????????? ????????? ??????????-??????????. ????????380
Copyright ??? Ф??? Ф??????╗ & ??? ФA???????? K????-C?????╗
??????????
??? ??????????????? ?????????? ??? ???????????-????????? ?а?????????? ?а???? ?????? ?????????.
3. ???????? ??а????????? ?????? 1 ????????? ??????, ?????????,
?????????? ?а?????? 2 ????????? ??????, ??????????? ?а????? ?????
??? ???????, ???а??????? ??а???? ????????? ????? ?????? ???????????????????? ?а???а??????????? ????????, ?????????? ?а?????? 1,
???????? 30 ????????? ??а?????? ?а???? ??????????? ??????????
??? ?а???? ?????????? ?а???? ????????? ?????????, ???? ?????????
??? ??а??????????. ??????????? ?????????? ?а?????????????? ?????????, ????????? ?а?????? 1 ????????? ??????, ????? ???????????
?????? ???? ???, ??????? ?а????? ?????? ???? ????? ???? ??????????
?а???????????? ?а????????? ???????.
?????? 25
???????? ?а????????? ????????
?????????? ????? ?????????, ???а?а????????? ???????? ????????? ??????????? ????? ??????? ??????? ???????????????, ??? ??????????????? ?а????????? ?????????, ???? ??????? ??????? ??????????????? ??а???????????.
?????? 26
?????????????????? ?????????? ?????????
?????? ????????, ?????????? ?а???????????? ??????????? ?? ??????????????? ??? ?? ???????????? ??????? ???????????????, ????????,
??? ???, ??????? ?????????? ?а????????? ?????????, ???????? ???????????????? ?а?? ????????? ??????? ???????????, ??а??????????????????
???? ???????? ??а?????? ??а????? ?????????????????? ????????, ???????
?????????? ????????? ??? ???????? ????????? ????????? ?????????.
?????? 27
??????? ?????????? ????????
?????а?а????????? ????????? ??а???????????? ??????????? ?????????? ?? ?????????? ???????? ?????????, ?????????? ?? ?????-??381
Copyright ??? Ф??? Ф??????╗ & ??? ФA???????? K????-C?????╗
??????????
?? ??????? ??????, ????????????????? ??????????, ??? ??????????
???????, ??а?????????????? ?????????? ????????? ?????????.
?????? 28
??????????????? ???????
? ?????? ???????????? ????????????, ?????????? ?????? ??? ??????????? ??????????, ??????????, ???? ??? ????????????????? ???
???????????? ?????????????????, ??????????????? ?????????? ??????????????? ??????? ??????????? ???? ??? ?????, ??????? ?????
????? ????????? ???????????, ??? ?????????????? ????????????????
????????????? ???????????? ????? ???. ????? ??????????????? ??????? ??а???????? ????????? ?а????? ???? ?а????? ??????????? ?????? ??????????? ?а????? ?????????? ???????.
?????? 29
????????? ??? ????
??? ????????? ??????????, ?????? ?а????? ????? ??? ??а???????????????, ?????????? ?? ??? ?????????, ???? ??а?? ????????? ????????? ?????????, ????????, ?????????????? ??? ??а????? ?????? ?????????, ????? ???? ?????????? ???? ?а???????????? ?а????????? ?а?????? ????????? ???????????????, ??????? ?????????????
????????? ??????????, ??? ?????? ??? ??????????? ????? ???, ??????? ????? ????? ??а???, ?а?? ??????????????? ????. ??? ?????
????? ???? ??????, ???????? ??????? ??? ????? ?????? ???????, ??а??????????? ?а??????????? ???????????? ?????, ??а???????? ?????????.
?????? 30
????????, ??????. ????? ????? ?????
1. ???? ??? ?????????? ?а????????? ??? ?????? ??????????? ?а????? ?а??????, ?а??????? ????????? ?а????????? ?????????, ????? ???????? ??? ?????, ???? ??а???????, ???а??а?????????? ?а?????? ?????
????????? ????????????, ????? ????? ????????? ??а??????? ?а?????382
Copyright ??? Ф??? Ф??????╗ & ??? ФA???????? K????-C?????╗
??????????
?? ???????????????, ??а??????? ????? ????? ????????? ??? ?????????? ??а????????? ????????? ?????????.
2. ????? ?????, ??????? ????? ???? ???????? ?а???????????, ???
???????? ?а???????, ??а?????? ?а???? ?????? ????????? ?????????
????????.
3. ?? ??????????? ??????? ????????? ?????, ????????? ???????а1
?а2 ????????? ?????? ??а???????????, ???? ????? ????????, ???а????
?????? ??????????? ???????? ??? ??????????? ????????? ??? ??????,
???????????? ?а?????????? ????????? ???? ??? ??????????? ?а? ????????? ????, ???а?а?????????? ????? ????? ???? ???????? ????.
?????? 31
????????????? ???????? ??????????
1. ????????? ??????????????????? ?????? ??? ????? ??????????? ???
?????????? ?????????? ?????????????, ?????? ?? ?????????????? ??????????, ???а????? ??? ???? ???? ?????????? ?а?????????? ?????????
?а???????? ????????????? ????????? ??? ??????, ??????????? ??????? ??????????, ???????????? ?а?????? 2 ?????? 3 ?а?а?????? 2 ?????? 4.
2. ?а?????? ?????????? ????? ????, ??????? ????? ??а?????????
?????, ?????? ????????? ??????????? ?????????? ?????????? ??а??????????? ????? ?а?? ??????? ???? ???? ??а??? ????????? ??????????????????? ?????? ?а???????????? ???? ??а??? ????????? ?????.
?а?????? ???????? ??????? ?????? ???? ?????????? ??а??????? ???????? ?????? ???, ?????? ??а???, ????? ????? ??? ???? ???? ????????
?а??? ????????????.
3. ?????? ?????????? ?????? ???? ???????????? ????????? ?а??????? ??? ?????????? ?а?????????????? ?????.
4. ??? ?????????? ?????????? ?а?????????????? ????? ??????? ???? ?????? ??????????? ??а???????????, ????? ?????? ??????
??а??????? ??????????.
?????? 32
?????? ????, ???????? ???????????????
? ?????? ?????? ????, ???????? ???????????????, ??? ?а?????????? ????? ????????????? ?а???????????? ?а????????? ?????????
383
Copyright ??? Ф??? Ф??????╗ & ??? ФA???????? K????-C?????╗
??????????
????????? ?а?????, ??а???????? ????????? ?????????????? ???
?????????.
?????? 33
??????????
1. ??? ??а??????????????? ?????? ???? ?????????? ??а?????? ????? ?а???????? ?????????? ?????? ??а??????????-?????????? ???? ?а???? ??а????? ?????????? ???????????, ??а????? ??? ????????? ????????????? ??????????? ??? ??а?????, ??? ??а????? ???????????? ???????????, ??????????? ???????? ??? ???????? ???????, ???? ?а????
????? ?????????? ?????????.
2. ?а????????? ?????, ???????????? ?а?????????? ?????? ???
????????? ??????????? ?????????, ??? ??а??????????????? ?????
???? ????????? ?а????? ??а?????, ?????????? ?а?????? 1 ?????????
??????, ??? ??а?????????? ???????????-?????????, ?а??????? ???????? ??а?????? ???????????? ????? ???????? ?а?????????? ????? ?????????? ?а?а??????? ??? ??а???????? ?????????? ????????????? ??????, ????????? ?а????????? ?????????? ?????????? ????
??а??????????? ????????? ?????, ???? ??а????????? ????? ???????
??????????? ??а????????? ????????????? ?????????? ?а?а???????
???? ?????????? ???????????? ????????????, ????????? ?а????????? ?????????? ??????????, ????????? ?????????, ??????????
????? ???????????? ??? ?????? ????????????, ?а??????? ??а????? ???????????? ??????????, ??? ????????????? ??? ??? ??????
??????? ???????????.
3. ??? ????? ?????? 2:
a) Ф???????????? ??????????╗ ???????? ?????????? ????? ?????????????, ????? ?????????? ??????????, ?????????? ?????????????? ?? ?????????? ?????, ????????? ?а?????????? ???????????
??????????;
b) Ф???????? ?а?????????? ????? ??????????╗ ???????? ???? ??????????????? ?а?????????? ????? ?????????? ????????? ??а?????? ????????????. ??????????? ????????? ??а???????? ???????????? ???????? ?а???? ?????????.
4. ????????? ???????????? ??????? ????, ?а??????? ?????????? ???.
384
Copyright ??? Ф??? Ф??????╗ & ??? ФA???????? K????-C?????╗
??????????
?????? 34
????????
1. ?а?????? ????????? ????????? ?????? ??????? ?а???????? ????????? ????? ????? ??????????, ???а????? ????, ?????????? ??????????????? ??????????? ??а????????? ?????????, ???????? ?????????? ?а?????????. ????? ?????????????? ??????????? ?а?????????? ?????.
2. ??????????? ??????????????? ??а?????? ????? ?????????? ?а????? ??а???? ?а???????????? ?а???????????? ?????, ???????????????
?а?????? 33.
3. ?????? ??? ??????????? ???????? ????????? ????????? ????????? ?????????.
4. ????????? ??????? 2 ?а3 ????????? ?????? ????????? ????????? ?????? ????? ??????????? ???????? ??? ??????????????, ?а????? ??????? ????? ???????? ??? ??????????????, ????????????? ?а????, ???????? ????????? ????????????????.
?????? 35
??????? ????????
1. ??? ??а??????????????? ?????? ???? ?????????, ??? ???????
?????? ????? ??а???, ?а??????? ???? ??? ?а??????? ???????? ??а??????????, ??? ??а???, ????? ????????? ????? ?????? ???? ?? ???????,
??? ?а??????? ????????? ?????????.
2. ??????? ?????????? ????? ????? ???????????? ??????? ????,
?а??????? ?????? ???.
?????? 36
???????????????? ???????????
1. ?а??????? ?????????, ???????????? ???????????? ?????? 3 ?????? 1, ???????????? ??????????? ????????????????? ?????????????, ?????? ??????????, ??????????? ??????????, ????? ??? ????,
????????? ??? ???????? ??????, ????????????? ????????? ??????????, ?а??????????????? ?а???????? ????? ??а?????? ?а???????? ????385
Copyright ??? Ф??? Ф??????╗ & ??? ФA???????? K????-C?????╗
??????????
?????, ????????? ???? ??????? ????? ????????? ?а????? ?????????,
??????????? ??? ??? ?????????.
2. ?а?????? ????? ????????? ???????? ??? ????? ????, ???????
????? ???????????? ??а??????????? ?? ??? ?????, ????? ?????????
???? ???? ?????? ???????????, ?????????????? ?? ?????????, ?а??????? ??????? ????????? ???????????? ??? ????????, ??а??????????? ??????, ????? ??а???????????? ??????? ?????? ?????????? ?????? ??????????????? ??а???? ????.
3. ?а????????? ?????? ??? ????? ???????? ??? ??????????? ?????
????????? ???? ?????? ??????? ???????????, ?а???????? ??? ??????????, ??????? ????? ??а?????????, ? ?????? ??????????; ?а??? ?а?????? ?????, ????? ????, ???????? ?а???????????, ???????????? ?????????, ?а??????? ??????? ????????? ???????????, ?????, ???????????
??? ????????. ??? ??????????? ????? ????? ?????????? ??????????????? ????? ???????????? ?а???????????.
?????? 37
????? ???????? ?????? ??????? ???
????????? ????????? ?? ?а???? ???? ??а?????????? ??????? ?а???,
????? ?? ????, ????????????? ??а???? ?а???????????? ?а?? ???????????, ????? ???????? ?????? ?????? ??????? ????.
????? IV. ????????? ?????????
?????? 38
????????? ?????????
1. ?а?????? ????????? ?????????, ?????????????? ???????? ????????? ?а???????? ?????-???? ???? ???????? ?????????, ????????? ????????? ????????? ??????????? ?а?????? ?????? 4 ??????а18
???? ?а????????? ?????????, ???? ?????? ????????? ???????? ???????? ?????? 1.
2. ?????а?а????????? ????????? ??а?????? ???????? ?а??????
????????? ????????? ???????? ?а????????-???????????? ????????
386
Copyright ??? Ф??? Ф??????╗ & ??? ФA???????? K????-C?????╗
??????????
???????, ??????????? ?а?????????? ????? ????????? ?????????, ???
???????, ???а????????? ????????? ????????? ????? ????????? ?а????????? ????????? ????????? ??а???????.
????? V. ????????? ?????????, ?
?????????????? ??????, ?? ???????????
????????????? ?? ????????
?????? 39
?????????? ??а????????. ??????????? ??????????
????????? ????????? ????? ??????????? ?а??? ???????, ?????
???? (?а?????????? ????????? Ф???????????? ??а????????╗) ?а???????? ???????? ??????? ????????? ??????? ?????????, ???????????? ????????? ??????????, ?а??????????, ??? ????????????, ???
?а?????, ??????????? ?? ????? ????????? ??? ???????????, ?а?????? ???? (?а?????????? ????????? Ф??????????? ????????????╗),
?????? ?????????????? ???????????? ??а????????, ????????????
??? ????????? ??? ????? ??, ??а?? ???????? ?а????????? ????? ????? ???????????????? ???????????? ?а?????? ????????? ?????????. ??????? ??????????? ?????????? ?????????????? ?? ?????????????? ??????????.
?????? 40
??????????????? ??????????? ??а???????? ?
? ???????????? ???????????
???? ????? ??а????????? ?а????????? ?????, ?а??? ???????, ?????
??????????? ?????????? ???????????? ????????? ??? ???????? ?????????, ??????? ?а???????????? ?а?????????, ??????????????? ?а??????а39, ???????????? ????????? ??????????, ???а?????????? ??а????????, ??? ?а??????????? ?????????? ????????? ??? ???????? ??????
????????? ?????????, ?????? ?????? ??а??? ? ?а????????? ???? ?????????, ??????????????? ?а????????, ?????? ?? ? ???? ?а?????????
??? ?????????, ??????? ??а????????????.
387
Copyright ??? Ф??? Ф??????╗ & ??? ФA???????? K????-C?????╗
??????????
?????? 41
???????? ????????? ???????????????
1. ???????? ??? ??????????? ???????????? ??????????? ?а??? ???????? ?а???????, ????????????? ?а?????? ????? ????????????, ?а????????? ?????????, ?????????????? ??????????? ????????????,
????????? ?????????? ??? ???????????? ?а??????????? ??а????????.
2. ???????? ??? ??????????? ??????????? ??а???????? ?а??? ???????? ?а???????, ????????????? ?а?????? ????? ????????????, ?а????????? ?????????, ?????????????? ??????????? ????????????, ????????? ?????????? ??? ???????????? ?а???????????? ???????????.
?????? ??? ???????? ??? ??????????? ?? ?а???? ?????? ??а?????????
??а???????????? ??????????? ???????????????, ??????? ?? ????????? ???????, ??????????????? ?а??????? 21, 22, 23 ?а24. ??????? ??????
??????????, ?а???????????? ?а??????? ?????????? ??а???????? ????????? ??а???? ?????????????, ??а??????????? ????????? ??????????,
??????? ????? ?? ???? ??? ?????????? ??????, ??????????? ????????? ??????????, ??? ????? ?? ??а?? ???? ??????????? ?????????
?а?????????????????? ?а????????, ??????????????? ?а?????? 22, ??а???????????????? ??а???????????? ??????????? ??? ??? ??а??а????????.
?????? 42
????????? ???????????? ?а??????????
????? ???????????? ?а??????????, ????????????? ???????????
??а????????? ????????? ?????????, ????? ?????????? ???? ??? ??????????? ?? ????, ???????? ?? ??? ?а??????????? ??а???????? ???
?а???????????? ???????????. ?????? ????????????, ??????????????? ?а?????? 12, ????? ????, ???? ????????? ?????????, ????? ???? ???? ???? ??? ???????? ?а??????????? ??а????????.
?????? 43
???????? ?а??????
? ????????? ?????????, ?????????????? ??????????? ????????????, ????? ???????? ??? ????? ????? ??????????? ??? ???????????
??а????????, ???? ??а???????, ???а??а?????????? ?а?????? ????? ???388
Copyright ??? Ф??? Ф??????╗ & ??? ФA???????? K????-C?????╗
??????????
?????????, ????? ????? ????????? ??а??????? ?а??????? ???????????????, ??????????? ??а????????? ????????? ?а???????????, ???????? ??? ??????? ???????? ??а????????, ????, ??????, ??а????? ????????, ???а??а?????????? ????? ???????, ???а?а???????????? ?а?????????
?????????? ?????? ??а??????? ??????????????? ??а????? ????? ?????.
?????? 44
????? ????? ??????????
? ????????? ?????????, ?????????????? ??????????? ????????????, ????? ????? ??????????, ??????? ????? ???? ???????? ?а????? ???????????, ?а??????????? ??а???????? ?а? ??? ???????? ?а???????, ????????????? ?а?????? ????? ????????????, ??а????? ????????? ????????????? ??????????, ???????, ??а????????? ?????????
?????????, ????? ???? ???????? ???? ?а??????????? ??а????????,
???? ?а???????????? ???????????, ?????? ?? ???? ??а?????????? ???
??а????? ??????????????? ????? ??????????? ?а????? ???? ???????.
?????? 45
????????? ?????
?????? ??? ??а???????????????, ??????????? ?а?????????, ?????????????? ??????????? ????????????, ????? ??а?????? ????? ????
????????? ???? ?????? ????? ???????????, ???? ?????? ???????????
??а????????, ???? ?????? ?????, ????????? ??? ?а???????????. ????
??? ????????? ???? ?????? ?????? ??а???? ????????????, ??а?????
????? ???????? ?а??????? ??????????? ?а???? ????? ?????, ?а???????
?????? ???, ?????? ????????? ?????? ??????????? ?а??? ???????????
???????????? ??????? ????? ????.
?????? 46
?????????????? ??????????
?????? ??? ??а???????????????, ??????????????? ?а?????? 45, ?????? ???? ????????? ??а?????? ????? ?а???????? ?????????? ??????
??а??????????-?????????? ???? ?а????? ??а?????, ?а??????? ??? ?????
389
Copyright ??? Ф??? Ф??????╗ & ??? ФA???????? K????-C?????╗
??????????
???? ?????? ?????? ??????????? ??а???????? ??а????????? ??????а33,
???? ?а???? ??а????? ?????????? ???????????? ??????????? ??? ??а????? ?????????? ??? ????????? ????????????? ???????????.
?????? 47
?????????????????? ?????????? ?????????
?????? ????????, ?????????? ?а???????????? ??????????? ??а???????? ??? ???????????? ??????????? ?? ??????????????? ??а????????? ????????? ????? ??? ?? ?а???????????? ??????? ???????????????, ????????, ??? ???, ??????? ???????? ?а???????????? ?а?????????
??????, ???????? ???????????????? ?а?? ????????? ??????? ???????????, ??а?????????????????? ???? ???????? ??а?????? ??а????? ?????????????????? ????? ????????, ??????? ?????????? ????????? ???
???????? ????????? ????????? ?????.
?????? 48
??????????????? ??????????? ??а???????? ?
? ???????????? ???????????
?? ??????????? ????????? ?????? 45, ?????а?а????????? ????? ??а??????????? ??????????? ????? ????????????? ???? ?а????????????,
??????? ????? ????? ???????? ??? ???????????? ?? ???????????????.
????? VI. ?????? ?????????
?????? 49
???????????? ??????????
???????? ????????????????? ?????? ????????? ???????? ????????? ?а?????? ?????? ??????????, ???????????????? ??????????
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