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Л. А. ДОЛГИХ, В. П. РОДИОНОВА
МЕТОДИЧЕСКИЕ УКАЗАНИЯ
ПО РАЗВИТИЮ НАВЫКОВ УСТНОЙ РЕЧИ
(АНГЛИЙСКИЙ ЯЗЫК)
ДЛЯ СТУДЕНТОВ 1-го КУРСА
ТЕХНИЧЕСКИХ СПЕЦИАЛЬНОСТЕЙ
ОМСК 2004
1
Министерство путей сообщения Российской Федерации
Омский государственный университет путей сообщения
_________________
Л. А. Долгих, В. П. Родионова,
МЕТОДИЧЕСКИЕ УКАЗАНИЯ
ПО РАЗВИТИЮ НАВЫКОВ УСТНОЙ РЕЧИ
(АНГЛИЙСКИЙ ЯЗЫК)
ДЛЯ СТУДЕНТОВ 1-го КУРСА
ТЕХНИЧЕСКИХ СПЕЦИАЛЬНОСТЕЙ
Утверждено редакционно-издательским
советом университета
Омск 2004
2
УДК 4И англ. 07
ББК 81.432.1 я7
Д 64
Методические указания по развитию навыков устной речи (английский язык) для студентов 1-го курса технических специальностей
/ Л. А. Долгих, В. П. Родионова. Омский гос. ун-т путей сообщения. Омск,
2004. 36 c.
Методические указания содержат оригинальные тексты из англоязычной периодики, а также сопутствующие лексико-грамматические упражнения, которые способствуют формированию у студентов навыков устной речи,
письма и перевода технических текстов с целью извлечения нужной информации.
Предназначены для аудиторной и внеаудиторной самостоятельной работы студентов 1-го курса технических специальностей.
Библиогр.: 7 назв.
Рецензенты: доктор физ.-мат. наук, профессор И. И. Гончар;
канд. пед. наук, доцент Л. Г. Мосяйкина.
________________________
© Омский гос. университет
путей сообщения, 2004
3
ОГЛАВЛЕНИЕ
Введение ………………………………………………………………..
1. Unit 1. Our University ………………………………………...
2. Unit 2. Higher Education in the UK …………………………..
3. Unit 3. Education: University …………………………………
4. Unit 4. Higher Education in the USA …………………………
5. Дополнительные материалы для подготовки дискуссии,
доклада, сообщения …………………………………………………...
Библиографический список …………………………………………..
4
5
6
18
21
24
27
34
ВВЕДЕНИЕ
Данные методические указания соответствуют программе курса, а материал, изложенный в них, отвечает современным достижениям культуры.
Цель методических указаний – развитие навыков устной речи на английском языке у студентов 1-го курса технических специальностей по теме
«Высшее образование».
Данные указания готовят студентов к монологическому высказыванию
(сообщение, доклад), а также к участию в беседе или дискуссии.
Отбор текстов производился исходя из их информативной ценности и в
соответствии с интересами студентов. В данных указаниях уделено внимание
расширению лексического запаса студентов по теме «Высшее образование».
В связи с этим к каждому тексту прилагается список новых слов, словосочетаний, а так же их синонимов, которые активизируются далее в различных
упражнениях, имеющих коммуникативно-речевую направленность.
Занятия уроков 1, 2 посвящены разговорной теме «Университет» и
«Высшее образование» в России, Великобритании, США. В конце методических указаний приводятся дополнительные тексты, содержащие познавательные факты о ведущих университетах США и Великобритании.
Дополнительные тексты, содержащие познавательные факты о ведущих университетах Великобритании и США.
5
1. UNIT 1. OUR UNIVERSITY
1.1. Прочитайте интернациональные слова по транскрипции, переведите их:
a) acádemy – académic [
índustry – industrial [
ecónomy– económic [
proféssor – professional [
b) institute – institution [
instruction [
information [
automation [
communication [
cooperation [
examination (exam) [
c) special – specialist [
organize – reorganize [
d) chemistry [
mechanics [
telemechanics [
technical [
technology* [
architecture [
lecture [
e) physics [
mathematics (maths) [
f) laboratory (lab) [
university [
faculty [
g) finance [
humanities [
total [
locomotive [
locate [
material [
international [
general [
–
–
–
–
–
–
6
h) status [
test [
method [
system [
result [
centre [
progress [
engineer [
training [
mónument [
compactly [
separate [
computer [
public [
*technology – 1) техника; 2) технология
science and technology – наука и техника
Tomsk Institute of Technology – Томский технологический институт
1.2. Запомните слова и словосочетания.
to consider – считать; рассматривать
training – подготовка; обучение
to train – обучать; сравните a train – поезд
instruction – обучение
importance – значение, важность
important – важный
higher [
] school – высшая школа
institution – учебное заведение
one of – один из
to set up – основывать, открывать
major [
] – главный; крупный
junction [
] – железнодорожный узел
´subject [
] – предмет
Humanities – гуманитарные науки
at present – в настоящее время
the number of – число, количество
a number of – ряд, несколько
full-time – дневной (факультет)
correspondence [
] – заочный
as well as – а также
(railway)car – железнодорожный вагон
7
power supply [
] – энергоснабжение
facilities (pl. от facility) [
] – оборудование, не путайте facility ≠ faculty
field – здесь отрасль, область (науки, экономики)
graduate (n) [
] – выпускник
to graduate from [
] – заканчивать вуз
post-graduate studies – аспирантура
doctorate studies – докторантура
thesis [
] (pl. theses [
] – здесь диссертация
to last – длиться, продолжаться
to divide [
] – делить
term [
] (semester – амер.) – семестр
twice a year (week) … – дважды в год (неделю)
information science [
] – информатика
foreign [
] language – иностранный язык. Сравните: foreign
country – зарубежная страна
foundation – основа, фундамент
to found – основывать
drawing [
] – здесь черчение
knowledge [
] – знание
by means of – посредством, с помощью
means [
] – средства (транспорта)
per cent (percent) [
] – процент
scientist [
] – ученый
science [
] – наука
workshop – мастерская, цех
′hostel – общежитие
to be located = to be situated – располагаться, находиться
close [
] – тесный, близкий, близко
to close [
] – закрывать
refresher course [
] – курсы усовершенствования
highly qualified [
] engineers (teachers) – высококвалифицированные инженеры (преподаватели)
to be of great (special) importance – иметь большое (особое) значение;
to take exams – сдавать экзамены
general subjects – общеобразовательные предметы
specialized subjects [
] – специальные предметы
student’s progress – успехи, достижения студента
training facilities – учебно-материальная база
well-equipped [
] labs – хорошо оборудованные лаборатории
Professional Development Institute – институт повышения квалификации
computer (nuclear) engineering – компьютерная (ядерная) техника
8
engineering data (subjects) – технические данные (предметы)
Heat-and-Power Engineering – теплоэнергетика.
‘Еngineering’ [
] – 1) (п) техника, машиностроение, инженерное дело, конструирование, строительное дело; 2) (adj) технический,
машиностроительный
1.3. Сравните слова и запомните их.
British English
fáculty
railway
term [
]
hóstel
holiday
dining-room
first-year student
second-year student
transport
center of the city
American English
department
railroad
semester
dormitory (dorm) [
vacation
canteen [
]
freshman
sophomore [
transportátion
downtown
]
]
1.4. К словам первого ряда подберите синонимы из второго.
faculty
general
training
term
today
holiday
to set up
to be located
higher school
important
engineering
many
first-year student
major
thesis
prominent
vacation
department
main
semester
significant
to be situated
technology
instruction
basic
freshman
university
dissertation
at present
famous
to found
a lot of
9
1.5. Произнесите вслух за преподавателем следующие слова.
engineer [
engineering [
university [
Siberia [
Siberian [
technology [
mechanics [
mathematics [
physics [
laboratory [
Russian [
progress [
]
]
]
]
]
]
]
]
]
]
]
]
academy [
academic [
knowledge [
qualified [
special [
specialist [
specialized [
locomotive [
international [
architecture [
Vienna [
electrotechnica [
]
]
]
]
]
]
]
]
]
]
]
]
1.6. Прочитайте правильно даты и переведите словосочетания с числительными.
1930
1961
1995
1914
1916
from 1914 to 1916
(1914-1916)
5 or 6 years
6,000 (thousand) people
2,000 (thousand) specialists
two terms (weeks, months)
at five full-time faculties
ten months
first-year students
second-year students
in the first two years
in the third year
four figures
for many years
1.7. Переведите следующие предложения, правильно подобрав перевод
предлога for и текст.
For – 1) для; 2) за; 3) из-за, по причине; 4) в течение; 5) в; 6) на.
1. He will do it for her.
2. We are for peace.
3. We sent for a doctor.
4. This writer is famous for his books.
5. We worked for an hour.
6. I saw him for the first time.
10
7. This plan is for years.
OMSK STATE RAILWAY UNIVERSITY
Railways are considered to be the backbone1 of the country’s economy,
that’s why2 training of highly qualified engineers for railways is a problem of special importance.
Omsk State Railway University (OSRU) is one of the oldest higher schools
in the East of the country. It originated from Tomsk Institute of Technology and
was set up as a separate institution in 1930. In 1961 it was transferred to Omsk – a
major railway junction of the Trans-Siberian Railway. In 1995 our Railway Institute was reorganized into the Railway Academy and two years later it acquired the
university status.
At present the total number of students at the University is more than 6,000.
They study at five full-time faculties (5 years) and the Correspondence Faculty
(6 years). They will become engineers specializing in Locomotives; Railway Cars;
Electric Transport; Power Supply for Railways; Automation, Telemechanics and
Communication Facilities of Railway Transport; Heat-and-Power (Thermal) Engineering; Information System and a number of others.
Today it pays much more attention to the Humanities. Besides, the University trains specialists in Economy, Finance, Management, Marketing and Public Relations.
Every years over 2,000 specialists of railway transport take refresher course
at the Professional Development Institute. Our University has Post-graduate and
Doctorate studies.
The academic year begins in September and lasts ten months. It is divided
into two terms and at the end of each term students take exams. Twice years they
have vacations – two weeks in winter and two months in summer.
The first- and second- year students study general subjects such as Mathematics, Physics, Chemistry, Mechanics, Strength of Materials as well as Drawing,
Information Science, Foreign Language and a number of others. The subjects studied in the first two years are very important for future engineers. These years are
good foundation for professional knowledge. In the third year students begin
studying specialized subjects.
The methods of instruction at the University are lectures, laboratory and
course works, seminars and practical lessons. The student’s progress is evaluated
by means of tests, term works and exams in each course (за каждый курс).
The University is staffed by highly qualified teachers. Among the leading
teachers there are full members and corresponding members of International and
Russian Technical Academies, Transport Academics, the Electrotechnical Academy and others. 67 per cent of the University teachers have academic degrees.
11
Among the University graduates there are Deputy Ministers of Railways,
heads of railway divisions, prominent scientists and directors of industrial enterprises.
The University possesses good training facilities. There are a lot of wellequipped labs, lecture-halls, workshops and computer classes. There is a very good
technical library and a computer centre. Four academic buildings, five hostels, a
canteen, a polyclinic and a sports complex are compactly located on the campus in
the centre of Omsk.
The University maintains close contacts with the Technical Universities of
Vienna and Dresden. As a result the Information Centre of International Cooperation (Infotheque) 3 has been established at our University.
___________________
1
…are considered to be the backbone – … являются (считаются) основой.
that’s why – вот почему.
3
Infotheque [
] – инфотека.
2
Переведите: … is considered to be a monument of architecture.
Дополнительный словарь к тексту.
to originate [
] from – происходить, возникать
to transfér – переводить, перемещать
later (late) – позже
besides [
] – кроме того; кроме
Strength of Materials – сопротивление материалов
course work [
] – курсовая работа
to evaluate [
] – оценивать
to staff – укомплектовывать (штампы)
leading teacher – ведущий преподаватель
full member – действительный член
corresponding member – член-корреспондент
degree [
] – здесь ученая степень
Deputy Mínister – заместитель министра
Railway Divísion – отделение железной дороги
prominent – видный, известный
enterprise [
] – (промышленное) предприятие
to posséss [
] – обладать, владеть
campus [
] – амер. территория университета
to maintáin [
] – поддерживать
recently [
] – недавно
to establish – основывать, создавать
12
to acquire – приобретать
1.8. Подберите к русским словосочетаниям английские эквиваленты.
1) to take exams
2) total number
3) training facilities
4) course work
5) higher school
6) close contacts
7) railway junation
8) refresher course
9) problem of special importance
10) information science
11) to pay attention
a) курсовая работа
b) общее число
c) высшая школа
d) сдавать экзамены
e) учебно-материальная база
f) проблема особой важности
q) железнодорожный узел
h) тесные контакты
i) курсы усовершенствования
j) информатика
k) уделять внимание
1.9. Прослушайте словосочетания и переведите их.
At present; twice a year; full-time faculties; the methods of instruction; by
means of tests; good training facilities; the number of students; the student’s progress; well-equipped labs; close contacts; a number of problems; post-graduate
studies; management and marketing; the first- and second-year students; general
subjects; country’s economy; the training of highly qualified engineers for railways; a problem of special importance; a major railway junction.
1.10. Переведите слова и словосочетания на английский язык.
Высококвалифицированные инженеры; железнодорожный узел; в
настоящее время; иметь большое значение; общеобразовательные предметы;
методы обучения; экономика страны; энергоснабжение; гуманитарные науки;
иностранный язык; ученая степень; тесные контакты; информатика; находиться; связь; факультет дневного обучения.
1.11. Прочитайте предложения и переведите выделенные слова и словосочетания, не пользуясь словарем.
1) Omsk is a major railway junction of the Trans-Siberian Railway.
2) At present the total number of students at the University is about 6,000.
3) Our students study at five full-time faculties.
4) Twice a year students have vacations.
13
5) The first- and second-year students study general subjects.
6) The University possesses good training facilities.
7) There are many well-equipped labs, workshops and computer classes at
the University.
8) Our University maintains close contacts with the Technical Universities
of Vienna and Dresden.
1.12. Вставьте, где это необходимо, предлоги в следующие словосочетания.
A problem (…) special importance; one (…) the oldest higher schools in the
East (…) the country; the University pays much more attention (…) the Humanities; the total number (…) students; the academic year lasts (…) ten months; it is
divided (…) two terms; at the end (…) each term; the student’s progress is evaluated (…) means of tests; a polyclinic is located (…) the campus; twice (…) a year.
1.13. Найдите окончание для каждого предложения, выбрав правильный вариант из предложенных.
1) Our University is one of the oldest higher schools … .
a) in Russia
b) in the East of the country
2) The first- and second-year students study … .
a) specialized subjects
b) general subjects
3) The University hostels are located … .
a) on the outskirts (окраина)
b) close to the University buildings
of the city
1.14. Для каждого предложения из колонки А найдите окончание в колонке В.
Column A
Column B
1) Our University is …
a) engineers specializing in Lo2) The total number of students… comotives; Railway Cars; Electric
3) There are five …
Transport; Information Systems and
4) Our students will become …
others.
5) Our University has …
b) Post-graduate and Doctorate
6) In the third year …
studies.
7) The methods of instruction at
c) students begin to study specialthe University …
ized subjects.
8) The University possesses …
d) good training facilities.
e) is about 6,000.
14
f) are lectures, laboratory and course
works, seminars and practical lessons.
g) one of the oldest higher schools
in the East of the country.
h) full-time faculties and the Correspondence Faculty.
1.15. Прочитайте ещё раз текст. Расположите следующие предложения
в хронологическом порядке, поставив цифры 1–7 в соответствующих квадратах.
A. □ – Besides, the University trains specialists in the field of Economy,
Finance, Management ad Marketing.
B. □ – At present the total number of students at the University is
about 6,000.
C. □ – Our University originated from Tomsk Institute of Technology and
was set up as a separate institution in 1930.
D. □ – The University maintains close contacts with the Technical Universities of Vienna and Dresden.
E. □ – The student’s progress is evaluated by means of tests, term works
and exams in each course.
□ – The first- and second-year students study general subjects.
G. □ – The University is staffed by highly qualified teachers.
F.
1.16. Замените в предложениях выражения, данные в скобках на русском языке, английскими.
at present; in the field of; well-equipped; one of the oldest; is divided into;
are compactly located; post-graduate studies; the Correspondence faculty; a major
railway junction.
1) Omsk State Railway University is (один из старейших) higher schools in
the East of the country.
2) In 1961 our University was transferred to Omsk – (крупный
железнодорожный узел) of the Trans-Siberian Railway.
3) (В настоящее время) the total number of students is about 6,000.
4) The students study at five full-time faculties and (заочном факультете).
15
5) The University trains specialists (в области) Economy, Finance, Management and Public Relations.
6) Our University has (аспирантуру).
7) The academic year (делится на) two terms.
8) There are many (хорошо оборудованных) labs, lecture halls and computer classes.
9) The academic buildings, hostels, a canteen and a sports complex (компактно расположены) on the campus.
1.17. Закончите
из текста.
следующие предложения, используя информацию
1) In 1961 our University was transferred to Omsk. Omsk is … .
2) In 1997 the Railway Academy aquired … .
3) Every year over 2,000 railway specialists take Refresher course … .
4) At the end of each term … .
5) The first two years of study are good foundation … .
6) Among the University graduates there are … .
7) The academic buildings, hostels and a canteen are compactly … .
1.18. Расставьте правильно слова.
1) was set up/ our University/ in 1930/ as a separate institution.
2) the total number/ at the University/ of students/ at present/ 6,000/ is about.
3) full-time faculties/ study/ at five/ the students.
4) In the field/ the University/ specialists/ trains/ of Economy, Management,
Finance and Public Relations.
5) in September/ begins/ the academic year/ ten months/ and lasts.
6) students/ vacations/ have/ a year/ twice/ in winter/ in summer/ and.
7) studied in/ the subjects/ the first two years/ very important/ are/ for engineers/ future.
8) lectures/ the methods/ practical lessons/ of instruction/ are/ laboratory/
course works/ and/ at the University.
9) technical/ a very good/ a computer/ library/ centre/ and/ there is.
1.19. Прочитайте предложения, выбрав в скобках правильный вариант слова.
1) In 1995 our Railway Institute was (organized, reorganized) into the Railway Academy.
2) Today our University (pays, paid) much more attention to the Humanities.
16
3) The subjects studied in the first two years are very (important, importance) for future engineers.
4) In the third year students begin studying (specializing, specialized)
subjects.
5) The student’s progress (is evaluated, evaluated) by means of tests, term
works and exams in each course.
6) 67 per cent of the University teachers have (academy, academic) degrees.
7) Among the University graduates (these is, there are) Deputy Ministers of
Railway Transport, heads of railway divisions and prominent (scientists, sciences).
8) The University maintains (close, closely) contacts with the Technical
Universities of Vienna and Dresden.
Do you know that …
Our University is famous for its magnificent (великолепный) building
situated in the centre of the city. It was built before the October Revolution (1914 – 1916) by war prisoners.
Above the entrance (вход) of the main building we can see the four figures
of beautiful women symbolizing: Track (Путь), Administration, Motion (Движение), Traction (Тяга).
For many years the old building housed Omsk Railway Administration
(Управление). Today the University has been reconstructed. It is considered to be
a monument of architecture.
1.20. Найдите в тексте Our University ответы на следующие вопросы.
1) When was our University set up?
2) What is the number of students there?
3) How many faculties are there at the University?
4) What specialties will our students become engineers in?
5) What other specialties does the University train?
6) Can railway specialists take Refresher course at the University?
7) Are there post-graduate studies?
8) Why are the subjects studied in the first two years important for future
engineers?
9) When does specialization usually begin?
10) What are the methods of instruction at our University?
11) What means is the student’s progress evaluated by?
12)Does the University possess good training facilities?
13) Are the living conditions of students well enough?
14) What can you say about the international contacts of the University?
17
1.21. Расскажите о нашем университете, используя задание п. 1.20 в
качестве плана.
2. UNIT 2. HIGHER EDUCATION IN THE U. K.
2.1. По названию текста, приведенного в задании 2.2, подумайте, о чем
в нем пойдет речь.
2.2. Прочитайте текст. Были ли ваши предположения правильными?
HIGHER EDUCATION IN THE U. K.
There are more than 60 universities in the U.K. The leading universities are
Cambridge, Oxford and London. English universities differ from each other in
traditions, general organization, internal government, etc. British universities
are comparatively small, the approximate number is about 7-8 thousand students.
Most universities have under 3000 students, some even less than 1500 ones.
London and Oxford universities are international, because people from many
parts of the world come to study at one of their colleges. A number of wellknown
scientists and writers, among them Newton, Darvin, Byron were educated in Cambridge.
A university consists of a number of departments: arts, law, music, economy, education, medicine, engineering, etc.
After three years of study a student may proceed to a Bachelor's degree, and
later to the degrees of Master and Doctor. Besides universities there are at present
in Britain 300 technical colleges, providing part-time and full-time education.
The organization system of Oxford and Cambridge differs from that of all
other universities and colleges. The teachers are usually called Dons. Part of the
teaching is by means of lectures organized by the university. Teaching is also carried out by tutorial system. This is the system of individual tuitio organized by
the colleges. Each student goes to his tutor's room once a week to read and discuss
an essay which the student has prepared.
Some students get scholarship but the number of these students is comparatively small. There are many societies and clubs at Cambridge and Oxford.
The most celebrating at Cambridge is the Debating Society at which students discuss political and other questions with famous politicians and writers. Sporting activities are also numerous.
The work and games, the traditions and customs, the jokes and debates –
all are parts of students' life there.
It should be mentioned that not many children from the working-class families are able to receive the higher education as the fees are very high (more than
18
L1 000 a year). Besides that special fees are taken for books, for laboratory works,
exams and so on.
2.3. Ознакомьтесь с новыми словами и словосочетаниями, запомните их.
Cambridge [
], internal [
] – внутренний
a Bachelor [
] – бакалавр
a Bachelor’s degree [
] – степень бакалавра
a Master’s degree [
] – степень магистра
a Doctor’s degree [
] – степень доктора
part time / full [
] time education – заочное/очное обучение
a Don – преподаватель в Оксфорде
a tutorial system [
] – система прикрепления студентов к отдельным консультантам (в университетах)
a tutor – руководитель группы студентов (в англ. университете)
a scholarship [
] – стипендия
comparatively [
] – сравнительно
society [
] – общество, сообщество, клуб
The Debating Society [
] – дискуссионный клуб
political [
] – политический
politician [
] – политик
activity [
] – деятельность
numerous [
] – многочисленный
approximate [
] – приблизительный
special [
] fees [
] – особая, дополнительная плата за;
it should be mentioned [
] – необходимо отметить
proceed [
] – получить более высокую ученую степень
2.4. Вставьте пропущенные слова в предложения.
1) There are more than … universities in the U.K.
2) English universities … from each other in traditions, general organization, … etc.
3) London and Oxford universities are …, because people from many parts
of the world come to study at one of their colleges.
4) A number of well-known scientists and writers, among them … were educated in Cambridge.
5) A university consists of a number of … art, law, music, economy, education, medicine, engineering, etc.
6) After three years of study a student may proceed to a … degree, and later
to the degrees of Master and Doctor.
19
7) The organization system of … and … differs from that of all other universities and colleges.
8) Some students get … but the number of these students is comparatively
small.
9) There are many … and … at Cambridge and Oxford.
2.5. Подберите английские эквиваленты к русским словам и словосочетаниям.
1) art department
2) law department
3) engineering department
4) proceed to a Bachelor’s degree
5) provide
6) part-time education
7) full-time education
8) by means of lectures
9) are called
10) tutorial system
11) the most celebrating
12) sporting activities
13) internal government
14) well-known
15) international
16) the approximate number
17) teaching is carried out by
18) it should be mentioned
19) special fees
20) laboratory works
2.6. Переведите на
и слова.
a) очное (дневное) обучение
b) занятия спортом
c) система индивидуальных занятий
d) называются
e) посредством (с помощью) лекций
f) технический факультет
f) факультет гуманитарных наук
g) юридический факультет
h) наиболее популярный
i) вечернее (заочное) обучение
j) получить степень бакалавра
k) представлять, обеспечивать
l) лабораторные работы
m) необходимо отметить
n) приблизительное число
o) известный
p) особая плата
q) внутреннее управление
r) обучение проводится с …
s) международный
английский язык следующие словосочетания
Ведущие университеты, отличаются от других, общая организация,
внутреннеe управление, сравнительно, приблизительное число, международный, известные ученые и писатели, обучались, состоит из нескольких факультетов, можно получить степень бакалавра, магистра, доктора, предоставляющее очное и заочное обучение, отличается от других, часть обучения
проводится с помощью лекций, выполняется посредством индивидуальных
занятий, получать стипендию, дискуссионный клуб, необходимо отметить,
20
возможность получить высшее образование, высокая плата за обучение – более тысячи фунтов стерлингов, особая (дополнительная) плата взимается за … .
2.7. Найдите в тексте задания 2.2 ответы на следующие вопросы.
1) How many universities are there in the U.K.?
2) What are the leading universities?
3) In what do British universities differ from each other?
4) How many students do the most universities have?
5) Why are London and Oxford universities international?
6) What famous people were educated in Cambridge?
7) When do students proceed to a degree of Bachelor?
8) Does the organization system of Oxford and Cambridge differ from that
of all other universities and colleges?
9) Some students get scholarship, don’t they?
10) Where do students discuss political and other questions with famous politicians and writers?
11) What are the departments a British university consists of?
12) Would you like to study at London or Oxford university?
13) What department would you like to choose if you had a chance to enter a
British university?
14) Is it important for you to study at university? Why?
2.8. Представьте, что часть студентов вашей группы учились в университете Оксфорда. Расспросите их об университете, о факультетах, курсе обучения (системе обучения), об истории и о международной популярности
университета, количестве студентов, традициях, свободном времени
студентов и т. д.
2.9. Представьте, что Вы – студент одного из ведущих университетов
Великобритании. Подготовьте для конференции сообщение о системе высшего образования в Великобритании. Используйте материалы данных методических указаний и другие источники.
3. UNIT 3. EDUCATION: UNIVERSITY
3.1. Прочитайте текст, обращая внимание на употребление нескольких
синонимов того или иного выражения. Запишите эти синонимы в свой словарь, запомните и используйте их в своей речи.
21
EDUCATION: UNIVERSITY
А. Subjects.
You can normally do/study these subjects at university but not always
at school:
medicine
law
philosophy
engineering
psychology
sociology
architecture
politics
business studies
agriculture
history of art
Note: The underlined letters in some of the words above show the syllable
with the main stress. Also note that the first syllable of psychology is pronounced/sat/like ‘my’.
B. Studying at (a British) university.
If you want to go to (=enter fml) university, you must first pass examinations
that most students take at the age of eighteen (called ‘A’ levels). Most students
take three ‘A’ levels (three examinations in three different subjects) and they must
do well o order to get/obtain a place at university because the places are limited. At
the moment, approximately 30% of young adults go to university in Britain.
If you get a place at university, the tuition (=the teaching) is free, and some
students also get (= receive) a grant (=money to play for living expenses, e.g. food
and accommodation) as well. Students at university are called undergraduates
while they are studying for their first degree.
Most university courses’ last (=go on for/continue for) three years, some
courses last four years, and one or two course, e.g. medicine, may be even longer.
During this period students can say that they are doing/studying history, or doing/studying for a degree in history, for example. When they finish the course and
pass their examinations, they receive a degree (the qualification when you complete a university course successfully). This can be a BA (=Bachelor of Science),
e.g. I have a friend who has a BA in history, and another who has a BSc in chemistry.
C. Postgraduate courses.
When you complete your first degree, you are a graduate. (In the US, students also use this word as a verb and say, they ‘graduated in history’ or ‘graduated
in chemistry’, for example.) Some students then go on to do a second course or degree (postgraduate course/postgraduate degree). These students are then postgraduates. There are usually three possible degrees:
MA (Master of Arts) or MSc (Master of Science); usually one year
MPhil (Master of Philosophy); usually two years
PhD (Doctor of Philosophy); at least three years
When people study one subject in great detail (often to find new information), we say they are conducting/ doing/ carrying out research (U); e.g.
I’m doing some research into/on the languages of different African tribes.
D. School vs. university.
22
At school, you have teachers and lessons, at university, you have lecturers
and lectures. When a lecturer gives/does a lecture, the students listen and
take/make notes (=write down the important information), but do not usually say
much, except to ask occasional questions.
3.2. Прочитайте слова правильно.
medicine [
psychology [
business studies [
law [
]
history of art [
agriculture [
sociology [
philosophy [
architecture [
engineering [
politics [
]
]
]
]
]
]
]
]
]
]
3.3. Ответьте на вопросы к тексту под буквой А (см. задание 3.1). Используйте новые выражения.
1) What subjects do British students do/study at university?
2) What subjects do you do/study at the university?
3) What subjects do you like best of all?
4) What subjects are easy/difficult for you?
5) What subjects are you good at?
6) What other subjects would you like to do/study?
3.4. Расспросите друг друга, какие дисциплины вызывают особый интерес и почему. Используйте, например, такие вопросы:
1) What is the most interesting subject for you? Why?
2) Would you prefer to do/study a philosophy or psychology?
3) What other subjects would you like to study? (см. задание 3.2)
3.5. Ответьте на вопросы к тексту под буквами B, C, D (см.задание 3.1).
Используйте новые слова, словосочетания.
1) What must students do for to get/obtain a Рlace at university?
2) How many young adults do usually go to/enter university?
3) Is the tuition free?
23
4) Who reseives a grant?
5) How long does the tuition go on for/last/continue for?
6) How are students called at university?
7) Who is studying for his first degree?
8) What is the difference between a graduate and a postgraduate?
9) What degrees do postgraduates usually get?
10) When do students listen to the lecturer and take/make notes?
3.6. Подготовьтесь к дискуссии «Высшее образование в Великобритании и России». Используйте дополнительный материал. Обратите внимание
на следующие вопросы.
1) The number of the universities and the leading universities, number of
students.
2) The difference between universities (general organization, system of
teaching, staff of the lecturers, departments etc).
3) Receiving of the degrees.
4) Examinations, terms, scholarships.
5) Students’ clubs, societies.
6) Pros and Cons of Higher Education.
4. UNIT 4. HIGHER EDUCATION IN THE USA
4.1. Прочитайте текст.
HIGHER EDUCATION IN THE USA
There are about 3,000 colleges and universities, both private and public, in
the United States. Students have to pay to go to both private and State universities.
Private universities are generally smaller but very expensive, which means that the
tuition fees are extremely high. State colleges and universities are not that expensive, the tuition fees are usually lower, and if the students are State residents, they
pay much less.
Every young person who enters a higher educational institution can get financial assistance. If a student is offered a loan, he should repay it (with interest)
after he has left the college. Needy students are awarded grants which they do not
have to repay. Scholarships are given when a student is doing exceptionally well at
school.
American universities and colleges are usually built as a separate complex,
called "campus", with teaching blocks, libraries, dormitories, and many other facilities grouped together on one site, often on the outskirts of the city. Some universities are comprised of many campuses. The University of California, for example,
24
has 9 campuses, the biggest being Berkeley (founded in 1868), San Francisco
(1873), Los Angeles (1919), Santa Barbara (1944), Santa Cruz (1965).
All the universities are independent, offering their own choice of studies,
setting their own admission standards and deciding which students meet those
standards. The greater the prestige of the university, the higher the credits and
grades required.
The terms "college" and "university" are often used interchangeably, as "college" is used to refer to all undergraduate education; and the four-year undergraduate program, leading to a bachelor's degree, can be followed at either college or
university. Universities tend to larger than colleges and also have graduate schools
where students can receive post-graduate education. Advanced or graduate university degrees include law and medicine.
Most college and university undergraduate courses last for four years. During the first two years students usually follow general courses in the arts or sciences and then choose a major – the subject or area of studies in which they concentrate. The other subjects are called minors. Credits (with grades) are awarded for
the successful completion of each course. These credits are often transferable, so
students who have not done well in high school can choose a junior college (or
community college), which offers a two-year “transfer” program, preparing students for degree-granting institutions. Community colleges also offer two-years
courses of a vocational nature, leading to technical and semi-professional occupations, such as journalism.
There are no final examinations at colleges and universities, and students receive a degree if they have collected enough credits in a particular subject. The traditional degree which crowns the undergraduate course is that of a Bachelor of
Arts (B.A.) or a Bachelor of Science (B.S.). The lower level of graduate school is
for obtaining the Master’s Degree (M.A. or M.S.), and the upper level is for the
degree of Ph.D.
The Berkeley [
], San Francisco, Los Angeles, Santa Barbara
[
], Santa Cruz [
] campuses – Беркли, СанФранциско, Лос-Анджелес, Санта-Барбара, Санта-Крус – девять крупнейших
университетских городков Калифорнийского университета, расположенные в
одноименных городах.
4.2. Прочитайте и запомните новые слова. Запишите их с транскрипцией.
tuition fee – плата за обучение
loan – заем
interest – здесь процент (с суммы, взятой взаймы)
to repay – возмещать, возвращать
25
needy – нуждающийся
grant – субсидия, дотация
graduate school – аспирантура
the arts – гуманитарные науки
the science (s) – естественные науки
major – предмет специализации
transfer program – подготовительный курс
Bachelor of Arts (B.A.) – степень бакалавра гуманитарных наук
Bachelor of Science (B.S.) – степень бакалавра естественных наук
Master’s Degree (M.A. от M.S.) – степень магистра (гуманитарных или
естественных наук)
Ph. D. (Doctor of Philosophy) – степень доктора наук (доктора философии)
credit – балл, зачет
grade – отметка, оценка
junior college (community college) – или местные, двухгодичный
колледж
4.3. Прочитайте следующие высказывания. Верны ли они?
1) The system of university education in the USA is centralized.
2) There is no difference between private and state universities.
3) A university course usually lasts four years.
4) One can obtain a bachelor’s degree at any college or University.
5) There are special advanced University degrees.
6) Any University has only one campus.
7) There are no colleges which offer “transfer” programs.
8) M.A., M.S., and Ph. D. are research degrees.
4.4. Используя текст задания 4.1 и материалы дополнительных источников, подготовьте сообщение «Особенности системы высшего образования
в США». Обратите внимание на следующие вопросы.
1) Different types of colleges and Universities in the USA.
2) The structure of American universities.
3) A university education in its historical development.
4) Describe one of American Universities.
5) Comparing American, British and Russian University, pay attention to the
entrance standards, general organization, admission policies.
26
5. ДОПОЛНИТЕЛЬНЫЕ МАТЕРИАЛЫ ДЛЯ ПОДГОТОВКИ
ДИСКУССИИ, ДОКЛАДА, СООБЩЕНИЯ
5.1. Прочитайте текст.
DO YOU KNOW THAT …
– At Oxford University all the students wear long black gowns and students
caps – mortar – bourds. Without his or her gown no student is allowed to call on a
tutor, to have dinner in the college dining-hall, or to attend a lecture – where the
gowns are rolled up and used as cushions.
– At Cambridge a degree examination is called Tripos. In the past, when the
student went for his degree examination it took him some time to show his
knowledge of three subjects (Grammar, Logic and Rhetoric). So he was allowed to
bring a small stool or “tripos” to sit on, and to this day the degree examinations at
Cambridge are called “Tripos” examinations.
– The word university (latin – universitas) like the word college (latin – collegium) meant originally a society of people with common employment. It was later – that it came to be associated with scholarship.
– The academic year in England is divided into 3 terms, which usually run
from the beginning of October to the middle of December, from the middle of January to the end of March and from the middle of April to the end of June or beginning of July.
– Each term is crowned with activity and the vocations between the terms –
a month at Easter, and three or four months in summer – are mainly periods of private study.
– Terminal examinations are held at the end of the autumn, spring and summer terms.
– Final examinations are taken at the end of the course of studies. If a student fails in an examination he may be allowed to take the exam again. Only two
re-examinations are usually allowed.
5.2. Используйте материалы текста для подготовки дискуссии или доклада по теме «Образование».
IT’IS INTERESTING TO KNOW …
– The main universities in the USA are California U., Catholic U. of America, Cornell U., Harvard U., Johns Hopkins U., Columbia U., Stanford U., Chicago
U., Wisconsin U., Yale U. The best known of all is Harvard, (Massachusetts)
which was founded in 1636. The is much in common between Harvard and Yale
27
(Connecticut), and together they occupy a position in American university life rather like Oxbridge in England.
– Students are classified as freshmen1, sophomores2, juiors3 and seniors4.
– A peculiar feature of American college and university life is numerous
students’ unions, fraternities5 and sororities6. The Greek alphabet is generally used
in their names.
There is a place in the USA called Cambridge, (Massachusetts). Cambridge
is sometimes called the birthplace of American intellectual life. It has the nation’s
oldest University, Harvard U.
Cambridge is also home to MIT – the Massachusetts Institute of Technology.
– Harvard has an excellent reputation in many fields. MIT is a leader in science and technology. Students attending Harvard and MIT come from around the
world; Harvard alone has students from 90 countries.
The most prestigious universities and the oldest private universities like
Harvard, Yale, Princeton, Pennsylvania are called Ivy league (from Ivy climbing
over the brick walls of the old university, buildings).
The most famous professor teach at them. The quality of education is always
better, and an Ivy league University diploma gives much better career opportunities.
– Americans believe that the more schooling you have the more money you
will earn when you leave school.
– The academic year in all types of educational institutions is divided into
two terms, or semesters – fall and spring semesters Upon term completion university students have vocations.
– The cost of tuition at the Massachusetts Institute of Technology is almost
$ 35,000 a year, John Hopkins U. $ 33,000 a year, Gale – $ 33,000; Harvard –
$ 32,000.
– A well-paid job will fully recoup tuition costs within three or four years after graduation. Any company in any part of the world will welcome a Harvard
alumnus7.
______________________
1
freshman [
sophomore [
3
junior [
4
seniors [
5
fraternity [
6
sororities [
7
alumnus [
2
] – амер. первокурсник
] – амер. студент второго курса
] – амер. студент предпоследнего курса
] – амер. студент последнего курса
] – амер. студенческое землячество
] – амер. женское землячество
] – бывший питомец, бывший студент, выпускник
28
5.3. Используйте материалы текстов при подготовке к дискуссии или
докладу на тему «Высшее образование в России, Великобритании и США».
LET’S HAVE A CLOSER LOOK AT
CAMBRIDGE ANT ITS UNIVERSUTY
Foreign students from different countries enjoy their stay in Cambridge not
only because of its beautiful sights, but because they have a chance to meet many
English people of their own age.
Let's have a closer look at Cambridge and its university.
My name is Ann Berlins. I am a student at Moscow State Linguistic University.
Last winter I spent ten days in the university city of Cambridge. It is built on
a river called the Cam. Cambridge University, founded in 1209, is still one of the
two best places to study in England; Oxford is the other. Students work very hard
to obtain a place at "Oxbridge" – either at Oxford or at Cambridge. There is great
rivalry between these two ancient universities: each wants to be better than the other, but in reality both are equally good.
Today, Cambridge is famous not only for its university but also because it is
a very picturesque and ancient city. Many of its buildings are very old: some were
built about 700 years ago. Some of the older buildings are covered with beautiful
plants such as ivy. Many are surrounded by green lawns and multicolored flowerbeds. Although all the colleges belong to the same university, each has its own
character and style. In 1440 King Henry VI founded King's College, hoping that
this would make people remember him. It is still the most famous college in Cambridge because its chapel is one of the finest churches in Western Europe. There
are also many beautiful bridges across the Cam including the Mathematical Bridge
and the Bridge of Sighs.
In my view! Cambridge is a very pleasant city to live and study in. Since
there are so many colleges, a large number of the city's inhabitants are young students. In the day-time the students work in the many libraries or attend lectures,
while in evenings they go back to their college rooms or university lodgings.
Sport plays a large part in university life. As Cambridge is on the river Cam,
rowing seems to be the most popular sport. There are "boathouses" all along the
river bank and early in the mornings you'll see many students rowing, whatever the
weather. The best of them are preparing for the famous annual boat race against
their rivals from Oxford. This race attracts much attention: thousands of people
line the banks of the Thames in London to cheer both teams on, and the race is
broadcast on television in many different parts of the world.
When visiting Cambridge, one should certainly take the time to have a look
around the shops. There are many bookshops for students and tailors’ shops where
long traditional gowns are sold. At weekends shops are often crowded with tourists
29
looking for souvenirs such as mugs, T-shirts and scarves, all with college crests on
them. Students wear scarves of various colours in the winter when the weather is
cold – at least by English standards! They often complain of the wind and rain, as
most of them travel around by bicycle.
ancient [
] – древний
annual [
] – ежегодный
attract [
] – привлекать
bank [
] – берег реки
be crowded – здесь быть заполненным
boat house [
] – здесь лодочная станция
broadcast [
] – передавать по радио или телевидению;
chapel [
] – часовня
cheer [
] – подбадривать
found [
] – основывать
gown [
] – мантия
inhabitant [
] – житель
ivy [
] – плющ
lawn [
] – лужайка
line [
] – стоять вдоль, выстраиваться
obtain [
] – получать
picturesque [
] – живописный
race [
] – соревнование
rivalry [
] – соперничество
row [
] – грести
scarf [
] (scarves) – шарф
sigh [
] – вздох
surround [
] – окружать
tailor [
] – портной
whatever [
] – какая бы ни была
OXFORD
What one immediately notices about this, the home of one of the great
universities of the world, is its stunning heritage of historic buildings, the number of students about the place, and the co-existence of a bustling city with large
swathes of greenery along the Cherwell and Thames (or Isis) of Christ Church
Meadow. As with Cambridge, there is no campus as such in Oxford; the colleges
are set in cloistered seclusion behind high walls; most are open to visitors in
the afternoon. Most notable among the university buildings as such are the Sheldonian Theater, built in 1664 as a ceremonial assembly hall, and the Radcliffe
Camera, a great domed building, now a reading room for the Boolean Library,
30
which contains well over 5,5 million volumes. The Boolean is one of five ‘copyright’ libraries in the United Kingdom, entitled to receive a copy of every book published in the country. The view from the tower of St. Mary the Virgin, the university church, extends over the city center. Christ Churchill, founded as Cardinal College by Cardinal Wolsey in 1525, is the largest college, has the biggest quadrangle,
and its chapel (which predates the college) is England's smallest cathedral; the college picture gallery contains works by Durer and Michelangelo. Magdalen College
(pronounced ‘Mawdlin’) has its own deer park. All Souls College has a highly
schdarly reputation and admits! Only post-graduate 'students, while St. John's College is the wealthiest at all, and has luscious gardens. New College (founded 1379)
has a splendid chapel with a statue of Lazarus by Jacob Epstein. Also seek out Orieli, Mertoni, Queen's and Keblei colleges, the buildings of the latter now recognized as masterpieces of Victorian architecture. Of Oxford's museums, the outstanding attraction is the Ashmoleanii, a treasure-house of art and antiquities whose exhibits include a 9th-century brooch made for King Alfred. The city's history, both
town and gown, is illustrated in the Museum of Oxford, while a more gimmicky but
populist approach is provided by the Oxford Story, where you sit at moving desks on a
voyage through the city's past.
Sightseeing buses tour the center at frequent intervals; they can be joined at
the railway station and oilier points.
Start from Magdalen Bridge, pass Magdalen College and turn right into
Queen's Lane, which weaves past St Edmund's Hall (founded 1220) and New College (1379). Just before the Bridge of Sighs Oxford's University Museum is in
Parks Road, near Keble College (which span the street), take an alley on the right,
passing the Turf Tavern, an old pub with an appealing courtyard. Turn left
along Holywell Street and continue past the Sheldonian Theater, with its array
of sculpted heads of Roman emperors, and along Broad Street to the Martyrs'
Memorial, where three bishops were burnt for their Protestant beliefs in the
1550s. Diagonally opposite is the Ashmolean Museum. Double back along The
Broad and turn right down Turl Street to the Radcliffe Camera and Boolean
Library. Cross the High Street, taking Oriet Street, on its south side, to enter
Christ Church by the gate near the college's picture gallery (if closed, continue along
Merton Street to the start of the walk), crossing Tom Quad and leaving by the
turnstile at the south side of college to follow Broad Walk along Christ Church
Meadow. The University Botanic Garden is the oldest of its kind in the country.
WORLD FAMOUS
The most famous American higher educational institutions that were already
in operation during the early period came into being through the religious zeal and
philanthropy of their founders.
31
Higher education began in the United States long time ago, when the Puritan
leaders of the settlement called the Massachusetts Bay Colony founded in 1636 Harvard College (Massachusetts). Established by John Harvard, English clergyman,
this college was to turn into the most famous of the American Universities.
The College of William and Mary (Virginia, 1693) was the second institution of higher education founded in the Colonies. In 1701 Connecticut Puritans established Yale College (Connecticut).
All these Colonial colleges which were gradually turned into Universities
with classical education established a balance between r the Humanities and Science. Their aim was to train men for service in church and civil state.
By the 1770s several more colleges had been opened: University of Pennsylvania (Pennsylvania, 1740), Princeton University (New Jersey, 1746), Washington
and Lee University (Virginia, 1749), Columbia University (New York, 1754),
Brown University (Rhode Island, 1764), Rutgers College (New Jersey, 1766),
Dartmouth College (New Hampshire, 1769).
Though the colleges in the first half of the 19lh century were numerous and
widely scattered over the settled area, their enrollments were comparatively
small. Since 1870s the colleges have developed enormously. Their resources
have multiplied, the number of their students has increased by leaps and bounds,
the program of studies has broadened and deepened, the standards have been
raised, and the efficiency of the instruction has greatly increased. Rigidly prescribed courses of study have given way to elective courses.
In the course of time, when research centers and experiment stations were attached to the Universities, these institutions turned into the strongholds of science
and higher education. They developed a unique, typically American structure unlike any other existing University system in the world.
Notes and Commentary
Harvard University (Massachusetts, 1636), College of William and Mary (Virginia, 1693), Yale University (Connecticut, 1701), University of Pennsylvania
(Pennsylvania, 1740), Princeton University (New Jersey, 1746), Washington
and Lee University (Virginia, 1749), Columbia University (New York, 1754),
Brown University (Rhode Island, 1764), Rutgers College (New Jersey, 1766),
Dartmouth College (New Hampshire, 1769) – Гарвард, Колледж Ульяма и
Мэри, Йельский университет, университет Пенсильвании, Принстон, университет Вашингтона и Ли, Колумбийский университет, университет Брауна,
Рутгерский колледж, Дартмутский колледж (все перечисленные университеты – частные).
32
STUDUING IN AMERICA:
PROS AND CONS
Shortly after Mikhail Gorbachev opened the door on America, more than
5,000 Russian undergraduate, graduate and exchange students went to the United
States. Nearly alt of them got there through their connections, and only a few distinguished themselves academically.
A little later, when the era of so-called New Russians set in, a defining factor
in going (o a U.S. university was being flush with money — by Russian standards.
Today a higher education in the United Stales can cost up to several hundred thousand dollars, but this does little to discourage Russia's rich.
He Who Pays, Goes to the U.S.
According to Princeton University experts, at present there are 3,000 "selfsup-porting" undergraduates and graduates from Russia, and about 1,000 students
from other CIS countries in America.
The cost of tuition at the Massachusetts Institute of Technology, die most
prestigious and expensive training establishment in the United States today (with
an estimated 30 Russian students), is almost $35,000 a year.
Adding in the cost of housing, food, transport, and textbooks, the total can
be double that amount. As the course lasts for four to five years. Russians studying
here need to have a very sound financial base to be able to complete their studies.
Incidentally, the other so-called top ten universities are not far behind: John
Hopkins, $33,000 a year; Yale, $33,000; Harvard, $32,000; Georgetown, Washington, $32,000, etc.
All of these universities have Russian students, and experts believe that they
are the main target of local head-hunters.
The fact is that by paying so much money for a course of training, parents
secure not simply a promising career but also financial future for their children. A
well-paid job will fully recoup tuition costs within three to four years after graduation. Any company in any part of the world will welcome a Harvard alumnus.
Looking for a Job.
At first, Russian undergraduates at U.S. universities feel unhappy about what
they see as oversimplified curricula with some of die material already covered in
high school in Russia.
But the balance is soon redressed, and they have an opportunity to advance
academically without any limit, while those with a good head on their shoulders
can get a highly paid job.
The main attraction to a student from Russia is the prospect of a good job
abroad. No Russian company can pay a recent university graduate $60,000 to
$65,000 a year while in the United States and Europe this is standard practice.
Still, the majority of Russians graduating from even the most prestigious of American universities do not stay in the United Slates, but go home.
33
What is the outlook for them in Russia?
Surveys show that they mainly go to work for their parents’ companies or foreign
companies operating in Russia.
This, however, does not apply 10 alumni of the top American universities.
At the same time Russians whose parents arc not very rich enroll in American universities that do not guarantee a job even to U.S. citizens.
Say, tuition at Maryland Slate University, a half hour's drive from the U.S.
capital, is a mere $13,000 a year (the son of the president of Kyrgyzstan and
daughters of Azerbaijani, Modlovan and Ukrainian cabinet ministers went to this
university).
There are approximately 20 Russians at the university – mainly children of
Russian World Bank employees, as well as of provincial businessmen from Lipetsk, Saratov, Kaliningrad, and even Nakhodka.
Incidentally, these students are not particularly concerned by the fact that
they will have little chance of getting a decent, well-paid job with a degree from
Maryland University. All of them are going to return home to get, under their parents' protection, a cushy job in the sphere of international relations or business.
Exchange Programs Unproductive
Student exchange programs – a widespread practice in he late Gorbachev era
and early in the Yeltsin era – are virtually nonexistent today. Russia's higher
schools have no money for that, to say nothing about students themselves.
Moreover, there are very few of those wishing to do just one or two terms. Those
who do come have difficulty getting a foothold in the United States, especially in
the sphere of social sciences.
True, mere are various advance training programs funded by the U.S. government: the MacArthur, Hubert Humphrey, Muskie, Eleanor Roosevelt, and other
programs. Only individual Russian undergraduate/graduate students and teachers
get on such-programs. Bui these,1 people, by their own admission, simply hope to
make some money, not pursue any useful academic program.
It is certainly prestigious, and potentially beneficial, to get a degree in the
United States. Especially if one plans to live and work abroad (preferably in North
America, since there is some allergy to a U.S. diploma in Europe), But in Russia,
someone with a degree from an American university is unlikely to automatically
land a high-level job at Gazprom or LUKoiL Still, this is not impossible, especially
if their tuition in die Slates was paid for by people near the top in these companies.
Библиографический список
1. Н е в з о р о в а Г. Д. Учебник по английскому языку для неязыковых вузов / Г. Д. Н е в з о р о в а, Г. И. Н и к и т и ш и н а. – Новосибирск: «Союз», 2001.
2. П о л я к о в а Т. Ю. Английский язык для инженеров / Т. Ю. П ол я к о в а, Е. В. С и н я в с к а я. М.: Высшая школа, 1998.
34
3. Х а л и л о в а Л. А. США: История современность / Л. А. Х а л и л о в а.
М., Гольф, 1999.
4. English Vocabulary in Use. Preintermediate and intermediate. Student
Redman. Cambridge University Press, 1997.
5. Английский язык. Еженедельное приложение к газете «Первое сентября». 1995. № 5.
6. Moscow News. 2002. 5 – 12, February.
7. К л е м е н т ь е в а Т. Б. Книга для чтения / Т. Б. К л е м е н т ь е в а.
Обнинск: Титул, 1996.
35
Учебное издание
ДОЛГИХ Людмила Алексеевна,
РОДИОНОВА Валентина Павловна,
Методические указания
по развитию навыков устной речи
(английский язык)
для студентов 1-го курса
технических специальностей
______________
Редактор Т. С. Паршикова
Лицензия ИД № 01094 от 28.02.2000.
Подписано в печать .12.2004. Формат 60 × 801/16.
Бумага офсетная. Плоская печать. Усл. печ. л. 2,25. Уч.-изд. л. 2,4.
Тираж 120 экз. Заказ
.
Редакционно-издательский отдел ОмГУПСа
Типография ОмГУПСа
644046, г. Омск, пр. Маркса, 35
36
РЕЦЕНЗИЯ
на методические указания по английскому языку
для студентов 1-го курса
технических специальностей
по развитию навыков устной речи
ст. преподавателей ОмГУПС
РОДИОНОВОЙ В.П., ДОЛГИХ Л.А.
Методические указания по английскому языку «Высшее образование»
составлено из адаптированных и оригинальных текстов популярной английской литературы и периодической печати. Предназначено для студентов 1-го
курса ОмГУПС технических специальностей. Методические указания готовят студентов к монологическому высказыванию (сообщение, доклад), а также к участию в беседе и дискуссии.
Отбор текстов производился исходя из их информативной ценности и в
соответствии с интересами студентов 1-го курса. В данных указаниях уделено внимание расширению лексического запаса студентов по теме «Высшее
образование». В связи с этим к каждому тексту прилагается список новых
слов, словосочетаний, а так же их синонимов, которые активизируются далее
в различных упражнениях, имеющих коммуникативно-речевую направленность.
Пособие состоит из трёх частей:
1. Мой университет.
2. Высшее образование.
3. Дополнительные тексты, содержащие познавательные факты о ведущих университетах Великобритании и США.
Данные методические указания могут быть использованы для аудиторных занятий и для самостоятельной индивидуальной и групповой работы
студентов. Указания рекомендуются к изданию.
Заведующая кафедрой
иностранных языков СибГУФК,
к.п.н., доцент
Мосяйкина Л.Г.
37
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