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И. Ю. ЛАВРИНЕНКО
МЕТОДИЧЕСКИЕ УКАЗАНИЯ
ПО ИЗУЧЕНИЮ АНГЛИЙСКОГО ЯЗЫКА
НА МАТЕРИАЛЕ ТЕМЫ «СТРАНОВЕДЕНИЕ»
ЧАСТЬ 1
ОМСК 2007
Министерство транспорта Российской Федерации
Федеральное агентство железнодорожного транспорта
Омский государственный университет путей сообщения
_________________
И. Ю. Лавриненко
МЕТОДИЧЕСКИЕ УКАЗАНИЯ
ПО ИЗУЧЕНИЮ АНГЛИЙСКОГО ЯЗЫКА
НА МАТЕРИАЛЕ ТЕМЫ «СТРАНОВЕДЕНИЕ»
Часть 1
Утверждено редакционно-издательским советом университета
Омск 2007
1
УДК 802.0 (075.8)
ББК 81.432.1я73
Л13
Методические указания по изучению английского языка на материале
темы «Страноведение». Часть 1 / И. Ю. Лавриненко; Омский гос. ун-т путей
сообщения. Омск, 2007. 29 c.
Методические указания содержат тексты о Российской Федерации,
Москве и Санкт-Петербурге для изучения темы «Страноведение», а также
упражнения и задания, позволяющие расширить лексический запас студентов,
приобрести навыки перевода, аннотирования и пересказа иностранных
текстов и, следовательно, развить коммуникативные способности обучаемых.
В приложении (Additional Materials) представлен дополнительный
материал с текстами и упражнениями повышенной сложности.
Методические указания предназначены для студентов первого курса
технических специальностей.
Библиогр.: 2 назв. Прил. 1.
Рецензенты: доктор филос. наук, профессор С. А. Ветров;
канд. филол. наук Е. Н. Трифонова.
________________________
© Омский гос. университет
путей сообщения, 2007
2
ОГЛАВЛЕНИЕ
Введение ………………………………………………………………….……..
UNIT 1. The Russian Federation ………………………………………………..
UNIT 2. Moscow………………………………………………………………….
UNIT 3. St.Petersburg…………………………………………………………….
Библиографический список ……………………………………………………
Приложение. Additional Materials……………………………………………….
3
5
6
14
18
21
22
4
ВВЕДЕНИЕ
Методические указания составлены в соответствии с программой
изучения иностранных языков в технических вузах.
Цель данных методических указаний – развить у студентов навыки
устной речи, научить их получать полезную информацию из текстового
материала, кратко излагать суть прочитанного, делать сообщения.
В первой части методических указаний представлены тексты о
Российской Федерации для изучения темы «Страноведение». Лексикограмматическая структура текстов, разнообразные упражнения к ним имеют
коммуникативную направленность, а также способствуют развитию навыков
различных видов чтения и подготовке обучаемых к общению в письменной и
устной форме.
В методических указаниях реализуются общеобразовательные и
воспитательные цели обучения. Тексты о Российской Федерации, Москве и
Санкт-Петербурге позволяют расширить лексический запас студентов
технических вузов и получить новую информацию о родной стране.
В приложении представлены дополнительный материал, тексты и упражнения
к ним, которые можно использовать при дифференцированном подходе в
обучении студентов.
5
UNIT 1. THE RUSSIAN FEDERATION
1.1. Please, say.
1) Where were you born?
2) Where do you live now?
3) What country do you live in?
4) What is the capital of the country you live in at the moment?
5) What city in Russia would you like to live in?
6) What things do you like mostly living in Russia?
7) Is there anything you would like to change in your country?
1.2. Read the text about Russia and name the main mentioned aspects
about your country.
THE RUSSIAN FEDERATION
The Russian Federation is the largest country in the world. It occupies about
one seventh of the earth's surface. It covers the eastern part of Europe and the
northern part of Asia. Its total area is about 17 million square kilometers. The country
is washed by 12 seas of three oceans: the Pacific, the Arctic and the Atlantic. Russia
borders on China, Mongolia, Korea, Kazakhstan, Georgia and Azerbaijan in the
south. In the west it borders on Norway, Finland, the Baltic States, Belarus and the
Ukraine. It also has a sea-border with the USA.
There is hardly a country in the world where such a variety of scenery and
vegetation can be found. We have steppes in the south, plains and forests in the
midland, tundra and taiga in the north, highlands and the deserts in the east. There are
several mountain chains on the territory of the country: the Urals, the Caucasus, the
Altai and others. The largest mountain chain, the Urals, separates Europe from Asia.
Russia has one sixth of the world's forests. They are concentrated in the European
north of the country, in Siberia and in the Far East.
There are over two million rivers in Russia. Europe's biggest river, the Volga,
flows into the Caspian Sea. The main Siberian Rivers (the Ob, the Yenisei and the
Lena) flow from the south to the north. The Amur in the Far East flows into the
Pacific Ocean.
6
Russia is rich in beautiful lakes. The world's deepest lake (1,600 meters deep)
is Lake Baikal. It is much smaller than the Baltic Sea, but there is much more water
in it than in the Baltic Sea. And water in the lake is so clear that if you look down you
can count the stones on the bottom.
On the vast territory of the country there are various types of climate. It varies
from arctic in the north to subtropical in the south. In the middle of the country the
climate is temperate and continental.
Russia is one of the richest countries in natural resources. It has tremendous
deposits of oil, coal, iron ore, natural gas, copper, nickel, gold, diamonds and other
mineral resources. Our country is one of the largest producers of timber, metal,
cement, metal-cutting machines and electric power. The world largest power stations
are situated near Bratsk and Krasnoyarsk.
Russia is a parliamentary republic. Under the Constitution, the federal
government is divided into three branches, each chosen in a different manner and
able to check the others.
The Executive Branch is headed by the President who is chosen in nation wide
elections every four years. Besides, the Executive Branch is represented by the
Cabinet of Ministers headed by the Prime Minister.
The Legislative Branch is made up of two chambers: the Duma and the
Council if Federation. Both chambers must approve a bill for it to become law, but
the President may veto it. If so, the bill is reconsidered by the two chambers. And of
two-thirds of their members approve it, the bill becomes law even without the
President's signature.
The Judicial Branch comprises diverse kinds of courts which try appointed
cases: the Courts of the General Jurisdiction (they try the criminal and civil cases),
the Courts of Arbitration (they try the economic cases), the Courts Martial (they try
the cases bound up with the Army this or that way), the Supreme Court and, at the
top, the Constitutional Court.
The capital of Russia is Moscow. It is its largest political, scientific, cultural
and industrial centre. It is one of the oldest Russian cities and at the same time one of
the most expensive cities in the world, we must confess.
At present, there are a lot of problems in the national economy of the Russian
Federation: the industrial production is decreasing, the prices are constantly rising
and the rate of inflation is very high. But in spite of the problems, there are a lot of
7
opportunities for Russia to become one of the leading countries in the world. I'm sure
that our people can do very much to make Russia as strong and powerful as it used to be.
1.3. Pronunciation.
1.3.1. Read the following names. Mind the pronunciation.
the Russian Federation
Europe
Asia
the Pacific Ocean
the Arctic Ocean
China
Mongolia
Korea
Kazakhstan
Georgia
Azerbaijan
Norway
Finland
the Baltic States
Belarus
the Ukraine
the Urals
the Caucasus
the Altai
the Volga
the Caspian Sea
the Ob
the Yenisei
the Amur
Lake Baikal
the Baltic Sea
Siberia
[¸fedə'reı∫ən]
['juərəp]
['eı (∫)ə]
[pə'sıfık 'əu∫ən]
['α:ktık ' əu∫ən]
['t∫αinə]
[m ŋ'gəulıə]
[kə'rı:ə]
[¸kæ(α:)zæk'stæn]
['d :d ə]
[¸æ:zəbaı'd a:n]
['n :wəı]
['fınlənd]
['b :ltık]
[¸belə'ru:s]
[ju(:)'kreın]
['juər(ə)lz]
['k :kəs(z)əs]
[¸α:l'taı]
['v lgə]
['kæspıən¸si:]
[ b]
[¸jenı'seı]
[ə'muə]
['baıkə(α:)l]
[¸b :ltık'si:]
[saı'bıərıə]
8
Российская Федерация
Европа
Азия
Тихий океан
Северно-Ледовитый океан
Китай
Монголия
Корея
Казахстан
Грузия
Азербайджан
Норвегия
Финляндия
Балтийские страны
Беларусь
Украина
Уральские горы
Кавказ
Алтай
Волга
Каспийское море
Обь
Енисей
Амур
озеро Байкал
Балтийское море
Сибирь
the Far East
Bratsk
Krasnoyarsk
['fα:r'i:st]
['bræ(α:)tsk]
[¸krα:snə'jα:sk]
Дальний Восток
Братск
Красноярск
1.3.2. Mind the difference in pronunciation of the following words:
verb
to var'y
to 'separate
adjective
'various
'separate
eco'nomic
parlia'mentary
'industry
noun
va'riety
sepa'ration
e'conomy
'parliament
in'dustrial
1.4. Lexis.
1.4.1. Translate the following words and prepare them for the vocabulary test.
A. to occupy
surface
to cover
area
south
law
to count
various
B. signature
subtropical
judicial
desert
court
chamber
executive
council
variety
vegetation
legislative
highland
complicated
opportunity
temperate
scientific
iron ore
mountain
to approve
to decrease
(≠ to increase)
1.4.2. Read the words and try to guess the meaning.
territory
climate
arctic
subtropical
steppes
to veto
tundra
continental
kilometers
taiga
types
the Cabinet of Ministers
9
the Duma
cement
metal
deposit
machine
electric
1.4.3. Match the phrases in box A to those in box B. (Mind the prepositions in bold!)
A. 1) to be washed by;
2) to border on;
3) to separate from;
4) to flow into;
5) to look down;
6) to be concentrated in;
7) to be rich in;
8) to be divided into;
9) to be headed by;
10) to be made up of;
11) to be reconsidered by;
12) to be bound up with.
B. a) быть пересмотренным;
b) граничить с;
c) быть связанным с;
d) омываться;
e) концентрироваться в;
f) состоять из;
g) впадать в;
h) (стоять) во главе, возглавлять;
i) отделять от;
j) смотреть вниз;
k) делиться на;
l) быть богатым (чем-либо).
1.4.4. Translate the following words and expressions into English.
А. 1) пустыня, нагорье;
2) Урал, Кавказ;
3) умеренный;
4) полезные ископаемые;
5) рассматривать дело в суде;
6) пейзаж (ландшафт);
7) древесина (лес).
B. 1) едва ли найдется;
2) не смотря на;
3) так или иначе;
4) если так;
5) должен признать;
6) даже без;
7) быть уверенным.
1.4.5. Choose 3 words / expressions under letter A and 3 words / expressions
under letter B from Ex. 1.4.4. and make up the sentences of your own with them.
1.5. Grammar.
1.5.1. Look through the text again and find the sentences with verbs used in the
Passive Voice. Translate them into Russian. Make negative sentences and questions.
1.5.2. Find 5 adjectives in the text. Put them into the comparative and
superlative forms.
10
1.5.3. Make up questions to the words in italic starting with the special
question words in brackets (…).
1) The main Siberian Rivers the Ob, the Yenisei and the Lena flow from the
south to the north. (Where …?)
2) Russia occupies about one seventh of the earth's surface. (What…?)
3) The Russia has a sea-border with the USA. (What country…?)
4) Each branch of the Federal government can check and balance other
branches. (What…?)
5) In Siberia there are areas where winters are colder than at the North Pole.
(What…?)
6) Large diamond deposits were discovered in Yakutia. (Where…?)
7) The President is chosen for a four years' period of time. (Who…?)
8) The Judicial Branch comprises diverse kinds of courts. (What…?)
9) There are a lot of problems in the national economy of the Russian
Federation: the industrial production is decreasing, the prices are constantly rising
and the rate of inflation is very high. (Why…?)
1.5.4. Make up 5 questions of your own to the text and ask them to your partner.
1.5.5. Put in the suitable preposition.
up with
into
down
up of
into
from
by
on
in
by
in
by
1) Our country is washed … three oceans.
2) The Omsk oblast borders … Kazakhstan.
3) The Irtysh River divides Omsk … two parts: the right bank and the left bank.
4) The Om River flows … the Irtysh River.
5) Lake Baikal is so clear that if you look … you could count the stones on the bottom.
6) The forests in Russia are concentrated … the north of Siberia.
7) The Russian is very rich … metaphors, epithets and other comparative structures.
8) The Urals separates Europe … Asia.
9) The Duma is headed … the Speaker.
11
10) Under the Constitution the government is made … … three branches.
11) This question was reconsidered … our government on the last session.
12) This is bound … … the service in the Army.
1.6. Speaking. Let's talk about Russia – our great country.
1.6.1. Complete the following sentences.
1) The Russian Federation occupies… .
2) It covers … .
3) The Russian Federation has a sea-border with … .
4) In the east we have … .
5) In the midland we have … .
6) We have such mountain chains as … .
7) … is the largest mountain chain.
8) In the Far East the Amur … .
9) There are many beautiful … in Russia.
10) … is the world's deepest lake famous for its … .
11) The climate of the Russian Federation … .
12) The government consists of … .
13) … consists of two chambers.
14) … is represented by the President and … .
15) There are different kinds of courts such as … .
16) The head of the state is … .
17) Moscow is … center.
18) I'm sure that our people … .
1.6.2. Prove the following statements.
1) Russia is extremely rich in forests.
2) It is the largest country in the world.
3) The nature in Russia is very rich.
4) Russia is a beautiful country.
5) Russia is one of the richest countries in possessing of natural resources.
6) Russia is a very diverse country.
12
7) Russia is a parliamentary republic.
8) Russia is an unstable state at present.
For additional material apply for Additional Materials (Section 1).
1.6.3. Work in pairs. One of you is from England and wants to find out about Russia
as much as possible. Ask the following questions to your partner to get the information you
need about Russia.
1) Where is the Russian Federation situated?
2) What oceans is the country washed by?
3) Can you name any seas which Russia is washed by?
4) What is the total area of the country?
5) What countries does Russia border on?
6) What can you say about the relief of Russia?
7) What mountain chains are there on the territory of the country?
8) What sea does the Europe's biggest river flow into?
9) What is the world's deepest lake famous for?
10) What types of climate are there in Russia?
Exchange your roles.
1) Why is Russia one of the richest countries in natural resources?
2) Where are the world largest power stations situated?
3) What type of the country is Russia?
4) Who is the head of the Russian Federation?
5) How is the President chosen in our country? And for how long?
6) What branches does the federal government comprise?
7) Why is it said that the political and the economic situation in our country is
rather complicated?
8) Do you personally believe that there are a lot of opportunities for Russia to
become one of the leading countries in the world?
9) If you were a president what would you do first of all to make your country better?
10) Do you believe that one person can change the situation in a whole state?
13
UNIT 2. MOSCOW
2.1. Answer the following questions.
1) Have you ever been to Moscow?
2) What do you know about the history of Moscow foundation?
3) What interesting places did you visit in Moscow?
4) What are the main differences between Moscow and your native city?
5) Was there anything unpleasant for you when visiting Moscow?
6) What impressed you greatly?
2.2. Read the text about Moscow and say if there is anything unknown or
interesting for you.
MOSCOW
Moscow is the capital of Russia, it's political, economic, commercial and
cultural centre. It was founded 8 centuries ago by Yuri Dolgoruky who strengtheried
Moscow with wooden walls and ditch. Historians have accepted the year of 1147 as
the start of Moscow's history. In ancient times the country was called Muscovy and
the people – Muscovites (they are called so up to now). Gradually the city became
more and more powerful. In the 13th century Moscow was the centre of the struggle
of Russian lands for the liberation from the tartar yoke. In the 16th century under
Ivan the Terrible Moscow became the capital of the new united state. Though Peter
the Great moved the capital to St.Petersburg in 1712 Moscow remained the heart of
Russia. That is why it became the main target of Napoleon's attack. Three-quarters of
the city were destroyed by fire during Napoleon's occupation, but by the mid-19th
century Moscow had been completely restored. After the October revolution Moscow
became the capital again.
Now Moscow is one of the largest cities in Europe. Its total area is about nine
hundred square kilometers (ancient Moscow occupied the territory or the present-day
Kremlin). The population of the city is over 8 million but it is constantly rising, as
you may guess.
Moscow is one of the most beautiful countries in the world. The heart of
Moscow is Red Square. It has more historic associations than any other place in
Moscow. The Kremlin and the St. Basil’s Cathedral (Vasily Blazheny) are
masterpieces of ancient Russian architecture.
14
St. Basil's Cathedral was built in the mid-16th century in memory of the
victory over Kazan. There is a legend that Ivan the Terrible blinded the architects
Barma and Postnik because he didn't want them to create another masterpiece.
In the 10-11th centuries there was a small Slav village in the place of the
present Kremlin where craftsmen lived and worked. The main Kremlin tower, the
Spasskaya Tower, has become the symbol of the country.
There are a lot of beautiful places, old mansions, cathedrals, churches and
monuments in Moscow. There are more than 80 museums in Moscow. The largest
museums are the Pushkin Museum of Fine Art and the State Tretyakov Gallery. The
state Tretyakov Gallery is named after great Russian connoisseur Pavel Tretyakov
who left his collection as a gift to the nation. Other unique museums in Moscow
include the All-Russian Museum of Folk Arts, the Andrei Rublev Museum of Early
Russian Art, Mikhail Glinka Museum of Musical Culture and many others. Moscow
is famous for its theatres. The best-known of them is the Bolshoi Opera House which
was opened in 1825. Drama theatres and studios are also very popular. Moscow is a
city of students. There are over 80 higher educational institutes and universities in it.
Moscow is the seat of the Russian Parliament (the Duma) and the centre of
political life of the country. Moscow as a great subway system marked the Moscow
Metro's anniversary in 1995.
2.3. Pronunciation.
2.3.1. Read the names and guess their meaning. Mind the pronunciation.
Muscovy
Muscovites
Ivan the Terrible
Peter the Great
St.Petersburg
Napoleon
St. Basil's Cathedral
The Bell Tower of Ivan the Great
The tsar-Cannon
The tsar-bell
Kazan
['mΛskəvı]
['mΛskəvaıts]
['aıvn' ə'terəbl]
['pi:tə ' ə 'greıt]
['s(eı)nt 'pi:təzbε:g]
[nə'pəulıən]
['snt 'beızılz kə'θi:drəl]
['bel 'tαuər¸əv 'aıvn¸ ə 'greıt]
['zα: 'kænən]
['zα: 'bel]
[kə'zæ(α:)n]
15
2.4. Lexis.
2.4.1. Read and translate the following words.
commercial
association
to restore
unique
target
cultural
masterpiece
to reconstruct
united
historian
ancient
tartar yoke
liberation
gradually
architecture
legend
strengthery
to destroy
struggle
blind
picturesque
mansion
ditch
to accept
connoisseur
2.4.2. Find English equivalents of the following expressions.
быть полностью восстановленным
стать целью
занимать территорию
исторические ассоциации
шедевр древней архитектуры
особняк
перестраиваться,
в память о
символ страны
2.5. Speaking.
2.5.1. Define if the sentences below are true or false. Begin your answers with
the following expressions:
That's right.
I agree with it.
Presicely so.
Exactly so.
No, that's not right.
I'm afraid that's not correct.
Nothing of the kind.
1) Moscow was founded in the 11th century.
2) In the 13th century Moscow was under the dominion of the tartar yoke.
3) Under Peter the Great Moscow became the capital of the united state.
4) In the 16th century the capital was moved to St.Petersburg.
5) Moscow was completely restored after the fire during the October revolution.
16
6) Ancient Moscow occupied the territory of the Kremlin.
7) The Spasskaya is the symbol of Russia today.
2.5.2. Complete the sentences:
1) Moscow was founded by… …ago.
2) … is the start of Moscow's history.
3) Peter the Great … in 1712.
4) Three-quarters of Moscow was destroyed by … in … .
5) … Moscow became the capital again.
6) On the territory of the Kremlin you can see… .
7) St. Basil's Cathedral was built … .
8) The largest museums are … .
9) The best-known theatre is … .
2.5.3. Answer the questions below.
1) When and by whom was Moscow founded?
2) What can you say about Moscow of the 13th century?
3) When did it become the capital?
4) Why did Moscow become the main target of Napoleon's attack?
5) What was Moscow like in ancient times?
6) When was Moscow destroyed greatly?
7) What is the period of Russian history when Moscow was not the capital of
the country?
8) What is considered to be the heart of Moscow?
9) What sights of Moscow do you know? What are they famous for?
10) What sights have you personally seen? What do you know about them?
For additional material apply for Additional Materials (Section 2, 3).
2.5.4. You are the guide at one of the Moscow tour agencies. Make a tour
around Moscow giving all the information you know about the capital of Russia.
17
UNIT 3. ST.PETERSBURG
3.1. Why do we call St.Petersburg – the northern capital of Russia? What
do you know about St.Petersburg?
3.2. Read the text about one of the largest and most beautiful Russian
cities and try to find as much information as you need to answer the following
questions.
1) How is usually St.Petersburg called?
2) When was St.Petersburg founded?
3) Who founded the city and why?
4) Where is it situated?
5) When did St.Petersburg become the capital of Russia?
6) When did the especially rapid development of the city take place?
7) How did the name of the second Russian capital change and why?
8) How did the Great Patriotic War influence the city and its population?
9) What sights of the city do you know? What are they famous for?
10) Have you ever been to St.Petersburg? What places of interests have you
visited there?
11) Can you agree that St.Petersburg is the northern capital of Russia? Why?
12) What features should a capital have to be called `the capital`?
ST.PETERSBURG
St.Petersburg is the second largest city in Russia and one of the most beautiful
cities in the world. It is built on water which gives a magical and romantic
atmosphere. Poets and writers often call it `The Northern Venice`, `The Pearl of the
Baltic's`. The city was born and grew up on 42 islands. Now it is linked by 363
artistically decorated bridges. It stretches along the Neva River.
It was founded in 1703 by Peter the Great as the «Window to the West».
Thousands of workmen were brought from all parts of Russia to build a new city on
the swampy land at the mouth if the Neva River. Peter the Great was in a hurry. The
work was fast and hard and the workmen dropped dead by the hundreds. But the
18
work didn't stop for a moment. Being a city of great beauty, with palaces, cathedrals,
churches government buildings, St.Petersburg became the capital of Russia.
Under later rulers the new capital of the Russian Empire grew rapidly in wealth
and beauty. Architects were brought from western Europe to lay out the city in
harmonious squares. Buildings were constructed of grey- and rose-coloured granite.
The Hermitage Palace and the Winter Palace, the homes of the tsars, were equal to
any in Europe.
When World War I began in 1914 the German-sounding name, St.Petersburg,
was changed to Petrograd. After the October Revolution the city was renamed after
Lenin – Leningrad.
During the Great Patriotic War (World War II) the city suffered a great deal.
The German armies laid siege to it in 1941 and for the next year and a half it was cut
off from the rest of the country. No food could be brought in and people died of
starvation. Daily shelling and air raids destroyed parts of the city. Thousands of
people were killed. Rebuilding of the city took years.
Now St.Petersburg is an important industrial and educational centre.
St.Petersburg is a wonderful city indeed: at every turn there is something to catch
your eye. The Winter Palace, the Hermitage, the Russian Museum, St. Isaac’s
Cathedral, the Peter-and-Paul Fortress, the Admiralty building attract the attention of
thousands of tourists from every corner of the world. Petersburg’s many museums
house some of the world’s most famous art collections The Hermitage, for example,
contains the richest collection of pictures of the world.
St.Petersburg is famous for its beautiful white nights. Great Federico Fellini,
who once visited St.Petersburg said, `I'm happy that I was born in Italy and worked in
Rome, but, probably, I would be twice as happy if fate would let me have a nook in
Russia, in St.Petersburg. I fell in love with this city. Somehow, I understand it. ` If
you have a chance to visit this great city you'll fall in love with it, too.
3.3. Pronunciation.
3.3.1. Read the names minding the pronunciation. Try to guess their meaning.
St.Petersburg
Peter the Great
the Neva River
['s(eı)nt 'pi:təzbε:g]
['pi:tə ' ə 'greıt]
['neıvə'rıvə]
19
the Hermitage
the Winter Palace
Petrograd
St. Isaac’s Cathedral
the Admiralty
['h :mıtıd ]
[ ə'wıntə'pælıs]
['petrəugræ(α:)d]
[snt 'aızəks kə'θi:drəl]
['ædm(ə)r(ə)ltı]
3.4. Lexis.
3.4.1. Translate the words. Use the dictionary if necessary.
swampy
mouth
to drop dead
ruler
empire
rapidly
to lay out
bridge
to suffer
to lay siege
starvation
shelling
air raid
artistically
fate
equal
harmonious
to destroy
to attract
arm
to decorate
3.4.2. Match the phrases under A to those under B.
B. быть в два раза счастливее
влюбиться
иметь укромный уголок
поймать чей-либо взгляд
привлекать внимание
падать замертво
быть равным
A. to fall in love
to catch one's eye
to drop dead
to be equal to
to have a nook
to be twice as happy
to attract the attention of
3.4.3. Choose three phrases from 3.4.2. and make up the sentences of your
own with them.
3.5. Speaking. You are an English professor. You came back from Russia
a few days ago and were invited to make a report of Russia before English
students. Say everything you have found out about Russia.
20
Библиографический список
1. Ц в е т к о в а И. В. Английский язык для школьников и поступающих
в вузы / И. В. Ц в е т к о в а, И. А. К л е п а л ь ч е н к о, Н. А. М а л ь ц е в а.
М.: Глосса, 1996.
2. Daniel Jones English Pronouncing Dictionary / Jones Danial.
Cambridge University Press, 2006.
21
ПРИЛОЖЕНИЕ
ADDITIONAL MATERIALS
Section 1. It’s interesting to know!
1.1. Climate and Zones.
A. Read about the climate in Russia and say why the climate in Russia is so diverse.
B. Find the English equivalents to the following words in the text below.
широта
мягкая древесина
заметно
вечная мерзлота
лиственный
Russia's climate is markedly continental with cold winters and mild and warm
or even hot summers, depending on latitude. There are various types of climate on
the territory of the country. Country's vegetation reflects its different latitudinal
climatic regimes. The treeless tundra extends along the entire Arctic coast within the
Arctic Circle. The tundra's ground is solidly frozen most of the year. This zone is
bordered in the south on taiga which covers more than half of the country. The
northern part of taiga contains mainly softwood trees and rests largely on permafrost.
The taiga gives way southward to a zone of deciduous forests. In the centre there is
an area of mixed forests that covers much of European Russia. And Southern Russia
is covered with mixed forest-steppe that gives way to true steppe, which is the grasscovered and almost treeless.
1.2. Resources.
A. Read the text and find the facts which prove that Russia is one of the
richest countries in natural resources.
B. Translate the underlined words (use the dictionary if necessary).
Russia is among the world's richest countries in natural resources. It is the
biggest producer of coal, petroleum and natural gas, as well as iron, copper, ore,
zinc, lead, nickel, aluminum and tin. Russia's chemical industry is well-developed,
and the country's enormous forests are capable of supplying all the wood and paper
22
products. Mostly thermal plants using remainder is given to pasture and meadow.
The main products has always been grain – chiefly wheat, rye, barley, and oats –
along with such industrial crops as sunflower seeds, sugar beets, and flax.
Section 2. It’s interesting to know!
1) The Kremlin is now both a piece of living history and the ensemble of
masterpieces of Russian architecture. The first thing that meets the eye is the redbrick wall of the Kremlin reinforced by 20 towers, five of which are also gates. The
total length of the walls of Moscow Kremlin equals to 2,25 kilometers with a
thickness varying between 3,5 and 6,5 meters. The Kremlin's towers are unique in
appearance. Built in 1485 the Tainitsky Tower is the oldest. The highest of them is
the Trinity Tower which is 80 meters high. On the territory of the Kremlin you can
see old cathedrals, the Bell Tower of Ivan the Great, the Palace of Congresses, the
Tsar-Cannon and the Tsar-Bell, the biggest cannon and the bell in the world.
2) Moscow University is the oldest in Russia. It was founded more than 230
years ago by the great Russian scientist Mikhail Lomonosov. The university
produced a great number of brilliant scholars such as Zhukovsky, Stoletov,
Sechenov, Timiryasev, Pavlov and Vernadsky. Classics of Russian literature:
Lermontov, Griboyedov, Turgenev and Chekhov also studied at the University. The
list of such great names is endless.
There are 16 departments, 275 chairs, 360 laboratories, several research
institutes, a computer center, some observatories, a botanical garden and its branches
and three museums. There are about 2000 foreign students from more than one
hundred countries who end post-graduate courses at the University. The teaching
standards in Moscow University are very high and internationally recognized.
3) The biggest library in Russia is the Russian State Library (former Lenin
State Library) (1925-1992)). Its history begins in 1862 when it was founded as the
Rumyantsev Public Library. Every day more than 7000 people come to study in its
reading rooms, using materials from its collection of 40 million books and
periodicals. The Russian State Library is one of the largest in the world among such
world famous ones as the Library Congress in the USA, France's Bibliothèque
Nationale and the British Library.
23
Answer the following questions.
1) What does the Kremlin look like nowadays?
2) What are the total length and the thickness of its walls?
3) What is the highest tower of the Kremlin?
4) Who founded the Moscow University and when?
5) What well-known people studied there?
6) When was the biggest library in Russia founded?
7) How many books and periodicals are kept in the Russian State Library?
Section 3. It’s interesting to know!
There's no space above ground,
We feel hemmed in by walls.
The need for the Metro
Is clear to us all.
The buses are full,
And there aren't enough trams.
It's so crowded in Moscow!
The streets are all jammed
We are building our state,
In width, height and depth.
Read the text about Moscow Metro and make a list of 7 most important facts
about it.
THE UNDERGROUND PALACES OF MOSCOW’S METRO
The Moscow Metro is the most popular and, that is why, the most
overcrowded public transport facility of the city. The first line of the Moscow Metro
was opened in 1935, it included 13 stations. Currently, there are over 150 stations
(including transition stations) of the Moscow Metro. The Metro stations were
designed and embellished (украшенный) by prominent Russian architects, artists
and sculptors. Their great talent and decorative skills created a peculiar underground
network of great artistic value. The gamut (гамма) of original materials, which were used
24
to ornament the stations, is so wide that the Moscow Metro may be called a unique
Museum of Geology or even a peculiar Museum of Arts.
The Moscow Metro was part of the Moscow Reconstruction plan. The
growing Moscow population of almost four million required a subway system. The
Moscow's Metro is not the oldest one in the world; its stations welcomed their first
passengers in 1930 only. However, the architectural style and the fascinating design
of many Metro stations deserved the name of the "Underground Palace". Nearly all
stations are riveted with various natural stones having unique structure and beauty.
The natural stone materials used for the Moscow's Metro stations (about 3/4 of the
total area of walls and more than half of the area of floors) contribute to the
architectural expression and, moreover, make the stone decoration of the
underground palaces practically eternal.
The use of different natural-stone materials, including semi-precious stones
provides, for an individual appeal of most stations and makes the Moscow's Metro
one of the most interesting tourist routes. The stations of the Moscow's Metro are
often called a museum displaying the unique and the richest collection of decorative
materials, including stones. It's a peculiar stone library exhibiting the richness and
the beauty of natural materials, there is no another one like this in any of the world's
geological museums. The most ancient decorative material used to fascinate the
"Underground Palaces" of Moscow is a coarse-grained pink marble from the
southern shore of Baikal Lake. The age of marble is about 2 billion years, i.e. about
half of life of our planet.
Marble is used for decoration of about half the area of walls of Moscow
Metro. The white marble for Moscow's Metro was brought from the deposits of the
Ural Mountains, Altai, Middle Asia and the Caucasus, the black marble from the
Urals, Armenia and Georgia; the grey landscape marble from the Ural Mountains;
the velvet-pink marble from the regions of the Russian Far East; the yellowish,
green-grey and brown shades and layers of spotted marble-type limestone from the
Crimea are smoothly replaced by the bright shades of corals.
Quartzite is the most durable stone material used to decorate the "underground
palaces" of the Moscow's Metro. This material is made of the grains of quartz, which
is a rather firm and durable material. Thanks to the unique decorative character of
quartzite found in Kareliya (the only place, where this material of rich raspberry
shade is extracted) the underground hall of the station has peculiar solemn
25
architectural style. The semi-precious stones may be found and seen at the oldest
Metro stations of Moscow. These are pink rodonite and marble onyx.
"Mayakovskaya" Metro station is truly considered to be the main architectural
masterpiece of the Moscow's Metro. This is a station, which lays deep underground.
It belongs to the first, the oldest line of the Moscow's Metro. The station was opened
in 1938. The station mock-up (макет) was successfully displayed the same year at
the International exhibition in New-York. Marble of two types was used to decorate
the walls and columns of the station. Moreover, rodonite matches beautifully with
green-black diorite and the silvery steel columns.
The vaulting of the central hall of "Mayakovskaya" station has 33 mosaics
executed to cartoons by famous Russian artist Alexander Deineka. The theme of all
mosaics is called "One Day of Soviet Skies". The light character of structures
emphasized by the sparkling bends of stainless steel is shaded by red and pink shades
of rodonite, a fine semi-precious stone.
There are many other Metro stations, which always attract tourists and visitors
from all over the world. The bronze sculptures in the hall of the "Ploshchad
Revolyutsii" station show the way up, right to the City Centre, Red Square.
If you are going to go by Moscow Metro for the first time you should get
acquainted with the following so-called instructions:
The fee for one trip by Metro is fixed, i.e. it doesn't depend on the length of
your route. Don't forget to get a Metro token, when going somewhere by the Metro.
You may buy it in the Metro entrance halls. Then, deposit it into a slot of an
automatic entry gate and get in. If you have a season ticket, just show it to a ticketcollector when passing by. However, a new, more convenient method of payment is
already applied at nearly all Metro stations; it includes the use of plastic cards
instead of tokens. Plastic cards, as well as tokens, are on sale in the Metro entrance
halls. You may pay for a certain number of trips by Metro (5, 10 20, etc.) and this
number will be recorded on the card. The only thing you have to do is to insert the
plastic card into the slot of an entry gate, where the information is read, and get in.
Check with the Metro outline to map out the route before going anywhere by
Metro, it may only help you to avoid many train changes and find the shortest way
up to the place you need.
The stations of the Moscow Metro are open since 5:30 a.m. The last train
leaves its final route-point at 1:00 a.m., late at night, that's the time, when passengers
are not allowed to make transitions from one line to another.
26
Many Muscovites go to work and back home by Metro, that's why you should
be aware of the rush hours in the Moscow Metro on working days. Try to avoid
using Metro during peak hours in the morning, between 7.30 a.m. and 10.30 a.m.,
and in the evening, from 4.00 p.m. to 7:30 p.m. However, many stations are always
overcrowded. In most cases, these are the stations located close to railway and bus
terminals, biggest department stores and market places.
The main rule a person has to follow, when diving into the depth of the
Moscow Metro for the first time, says that no one is to be afraid of a crowd.
However, no one should trust the crowd completely and follow it thoughtlessly. If
you can't get into the Metro car, don't try to squeeze into it, but wait till next train
comes, you might get a better chance of finding a vacant place.
If you want to change from one line to another, use the Metro layout to choose
and plan the best and the shortest route. The task becomes easier, if a station has only
one transfer. As a rule, the Metro guiding boards indicate the lines and stations and
you may always find the needed one. The exit boards are also very simple and easyto read. They display a brief inscription and the names of nearby streets, department
stores or organizations.
In case a station has two or even more transfers, try to get calm and don't
follow the crowd, in this case you may miss your direction. Instead, try to find the
information board indicating the needed station. If it doesn't help, don't get scared
and try to ask other people for help. In most cases, the Muscovites are friendly
enough to show you the way out of the difficult situation. If not, continue to ask the
passers-by and the fifth one will definitely help you. Moreover, there are duty
personnel at every station; it's their job to help you.
Take care of your personal belongings. The crowd always attracts dishonest
people. Please, look after your bags, handbags, pockets, etc. Don't leave your
belongings in the Metro trains or in any other public transport.
You may always find the Metro entrance easily. Whatever it looks like, it is
indicated by big red letter "M" (illuminated in the evenings and late at night).
At present, the Moscow Metro cannot provide foreign guests with the
information written in English and a newcomer may get serious problems trying to
work a way through strange combinations of the Russian letters and words.
However, we'll try to cover all major aspects awaiting our foreign guests in the
capital of Russia. Remember the meaning of some inscriptions on information
boards and panels used in Metro:
27
нет входа
переход на кольцевую линию
выход в город
переход прекращается в 1 ч ночи
к поездам до станции
посадки нет
no entrance
transfer to circular line
exit to the street
transfer is closed at 1 a.m.
boarding platforms to stations
no boarding
Information boards on station walls show the line stations and transfers to
stations of other lines. There is a Metro layout in each train car. For convenience each
Metro line has its own color. However, you cannot always find the line of required
color on light-boards of the Metro stations, which may only indicate the names of
stations without displaying the colors of lines. As far as the line color makes the
whole job of finding the desired Metro route easier we provide you with the names of
lines in English transcription and the color of each line.
28
Учебное издание
ЛАВРИНЕНКО Ирина Юрьевна
МЕТОДИЧЕСКИЕ УКАЗАНИЯ
ПО ИЗУЧЕНИЮ АНГЛИЙСКОГО ЯЗЫКА
НА МАТЕРИАЛЕ ТЕМЫ «СТРАНОВЕДЕНИЕ»
Часть 1
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