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3637.ЭВМ и периферийные устройства Учебное пособие Сычев А. Н. 2016. 113 с

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2016
??? 681.3
??? 32.973
? 958
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?. ?. ???????, ????. ???.-???. ????, ?????? ??????? ??????????????
?????????? ? ????????????? ????????????? ?? ???
????? ?. ?.
?958 ??? ? ???????????? ?????????? : ????. ??????? / ?. ?. ?????. ?
????? : ???, ?????, 2016. ? 113 ?.
? ??????? ??????? ??????????????? ??? ??????????? ????? ??????????,
??? ? ??? ???????????? ??????????, ? ??? ????? ???????????? ?????????? ?
??????????? ???????????? ??? ????.
????????? ???????? ? ????????? ?????? ??????????? ????????????? ?
?????????????? ???????????? ?????????, ??????? ?? ?????????? ? ??????????? ?????? ??????????. ???????? ??????????, ???????? ?????????? ? ???????????????? ????????? ??????. ??????? ????????? ??????????, ????????
??? ??????????? ???????????? ????????? ? ??????????.
??? ????????? ?????, ??????????? ?? ??????????? Ф??????????? ? ?????????????? ???????╗.
Е ????? ?. ?., 2016
Е ??????????.
???, ?????, 2016
3
??????????
???????? ............................................................................................................ 4
1 ???????? ???????, ????????????? ? ????????? ??? ....................... 6
1.1 ???????? ???????????. ??????? ? ????????? ??? .......................... 6
1.2 ????????????? ??? .............................................................................. 9
1.3 ????????? ? ??????? ???????? ???.................................................. 15
1.4 ?????? ? ????????? ????????? ????? ?????????? ........................... 18
1.5 ????????? ????................................................................................... 26
1.6 ??????????? ??? ................................................................................. 32
1.7 ??????????? ???????????? ?????????? .............................................. 35
2 ???????????? ?????????? ...................................................................... 40
2.1 ?????????? ? ?????? ?????????? ....................................................... 40
2.2 ???????? ?????? ?????????? ............................................................. 40
2.3 ?????????? ?? ??????? ????????? ?????? ........................................ 45
2.4 ?????????? ?? ?????????? ?????? ...................................................... 49
2.5 ????????????? ?????????? .................................................................. 51
2.6 ????-?????????? .................................................................................. 52
3 ???????????? ??????????....................................................................... 57
3.1 ???????????? ?????????? ? ?? ????????? ....................................... 57
3.2 ?????????? ??????????. ???? ?????????? ??? ? ?????? ............... 62
3.3 ??????????? ????????? (????????, ?????) ...................................... 64
3.4 ??????? ??????????? (?????) ............................................................ 66
3.5 ???????? ???? ???????????? ????????? ......................................... 70
3.6 ??????????????? .................................................................................. 76
3.7 ???? ???????.......................................................................................... 83
4 ??????????? ???????????? ??? ???? .................................................. 94
4.1 ??????? ................................................................................................... 94
4.2 ?????????? ????????? ???????????? ?????????? ............................ 98
4.3 ???????????????? 3D-???????......................................................... 103
?????????? ................................................................................................... 109
??????????.................................................................................................... 110
????????? ...................................................................................................... 112
4
????????
??????? ?????? ?????????? ???????? ??????????? ?????????, ???????
?????? ? ???????? ??????? ???????? ??? ??????????? ?????. ??? ???? ????????????? ?????? ??????????? ????? ?????????? ??????? ??????? ?? ?? ????????? ? ???????????? ?????????, ?????? ????????????? ?? ????? ????????? ?
????????.
??????????? ???????????? ?????????? ? ??? ??????? ?????????? ? ????????? ????????????????? ???????????, ????? ??????????? ??????? ?
??????????? ?????? ?????????? ?????????? ????? ??????????? ??????????.
??? ???????? Ф?????????? ???????????╗, ??????????? ????????? ???????
??????? ?????????? ? ?????????????? ???????? ????????????? ??????????
[13].
? ?????? ??????? ??????? ????? ??????????? ??? ??????????? ?????
??????????, ??? ? ??? ???????????? ??????????, ? ??? ????? ????????????
?????????? ? ??????????? ???????????? ??? ????.
??????????, ???????? ? ??????? ???????
??? ????????? ?????????? ????????? ? ?????? ??????? ????????????
????????? ??????????? ? ??????????? ????????? ?????? ??????????.
иииииииииииииииииииииииииииииииииииииииииииииииииииииииииииии
??? ??????????? ???????? ??????????? ??? ????? ???????.
иииииииииииииииииииииииииииииииииииииииииииииииииииииииииииии
иииииииииииииииииииииииииииииииииииииииииииииииииииииииииииии
??? ??????????? ???????? Ф????????!╗. ????? ???????? ?????? ??????????, ????????? ??????? ?? ???. ????? ????? ?????????? ? ????????? ??????, ????? ?????? ???????? ?????????
??????.
иииииииииииииииииииииииииииииииииииииииииииииииииииииииииииии
иииииииииииииииииииииииии
?????? и и и и и и и и и и и и и и и и и и и и и и и и и и и
??? ??????????? ???????? ??????. ????? ????? ???????? ?????, ????????
?????????? ???????? ??? ???????? ??????.
иииииииииииииииииииииииииииииииииииииииииииииииииииииииииииииииииииииии
5
иииииииииииииииииииииииииииииииииииииииииииииииииииииииииииии
??????????? ??????? ?? ?????
иииииииииииииииииииииииииииииииииииииииииииииииииииииииииииии
6
1 ???????? ???????, ?????????????
? ????????? ???
1.1 ???????? ???????????. ??????? ? ????????? ???
иииииииииииииииииииииииииииииииииииииииииииииииииииииииииииии
????????? ? ??? ??????????, ??????????????? ??? ????????? ? ?????????????? ??????????. ?????? ????? ??? ????????
??????????? ?????????????? ??????? (???), ???????? ?????????????? ??????? (???) ??? ??????????? ???????? ?????????????? ??????? (????) [1].
иииииииииииииииииииииииииииииииииииииииииииииииииииииииииииии
???????, ??? ???????, ????????? ? ?????????????, ???????? ?????? ??????? ??? ???????? ????? ????????? [2], ??????? ????????? ???????? ??????? ? ??????? ???????????? ??????? [3], ???????? ?? ??????????? ????????????? ???????? ???? 15971?90 [4]. ??? ????, ???????? ?????????????
???????? ??????? ? ????????????? ?????????, ????????? Ф????????????╗
??????????? ????????? ????????? ?/??? ??????????.
иииииииииииииииииииииииииииииииииииииииииииииииииииииииииииии
?????????????? ?????? (??, Computer) ? ????????????
??????????? ???????, ????????? ??????????? ?????????? ????????? ?????????? ? ????????? ?????????? ? ??????????? ?????.
??? ???????, ? ?????? ?? ?????? ? ????????? ??????????? ??????????? (??) [4].
??????????-?????????????? ?????? (???, Electronic
Computer) ? ??????????????? ?????????????? ??????????, ????????? ?? ?????? ??? ?????????? ??????????????? ??????????? ???????????, ???????????? ?????????, ?????????? ???????? ?????????????? ??????????? ????????, ??????????????? ?
??????????? ??????. ??? ?????? ????? ??????????? ???????
????? ??????????, ?????????? ??????? ?????????? ??????????????, ?????????? ? ?????? ???????? ??? ????????????? ???????????? ? ??????? ??????? ?????????? (???????? ISO 2382/1?93).
иииииииииииииииииииииииииииииииииииииииииииииииииииииииииииии
7
? ?? ?? ????? ???? 15971?90 ?????????? ??? ??? ?????????????? ??????, ???????? ?????????????? ?????????? ??????? ????????? ?? ??????????? ???????????.
???????, ??? ??????? Ф???╗ ? Ф?????????╗ ???????? ??????????, ??????? ????? ????? ???????????? ? ??? ? ??????, ? ??????????? ?? ?????????.
иииииииииииииииииииииииииииииииииииииииииииииииииииииииииииии
??????? ????????? ?????? ? ???????????? ???????????
??????? (??) ? ???????????? ??????????? (??), ???????????????
??? ??????????????? ???????????? ????????????? ? ???????????
????????. ? ?????? ??????????? ??????? ?????? ???? ???,
?????????? ?????????? ??? ? ?????????, ?????????? ????????
?????? ? ????? ?????.
иииииииииииииииииииииииииииииииииииииииииииииииииииииииииииии
?????? ??????????? ???????? ?????????????? ??????, ??? ??????????????? ??????????? ENIAC (Electronic Numerical Integrator and Computer), ????
??????? ? ?????????????? ???????????? ??? ???????????? ?. ????? ?
?. ??????? ? 1945 ?. ?? ???? ?????? ?????? ?????????? ????? ?????????????
? ?????? 1940-? ??. ??. ?????????? ? ?. ????? ?????????????????? ??????????? ABC ? ??????????????? ??? ??????????? ????? ???????? ????????????
?????? ??????????? Colossus, ????????? ??? ???????????? ?. ???????. ?
1951 ?. ??? ???????????? ?. ?. ???????? ???? ??????? ?????? ????????? ?????? ? ????? ??????????? ??????? ?????? (????), ? ? ?????? 1953 ?. ? ???????
(????), ?????????????? ??????? ??????????? ? 8 000 ????????/?. ??? ??? ?????? ???? ????????? ? ???????????? ???? ???????? ? ??? ??????? ?????????. ???? ?????? ????????????? ??????? ?????????? ??????? ??? ??????????
????????? ????????? [1].
????????? ???????????? ????????? ??????????? ????????? ?????????
?????, ????????? ?? ??????? ?????????. ????????? ??? ?????????? ????????? ????????, ?????????? ?????? ? ???????? ??????. ? ???????? ??????????? ?????? ???????????? ?????? ?? ?????????? ???????????. ?????????? ??????-??????? ??????????? ?? ????????? ?????, ??? ????????? ?????????
???????? ?????? ???????????? ? ??????????????? ??????????, ?? ??????????? ??????????? ??????? ??? ????????????? ?????????. ? ???? ?? ?????? ???? ??????? ?????? ????? ???????????????? ???????? ??????: ???????,
?????, ?????. ? ??????? ??????? ????????? ????????? ????????? ??????
Ф????╗, Ф?????-22╗, Ф?????-32╗, ????-2 ? ??.
8
???????????? ????? ????????? ??? ?????? ????????? ?????? ? ????????? ?? ????????. ???????? ??????????????? ??????????? ?????????? ??????, ?????? ??????????? ???????????? ?????????, ? ??????????? ??????????
????? ???????????? ??????? ?????????????????????. ???????? ???????????
????????? ??? ??????????? ???????????? ?????????. ?????? ? ??? ?????
?????? ????????? ?????? ????? IBM/360 (370) ? ?? ???, ? ?????????? ??????? ? ?????? ?????? Ф????????? ???╗. ? ?????????? ? ??? ???????? ????????? ????? ???????? ????? ??????, ??????????? ?? ???????????? ??????
????? ? ??????? ??????????.
?????? ?? ???? ??????? ???????????? ???? (???) ? ???????????? ???????????? ???? (????) ????? ???????? ???????? ?????????? ?????????. ?????? ????? ?????? ??????? ?? ????????????????? ?????????. ? ???? ?? ?????? ???? ??????????? ????????? ?????? ? ??????????? ??????? ??????
(RISC). ? 1980-? ??. ????????? ???????? ????????? ?? ???????? ??? ??????
?????????. ?????? ??????? ??????????????? ???????????? ??????????? ??????? ? ??????? ???????? ? Ф?????????? ???╗ ? ?????? ???? ?????? ???????
?? ???????????? [1].
? ???????? ?????????? ??????? ?????????? ????????? ??? ? ????????
???????????? ??????? ? ????????? ????? ?????????? ?????????? ?????????
????????? ????????? ? ????? ??? ? ?????????????? ?????? ?????????? ????????? ???????? ???? ???? (?? ?? ?? ????) (???. 1.1) [5].
??????? ????????? ???? ???????????, ????????? ??????? ? ???????????? ???????? ?????????? ??????????. ? ??????? ?????? ??? ???????? ????????? ???????? ????????????? ??????????? ?????? ????, ???????, ??????????
??? ???????? ????????, ? ????????? ?????????? ?????????????? ????????????? ?????? ????????. ? ?????????? ?????????? ??? ????????? ??????????,
??? ??????????? ???????? ??????? ??? ???????? ? ???????? ?????????? ? ???
?????????????? ?????. ???? ??????? ???????????? ??????????, ??????????????? ??? ?????????????? ?????????? (????????, ???????????? ???????????
? ?????), ??????????? (?. ?. ?????? ????????? ???????? ?? ???????? ?????????????) ? ????????? ????? ????????????? ???????????? ?????????? (????????, ?????? ? ?????????? ??????? ? ?????? ??????? ??????????). ??? ??????? ???, ??? ??????? ????????????? ? ????????? ?????????? ? ??????????
?????????? ?? ???, ??? ???????????? ?????? ???????? ? ??????? ?????????
???????? ????.
9
????????? ????-???
????-??? (?-700, ??-2, ??-4)
????-??? ??-200
???. 1.1 ? ????????? ????????? ????????? ? ????? ???
? ?? ?? ?? ???? [5]
1.2 ????????????? ???
?????????? ???????? ???? ??? (???. 1.2), ???????????? ??????????
???? 15971?90. ? ???? ????????????? ???????????? ????????? ????????:
?????????????? ???????????, ??????????, ?????????? ???????, ??? ????????,
????????? ????????????.
???? ??? ????????????? ??? ??????? ? ???????? ???????? ???????? ??????? ?? ??????????, ?? ? ???????????? ? ???? ????????? ????? ????? ???????? ????????? ???????? ?????? ??? [2. C. 10; 6]:
1. ?????-???.
2. ??????????.
3. ???????.
10
4. ?????????? ??? (???????????? ??? ? ??????? ???????).
5. ??????????? (?????????) ???.
6. ???????????? ???????.
???
?????-???
??? ??????
??????????
????????????
???
????-???
?????????????????? ???
??????
??????????
?????-???
????????
???
???. 1.2 ? ????????????? ??? ?? ???? 15971?90
??????? ????????, ??? ?????? ??????? ?????????? ?????? ??????????
???????????? ????? ?? ???????????? ???????? ?????????? ????????? ???????
???.
1. ?????-??? (?????????????)
иииииииииииииииииииииииииииииииииииииииииииииииииииииииииииии
?????-??? (??????????????) ? ???, ??????????? ? ??????
??, ??????? ????? ??????? ??????????????????, ??????? ????? ???? ?????????? ?? ?????? ????? ???????? ??????????, ? ?
???????? ??????????????? ??? ??????? ??????? ????????????????? ????? (???? 15971?90).
иииииииииииииииииииииииииииииииииииииииииииииииииииииииииииии
?????????????? ? ??? ??? ?????????????? ??? ???????? ????????????, ??????????? ????????????? ?? ?????????????? ???????? ??????? ??????????? ??????????.
????????????? ???????? ?????-???:
?
?? ???????? ???????? ????????? ????????????, ?????????????, ??? ??
???????????? ? ?????????? ???????????? ?????????? ??????????,
????? ??????? ?, ????????, ????? ???????, ??? ???????? ??????????;
?
????????????? ?? ??????????, ?? ????????, ??????? ?? ???????,
???????? ??????? ?????????? ??????? ???????? ?? ????????? ?
????????????? ??? ??? ???????? ?????????.
11
2. ?????????
иииииииииииииииииииииииииииииииииииииииииииииииииииииииииииии
????????? ? ??? ?????????, ?????? ? ???????????? ??????, ??????? ???????? ??????? ???????? ???????????? ? ???????? ? ? ??????? ????? ???? ????????? ?????? ??????????,
?????? ???, ??? ??? ????? ???????????? ??????????? ??????????? ? ??????? [7].
иииииииииииииииииииииииииииииииииииииииииииииииииииииииииииии
????????? ? ??????? ??????? Ф??????? ????????????? ???╗. ?????
Ф?????????╗ ????????? ? 70?80-? ??. XX ?., ????? ??????? ?????????????
??? ???????? ?? ???????????? ?????????? ? ????????? ?????????: ????????,
?????????, ???????????? ???????????? ? ?. ?. ??????????? ??? ?????, ??????? ??????????? ???????? ??????? (???????? ???? ????? ??????????? ??
????????? IBM, Hitachi, Amdahl), ?????????????? ???????? ?????????? ???????????. ?????? ?? ????????? ??? ????????????? ? ????????? ??????. ?????? ? ???????? Ф?????????╗ (main frame ? ??????? ??????); ??? ???????????
?? ??????????? ???????, ??? ?????????? ????????? ? ????? ??????????
(???. 1.3).
???. 1.3 ? ????????? ????????? ?????? 1980-? ??. ? ??? ??-1052
(??????????????? ?????, ?. ??????)
?????????? ?? ???????????? ??? ???????? ???????? ??????? (?? ?????? ?????-???) ??????????????? ????????? ?????? ??????????, ??????????????? ??????????? ?????????????? ????? ????????????.
12
3. ??????? (????? Ф??????╗ ?????????? ?? ????. serve ? ???????????)
иииииииииииииииииииииииииииииииииииииииииииииииииииииииииииии
?????? ? ??? ?????????? ???, ??? ???????, ? ??????? ?????????????? ????, ?????????? ?????????-???????????? ?????????
? ??????????????? ?????? ??????? ????????????? ?? ?? ????????.
иииииииииииииииииииииииииииииииииииииииииииииииииииииииииииии
?????????? ????????? ????? ????????, ??????????????? ?? ?????? ??????????: ????-??????, ?????? ??? ??????, ?????-??????, ?????????????? ??????, ?????? ??????????. ????? ???????, ??? ??????? ???????????? ????? ???????, ??????? ?? ??????? (???????? ???????, ???? ??????, ????????,
?????????? ??? ?????????? ?????? ????????).
4. ?????????? ??? (???????????? ??? ? ??????? ???????)
иииииииииииииииииииииииииииииииииииииииииииииииииииииииииииии
??? ???????????? ??????????? (??), ??? ????????????
??? (????), ???????? ?????????? ???, ??????? ???????????????? ?????????????? ???????? ??????? ? ?????????????
?????????????? ??????????? [4].
иииииииииииииииииииииииииииииииииииииииииииииииииииииииииииии
??? ???????? ????????? ?????? ???????? ?????????? ??????? ??????? ??????????????????. ????????????? ??????? ??????????? ???????? ???????, ????? ??? PDP-11 ??? VAX ????? DEC. ???????? ???????? ???????
??????? ?? ?? ???????? ?????????? ?? ???????????????? ?????????????.
Ф???????????? ?? 99╗. ? 1999 ?. ??? ?????? ? ???????? ?????????????
????????????????? ???????? (Ф???????????? ?? 99╗) [8], ????????????? Intel
? Microsoft, ?????????? ???????????? ?? ? ??????? ???????. ??? ???????????-???????????? ?? Intel ? Microsoft ??? ????????????? ???????????? ??????? ??????????? ???????? ? ?????? ? 1998 ?? 2001 ?.
? ???????????? ? ???? ?????????? ??????? ????????? ??????? ??:
? ???????? (consumer PC);
? ??????? (office PC);
? ??????????? (mobile PC);
? ??????? ??????? (workstation PC);
? ??????????????? (entertainment PC).
5. ??????????? ??? (????. mobile PC)
??? ??????? ?? ????????, ??????????? ??? ?????????? ?????? ????????? ? ?????? ?, ?????????????, ???????????? ????????? ? ?????? ? ??????.
13
??????? ?????? ????? ??? ??? ???????? ???????????? ??? (mobile PC).
? ???????????? ?????????? ????? ????? ???????????? ?????? laptop ? ?????????? ?????????. ??????????? ???, ???? ? ???????? ????????????? ????????????, ??? ?? ?????, ???????? ? ????????? ?????. ??????? ??? ? ????????????? ????????? ? ??????????? ????? ?? ? ???????????? ???.
??????????? ??? ????? ????????? ?? ??? ??????? ?????????:
1) ????????;
2) ???????;
3) ????????? ?? (???).
??? ???????????? ?????????? ????????? ???????? ??????? ?? ???????? ?
?????????????????? ???????????? ??, ??????? ??????? ???????????? ??? ????????????? ?????????. ??????? ????????? ????????? ?? ??? ????? ???????????? ???????? ??????? ??????????? ?? ?????????? ??????????????. ???????
???????? ????? ????? ?????????? ????????? ? ?????? (netbook ? ?????????
????????? ??? ?????? ? ????), ??? ???????? ?????????? ? ?????????? ?????? ?
????????? (???. 1.4).
???. 1.4 ? ?????? Intel Classmate PC
?????????????? ????? ??????? ? ????????? ????????? ?? (???), ?. ?.
?????????? ??????????? (tablets). ???????? ??????????????? ??? ?????????
? ????? ??????????? (???????, ??????, ????? ? ??.). ?????????? ??????????
?????????????? ?? ?????? ?????????:
?) ??? ???????????? ???????;
?) ??? ???????;
?) ?????????????? ??????????? ? ?. ?.
??????????? ?????????? ??????????? ??????????? ?????????? ?? ??????????? ????????? ??????? ???. ?????? ??????????? ??? ?????????? ??????????? ARM (Advanced RISC Machines), ????????????? ? 1983?1985 ??. ? ???-
14
????? Acorn Computers. ? 1990 ?. Acorn, ?????????? ??? ????????? ARM ??? ?
?????????????? ? Apple, ????????????? ?????????????, ???????????? ARM, ?
????????? ????? ? Advanced RISC Machines. ????? ????????????? ARM ?
???????? Ф?????????????╗ ??????????????? ????, ?????????? ???????????????
? ?????????????????? ??????????. ? ???? ??? ??????????? ARM ?????????
???????????, ??????? ????? ????? ???? ???, ??????? ???????? ???????? ????????????? ???????????????? ? ???????? Intel.
??????????? ????????? ???????? ????? ??????????? ???????????? ?
???????????, ??????? ????? ???????????? ?????????? ???????????? ???????,
???????? Android (???. 1.5).
???. 1.5 ? ????????? ? ????????, ???????????? ?? Android.
?? ??????? ???????, ??????? ?????? ?????: ASUS Transformer Prime,
Samsung Galaxy SIII, Samsung Nexus S, Google Nexus 7
6. ???????????? ??????? (embedded system). ? ?????????? ? ??????????, ????????? ? ????????? ??????????? ???????? ??????? ???????????
?????? ???????????? ??????. ???????????? ??????? (????. embedded systems) ?
??? ?????????????????? ???????, ? ??????? ?????????? ?????? ???????? ?
??????????, ???????? ??? ?????????. ????? ??????? ?????? ??????????? ???
???????? ?????????? ????????????, ???????? ? ????????? ???????????????????? ?????????? ??????????, ???????????, ?????, ????????? ? ?. ?. ??????
??? ???????????? ??????????? ????????????? ?????????, ???????????? ??
???? ????????? ???????? ????. ? ?????? ???? ???? ????????????? ??????????,
? ????? ?????????????? ?? ???????? ?????????, ????????? ?? ??????? ???????? ???????. ????? ????, ? ?????? ???? ?????? ?????????? ?????? ? ?????????????? ???? ????????????, ?????????????? ????? ? ??????????????
??????????????????? ???????????? [6].
15
?????????????????? ???. ?????????????????? (??????????????, performance) ???????? ????? ?? ????????? ????????????? ???????. ?? ??????
?????????????????? ????? ??? ?????? ????????? ??????? [2]:
?
??? ?????;
?
????? ??? ??? ???? ????????, ??????????? ??? ??????? ??????;
?
????? ???????????????? ? ?????? ??????????? ?????????;
?
?????????? ??????????? ??????? ??????;
?
????????? ??????????;
?
?????????????? ? ??????????? ??????????? ? ??????? ??????;
? ??????????? ??????? ?????-??????.
??????? ????????? ?????????????????? ???. ????? ?? ?????? ????????? ?????????????????? ?????????? (?? ????????? ? ??????? ??????????)
???????? MIPS (Million Instructions Per Second ? ??????? ?????? ? ???????).
?????? ???????? MIPS ???????? ????????????? ? ?? ?????? ???????????.
??? ??????-??????????? ????????, ??????? ???????????? ?????????? ?
????????? ??????, ??? ?????? ?????????????????? ??? ? ?? ???? ???????
???????? MFLOPS (Million Floating point Operations Per Second ? ??????? ???????? ? ????????? ?????? ? ???????); ???????? Ф?????????╗. ????? ????, ?????????? ???????? GFLOPS (Ф?????????╗, 1000 MFLOPS), TFLOPS (Ф?????????╗, 1000 GFLOPS) ? PFLOPS (Ф?????????╗, 1000 TFLOPS).
???????????????? ???????????? ??????? [10. ?. 27]. ??? ????????????
????????????? ??????????????? ? ??????? ???????? ?????????????? ?????????????? ????????? ?????? ???? ??????????????. ?? ?????? ??????????? ??????????? ??????????? ?????????? ????????? ??????????? ??????? ???????????? ????????????? ???????? ????????:
???????????????? ???????????? ??????? ???????:
?
1 ????? ???????? ??????;
?
1 ????/? ?????????? ??????????? ???? ?? ?????? 1 MIPS ?????????????????? ??????????.
1.3 ????????? ? ??????? ???????? ???
????? ?????? ??????? ???????? ??????????, ??????????? ????????? ??
???????? ???????????????? ? ??????? ????????? ????????????? ??????????,
??? ????. ???????? ??????? ????????????? ?????????? ?? ??????? ?????,
??? ??? ?????????? ???????????, ??????? ? ???, ??? ?? ????????? ???????-
16
????? ???????????? ??? ??????? ?????? ?????? ????????????. ???????? ??, ????? ????????? ?????? ???????? ????????????? ? ??????????????? ??????,
?. ?. ????????? ???? ??????? ?????????, ?? ??? ?? ???. ?? ????? ?????????
???????????? ????????? ????????: ?????????, ?????? ???????????, ????????,
?????? ?????????? ? ???? ? ?. ?. ????? ????, ?????? ???????????? ??????
???????????? ? ???????? ???????? ? ????, ? ?? ????????? (?. ?. ??????????? ?
???????????? ??????????) ????? ???????????? ????????? ????????????? ???????????? [1].
????????? ?????? ?????????? ?? ??? ????? ????????????? ????? ?????????? ?????????????. ??? ??-???????? ???????? ?? ?????? ?????? ??? ???????, ?? ?????? ?????? ?? ???????? ?????? ??????? ?? ????????? ????? ? ????????????????? ???????? (??? Ф????????╗), ? ??????? ????? ????????? ????
??? ????????? ?????? (?????????), ??? ? ??????. ?????? ???????????????
???????? ?????? ? ??????????? ?????????? ????? ? ????????? ? ????? ?????????? [1].
?????????? ????????? ?????????? (???. 1.6) ??????? ?? ????????? ???????? ?????: ??????????-?????????? ?????????? (???), ??????????? ???????????? ?????????? (???), ??????????? ?????????? (??), ?????????? ?????
?????? ? ?????? (???) ? ?????????? ?????? ??????????? ??????????? ???????? (????). ?????? ????? Ф???????????╗ ????????? ????? ??????????????
?????? ??????? ?????????. ?????? ????????????? ????? ????? ?????????
????? ????? ??????? ??????????, ??????????????? ??? ????????? ?????? ?
???????? ?? ????????????? ?? ??????.
??? ? ???????????????? ??????? ?????????? ?????? ??????? ????????
???????????, ????? ??? ?????????? ? ??????????? ???????????? ????????? ?
????????????? ? ??????????, ? ???????? ?????????? ????? ??????? ?????????? ?????????????? ?? ????? ??????????. ??????????-?????????? ?????????? ????????????? ??? ?????????? ?????????????? ? ?????????? ????????
??? ????????? ???????, ?. ?. ??????, ???????????? ? ?????? ? ???????????? ? ??? ??? ?????????. ????? ????, ??? ????????? ????????? ???????? ??
?????????? ????????????.
17
??????????? ?????????
??????????
??????????
??????????
?????
????????????????????
??????????
??????????
??????
??????
(???)
???. 1.6 ? ?????????? (??????????) ????????? ??? ??? ???????
??????????? ???????????? ??????????, ??? ??????????? ??????, ??????
???? ???????? ???? (?????? ? ??????) ? ????? ???????. ??? ?????? ??????????, ? ????? ?????? ?????????? ???????. ? ?????? ??????????, ??? ???????,
????????? ?????? ??????? ? ??????. ?????? ?????????? ???????? ? ??? ?????????? ??? ??????????? ??????????????? ????????. ?????????? ????????
? ??? ?? ?????????? ????? ??? ?? ???????? ????????????? ?????????? (???).
??????? ?????? ????????? ??????? ??????? ?????? ??????????, ?? ????????
??????? ??????????????? ?? ????????? ? ???. ? ??????? ????? ???????? ????????? ?????????? ????????? ? ??? ?????? ?? ???, ? ?????????? ?????????? ????????? ???????? ?? ?????????? ?????? ????? ????????? ?????????.
????? ??? ?? ?????????? ?? ???, ?????? ??? ??????? ??????? ? ?????????,
?????? ???? ?????????????? ?????????? ? ???.
?????????? ?????????? ?????? ??? ??????????????? ?????????? ?????????????? ?????????; ??? ????????? ??????? ?????????? ?? ??? ??????????
??????????, ?????????? ??????? ????????? ? ??????????? ???????. ????
???? ?????????? ???????? ? ???, ?? ????? ???????????? ?????????? ????????
??????????? ??????????? (??). ?? ?????? ? ???????? ??????? (??), ????????? ?? ??? ? ??????????? ????????????? ?????????? (???), ??? ??????????
??????, ??????????????? ??? ???????? ???????? ?????-??????, ? ??????????
???????????? ????? ? ?????? (??? ????????????? ????????????) ???????????
???? (???. 1.7), ?????????? ????? ????? ????? (??).
18
????????? ????
???????????
?????????
????????
?????? (???)
????????????
?????????? ?????/??????
???? ??????????
???? ??????
???? ???????
???. 1.7 ? ???????? ??????????? ?????????? ? ????? ????????? ?????
????? ????? ???? ??????? ?? ?????????? Ф??????╗: ??????, ??????,
??????????. ?? ????? ?? ???????? ?????? ??????. ? ???????????? ???????
??? ???????? ????? ?? ????????? ????? (?. ?. ?????, ?? ??????? ???????????
?????????, ?????? ? ??????? ??? ??????????? ???????????? ?????????) ???? ?????? ? ?????? ?????? ????????? ? ???? ????? ??????????? ?? ???????
????; ????? ????? ? ?????? ?? ??? ?????????? ?????? ??????????.
?????? ?? ? ?? ????????? ???????? ????????? ???????????? (???
???????) ?????????, ??????????????? ??? ????? ? ??????? ????? (?????????,
????????? ?????????? ? ?. ?.). ??? ?????????? ???????????? ? ?? ? ???????
????????????, ?????????, ?????? ?????? ? ?. ?. (??. ??. 3).
1.4 ?????? ? ????????? ????????? ????? ??????????
иииииииииииииииииииииииииииииииииииииииииииииииииииииииииииии
?????????, ??? ???????????, ????? (????. motherboard,
MB; ????? mainboard) ??????????? ????????????? ?????????? ?
??? ??????? ????????? ??????? ?? ???? ???????????? ????????
?????, ?????????? ??????? ?????????? ?????????????? ???????.
иииииииииииииииииииииииииииииииииииииииииииииииииииииииииииии
?? ????????? ????? ??????????? ????????? ???????? ??????????
??????????? ????????????? ?????????? (???. 1.8):
?
??????????? ????????? (????. central processing unit ? CPU);
?
?????????? ??????? (????. chipset ? ????? ?????????);
19
?
?????????? ???????????? ??????????? ????????????? ??????????
(???), ?????????? BIOS (????. basic input/output system ? ??????? ??????? ?????-??????);
?
??????????? ??? ? ??????????? ?????-?????? ? ????????????
?????????;
?
??????????? ???????????? ?????????? (???, RAM ? random access
memory) ? ???? ??????? ??????, ????????????? ? ??????????? ???????;
?
????? ??? ??????????? ???? ??????????;
??????? ??? ??????????? ???????????? ????????? ? ??????????,
????, ????????, ???????? ? ?. ?.
?????????????? ??????? ?????????? ? ???????????? ?????????? ??????????? ?????? ?????, ? ???????????? ??????? ????????? ???? ??????????.
????????? ?? ??????????? ????????? ???? ???????? ?? ???????? 1.8, 1.9.
?
???. 1.8 ? ????????? ????? ??????????? ??
? ???????????? ???????? ???????????
20
???. 1.9 ? ????? ??? ????????? ????? ??????????? ??????????
иииииииииииииииииииииииииииииииииииииииииииииииииииииииииииии
????-?????? ????????? ?????. ????-?????? (????. form
factor) ? ??? ????????, ???????? ?????????? ??????? ???????????? ???????, ? ????? ??????????? ?????????????? ???????????? ??? ??????????? ??????????, ???????? ?????, ???? ?????????????? ?????????, ??????????? ?/?? ??????????, ?? ?????????
? ?????????? (????. 1.1).
иииииииииииииииииииииииииииииииииииииииииииииииииииииииииииии
?????? ???????? ????? ???????????????? ????????. ????????????
????-??????? ?????????? ???????????? ? ?????????????? ??????????. ?????? ??????????? ??????????? ?????????????? ???????????? ????????? ????????????, ????????? ????? ???????????? ???????????? ?????????? ???????? ????????????? ??????????? ????? ? ???????????????????? ????????????
(?????????, ???? ??????????) ?????? ?????????????? ? ???????. ?????????? ??? ??????????? ????? ???????????? ??? ??? ???????, ??? ? ??? ??????????????? ? ???? ????????? (???????????) ?????.
???????? ??????????? ????????????? ?????????? ?, ??????????????,
????????? ????? ???????? ??????????? ?????????. ???????? ??????????? ???
?????????? ? ???????????? ?????????? ???????? ????????? [4].
иииииииииииииииииииииииииииииииииииииииииииииииииииииииииииии
????????? ? ?????????????? ????? ?????????????? ??????
??? ??????? ????????? ??????????, ??????????????? ??? ????????????? ????????.
??????????? ????????? ? ?????????, ??????????? ? ??????
?????????????? ?????? ??? ??????? ????????? ?????????? ??-
21
?????? ??????? ?? ????????? ?????????? ? ?????????? ???????
?????? ?????? ?????????????? ?????? ??? ???????.
иииииииииииииииииииииииииииииииииииииииииииииииииииииииииииии
??????? 1.1 ? ???????? ????-??????? ????????? ???? ?????????? ??
??????????
?????????
?????
?????????? ???????,
(?????? О ?????)
?????
??
????????????,
???
??????????
???????? ???????????? ??????????
XT
8,5 О 11
216 О 279
IBM, 1983
???????????? ??????????? IBM
PC/XT
AT
12 О 11?13
305 О
О 279?330
IBM, 1984
??????????? IBM PC/AT ?
Desktop/Tower
Intel, 1995
???????? ??????????? ?????????????? ???? ??? ?????????
?????? ????? MiniTower,
FullTower
Intel, 1997
??????????? ?????? ATX.
????? ?????? ??????. ???????? ????????????? ????? ??????? ???????? ???????
ATX
MicroATX
Mini-ATX
12 О 9,6
9,6 О 9,6
11,2 О 8,2
305 О 244
244 О 244
284 О 208
??????????? ?? ??????????
MoDT (????. Mobile on Desktop
AOpen, 2005
Technology), ????????????????
??? ????????? ???????????
??????????? ????????? (??; ????? ??????????? ???????????? ?????????? ? ???; ????. central processing unit, CPU) ? ??????????? ???? ???? ???????????? ?????????? (??????????????), ??????????? ???????? ??????????
(??? ????????), ??????? ????? ??????????? ??????????? ?????????? ??? ???????????????? ??????????? ???????????. ?????? ???????? ????????????????
??? ?????? ??????????? (???. 1.10).
???????? ??????????????? ????????? ???????????? ????????????????
????? Intel ???????????? ? ??????? 1.2. ?? ??? ?????, ??? ??????? ? 2004 ?.
??????????? ?????????????? ?????? ? ??????????????? ???? ?????? 100 ??,
??????? ? ????? ??????? ????? ???????? ?????? ????? ???????????????.
22
???. 1.10 ? ????????? Intel Core 2Extreme X6800
??????? 1.2 ? ???????? ??????????????? ????????? ????? Intel [6]
????????????
?854 ?856 ?858
????????
??60
?1262
?1264
?1256
?1268
?1270
?????????, ??? 1995 1997 1999
2001
2004
2005
2007
2009
2011
???????????
350
?????????????? ??????, ??
250
180
130
90
65
45
32
22
???????
???????? Si,
??
200
200
200 200/300
300
300
300
300
300
?????????????
Al
Al
Al
Cu
Cu
Cu
Cu
Cu
Cu
SiO2
SiO2
SiO2
High-k
High-k
High-k
??????????
???????
?????
SiO2 SiO2 SiO2
Si
Si
Si
Si
Strained Strained Strained Strained Strained
Si
Si
Si
Si
Si
?????????????? ????????? ??????????? ?????????? (??????????, ??? ?
???????????? ???????????? ?????????) ????? ??????????? ???????????. ???
???????????? ?????????????? ?? ????????? ????? ??????????????? ??????????? ?????????? (???????), ??????????:
?) ?????????? ??????????? ?????? (???, ?. ?. RAM), ??? ?????????? ???????? ????;
?) ?????????? ???????????? ????????? (??), ??? ?????????? ?????
????. ????????????? ???????????? ????? ??????? ??????? ?? ????????? ? ?????????? ????? ?????????? ??????????.
?????????? ?????????? ????????? ????? ???????? ?? ??????? 1.11.
?????? ???????? ?????? ????? ???????????? ?????????? ?????????? ??????????? ????? ? ???????? ? ????? ?????.
23
???????????
?????????
?????????
????????
?????????
????
??????????
????
????????????????
PCI Express x16
??????
??????????? ???? FSB ??? QPI
???????? ????
?????????? ?
????????????
??????
?????
??????
????
??????
??????????
???? DMI
????? PCI
???? PCI
????? ????
?????????? ?
????????????
?????/??????
IDE, SATA, USB,
Ethernet, ?????
????
LPC
????
BIOS
??????? ??
?????????
?????
????????????????
??????. ????? (COM)
????????. ???? (LPT)
?????????? (PS/2)
???? (PS/2)
??-???? (IR)
???? (FDD)
???. 1.11 ? ?????????? ????????? ????????? ?????
??????????? ????????????? ??????????
???????? ????
иииииииииииииииииииииииииииииииииииииииииииииииииииииииииииии
???????? ???? (Northbridge) ? ??? ????????? ??????????,
?????????? ????? ?? ????????? ??????? ??????????? ?????, ?????????? ?? ?????? ? ??????????? ??????? (RAM), ?????????????? ? ??????????? (CPU).
иииииииииииииииииииииииииииииииииииииииииииииииииииииииииииии
24
???????? ???? ???????? ?? ??????? ????????? ????, ??? ???????????
?????? ? ?? ??????????? ????????? ?????. ????? ?? ???????? ??????? ????????? ????? ???????? ??????????? ?????????????? ????????? ????? ? ??????????, ? ????? ??????????? ???????? ??????. ?????? ????????? ????? ??
?????? ??????????? ??????????? ?????? ???????? ?????????? ????????????.
????? ???????, ?????????????? ??????????? ????????? ????? ?????? ?????
??? ? ?????????? ????? ????????????? ? ?? ???????????????. ????? ????????
???? ???????????? ????? ???? ????????????????? ????????? ? ????? ??????.
???????? ???? ??????? ???? ???????? ????????? Ф???????????????╗ ???????????? ?? ??????????? ?????. ?????? ??? ?????????? ????? ????????,
????????????? ??? ???????????, ?? ? ??????? ????? ????????? ?????. ???
???????, ???????? ???? ?????????? ?????????????? ??????????. ?????? ???
????????? ????????, ???? ? ???????? ? ???????? ???????????. ??????? ??? ?
???, ??? ??????????? ????????? ????? ???????? ?? 30░ ???? ??????????? ??????.
?????????? ??????????? ?????? ??????????. ??-??????, ???????? ????
????????? ? ???????????????? ???????? ?? ???????????? ??????????, ????????, ?? ????????? ???? ??????????, ??????? ?????? ? ?????? ?????. ???
????????, ??? ????? ????? ?? ?????????????? ????????? ??????? ?? ?????????
?????. ?-???????, ????? ??????? ? ???????? ???? ???????? ?? ????????? ??????
????? ??????? ??????????? ??????? ? ??????????, ?????? ? ???????. ??????? ?????????? ??????????? ???????? ?????? ??? ????????? ????? ????? ??????????? ?????.
????? ????
иииииииииииииииииииииииииииииииииииииииииииииииииииииииииииии
????? ???? (Southbridge) ? ??? ?????????????? ??????????, ???????? ??? ?????????? ?????-??????, ??? ICH (In/Out
Controller Hub).
иииииииииииииииииииииииииииииииииииииииииииииииииииииииииииии
???????? ?? ??? ?????????? ????????? ????????, ? ??????? ?????????
????????? ?????????????? ????? ???????????? IDE, SATA, USB, LAN,
Embeded Audio ? ???????? ?????? ???????, ???????, ? ???? ???????, ???????? ?????? ? ??????????? ? ??????? ??????? ????????????, ?????? ??? ??????????? ?????? ??? ???????????????. ????? ????? ???? ???????? ?? ????????? ?????? ?? ????? PCI, PCIe ? ISA (? ?????? ???????).
25
?????? ????????????? ?????? ??????????? ????? ????? ?????? ???????? ?????. ?????? ??????????????? IDE, SATA, USB, LAN ? ???????,
????? ???? ???????? ??? ? ?? SM-???? (???????????? ??? ?????????? ????????????? ?? ?????), DMA-??????????, IRQ-??????????, ????????? ????, BIOS,
??????? ????????????????? APM ? ACPI, ???? LPC Bridge.
????? ?? ????? ?????? ?????, ??? ???????, ???????? ? ?????? ???? ????????? ?????, ?. ?. ?? ???????? ???????? ? ???????? ????????????. ????????? ???????? ?????? ????? ???? ???????? ?? ????????? ?????????, ????????
USB-???????????. ???????? ????????????? ??????? ???????? ?????, ?. ?. ?
??????????? ??????? ????? ???? ?? ?????????? ???????? ???????????????
??????????, ???????? ?? ????????????? ? ???????. ???? ???????? ??????? ?????? ????? ???????? ????????? ????. ?????????? (???????? ??????) ?????????
????? ????? ???????? ? ????????? ??????? ?????? ????? ? ???????????
??????? ??? ?? ?????.
? ???????????? ?????????? (? ? ????????? ????? ? ? ??????????? ?????? ?????) ???????? ?????? ??????? ?? ???? ?????? ? ?????????? ? ???????????. ? ????? ????????? ?? ??????????? ???????? (??? ????????? ??????????
????????) ?????????? ?????? ???????? ????????? ????????? ????????, ?????????? BIOS (Basic Input-Output System). ??? ?????????? Ф??????╗ ? ??????, ?. ?.
???????? ?????????. ??????????? ?????? ? ?????? ????????? ?????????? ??
???????? ??????? ??????????. ??? ??? ????????? ?? ??? ????? ???????? ?????? ????????? ? ???????? Ф???????╗ ?????????, ???????? ????????????? ???????? ???????? ? ????????? ???????? ????????.
???? ?? ????????? ????????? ????????? ????? ?????????? ????????????? ?????????? ??????? ?? ??????? 1.12 [6].
??? ????? ?? ????????? ??????????? ?????? ????????? ?????????? ?,
??????????????, ????????? ????? (??. ???. 1.11) ???????? ????????? ????????
??????? (clock generator), ?? ???? ?????????? Ф??????? ??????????╗.
????????? ???????? ??????? (??? ????????? ???????? ????????? ?
???) ???????????? ??? ????????? ????????????? ????????? ? ???????? ???????? ?????????? (?????? ????????????? ?????) ? ????? ????????????? ????????? ????????? ? ??????????. ??????? ??????? ??????????? ????????? ???????????. ???????? ???????? ???????????? ??? ????????? ??????? ? ??????
?? ??????????, ????? ???????? ????????? ?????????. ? ?????????????????
??????? ???? ???????? ???????, ??? ???????, ????????????? ????? ????????.
???? ????????? ????? ?????????? ????? ????????????? ?? ???? ??? ?????????
26
?????? ?????? ???????????????, ? ??????????? ?? ??????????? ? ???? ??????????. ??????? ???????? ????????? ?????????? ???????? ??????????.
???. 1.12 ? ????????? ?????????? ?????????? ? ???????? i945GSE
1.5 ????????? ????
????? ????????? ????? ??????????? ?? ? ???????????? ????????? ???
???? ????????? ????? ?? ??????? 1.11. ?????? ?????????????? ????????? ???????? ????????? ???? ? ????????? ? ???? ?????????? [9].
иииииииииииииииииииииииииииииииииииииииииииииииииииииииииииии
FSB (Front Side Bus) ? ??? ????????????? ?????, ?????????????? ?????????? ?????????? ? ?????????? ?????????: ??????,
??????????, ????????? ???????? ?????????? ? ?. ?.
иииииииииииииииииииииииииииииииииииииииииииииииииииииииииииии
???????? ????? ????? ????????? ??????? ??????????? ???????? ?????????? ??????????, ??????? ????????????, ??? ???????????? ???????????????????? ???????????? ????, ??????? ???????? FSB, ????????? ????????? (?????? ??? ??????????, ?????? ??? ???? ??????) ? ????????? ??????????,
27
??????? ???????????? ?????? ? ??????????? ?????? ? ??????? ???????????.
???? ????????? ?????????? ?????? ?????????? Ф???????? ??????╗ (?? ????.
Northbridge). ??, ?????? ? Ф????? ??????╗ (?? ????. Southbridge), ?????? ? ?????? ?????? ????????? ??????, ???????, ??????, ???? ?????????? ??? ????????? Ф??????╗ (?? ????. Chipset).
Northbridge. ???????? ???? ????? ??????????? ?????? ??? ??-?? ??????
???????????? ?? ??????????? ?????. ?? ???????????? ????? ????????, ????????? ????????????? Ф???╗ ???????????, ?????? ? ??????? ????? ???????????
?????, ??? ?? ? Ф????????╗ ?? ?????.
????????? ?????????? ?????? ??? ???????? ?????? ???????????? ?????????? ? ??????????? ?????? ? ???????????????? (? ?????? ??????????? ????????????????, ???????? ????, ???????????? ????????? Intel, ?????????
GMCH (?? ????. Chipset Graphics and Memory Controller Hub), ? ????? ??????????? ???? ?????? ? ?????, ??????????? ??? ????????? ? ??????????? ??????. ?????, ??? ?????????? ????????????? ?????????????????? ???????, ? ????????? ????? ???????????? ???????? ???????????????? ????????????
??????????, ???????? ?????????? ? ????? PCI Express, ? ????? ???????????????? ?????????? (BIOS, ?????????? PCI, ?????????? ????????? ????????
??????????, ????? ? ?. ?.) ????? ???????????? ? ??? ??????????? ?????? ?????. ???????? ???? ???????? ? ??????????? ?????? ??????????? ????????????
??????????, ????? ?????????? ??????????? ????? ? ? ????? ??????.
???????? ?????? ???????????? ????????? (?????????? ???????????, ???????, ? ????? ???): ????????? ????, ??????????? ?????? (??? ????????????
??????, ? ????? ?? ???????????? ?????), ????????????? ????????????????
(????? ??????, ??????????? ????????????? SLI (?? ????. Scalable Link
Interface, ??? ???????? Ф?????????????? ?????????╗ ? ?????????? ????????
??????????? ?????? ????, ???? (3-Way SLI) ??? ???? ??????? (Quad SLI) ?????????????? ????????????, ??? ??????????? ???????? ??????????????????
?????).
? ????????? ????? ? ??????????? ????? Core ix ? ???????? LGA 1156 ???????? ???? ??????? ? ????????? ? ??????????? ? ?????? ?? ?????????? ????
QPI ?? ????????? ?????????? 2,5и109 ???????? ? ???????. ?? ????? ??????????
??????????? ????????? ????? ???????? ?????????????? ????????????? ????
FSB ? ??????? ???? QPI ? ???????? ????????.
Southbridge. ??? ????? ??????????? ??????? ???????? ??????????????
?????????? ?????-?????? (?? ????. I/O Controller Hub, ICH), ??? ??????????
28
????? ????, ???????? ??? ????? ???????????? ?????????? (????? ????????
????) ? ????????????, ?? ????? ?????????? ? ???????? ??????????????:
?
??????????? PCI (X, E) ??????????, SMBus (I2C), LPC, IDE/SATA
DMA, IRQ, ISA;
?
Super I/O: ?????????? floppy-??????????; ?????????? LPT-?????; ?????????? COM-??????; MIDI, ????????, ???????????? ???? ? ?. ?.;
?
???? ????????? ??????? RTC (?? ????. Real Time Clock);
?
BIOS (CMOS) ?????? ? ?????????????????? ????????? ???????????;
?
??????? ????????????????? APM ? ACPI;
?
???????? ?????????? (AC97);
????? ???????? ? ???? ??????????? Ethernet, USB, RAID, FireWire ?
?. ?.
???????????? ?????? ????? ???????? ??? ?????????????? ? ????????
????????????. ??? ?????????, ?? ???????? ???????????? ? ????????? ?????????? ????????, ???????? ?? ?????????? ?????? ????????? (???????? ?????????, ????????, ?????????? ??????????? ????? ? ?. ?.). ?????? ?????? ?????,
??? ???????, ?????????? ????????? ????? ??????????? ?????, ??????? ??????
??? ????????????? ??-?? ?? ??????? ????????? ? ?????? ?? ????????????.
BSB. ???? BSB (?? ????. Back Side Bus) ?????? ??? ?????????? ???????????? ?????????? ? ???-??????? ??????? ?????? ??? ???????????, ? ??????? ???????????? ??????? ??????????? ???? DIB (?? ????. Dual Independent
Bus), ??????? ???????? ????????? (???????) ????? ? ?????????? L2-cache.
QPB. ????????? Intel ???? ??????????? ????????? ???? QPB (?? ????.
Quad Pumped Bus), ?????????? ?????? 64-????????? ????? ?????? ??? 2 ?????? ?? ????, ????? ??? ?????????? ???????? ???????? ?? ????????? ???? GTL+
??? ???????? ????? ????? ??????????? ???????? AMD ????????? ???? ???
???????? ??????????? ????? ?7 ????????????? ???? EV6 ??? ???????????
AMD Athlon ? Athlon XP, ?????????? ?????? ??? ???? ?? ???? (Double Data
Rate).
?????? ???? ????????? ??????????? ??????? ? ????????????, ??? ?????????? ??????????. ?????? ?????????????? ?? ????? ?? ????????? ?? ?????????
?????????? ?????????? ????????????, ???????????? ??? ?????????? ?????????????? ???????? ???????? ??????, ??? ??? ??????????, ??? ? ??? ?????? ???????.
DMI. DMI (?? ????. Direct Media Interface) ? ????, ??????? ???? ??????????? ????????? Intel, ??? ?????????? ?????? ? ????????? ?????? ???????????
?
29
?????. ??? ??????? LGA 1156 ?? ?????????? ???????????? ?????? (????????
Core i3, Core i5 ? ????????? ????? Core i7 (???????? 800)), DMI ????????? ????????? ? ?????? PCH (?? ????. Platform Controller Hub) ?? ?????????? CtC (??
????. Chip-to-Chip).
PCH ????????, ?? ????, ???????? ?????? ?????, ?????? ???????????? ????? ?????????? ????? P55 Ibex Peak. ?????????? ? ????? ??????? ??????????
??????????? ?????????? ?????????? ?????? ????? ?????? ???????? Intel, ?
????? ?????????????? ?????????? PCI-Express ??? ?????????.
??????? ?????????, ???????????? ? ??????? ?????????? DMI, ????
?????????? ????? Intel i915, ?? ?????? ?????? LGA 1156, ?????????? ??????????????? ? 2004 ?.
?????????? ??????????? DMI ?????????? 2 ?????/?. ??-?? ????? ????????? ???????? ???????? Intel ????? ?? ????????????? ???????, ??????? ?????????? ??????, PCI-Express ? ??????????????? ????????? DMI ? ??? ?????????.
HyperTransport. HyperTransport (????? ????????? ??? Lightning Data
Transport) ? ?????????? ????????????????/???????????? ?????, ????????????? ?
?????????????? ?????????? P2P (?? ????. point-to-point), ??????? ?????????
???????????? ?????????? ??????? ???????? ??? ?????? ?????? ???????????
(?? ????. Low-latency responses), ??? ???????????? ??????????????? ?????,
????? ??????????? ? ?????????????? ? ?????????? ? I/O Controller Hub. ?????????? ????? ???????????? ????? ?? ?????? ??????????, ????????, ????????????????? ??????????? ?????????? ???????? ? ???? ? ?????? (??? ???????????
????????????? ??????? ????? ??????) ??? ????? ???????? ???????????????
???? ???????.
HyperTransport ???????????? ??????????????? ????? ??????? ??? ? ?????? ?? ?? ?????????? ??????. ????? ??? ???????????? DDR (?? ????. Double
Data Rate), ??? ????????? ??????????? ?? 5,2О109 ??????? ? ??????? ? ????????
????????????? ??????? ?? ?????? 2,6 ???.
QPI. ?????????? ????? ????????? ???? ?? ???????? Intel, ??????????
QPI (?? ????. Quick Path Interconnect, ????? ????????? ??? Common-System
Interface, ??? CSI), ??????????? ? ??????????????? ??????????? ?????? ?
??????? ???????????????? ???? P2P ??? ??????? ? ?????????????? ? ??????????? ??????.
????????????? ????????? ???????? ????????? ? ?????? ??????? ??????? ????? ??????? ?????????? ? ?????????? ??????????? ????. ? ?????????
30
?????????? ? ????????????? ??????????? ?????? ????????? ????????????? FSB
??? ??????????? ? ? ?????? ???? ???????? ????????? ???????????? ???????????? ??????? Ф??????????? ????????╗. ??????????? ???????????? ??????????
FSB ???? ???????? ???? ?????? ????????? ? QPI. ????? ?????????? ??????????? ??????? ?????? ???? ????????? ???? ????????? ??????????? (??? ????????????????) ???????? ? 25,6 ??/?.
?????? ??????????, ??????????? ?? ?????????? ????????????? ????????? ???? QPI, ????????? ?? ????? ? ?????? 2008 ?. ?????? ?????????? ???????? ?????? ??????????? ???????????, ?? ????? ? ????????? AMD, ??????????? ????????? ???? HyperTransport.
????? ?????????????? ????????????? ???? ???????? Intel ? Nehalem ???????? ???????????? ???????? ???????????? ?????????? ???? ?????????? Intel
x86. ???? ??????????? ? 2010 ?. QPI ???????? ? ?????????? ????? Itanium 9300,
??????? ??????? ??? Tukwila, ??? ???????? ??????? ????? ?????? ??? ??????,
??????????? ?? ???? Itanium. ?????? ? QuickPath ? ?????????? ????????????
?????????? ?????????? ??????, ? ????????? ?????? ????? ?????????? ????????? QPI ??? ?????????????? ? ??????? ???????????? ? I/OCH. ?????? ? ????
????????? ???????? ???????? ???????? ? ????? ????????? ???? QPI, ??? ?????? ????????? ??????????? ????????????? ?????? ??????? ????????????
Tukwila ? Nehalem.
?????? ???? ?????????? ???????? ??????????????? ?????????? ??????
? ?????????? ?????????? ??? ??????????? ???? ???????????. ?????? ????????? ?????? ??? ??????????? ????????? ????????:
?
???????? ?????????????????? ? ???????? ?????? ? ???????;
?
??????????? ?????????? ?????? ???????????? ??????????? ??? ????? ?????????? ? ????? ???????????? ???????;
????????????? ?????????? ????????????? RAS (?? ????. Reliability,
Availability, Serviceability, ??? ???????? ???????? Ф??????????, ??????????? ? ???????????????╗) ? ?????? ??? ?????????? ??????????
??????? ????? ?????, ??????????????????? ? ????????????????????.
??????? ? ???????? LGA 1366 ?????????? ???? DMI ??? ????? ?????
???????? ?????? ? ????? ??????. ? ?????????? ??? ?????? LGA 1156 ?????? ?? ????? ???????? ?????????? QuickPath, ?. ?. ??????? ??? ??????? ??????
??????????????? ? ????????????????? ??????????????, ? ?????????? ????????? ????? ?? ???????? ??????? ? ??? ?????????, ??? ?????????? ????????????
?
31
???? DMI ??? ????? ?????????? ? ???????? ?????? ?????. ?????? ??????????
???? QPI ???????????? ? ??????????? ?????? LGA 1156 ??? ????? ???? ? ??????????? ??????????? PCI-e ?????? ?????? ??????????.
??????, ???????????? ? ???? ????????? (???????), ? ????????? ???? QPI
?????????? ?? ???? ????????????? ???????, ?????? ?? ??????? ??????? ??
20 ??? ????????. ????? ?????? ?????? ?????????? 20 ???, ??? ???? 16 ???
?????? ??? ???????? ????????????? ?????? (???????? ????????). ???????????? ?????????? ??????????? ?????? ?????? ??????????? ?? 4,8О109 ??
6,4О109 ?????????? ? ???????, ?????????????, ????? ???????????? ??????????
??????????? ?????? ?????????? ???????????? ? ????????? ?? 19,2 ?? 25,6 ??/?
? ???? ????????????, ??? ??????????, ??????????????, ?? 9,6 ?? 12,8 ??/? ? ?????? ???????.
? ????????? ????? ????????? ???? QPI ?????????? ? ???????? ??? ????????? ???????. ??????? ??? ?????????????? ? ???, ??? QPI ??????????? ???????????? ????????????? (? ???) ?????? ? ????????????? ?????????? ?????? ? ??? ???????????, ??? ? ?????? ? ?????????????? ???????? ?????????
???, ??????????, ?????????.
??? ?????????? ?????, ??? ???????????????? ????? ???????????? ??????? ?? ?????? QPI ???????????????, ??? ??? ???? ?????????? ???????? ?????????? ??????????? QPI ? 2 ???? ?????? ??????? ?? ?????? ?? ?????????? ?????????? ? ??????, ???? ??? ??????? ????????????? ?????? ?? 3 ????????
???????????????? ??????????? ?????????.
????? ???? PCI ? PCI-Express ??? ???? ???????????, ??????? ?????
?????????? ???? ????????? ??????????? ? ??????????.
PCI-???? ? ???? ??? ?????????? ??????????? ????? ? ?????????????
???????????? ?????????? ????. ?????????? ?????????? ????? PCI Express.
PCI Express-???? ?????????? ???????????????? ???????? ??????, ?????????????? ?????????????????????? ?????????? ?????????? ?? ?????? ??????????? ?????? ???? PCI. ? ????? ? ??? ??? ????????????? ???????????? ???????? ?????? ??? ??????? ????????? ?????????????????? ????? ????????
?????????? ?? ??????????, ???????????????? ???????? ?????? ???????? ???????????? ??????????????? (1x, 2x, 4x, 8x, 16x ? 32x), ? ??????, ????? ??????????? ? ??????????.
????????? PCI Express ? ????? ?????? ???????????? ????? ?????? ? ??????????????? ????? ????? ????????? ????? ?????, ???????????? ?????????????, ? ?????? ?????? ??????? ?????????? ??????????? P2P.
32
?????????????? ????????????? PCI Express ????????:
?
??????????? ??????? ?????? ????;
?
??????????????????;
?
????????????;
?
??????????? ???????? ??????????? ???????, ?????????????? ??????
??????????? ? ?????????? ??????? ???????, ? ????? ????? ??????????
QoS (?? ????. Quality of Service);
?
??????????? ?????? ?? ????????????????? ???????????? ASMP (??
????. Active State Power Management) ? ??????? ?????????? ? ?????
???????????? ????????????????? ? ?????? ??? ??????? ? ??????? ??????????? (??????????? ??????????) ????????? ???????;
???????? ??????????? ?????????? ? ????????? ??????, ??????????????? ??? ???????? ? ???????? Data Link ??????????? ? ?????? ?????? (? ????????) ??????????? ????? ?????????????????? ? ?? ?????,
??? ????????? ???????????? ??? ????????? ? ??????? ??????, ? ????? ?????? ? ???????? ????? ??? ? CRC (?? ????. Cyclic Redundancy
Check).
? ??????? ?? ???? PCI, ???????????? ??????????? ? ?????
32-????????? ???????????? ??????????????? ????, PCI Express ??????????
??????????????? ???????????????? ?????????? P2P, ? ?????????? ????? ?????
???????????? ??????? ?? (2, 4, 8, 16, 32) ??????????????? ?????.
?
1.6 ??????????? ???
?????? Ф??????????? ???╗ ????? ????????? ??????????? ? ????? ????????????? ??? ? ?????, ??? ? ? ??????? ??????. ? ????? ?????? ??? ???????????? ?????????? ???? ????? ???????? ?????? ??? ??????? ??????????.
????????????? ? ?????????????? ???????? ?????? Ф???????????╗ ????? ???? ????????? ??? ????????????? ???????, ??????????? ????????, ?????
?? ????????, ?????? ? ??? ??????????? ?????? ????? ????? ????????.
???????? ???? 15971?90, ??????????? ?????????????? ?????? ? ???
?????????????? ????????? ?????????????? ??????, ???????????? ?????????? ????????? ?????????? ? ?????????? ?????? ?????????????? ?????????? ? ?????? ? ???????? ?????????????? ??????????? ??????? ? ???????????? ???????????.
33
иииииииииииииииииииииииииииииииииииииииииииииииииииииииииииии
????, ??????????? ??? ? ??? ??????????? ?????????????
???, ??????? ???????? ?? ???????????, ???????????????? ?
?????????? ???????????.
иииииииииииииииииииииииииииииииииииииииииииииииииииииииииииии
??????? ??????????? ??? ???????? ???????????, ? ???? ?????? [10]:
1) ??????????? ????? ???;
2) ???????? ? ??????? ??????? ? ????????? ??????????? ????? ???;
3) ??????????? ? ??????????? ??????????? ? ???;
4) ????? ? ??????????? ?????????;
5) ??????????? ? ??????? ????????? ??????;
6) ??????? ????????????? ? ??????? ?????? ???;
7) ????? ???????? ??????;
8) ??????? ???????? ??????;
9) ??????? ????????? ????????? ???????? (??????????).
????? ???????, ???????? ??????????? ???????? ? ???? ??????????? ???
??????????? ??? ??????????? ?????????? ? ??????????. ??????? ??????????? ???????? ?????????????. ??????? ????????? ????? ???? ??? ?? ???????????
?????????? ? ?????, ??? ? ?? ??????????? ????????? ??? ???????????, ???????? ??????????? ?????????? ??? ??????????? ?????????? ?????-??????.
иииииииииииииииииииииииииииииииииииииииииииииииииииииииииииии
? ?????????? ??????? ????? ??? ????????????????? ????
?????????? ??????????????? ???????? ??? ???? ??????????, ????????????? ???????????? ??????.
1. ??????????? ??????????? ??????????? ?????????????? ?
??????????? ???????????? ? ??????????????? ?????????
??????? ??? ?????? ? ????????? ? ??? ??????.
2. ???????????? ??????????? ??????????? ? ????????????
???????????? ? ???????????? ?????? ?????? ??? ????????
?????? ? ??????. ?????? ???????? ? ??????????? ???
???????.
иииииииииииииииииииииииииииииииииииииииииииииииииииииииииииии
??????????? ??????????? ? ??? ??????????? ???, ?????????? ?????????? ?????????????? ??????????:
1) ????????? ?????????? ? ????????? ?????? ???????????? ????? ?????? ?????????? ??????????;
34
2) ????? ?????????? ? ????? ?????? ????? ????????? ?????????.
??????????? ???? ??????????? ???????? ??????? ? ????? 1930-? ??. ?
??????????? ????????????. ??????????? ???? ??????????? ? ??????? ??????????????, ? ??????? ?????????? ? ??????-?????????????? ?????????, ?. ?. ????????????? ?????????? ????????? ??????. ?????? ???????????, ? ??????? ???? ???????????? ???? ??????????? ???????????, ??? ???? I.
??????????? ??????????? ???????????? ? ??????????????? ??????????
???????????? ? ?????????????????, ????? ??? Microchip PIC, Atmel AVR, Intel
4004, Intel 8051, ? ????? ? ???-?????? ??????? ?????? x86-????????????????,
????????? ?? ??? ?????? ???? ????????? ?? ?????? ????? ??? ?????? ? ??????.
???????????? ??????????? (??? ???????). ??? ??? ????????????????? ???? ????? ???????? ?????????????? ??????, ??????????? ? ???????????? ? ??????????, ??????????? ? 1945 ?. ???????????? ?????? ??????
??? ????????. ??? ???????? ?? ??? ??? ?????????? ??? ?????????? ???????????? ??? ???-???????????? ??????????? ???. ?? ??????????? ????? ????? ??? ???? ???????? ?? ??????? 1.6.
???-???????????? ???????????????? ??? ??????? ?? (??. ???. 1.6):
1) ???????????? ?????????? (?? ? CPU), ??????????? ???????????????????? ?????????? (???) ? ?????????? ?????????? (??);
2) ??????????? ?????? (?? ? RAM);
3) ??????? (??????) ?????-??????, ? ??????? ???????????? ????????????? ?????????? ?????-?????? (???), ? ??? ????? ??????? ???????????? ?????????? ??? ??????? ?????? (??? ??? ??);
4) ??, ????? ??? ? ??, ????? ????? ??????????? ?????????? ??????
(???? ??????????? ?????????; ???? ??????????? ?????? ? ??.).
???????? ??? ???????, ? ???????????? ? ???????? ?????????? ???????????????? ???????????? ???????????????? ???:
1. ??????? ????????? ???????????. ???????? ????? ????????, ?????????? ?????? ???????? ? ???????? ??????? ?????????. ??? ????????,
??? ????? ?????????? ?????? ??? ???????????? ? ???????? ? ???????? ?????. ??????????? ???????? ??????????? ? ???????? ??????? ????????? ???????? ???????? ??????, ??? ???, ???????????
???????? 0 ??? 1. ???? ?????? ???????????? ? ?????? ?? 8 ????????,
?????????? ???????. ????? ??????????, ??????????? ? ???, ??-
35
???????? ? ??????? ???????? ???????? ? ??????????? ? ??????? ???
???????? ?????????????.
2. ??????? ??????????. ?????????? ??????????? ?????? ??????? ??
??????????????? ?????, ????? ?????? ?????????? ??????? ??????.
???????????? ?????????? ? ???????????? ?????? ??????? ?? ??????
???????? ????? ??????. ?????? ??????? ??????????? ?????? ?????
???????? ?????? ???, ????? ? ??????????? ? ??? ????????? ?????
???? ?? ???????????? ?????????? ??? ?????? ?? ? ???????? ?????????? ????????? ? ?????????????? ??????????? ????.
3. ??????? ???????????? ??????. ? ??????????? ?????? (??) ???
???????? ? ?????????, ? ??????. ??? ???? ??????????????? ???????? ????? ?????????? ? ??????? ???. ??????????? ????????? (??)
????? ????????? ? ?????????? ????? ?????? ?????? ?????????? ??
????, ???????? ? ??? ????? ????????? ??? ??????. ????? ????, ??????? ????????? ? ?? ???????? ??????????? ???????? ?? ??????????.
????????? ????????? ? ?? ?????????????? ??????????? ??????????? ????? ?????????? ?? ???? ?? ??? ? ?????? ? ??. ?? ????????
???????????? ?????? ??????? ??????????? ??????????? ???? ????????? ?? ????? ?? ??????????.
4. ??????? ???????????? ??????????. ?? ???? ???????, ??? ?????????
??????? ?? ?????????????? ?????? ??????, ??????? ??????????? ??
????????????? ???? ?? ?????? ? ???????????? ??????????????????.
???? ??????????? ????????? ???????? ? ??, ?????? ??????? ?? ??
????????? ??????? ??? ?????????? ?????????????? ?? ???????? ???????? ???????????? ????????. ????? ??????? ?? ????????? ???????
???????? ???????????? ???????? ????????????? ????????????? ??
????? ????????? ???????.
1.7 ??????????? ???????????? ??????????
??? ??? ?????????? ????, ??????? Ф???????????╗ ????????? ?? ?????? ?
?????????? ? ?????, ?? ? ? ????????? ??? ???????????, ?????? ????? ? ??????????. ?????????? ???????? ??????????? ???????????, ?????????????
??????? ??????.
CISC (Complex Instruction Set Computing, ??? Complex Instruction Set
Computer ? ????????? ? ?????? ??????? ??????) ? ????????? ??????????????
???????????, ??????? ??????????????? ????????? ??????? ???????:
36
?
??????????????? ???????? ????? ???????;
?
?????????????? ???????? ?????????? ? ????? ???????;
????????? ????? ?????????, ?????? ?? ??????? ????????? ??????
???????????? ???????.
????????? ??????????????? CISC-??????????? ???????? ?????????? ??
?????? ?????? Intel x86 (???????? ??????????? Intel Pentium 4, Pentium D,
Core, AMD Athlon, Phenom, ??????? ???????? ??????????) ? ??????????
Motorola MC680x0.
???????? ???????????????? ??????????? ??????????? ??????????, ????????? ? ????????? ??????????? ????????? ?? ??????????? Intel x86 (??? ?8664 ? ?????? 64-????????? ???????????). ????????? ??? ?86-?????????? ???????? CISC-????????????.
?????? ????? ??????????, ??????? ? Intel Pentium Pro, ???????? CISC???????????? ? RISC-?????. ??? ??????????????? ????? ??????????? ??????????? CISC-?????????? ??????????? x86 ? ????? ??????? ????? ??????????
?????????? RISC. ? ?????????????? ???????????? ?????????? ??????????,
???????????? ??????? x86 ? ??????? ??????????? RISC-??????????. ???
???? ???? ??????? x86 ????? ????????? ????????? RISC-?????? (? ??????
??????????? ???? P6 ? ?? ??????? RISC-?????? ? ??????????? ???????). ?????????? ?????? ?????????? ?? ?????????????? ????????? ???????????? ??
????????? ????.
??? ????????????? ??? ?????????? ???????? ????????? CISC-??????, ???
??? ????????, ??? ????? CISC-????????? ???????? RISC-??????????? ?? ?????????? ??????????? ???????? ? ???????. ????? ?????? ? ???????? ???????
?????????????????? CPU.
RISC (Restricted (Reduced) Instruction Set Computer ? ????????? ? ??????????? ??????? ??????) ? ??????????? ??????????, ? ??????? ??????????????
????????????? ?? ???? ????????? ??????????, ????? ?? ????????????? ????
????? ???????, ? ????? ?????????? ? ???????. ?????? RISC-?????????? ???? ?? ????? ?????????? ????????? ? ???????.
??? ????? ????????? ????????? ???????? ??????? ? ?????? ????? ??????????? ???????????????? (????????????????? ?????????? ????? ???????????
??????????????? ???????).
?????? ?????????? ? ????? ?????? ???????????? ??? ?????????? ???????
????????? ???????? ?? ?????? ??????????? ??? ????? ? ???????? ?????, ?
????? ??? ????????? ?????????? ???????????? ????????? ??? ????? ??????
?
37
??????. ??????? ? ?????? ?????????? ?????????? ??? ?????? ????????? ??????????? ?????? ???????? ??????.
?????? ??????????? ???? ??????? ? ??????????? ??????????, ??? ???????, ????????? ??? ????????? ?????? ????????? (?. ?. Ф??????????????? ??????? ??????╗), ????????, ? ????????, ? ????????? ? ?????????????? ?????????
???????? ?? ?????? ? ?????????, ?? ? ????? ???????????????? ?????????, ?
????? ? ??????. ??????? ????? ??????????? ???? ??????? CISC.
?????? ????? RISC-??????????? ? ?????? ??????????? ?????? ??-?? ?????????? ???????????? ??????????? ??? ???. ??? ???????? ???? ?????? ????????? UNIX-???????? ???????????? ?????? (SunOS) ?? RISC-???????????.
? ????????? ????? ?????? ??????????? ??????????? ???????? RISC?????????, ???????? ARM, DEC Alpha, SPARC, AVR, MIPS, POWER ? Power
PC.
???????? ?????? ???????????? ? ?????????? ??????????? ??????????
??????????? x86 ????? ???????? CISC-????????????, ?????? ????? ??????????, ??????? ? Intel 486DX, ???????? CISC-???????????? ? RISC-?????. ???
??????????????? ????? ??????????? ??????????? CISC-?????????? x86??????????? ? ????? ??????? ????? ?????????? ?????????? RISC.
????? ???? ??? ?????????? ??????????? x86 ???? ?????????? ?? ?????????????? RISC-???????????, ????? ???????, ??? ??????????? ????????????
???? ??????????? ???????? ?? ??????????? RISC.
????????? ????????? ??????????? ? ????????????? CISC ? RISC ?????? ?
??????? 1.3
??????? 1.3 ? ????????? ??????????? ? ?????????? ????????????? [12]
??????????????
?????????? ??????????
?????? ?????????
?????? ??????????, ????
????? ????????? ??????
?????????? (???)
CISC
VAX11/780 Intel 486
303
235
22
11
2?57
1?12
16
8
RISC
MIPS R4000
94
1
4
32
????? ??????????, ??? ??????? ???? ?????????? SPARC-???????????.
SPARC (Scalable Processor ARChitecture ? ?????????????? ??????????? ??????????) ? ??? ??????? ??????????? RISC-????????????????, ????????????? ????????????? ? 1985 ?. ????????? Sun Microsystems.
38
??????????? ??????????? ??? ?????????? ???????????. ? ????????? ??????????? ? ????????? ? ???????? ??????????? ??? ??????????? ??????????? ? Intel ?86 ? ARM.
??????????? x86 (????. Intel 80О86) ? ??????????? ?????????? c ??????????? ??????? ??????, ??????? ????????????? ? ??????????? ????????
Intel. ?????????? ???? ??????????? ?????? ??????????? ? ?????????? ??????????? ? ?????????. ????? ????? ???? ???????????? ??????????? ???????????, ??????????????? ??? ?????????? ???????????, ? ?? ????????? ????,
??????????? ?????????? ? ???? ????????????. ??????????, ??????????? ?
?????????: Intel« Atom?; NVIDIA Tegra 3; Intel Core i5-3427U.
??????? ???????????? ??????????? ?? ??????????? Intel x86 ? ????????????? ? ?????????? ????????????? ???????????, ? ?????????? ? ????????
??????? ?????????????????, ?? ??????? ????????? ?????????? ??? ??????? ?
5 ??? ??????, ??? ? ??????????? ?? ??????????? ARM.
?????????? ???????? ????????????????? ?????????? ??????????? ?86
???????????????, ??? ???????, ? ???????? ? ???-????????, ??? ????????? ??????? ?? ???????? ??????????? ?????????. ?????????? ?????????????????
?????? ???????? ??????????? ????? ????????? ? ???-??????? ???????????????
????????????, ??? ???????????? ??????????? ?????????? ????? ?????????? ?????? ???????? ? ?86 ? ????????? ? ????????? ??????????? ARM.
??????????? ARM (Advanced RISC Machine ? ???????????????????
RISC-??????, RISC ? Reduced Instruction Set Computing, ????????? ? ??????????? ??????? ??????). ? ??????????? ARM ??????????? ?????????? ?
?????????? 32-?????? ? 64-?????? ????????????????? ???? ?????????? ???????? ARM Limited. ???????? ?????????? ?????? ??????????? ???? ? ???????????? ??? ??? (???????????, ???????? ??????? ? ?. ?.).
???????????????? ????????????? ??????????? ???????? ?? ??????????,
???????????? ??????????? ???????????? ?????? ???????? ?? ????????. ?????????? ??????????? ARM ????? ?????? ?????????????????, ?????? ??????????? ? ????????? ???????????, ??? ??? ?? ??????? ??????????????? ??????????. ??????? ????????, ??? ?????????? ??????????? ARM ??????????? ??
?????? ? ?????????? ? ?????????, ?? ? ? ????????????, ???????????, ? ????? ?
????????????? ???????????.
???????? Apple ????? ????????????? ???? ?????????? ?? ???????????
ARM, ?? ??? ????? ??????????? ???????? Ф?╗. ?????????? ?????????? ?????
39
Samsung ? ?????? ????????. ?????????? Ф?╗ ??????????????? ? ?????????
????????, ?? ?????? ????????????? ?????? Apple.
иииииииииииииииииииииииииииииииииииииииииииииииииииииииииииии
??????????? ??????? ?? ????? 1
иииииииииииииииииииииииииииииииииииииииииииииииииииииииииииии
1. ??? ????? ?????????????? ???????
2. ??? ????? ??????????-?????????????? ?????? (???)?
3. ??? ????? ??????? ????????? ???????
4. ??? ????? ??????? ????????
5. ????? ???? ??????????? ??? ???????????
6. ?? ????? ???? ???????? ??????????? ??????? ??????????? ??????????
7. ??????????? ???????? ?????????? ????????? ????? ?????????????
??????????.
8. ?????? ?????????? ????????? ???? DMI?
9. ????? ?? ????????? ??????? ??????????? ? ???????????? ???? ??,
?? ???????? ???????? ???? ?????????? ???????????? ??????????.
10. ??????????????? ??????????? ?????????? SPARC. ?????? ?? ???????? ????????????
40
2 ???????????? ??????????
2.1 ?????????? ? ?????? ??????????
?????? ?????? ? ??????????? ? ???????????? ???? ?????????? ????????
??????????? ?????????? ? ??? ?????????????????? ? ????????? ???????? ?????, ??????????????? ??????? ???????? ? ??????.
????????? ?????????? ????????????, ?????????????? ? ??????, ???????? ??????? ?????????????? ???????, ????? ????? ??????? ? ??????, ?????? ?????????, ???????????????????.
??? ?????????? ????????????? ? ?????? ? ????????? ????? ?? ?????????? ??????? ??????????? ?????????? ??????, ????????? ????????????????
????????????? ????????? ???????????, ??????? ?????? ?????????? ??????????? ?? ? ???? ?????????? ??????????, ? ? ???? ????????????? ??????????????
???????, ?????????????? ????? ???????????? ????????????????? ?????????
??????.
2.2 ???????? ?????? ??????????
иииииииииииииииииииииииииииииииииииииииииииииииииииииииииииии
???????? ?????? ? ??????, ???????????? ? ??????????????
??????? ??? ?????????????? ? ???????????????? ???, ?? ????????, ??? ????????? ???? ?????? ???????? ????????, ?? ?????????
??????? ??????? ??????????? ?????????? ?????? ? ????????????
???????? ???????, ??????????, ????????, ?????????? (???. 2.1).
иииииииииииииииииииииииииииииииииииииииииииииииииииииииииииии
??????????? ?????????? ???????? ?????? ??????? ???, ??? ???????????
?????????? ?????????? ? ?????? ?????????? ??????? ? ?????????? ??????
??????, ??????? ????? ???? ??????? ? ????? ???????, ?? ??????? ? ???????
????????? ??????. ????????????? ????? ??????? ?????? ??????????? ?????????????????? ?????????????? ???????. ??? ??????? ? ?????? ?????? ?????????? ?????????? ???????? ?????? (???????????? ??????????).
иииииииииииииииииииииииииииииииииииииииииииииииииииииииииииии
????, ? ???????? ????????, ??? ???? ??????? ??????, ???
???? ?? ??????????????, ?? ?????? ???????.
иииииииииииииииииииииииииииииииииииииииииииииииииииииииииииии
41
???.
????,
?. ?. ???-??????
???.
???????? ??????
????????? ??????? ??????
(????????? ? ???????)
????????? ??????? ???????? ??????
(???????)
???. 2.1 ? ???????? ???????? ???????????? ??????
(???. ? ???????? ??????????)
????? ?????????? ??????????? ? ?????????? ????????? ???? ??????.
???????? ?????????? ? ??? ????????? ???? ???????????????? ?????? ?
??????? ???????????? ??????????. ????? ?????????? ????? ?????? ??????????? ?????????? ? ????????. ????????, ???? ??? ????? ??????????, ?? ???
?????? ?????????? ? ?????????, ? ????????? ???????????? ???? ? ???????. ????? ????, ??????? ????? ????????? ?? ???? ?????, ? ????? ?????? ??????, ???
??? ????????. ?????????? ?????????, ????????? ???????????? ??????????, ?
?????? ??????? ?? ??? (?????????? ????????) ????????? ?????????? ???????? ?
?????????????????? ??????????. ????????, ? 32-????????? ?????????? ??????
??????? ?????????? ???????????? ???????? ?????? ?????? ? 32 ???????. ???
???????, ?????? ? ?????????? ?????????? ??? ????????????? ? ???? ??? ?????????????. ?????? ????????? ?? ????? ?????????? ????? ?????????????? ??????????. ? ?????? ???????? ?????? ?????????? ???????? ?? ??????? ????????
? ???????? ?????? ? ?????????????? ????????, ??????? ?????? ? ?????????.
????????, ??? ???????, ????? ???? ???????? ?????????, ??? ? ???????? ??????, ?? ? ????????? ??????? ????? ???? ?????????? ? ??????.
42
иииииииииииииииииииииииииииииииииииииииииииииииииииииииииииии
???????? ?????? (??, ????. main storage) ? ???????????
?????? ???????????? ?????????? ??? ?? ?????, ??????????????
?????? ???????????? ?????? [4].
иииииииииииииииииииииииииииииииииииииииииииииииииииииииииииии
??????????? ?????? (??? ? ??????????? ???????????? ??????????)
????????????? ??? ???????? ??????????, ? ??????? ?????????? ????? ??????????, ? ???????????? ?????? ?? ??????, ?????????? ? ???????? (???. 2.2).
???? ??? ?????? ???????? ????? ??????? ? ???????????? ???????? (Random
Access Memory, RAM). ?? ??????? ?????????? ??????????????? ???????? ???
???? ???: SRAM (Static RAM) ? DRAM (Dynamic RAM).
???. 2.2 ? ??????? ??? ?????? ??????????? ??????
SRAM ? ??? ???, ????????? ?? ?????????, ?????????? ??????????? ??????? ? ???????????? ???????? ??? ?????? ??????????? ???????. ???????????
????? ???? ? ??????? ????????. ?????????? ? ????????? ???????????? ??????,
???????? ????? ?????.
DRAM ? ????? ??????????? ???????????? ??? ??????. ??? ????????
??????? (????) ???????????? ?????, ????????? ?? ?????? ???????????? ? ??????
???????????. ????? ???????, DRAM ? ??????? ? ??????????, ?? ??? ???? ??
?????????????? ????. ? ????? ? ???? ??????? ?????? ?????? ?? ???????
DRAM, ? SRAM ???????????? ??? ?????????? ???-?????? ? ????????????????.
???????? ?????????????? ?????????? ? ???????? ???????. ????? ??
??????? ?????????????? ???????? ???????????? ?????????? ?????????????
?????????? ? ??. ??? ??????????? ?????? ???????? ???????????????? ????????? ????? ??????????? ????? ??????? ?????????????? ?? ????????? ? ??????????????? ??. ??? ???? ? ?????? ???????? ??????? ??????????? ??? ??????? ???? ? ???????? ?????? ?????????? ??????? ? ?? ?????????? ???????? ?
?????? ?? ?? (??? ????????? ??????????).
43
???????? ????????????? ???????? ???????????? ?????????? ????????????? ?????????? ? ?? ???????? ??????????? ??. ??? ???????????? ?????????? ????????????? ????????????????? ???????? ?????? ???????????? ?????? ???????, ??????????? ?? ????????? ?????? ???????????? ???? (?????????),
??????? ????? ????? ??????? ?????????????? ?? ????????? ? ?????????????
?????????? ??.
иииииииииииииииииииииииииииииииииииииииииииииииииииииииииииии
???-?????? (????. cache memory) ? ???????????????? ???????????? ?????????? (????), ?????????? ??????? ????? ??????????? ???????????? ??????????? (???) ? ??? Ф?????????╗ ?
??????????? (????? ??? ???????????) ? ??????? ?????????? ????????? ????.
иииииииииииииииииииииииииииииииииииииииииииииииииииииииииииии
???-?????? ?? ???????? ??????????????? ??????????; ?????????? ?
??? ??????????? ????????? ?????????? ??????, ??????????? ???? ??? ???
Ф?????????╗. ??? ?????? ????? ?????? ?????? ??? ???????? ???, ? ???????
??????????? ????????? ?????????, ? ?????? ????????? ??????????? ????????? ? ??? ?? ?????? ????? ????????? ???-??????? ??????????? ???????, ???
??????????? ???????. ?? ????????????? ????????? ??????????? ??????? ??????????? ?????????? ????????????? ?????? ? ???-?????? ?, ?????????????,
??????? ? ?????????????????? ?????? ? ?????????? ? ?????.
???-?????? ??????????? ? ???????????????? ???????? ?? ?????????????
????, ??? ???? ?? ?????? ???????? ??????????, ???? ??? ???????? ?????? ????????? ?????????? (??? 1-?? ?????? ? L1). ?????????????? ?????? ????????? ??
????????? ??????????? ? ?????????? ?????????? ??? ??????? ???????. ?????
?????????? ???-?????? ??????????? ????? ????????? 32 ?????. ? ??????????? ??????????? ??????????? ?????????? 2- ??? 3-????????? ???-??????.
??? ????? ????????????? ???? ?????? ????????? ?????? ?????????
???????. ?????? ?? ??????????? ?????????????? ? ??????? 2.1. ????? ????,
????? ?? ?????????? ?????????????? ?????????? ? ?????????? ??????? ??????? ??????, ??????? ?????????? ?????.
?????????? ??????. ?????????? ?????? (??? ? ?????????? ???????????? ??????????) ?????? ???????? ????? ??????????, ??????? ?? ?????? ???????? ? ???? ?????????? ??????????? ????????? ????????. ?????????? ?????? ????? ????? ???????? ROM (Read Only Memory), ??????? ????????? ?? ??,
??? ?????????????? ?????? ?????? ?????????? ? ????????.
44
??????? 2.1 ? ???????? ????????? ???????????? ??????
? ?????????????? ?? ???????
???????
??????
??????????
?????????
????????
?????????
??????????
??????
????????
??????????
????,
?. ?. ???-??????
???????????
????????????
??????????
(??? ? RAM)
????????
???-??????
???????
??????????????
?????????????????
0,2?0,5 ??
1?5 ??
??
32?512 ??
5?20 ??
??
1?4 ??
30?100 ??
??
1?8 ??
50?100 ???
??
3?15 ??
???
????????? ????? 100?1 000 ??
?????????,
?????????
(???????,
????????)
??????????
?????
0,7? 9 ??
50 ??
???
????-??????
8?64 ??
25?50 ???
2?25 ??/?
???
0,1?1 ??
300?500 ??/?
???
1?200 ??
10?60
??/????
???
?????????????
?????????? (SSD)
????????? ?????
(???????)
?????????? ?????? ????????????????, ?. ?. ????? ????????? ??????????
? ??? ??????????? ???????. ?????? ????????? ???? ???, ???????? ?????????? BIOS, ???????? ??????? ??????????????????, ?. ?. ??? ????? ???????
??????? ?? ??????? ??? ????????????.
иииииииииииииииииииииииииииииииииииииииииииииииииииииииииииии
??????? ?????? (????. external storage) ? ??????, ?????? ?
??????? ???????? ???????????? ?????????? ??????????? ???????? ?????-??????.
иииииииииииииииииииииииииииииииииииииииииииииииииииииииииииии
??? ???????? ???????? ? ?????? ? ???????????? ??????????? ?????????? ??????? ?????? ? ?????????? ???? ?????????? (????, CD/DVD, SSD,
????-??????????), ????? ??????? ???????, ??? ???????, ? ????? ??? ??????????? ??????? ??????????? ??????.
????????? (????. drives). ? ????????? ???? ?? ???????????? ?????????
(?????????? ?? ?????? ? ??????? ????????? ??????). ??? ????????? ?????-
45
?????? ????????? ? ?????????? ????????? ????? ??? ??????? ???????? ??
??????? ?????? ??????????.
?????? ?????????? ??????????? ????????????? ? ???????????? ????????????, ???????????? ? ???? ???????? ????, ???????????????? ? ???? ??
???????? ?? ????????? ????? ??? ??????????? ??????????????? ?? ?????????.
2.3 ?????????? ?? ??????? ????????? ??????
?????????? ?? ??????? ????????? ?????? (????, HDD ? Hard Disk
Drive) ? ?????????? ???????? ??????????, ?????????? ?? ???????? ?????????
??????. ???????? ???????? ??????????? ?????? ? ??????????? ??????????? ?
??????????????? ? ????????? ???????????. ?????? ??????? ????, ????????????? ?????? IBM, ??????? ? ????????????? ???????? Ф?????????╗, ?? ???????? ??? ???????? ??????????? ?? ????? ???????? ??????? (???. 2.3).
???. 2.3 ? ?????????? ?? ??????? ????????? ??????
??????? ????? ????? ????? ????????? ??????? ? ?? 100 ?? ?? ?????????? ????????. ?????????????? ??????? ?????? ????? ??????????? ???????????.
?????????????? ??????????????? ??????? ???????? ??????? ? ?????????? ??????? ????? ??????? ??????????? ??????? ??????????? ?? ?????? ?????????
?????? ? ??????? ?????? ???? ?????????? ? ????? (????????? ???????? ???????????).
46
?????????? ? ???? (??. ???. 2.3) ???????????? ?? ??????? (???????????, ???????????? ??? ??????????) ????????, ???????? ????? ??????????????? ?????????, ???? ????? ???????? ?????. ? ???? ???????????? ?? ?????
?? ?????????? ??????? ?? ????? ???. ??????????? ??????? ? ??????? ??????
?? ???????? ??????????? ??????? ????????? ???? ??????????? ?????? ???????,
????????????? ? ??????????? ??? ??????? (?????? ??./???) ????????. ?????????? ????? Ф?????????╗ ????????? ???????? ? ?????? ?????????? ???????? 0,1 ???, ? ?????????? ????????????? ???????? ???????????? ?????? ????
?????? ??????????. ??? ?????????? ???????? ?????? ??????? ????????? ?
???????? ??? ?? ????????? ????? ? ?????????? ????, ??? ???????? ?? ????????? ??????? ? ???????????? ??????. ??????? ???? ??????????, ??? ??? ???????????? ????????????????? ????, ????????? ????????? ????????? ????.
???????? ?????????????? ????
?????????. ??????? ??????????? ??????? ????? ????? ????????????
?????????? ATA (?? ?? IDE ? PATA), SATA, SCSI, SAS, FireWire, USB, SDIO
? Fibre Channel. ???????????? ??????? ??????????? ?????? ?????????? ??
????????? ?????.
??????? ??????????? ????????? ????????? 2 000 ?? (2 ??). ? ??????? ??
???????? ? ??????????? ??????? ?????????, ???????????? ??????? 1 024 ????????, ??????????????? ??? ??????????? ??????? ??????? ?????? ???????????? ????????, ??????? 1 000. ???, ??????? ???????? ?????, ??????????????
Ф200 ??╗, ?????????? 186,2 ??.
?????????? ?????? (????-??????). ????? ??? ????? ??????????? ??????????? ??? ???????????? ??????????? ? ???????? ????? ??????? ???? 3,5,
???? 2,5 ?????. ????? ???????? ??????????????? ??????? 1,8 ?????,
1,3 ?????, 1 ???? ? 0,85 ?????. ?????????? ???????????? ??????????? ?
????-???????? 8 ? 5,25 ??????.
????? ????????????? ??????? ? ?????, ?? ??????? ???? ??????????????
???????? ???????? ?????? ??? ?????? ?? ????? ??????? ?????????? ?????.
???????? ????? ????????? ??????? ? ?? 2,5 ?? 16 ??.
???????? ???????? ???????? (????. spindle speed) ? ?????????? ????????
???????? ? ??????. ?? ????? ????????? ? ???????????? ??????? ??????? ?????
??????? ? ??????? ???????? ???????? ??????. ? ????????? ????? ???????????
???? ?? ?????????? ???????????? ?????????? ????????: 4 200, 5 400 ?
7 200 (????????), 5 400, 7 200 ? 10 000 (???????????? ??????????), 10 000 ?
15 000 ??./??? (??????? ? ?????????????????????? ??????? ???????).
47
?????????? ???????? ?????-?????? ? ??????? ? ? ??????????? ?????? ???
????? 50 ??./? ??? ???????????? ??????? ? ?????????? ? ????? 100 ??./? ???
???????????????? ???????.
??????????? ??????? ? ?????? ?????? ??? ????????? ?????????.
??????? ???? ? ???, ??????? ?????????? ???????? ?????????? ??? ???
??????. ??????????? ? ?????????. ?????? ???????????? ????????? ??????????
? ??????? ???? ????? 26 ?? ? ????. ??? ??????? ?? ???? ???????? ????????
(? ??? ????? ?????????????????) ? ???? ????????????????.
???????? ???????? ?????? (????. transfer rate) ??? ???????????????? ???????:
1) ?????????? ???? ?????: ?? 44,2 ?? 74,5 ??/?;
2) ??????? ???? ?????: ?? 60,0 ?? 111,4 ??/?.
????? ?????? ? ??????????? ?????? ?????? ??????????? ?? 8 ?? 64 ??.
??????????? ???? ??????? ?? ????????? ? ????? ???????????.
????????? ???????? ? ???? ?????? ?? ???????? ??????, ?????????? ???????? ???????? ? ????????? ?????????, ???? ??????? ? ??????????? ????????????????, ????????????? ????????. ???? ??????? ? ????? ??????? ?? ??????????? ????? (?? ???? ?? ?????? ????). ????? ?????? ??? ?????????? ?? ???
????? ? ????? ?????. ?? ?????? ?????? (??? ???????) ?????????? ???????.
???????? ????????, ??? ???????, ??????????? ?? ?????????????? ??????.
???? ???? ??????? ?????? ?? ?? ???????? ? ???? ??????, ?? ????? ????????
????????? ???????? ? ??????????????. ??? ????????? ??????? ??????? ?????? ????? ?????????????? ? ??????? ??????, ???????? ? ?????? ????????.
??????????? ????????? ????????? ???????? 1 ??? 2 ????????, ?? ?????????? ?????? ? ???????? ?????? ???????.
????? ?????????? ?? ????????, ??????? ?? ????? ?????? ????????? ??
????????? ????????? ????? ??./???. ??? ????? ???????? ?????? ???????????
???????? ????????? ?????? ????????? ?????, ??????? ???????????? ???????
? ?????????? ?? ?????? ??? ???????????? ????????. ????? ??????? ?????????????? ???, ????? ??? ?????? ?????????? ??????????? ?????????? ?? ????????.
???? ????? ?? ??????????? ?? ????????, ??????????? ??? Ф??????╗ ???????,
??????????? ?????????? ?????????? ??????? ? ???? ????????. ??? ????????????? ??????????? ??????? ? ??????? ??????????? ???????. ??? ???????????
?????? ?????? ?? ??????? ???????? ? ????????? ???????????? ????????????????? ??????????.
48
?????????? ???????????????? ??????? ??????? ?? ??????????? ????
??????? ?????????? ?????????? ????????, ? ????? ??????? ?? ?????????
????? ???????. ?????? ????????? ??? ???????. ???? ????????????? ?????? ??
??????????? (?????? ? ????????) ? ????????? ????????? ? ????????? ???????? ??? ???????????? ??????, ? ????????? ??????; ? ??? ???????????? ???????? ????????????? ?????? ????????????? ??? ??????????? ????????.
(? ????? ?????? ?????? ??????? ???????? ????? ????????????????? ?????????
?????? ??? ???????? ??????????, ??????? ??????????? ??????? ????, ?????????? ?????? ??????? ????? ??? ????????????.) ?????? ????????????? ??????????? ???????? ????? ????????? ????????? ? ????????, ????????? ???????????
????? ?????? (????????? ???????????) ???????. ???????????? ???????? ??????????, ????? ????????????? ?????????? ??????? ????????? ??? ?????????
???????????? ???????? ? ???????????, ? ????? ??? ???????? ?????????? ??
????? ??????. ???????, ??????????? ??? ?????? ? ????????? ? ???????? ??
??????????? ?????, ??? ???????? ???????? ?? ??? ???? ?????? ? ?????????????.
???? ??????????? ??????????? ???? ???????? ??????????? ????, ?????????? ???????????? ?????????? (???), ???????? ??????, ????????????
???? ? ???? ???????? ????????? ????????. ???????????? ???? ????????????
?????????? ??????????? ???????? ????? ? ????????? ????????.
???? ?????????? ???????????? ????? ??????? ??????????, ???????????
????????????? ??????? ???????????????? ??????? ? ?????????????? ??????????? ??????????? ???????? ???? Ф???????? ???????╗, ?????????? ?????????????? ??????? ? ????????? ???????, ?????????? ??????? ???? ?????????
????? (? ???????, ?????????? ????????? ???????? ????????), ?????? ? ????????? ???????? ? ???????? ?????????? (??????? ???????? ????? ???????? ? ???? ????????? ????????????, ???????????? ? ???????? ??????? ?????, ????????? ????????????, ???????????? ? ???????? ??????? ?????????? ???????,
?????? ????????, ?????? ??????? ?????????, ?????? ???????????).
???? ??? ?????? ??????????? ????????? ??? ?????? ?????????? ?
???????? ????????? ???????, ? ????? ????????? ?????????? ??????????.
???????? ?????? ?????????? ??????? ????????? ???????????? ????? ?
?????????? (???????????? ????????????????? ??????????? ??????). ?????????? ??????? ???????? ?????? ? ????????? ??????? ????????? ????????? ???????? ?????? ??????????.
49
???? ???????? ????????? ??????? ???????????? ??????? ?????????? ??????????? ??????? ? ??? ????????????? (?????????? ???????? ??????????). ???
???????? ????????? ??????????? ????????? ??????, ???????? ????? PRML
(Partial Response Maximum Likelihood ? ???????????? ????????????? ??? ???????? ???????). ?????????????? ????????? ????????? ??????? ? ?????????.
??? ???? ?????????? ???????, ???????? ??????? ?? ????? ? ????????? ??????????????? ? ???????????? ????????.
?? ?????????????? ????? ?????? ?????????? ??????????? ??????? ????????????? ? ?? ??? ??????????? ??????? ? ???????. ?????????? ??????
???????????? ?????????????? ?/??? ??????????, ?? ?? ?????? ??????? ????????? ??? ??????? ????????? ?????, ???????????? ?? ??????. ??????? ? ???
???????????? ???????, ?????????????? ?? ??????, ?? ???? ??????? ???????????? ??????? ???????? ?????. ????? ??????? ?????? ???????????? ??????? ??????????? (?? ???? ?????????? ??????? ?? ????????), ? ????? ??????? ? ?????????? ?????? ?? ???????.
2.4 ?????????? ?? ?????????? ??????
?????????? ???? (????. optical disc) ? ????????????? ???????? ??? ????????? ??????????, ??????????? ? ???? ??????, ?????? ? ??????? ??????? ?
??????? ??????????? ????????? ?????????. ???? ?????? ???????, ??? ??????
??????? ?? ?????????????, ?? ??????? ??????? ??????????? ????, ??????? ?
?????? ??? ???????? ??????????. ??? ?????????? ?????????? ????????????
??? ??????, ??????? ???????????? ?? ??????????? ???? ? ?????????? ?? ????.
??? ????????? ??? ???????????? ??????????? ???????? (??????, ?? ????.
pit ? ????, ??????????, ???. 2.4) ?? ??????????? ????, ?? ????????? ????????????? ???? ????????? ??????????? ?????? ????????????????? ?????????? ??
???? ??????????.
?????????? ?? ????? ???????????? ? ???? ????? ?????????? ???????
??? ?????????? ????? (??????????), ??????????? ? ??????????????? ??????.
?????? ??? ????? ???????? 100 ?? ? ??????? ? 500 ?? ? ??????. ????? ????
??????????? ?? 850 ?? ?? 3,5 ???. ?????????? ????? ?????? ?????????? ??????. ??? ??????? ? ??????? ?????????? 1,6 ???. ?????? ????? ????? ???????????? ???????, ???????????? ?? ??????, ?????????? 4?5 ??.
50
???. 2.4 ? ???????-???? (CD) ??? ??????????? ???????????
?????????? ????????? ????? ?????????? ??????: CD, DVD, Blu-ray
(???. 2.5).
???. 2.5 ? ???????? ??? ?????? ? ?????? ?????????? ??????
CD-ROM (????. compact disc read-only memory) ? ????????????? ????????????? ? ??????????? ?? ??? ???????, ?????????? ?????? ??? ??????. ?????????? ???? ??? ?????????? ??? ???????? ????????????, ?? ???????????? ???
????????? ??? ???????? ? ?????? ???????? ??????. ? ?????????? ?? ???? CDROM ???? ??????????? ????? ??? ? ???????????, ??? ? ? ???????????? ??????????? (CD-R ? CD-RW).
????? CD-ROM, ? ??????? ? DVD-ROM ? ????? ?????????? ????????
??? ??????????????? ???????????? ???????????, ???????????? ???, ??????????? ? ??????, ? ????? ??? ???????? ?????????? ????? ????????????.
???????-???? ???????????? ????? ??????????????? ???????? ????????
1,2 ??, ???????? ?????? ????? ??????? (????????, ??????, ??????? ? ??.) ?
???????? ????? ????, ?? ??????? ?????? ????????? ??????????? ????????????? ?????????? ?????. ??????? ?????????? ????? ???????? ??? ??????, ????????? ????????? ?????? ?????? ? ?????????? ??????????? ?????? ?????????????? ????????? ? ??????? ?? ?? ??????? ??????????? ?????. ??????? ?????
51
?? ??????? ??????????? ????? ?????????? ??????? 0,7 ??, ??? ???????? ?????????????????? ??????? ? ???? ? ?????????. ????? ????, ?? ??????? ??????????? ??????? ????????? ?????? ??????? 0,2 ??, ??????????? ?????, ??????????? ?? ?????? ???????????, ?? ???????? ???? ???????????. ? ?????? ?????
??????????? ????????? ????????? 15 ??. ??? ????? ?????????? ???????? 16 ?.
???????-????? ????? ? ???????? 120 ?? ? ?????????? ??????? ??
650 ????? ??????????. ?????? ????????????, ????? 2000 ?., ????? ????????
????????????????? ????? ??????? 700 ?????. ????? ?????????? ????-?????
????????? 80 ?? ? ???????? 140 ??? 210 ?? ??????.
????? ????, ????? ????????? ?? ??????????? ??????????: CD-ROM ?
?????? ??? ?????? (Ф???????????╗); CD-R ? ??? ??????????? ??????; CDRW ? ??? ???????????? ??????.
??????? ???????-?????? (CD) ?????????? ?????? ?????????? ????????????? (??, IR) ????????? ? ?????? ????? 780 ??. ????????????????? CD?????? ??????? ? ???????? DVD-??????.
DVD (????. Digital Versatile Disc) ? ???????? ???????????? ???? ? ???????? ??????????, ?????? ?????? ? ??????? ???????-??????, ?????? ??????? ??????????? ??????? ??????? ????? ?????????? ?? ???? ?????????????
?????? ???????? ???????? ????????? ? ??????? ?????? ????? ? 650 ??. ??????????? DVD-???? ????? ??????? 4,7 ??, ??????????? ? 8,5 ??. ? ??????????? CD/DVD-?????????? ???????????? ??? ?????? ? ???????? (650 ??) ? ????????????? (780 ??) ?????????.
Blu-ray Disc (BD) ? ?????? ??????????? ????????, ???????????? ??? ?????? ? ???????? ???????? ??????, ??????? ????? ??????? ???????? ? ?????????? ??????????. ???????? Blu-ray ??? ????????? ?????????? ???????????? BDA. Blu-ray (????????? Ф????? ???╗) ??????? ???? ???????? ??
????????????? ??? ?????? ? ?????? ???????????????? (405 ??) Ф??????╗ (?????????? ????-???????????) ??????. ??????????? ???? Blu-ray (BD) ????? ??????? 25 ??, ??????????? ???? ????? ???????? 50 ?? ??????.
2.5 ????????????? ??????????
????????????? ?????????? (????. SSD, Solid State Drive, Solid State Disk)
? ?????????????????, ???????????????? ???????????? ???????????? ?????????? ??? ?????????? ???????????? ??????. ??????? ????????? ?????????????
??????????, ?????????? ?? ????????????? ??????????????? (RAM SSD) ?
????????????????? (NAND ??? Flash SSD) ??????.
52
?????????? RAM SSD, ??????????? ?? ????????????? ???????????????
?????? (????? ??, ????? ???????????? ? ??? ????????????? ??????????), ??????????????? ????????????? ???????, ??????? ? ??????? ??????????. ???????? ?? ??????????? ???????? ??????????? ??????? ?????????. ???????????? ? ???????? ??? ????????? ?????? ??????? ?????? ?????????? ??????
?????? ? ?????? ??????????? ???????. ????? ??????????, ??? ???????, ???????? ?????????????? ??? ?????????? ?????? ??? ?????? ???????, ? ????? ??????? ?????? ? ????????? ?????????? ?/??? ???????????? ???????????.
?????????? NAND SSD, ??????????? ?? ????????????? ????????????????? ?????? ????????? ???????????? ???????, ?? ? ????? ? ??????? ????? ?????? ?????????? ?????? ????????? ?????????? ?????. ?? ????????? ??????? ??????????? ???????? ???????????? ??????????? ? ?????? ? ??????, ??
?????????????? ??? (???????? ??? ??????) ??????? ????????? ?????? ?????????? (???????????? ?? ????????? ??????????? ??????). ?????? ??? ??????????? ????????????? ?????????? Flash ?? ????????? ?????? ? ??????, ???????????? ? ?????????????, ? ??????????? ??????, ??????????? ??
?????????????. ??????????????? ???????????? ?????????? ????????? ? ?????? ??????????????????. ??? ??????????? ????????? ????????? ????? ??????????? ??? ?????? ???????? ?????? ? ???????? ??????? ???????????? ????? ?
????????? ???????????.
???????????? SSD ?? ????????? ? ???????? ???????:
?
?????? ????? ???????? ???????;
?
?????????? ?????????? ??????;
?
??????????????????: ???????? ?????? ? ?????? ?? 270 ??/?;
?
?????? ???????????? ????????;
?
?????? ?????????? ???? ?? ?????????? ?????? ? ??????????? ????????????;
?
??????? ???????????? ?????????;
?
??????? ???????? ??????? ??????????;
?
??????????? ?????????? ????? ?????????? ?????? ??? ???????????
?? ?? ???????????? ??? ????????????;
?
????? ?????? ? ???.
2.6 ????-??????????
????-?????? (????. Flash-Memory) ? ????????????? ????????????? ????????????????? ????????????????? ???????????????? ??????. ??? ?????
53
???? ????????? ??????? ?????? ???, ?? ?????? ? ????? ?????? ????? ????
???????????? ????? ??? (??????????? ? ????? ???????? ??????). ?????????????? ????-??????, ????????????? ????? 100 ????? ?????? ?????????? ?
??????? ??????, ??? ???????? ????????? ??????? ??? CD-RW. ??? ?? ???????? ????????? ??????, ??? ???, ? ??????? ?? ??????? ??????, ????? ??????? ?
?????????. ????????? ????? ????????????, ????????? ? ??????? ????????????????? ????-?????? ?????? ???????????? ? ???????? ??????????? ??????????? (???. 2.6 ? 2.7).
???. 2.6 ? ????????????? ???? ????-???????????
???. 2.7 ? USB-????-??????????
????-?????? ?????? ?????????? ? ??????? ???????????? ? ?????????
????????, ?????????? ????????. ? ???????????? ??????????? ? ?????????????? ????????, ?????? ?? ??? ????? ??????? ?????? ???? ???. ????????? ????? ?????????? ? ??????????????? ???????? ????? ??????? ?????? ?????? ????, ????????? ?????? ??????? ?????????????? ?????? ?? ????????? ???????
???????????.
? ?????? ????-?????? ???? NOR ????? ???-?? ???????, ?????? ??? ?
??????????? ? ????????? ???????? ?????? ?????????? ?? ??????? ??????????
???????.
54
?????????? ????? ??? ???????: ??????????? ? ?????????. ?????????
????????? ?????????? ? ???????? ?????????? ????????? ?? 10 ???. ? ??????
??????? ????? ???? ? ?????. ??? ???????????????? ??????????? ?? ??????????? ??????? ????????? ????????????? ???? ? ????????? ?????????? ??????.
????????? ????????? ??????????? ????? ???? ????????? ? ???????? ?? ????????? ??????, ??? ? ????? ?????????. ????? ?? ????????? ??????? ????????
Ф??????╗ ?????? ????-????? ? ??? ????????????, ??? ???????????? ??? ??????.
???????????????? ? ?????? ????? ?????? ??????????? ? ?????????????????: ?????????? ????-?????? ?????????? ?????????? ??????? ??? ??? ??????, ????? ??? ??? ?????? ??????? ??????? ????. ??? ???????? ?????????? ??
??????????? ?????? ???????? ??????? ????????????? ??????????, ? ????????? ? ?????????? ??????? ????????? (???????????) ?? ?????.
? NOR-??????????? ? ??????? ??????????? ?????????? ???????? ?????????????? ???????, ??? ??????????? ??????? ?????. ??? ???????? ???????? ?
??????? NAND-???????????.
? ?????? NAND-???? ????? ?-?? ???????. ??????? ?????? ????? ??, ??
NOR-???? ?????????? ?????? ??????????? ????? ? ?? ??????????. ? ??????????
??? ?? ????????? ????????? ?????????????? ??????? ? ?????? ??????, ??? ???
?????? ? ????????? NAND-???? ????? ???? ??????????? ??????. ????? ?????? ? ???????? ?????????? ???????. ?????? ??? ??????????? ?? ????????? ?????????? ? ???????????? ??????.
NAND ? NOR-??????????? ?????? ?????????? ??????????? ? ?? ??????????? ???? ? ??????, ????????? ??????? ?????????? ? ?????? ???????? ???????? ??????.
?????????? ????????? ????? ???? ????-??????, ???????????? ? ??????????? ???????????:
Compact Flash ? ????? ?????? CF ???????? ????????? ?????????? ????
????-??????. ?????? CF ????? ???? ??????????? ??????????? SanDisk ?
1994 ?. ???? ????? ? ???? ??? ?? ??????????? ? ???????????????? ????- ? ?????????????????, ??? ??? ????? ????? ???????? (43О36О3,3 ??) ???? ?????????? ??? Compact Flash-???? ????????? ????????????? ?????????? ? ?????????
????????? ??? MP3-???????.
Multimedia Card. ????? ? ??????? MMC ????? ????????? ?????? ?
24О32О1,4 ??. ??????????? ????????? ?????????? SanDisk ? Siemens. MMC
???????? ?????????? ?????? ? ???????? ??????? ?????????????? ? ??????-
55
?????? ?????? ?????????? ????. ? ??????????? ??????? ????? MMC ?????????????? ???????????? ?? ?????? SD.
MMCmicro ? ??????????? ????? ?????? ??? ????????? ????????? ? ????????? 14О12О1,1 ??. ??? ??????????? ????????????? ?? ??????????? ??????
MMC ?????????? ???????????? ??????????.
SD Card (Secure Digital Card) ???????? ?????????? ????????? ?????????
MMC. ?? ???????? ? ??????????????? ????? SD ????? ?????? ?? MMC, ?????? ???? ????? (32О24О2,1 ??). ???????? ??????? ?? MMC ? ?????????? ??????
????????? ????: ????? ????? ???????????? ?? ???????????????????? ???????????, ?????????? ?????? ?????????? ?? ?????????? ???????? ??? ?????????? ? ???????????? ????????????? ?????? ?? ??????.
SDHC (SD High Capacity). ?????? ????? SD (SD 1.0, SD 1.1) ? ?????
SDHC (SD 2.0) (SD High Capacity) ? ?????????? ?? ?????? ??????????? ???????????? ?? ???????????? ??????? ????????, 2?4 ?? ??? SD ? 32 ?? ??? SDHC
(??????? ???????). ?????????? ?????? SDHC ??????? ?????????? ? SD, ?? ????
SD-????? ????? ????????? ????????? ? ?????????? ?????? SDHC, ?? ? ?????????? SD ????? SDHC ?? ????? ???????? ?????. ??? ???????? ????? ???? ???????????? ? ????? ?? ???? ???????? ?????????? ???????? (???????????, mini ?
micro).
MiniSD (Mini Secure Digital Card) ?? ??????????? ???? Secure Digital ?????????? ???????? ????????? 21,5О20О1,4 ??. ??? ??????????? ?????? ?????
? ???????????, ?????????? ??????? SD-??????, ???????????? ???????.
MicroSD (Micro Secure Digital Card) ???????? ?? ????????? ?????? ?????? ??????????? ???????? ???????????? ????-?????? (11О15О1 ??). ???????????? ? ?????? ??????? ? ????????? ?????????, ?????????????? ? ?. ?.,
??? ??? ????????? ????? ???????????? ????????? ??????????? ????????? ?????? ??????????, ?? ?????????? ??? ???? ??? ???????.
Memory Stick Duo. ?????? ???????? ?????? ?????????????? ? ?????????????? ????????? Sony. ?????? ?????????? ???????. ?? ?????? ?????? ???
????? ??????? ?????? ?? ???? ??????????????. Memory Stick Duo ??? ?????????? ?? ???? ?????? ????????????????? ????????? Memory Stick ?? ??? ?? Sony,
?????????? ?????? ????????? (20О31О1,6 ??).
Memory Stick Micro (M2). ?????? ?????? ???????? ??????????? ???????
microSD (?? ???????????? ???????), ???????? ???????????? ???? ?????? Sony.
56
иииииииииииииииииииииииииииииииииииииииииииииииииииииииииииии
??????????? ??????? ?? ????? 2
1.
2.
3.
4.
5.
иииииииииииииииииииииииииииииииииииииииииииииииииииииииииииии
?????? ???????? ????????? ?????????? ? ??????????? ?????? ???????????
??? ????? ???????? ???????????
??? ????? ???-??????, ??? ??? ????? ??????????? ?????? ?? ????????
?????????
??? ????? ?????????? ?????
????? ???????? ???? ????-??????????? ?????? ???????????? ? ?????? ?? ???????? ???????????????
57
3 ???????????? ??????????
3.1 ???????????? ?????????? ? ?? ?????????
?????????? ??????????? ????????? ??? ??????? ??????? ? ?????????
??? ??????? ?????????? ? ???????? ????????? ??????????. ????? ????????
?????????? ??? ???????? ???????? ? ??????, ???????? ?????????? ???????????, ???????? ???????? ??????? ??????????, ????????? ?????? ??????????
?? ??????? ????????????, ? ????? ??? ????????????????? ?????????? ????????????????? ?????????? ? ?????????. ??? ??? ??????? ????????? ?? ????????????? ???????????? ?????????? (??), ???????? ??? ?????????????? ???????? ????????????? ??????????, ????????? ??? ???????? ? ???????????? ?
??????????, ??? ?????????? ??????-??????? ? ??????????? ???????? ?????????? ?????????? ?? ??????? ??????? [13].
????????????, ??? ???????, ?????????? ???? ???????? ???????? ?
60-? ??. XX ?., ????? ????????? ? ??????????? ?????? ??????????? ? ?????????????, ??????? ???????????? Ф?????╗, ? ????????? ??????????, ? ????????
???????????????????, ?????????? ?? ????????? ?????????? ?? ????, ?. ?. Ф??
?????????╗. ?? ??????????? ?? ????????????? ??? ?????? ??????? ??????????, ??? ? ??????? ? ??????????? ?? ???? ?????????? ? ??? ?????????????? ?
????????? ???????? ???? [13] (???. 3.1).
???????????? ??????????
?????????
??
??
???????
??????
???. 3.1 ? ????????? ??????????: ?? ? ??????????? ?????????;
?? ? ???????? ????????? ??????, ??????????:
???????? ??????????, ????, ??? ? ??? (BIOS)
???????????? ?????????? (????. peripheral device) ? ??? ??????? ?? ????????? ? ???????????? ?????????? ? ???????? ?????? ??????????????
58
??????????????? ??????????, ??????????????? ??? ????? ?/??? ?????? ?????????? ? ????????? ? ??????????? ??? ?????????????? ???????????.
??? ???? ??????? ???????????.
иииииииииииииииииииииииииииииииииииииииииииииииииииииииииииии
???????????? ?????????? (??) ? ??? ??????????, ?????????????? ??????????? ? ??????????? ?????? ?????????? ? ??????? ???????? ?????/??????.
иииииииииииииииииииииииииииииииииииииииииииииииииииииииииииии
?????????? ?????? ???? ???????????? ?????????:
1) ?????????? ?????;
2) ?????????? ??????;
3) ?????????? ?????-??????;
4) ?????????? ???????? ??????.
??? ??????????? ???????????????? ?????????? ????? ????????? ????
???????, ???????, ??? ???????, ??????? ? ???????????????, ?. ?. ???????????? ??????????? [14. ?. 175].
????????? ??, ?????????? ???????????, ??????????? ? ????? ???????
? ??????????? (????????, ??????? ????, ???????? ?????, ??????? ?????), ? ??????, ?????????? ????????, ? ??? ??????? (????????, ??????????, ????, ???????) ? ???????????? ? ???? ? ??????? ?????????? ??? ????????????? ??????????.
1. ?????????? ?????: ??????????, ???????????? ????, ????????? ?????? (??????), ??????????? ???????, ?????? ???????????, ??????????? ????????? ? QR-????, ??????? ??????????? (????????), ???????,
?????????? ????????????? ???????, ??????? ? ?????????? ????????????? ? ?????????? ???????, ???????? ????, ????????, ????????
??????, ???-??????, ??-?????, GPS-?????? ??????????????.
2. ?????????? ??????: ??????? (???????, ?????), ????????, ???????,
???????, ????????, ????????????, ?????????????????? ??????????
(???), ???????????????? ???????????? ? ???????? ???????????
??????????? (???), 3D-???????.
3. ?????????? ?????/??????: ????????? ?????, ???????????????????
??????????, ??????????????, ??????? ???????????? (?????), ??????
??-?????, ?????? ????? Wi-Fi, ?????? ????? Bluetooth, ???????? ?????????????? ????????????? RFID (?????, ???????, ?????????? ??????????), ???????? ??????? ?????????? NFC (? ??? ????? ?????), ??-
59
????????? ??????????? ??????????? ??????? (????, ?. ?. ????),
??????????? ?? ????????? ??? ??????????? ?????????? ????? ????
Wi-Fi ??? Bluetooth (???. 3.2).
???. 3.2 ? ?????????? ?????????? ? ???????? ??????? ??????????
????????????? ???????????? ? ???? ???????????
??????????? ????????? (??????)
4. ?????????? ???????? ??????: ?????????? ???????????? ??????????
(???, ROM), ?????????? ?? ??????? ????????? ????? (????,
Ф?????????╗, HDD ? ???????? ??????? ??????), ?????????? ?? ?????? ????????? ????? (????, FDD ? ??????-????????), ??????????????, ????????????? ???? (SSD), ?????????? ?????????
CD/DVD/Blu-ray, ?????????? ?????? ????????? ??? ????????. ????????? ?????? ? ??????, ?. ?. ????????? ? ?????????? ??????????, ? ?????, ?? ???????? ?????????? ? ? ???? ????? ????????? ?
???????? ????????? ???????????? ?????????? ? ???????????? ??????????.
???????????? ?????????? ???????????? ? ??????????? ????? ?????????? ??????????? ??????????, ??????? ????? ????????? ??????????? ?????
?????????? ???????. ????????? ? ????? ???????, ???????????? ? ???????
????????????? ???? ??????? [7].
иииииииииииииииииииииииииииииииииииииииииииииииииииииииииииии
????????? (????. interface) ? ???????????? ??????? ? ??????,
?????????????? ?????????????? ????????? ?????????????? ?????? ??? ??????? ????????? ?????????? ? (???) ???????? [4].
иииииииииииииииииииииииииииииииииииииииииииииииииииииииииииии
60
????? ???? ??????????? ??????????? ?????? ???????????? ??? ????,
??????????? ? ?????????? ???????????????.
????????? ? ??? ???????????? ??????? ? ??????, ?????????????? ??????????????:
1) ????? ?????????? ?????? ???????????? ??????? (?????????? ?????????);
2) ????? ??????????? (??????????? ?????????);
3) ????? ??????????? ? ??????????? (?????????-??????????? ?????????);
4) ????? ????????? ? ??????????? (????????-???????? ?????????).
??? ??????????? ?????????????? ?? ??????? 3.3.
???????
(????????????)
????????? ????????????,
?. ?. ????????-????????
?????????
??????????
?????
??????????
?????????
???????????
???????????
????????????????????
?????????
???????????
?????????
???. 3.3 ? ???? ???????????? ???????????
?????? ?????????????? ? ????????????? ?????????????? ????????????
?????????? ? ????? ????? ????????-????????? ??????????, ??? USB HID
(human interface device) class. USB HID class ? ??? ????? USB-?????????, ???????????? ? ??????????, ??? ?????????????? ? ?????????. ? ????? ?????? ????????? ????? ??????????, ??? ??????????, ????, ??????? ??????????.
????, ????? ?????????? ???????????? ??????????, ?????????? ?????????? ?????? ????? ?????????? ?????????. ? ?????????? ?? ??????????? ?????? ?????/??????. ??????????? ?????????? ???????? ??? ???? ???:
?) ????????? ????, ??????????? ??????????? ????????? ? ????????
???????;
61
?) ????????? ??? ?????/??????, ??????????? ????????? ????????????
?????????? ? ????????? ????? ? ??????????? ????? ???? (???. 3.4).
??
????????? ????
????
????
???? ??/???
???
????????????
??????????
???. 3.4 ? ?????????? ??????????? ????? ????????? ????? ??
? ????????????? ????????????? ????????????
??? ?????????? ? ????? 1 (??. ???. 1.7), ???? ???????????? ????? ?????????? ??? ???????? ?????? ??? ?????? ??????????, ??? ? ?? ??? ?????????.
? ??????? ?? ?????????? ???? Ф?????-?????╗, ???????????????? ??? ??????????
???? ???? ?????????, ????, ???????? ????? ? ??? ?? ??????? ????????, ?????
?????????? ?????????? ??????????? ?????????? ???????????? ?????????.
???????? ????????? ????? ????????????? ???????????? ???????? ?????? ?? ??????????? ? ?????????? ??? ???????. ?????? ??????????? ? ??????? ?????????? ???, ?????????????? ??????????? ????????? (???????) ??
????????? ?????, ?????? ?????? ??????????? ???????? ??????, ??????????????? ???????? ????????? (???????).
?????? ? ????? ?????? ???????????? ????? ??????????? ???????? ????????????? ??????????, ?????????? ?? ??????? 3.5.
??? ????? ?? ????? (???. 3.5), ??? ??????????? ????????? ??????????
???????????? ? ?????????? ????? ?????/?????? ??????????, ?. ?. ???????
?????? ????. ?????, ? ???? 1 ??????????? ????? ??????????? (?. ?. ????????),
??????? ??????? ?????? (????) 2, ? ???????? ??? ? ???????????? ???????
???????????? ??????????. ??? ???? ??????? ??????? ? ????????????? ?????????? ??????? ?????????-??????????? ???????????, ?. ?. ????????? ??????????? ????????????? ??????????.
62
1
2
???. 3.5 ? ????? ??????????? ????????????? ?????????? ? ???? ?????/??????:
1 ? ?????????? ?????? (????); 2 ? ??????? ?????? (????)
??????? (????. driver) ? ??? ???????????? ??????????? ???????????, ?
??????? ???????? ?????? ??????????? ??????????? (???????????? ???????)
???????? ?????? ? ??????????? ??????????? ??????????, ???????? ?????????????, ??????????. ?????? ? ????????????? ????????? ???????????? ???????? ??? ???????? ??????????? ??????????? ???????????, ??? ??????? ??????? ?? ?????? ????????. ?????? ??? ????????? ????????? (????? ??? ??????????
??? ???????) ????? ????????????? ??????????? ????????, ?????? ??????????????? ?????????????? ??????????.
? ????? ?????? ???????? ?? ??????????? ????????????????? ? ??????????? ????????????, ?? ????? ?? ?????? ??????????? (????????, ???????
????????, ??????? ?????????? ????? ?? ???????? ? ????), ????????????? ??????????? ???????, ?? ????????? ? ??????????? ???????????? (????????,
/dev/zero ? Unix, ??????? ?????? ?????? ??????? ?????), ???? ?? ?????? ??????
(????????, /dev/null ? Unix ? NUL ? DOS/Windows).
????? ?????????? ????????? ???????? ?????????? ??????????, ?????????????? ??????????? ???????????? ?????????:
1) ?????????? ???? ?????/??????;
2) ??????????? ?????????;
3) ??????? ?????, ? ????? ???? ???????????? ??????????.
3.2 ?????????? ??????????. ???? ?????????? ??? ? ??????
?????????? ??????? ?????????? ????????? ????? ?????????? ???, ??
?????? ???????????? ???? ???????? ?? ???. ????????? ?????????? ???????????? ? ?????????? ?????? ? ??????????? ??????. ??? ???? ????? ?????,
63
????? ??? ? ?????????? ?????? ???????? ?? ?????????? ???????????? ??????????.
???? PCI (Peripheral Component Interconnect) ???????? ???????? ? ??????????? ???????????? ??????????? (??). ??? ???? ?????? ??? ????
(???. 3.6) ? ????????? ????? ??????????? ?? PCI Express. ?????, ????????????
? PCI-?????? ??????????? ????? ????????????? ??????????, ????? ???? ??????????: ??????? ? ???????? ?????, ?????????? ??????, ??????????????
?????, ????? ??? USB, RS-232, LPT ? ??????, ????? ??-???????, ???????????
??????????. ???????, ??? ?????????? ????????? ????????? ??????????? PCI???? ??-?? ?? ????? ??????? ?????????? ? ?????????? ???????????.
???. 3.6 ? ????? (???????) ???? PCI
???? PCI Express (???. 3.7) ???? ??????????? Intel ? 2004 ?. ? ??????????????? ??? ?????? ???? PCI ?????? ?????????? ? ?????????? ??????????
AGP. ??? ???? ???? PCI Express ?? ?????????? ??????, ?????? ??????, ?????
?? ????????, ? ???????? ??????????? ???? Ф?????-?????╗, ?? ??? ???? ?????????? ??????????? ?????? ???? PCI, ? ????? ???????????????? ?????????? ????????, ?????????? ?? ???????????????? ???????? ??????. ????? PCI Express
????? ????? ??????? ?????????? ???????????, ??? ????? PCI, ??? ?????? ??
?????? ??????????? ??? ?????????????????????? ?????????.
???. 3.7 ? ????? ????????? ????????? ???? PCI Express(?????? ????: ?4, ?16,
?1, ?16). ????? ? ??????? 32-????????? ???? ???? PCI
64
???? PCMCIA (??? ?? ?????????? PC Card) ???????? ????? ????, ???????????? ??? ??????????? ???????????. ???????? ?????????? ?? ????????
?????? PCMCIA, ??????? ??????????? ???????? PCMCIA, ?. ?. Personal Computer Memory Card International Association (????????????? ?????????? ???? ?????? ??? ???????????? ???????????). ????????????? ???? PCMCIA ???? ??????????? ?????? ??? ?????????? ?????? ??????????, ?? ??????? ???????? ?
????????????? ?????? ????????? ??? ????????? ??????? ? ??????????? ??????
????? ???????????? ?????????. ????????? ???????????? ? ????? PCMCIA
???????? ??????? ?????, ?????? ? ??????? ?????.
???? AGP (Accelerated Graphics Port) ???????? ???????????????? ??????? ???? Ф?????-?????╗ ??? ??????????? ??????????? ????? ? ???????????
????? ??????????. ??? ???? ????????????? ?????? ????? ??? ????????? ????????? ???????????? 3D-??????? (???. 3.8). ?????? ? ????????? ????? ????
AGP ??????????? ????? PCI Express. ????????? ????? ? ????? AGP ??? ???
????????, ?? ?????????? ????? ?????????????????.
???. 3.8 ? ???? ???? AGP
3.3 ??????????? ????????? (????????, ?????)
?????????? (????? ????????? ??? ??????????? ?????) ? ??? ????? ??????????, ??????? ??????? ??????????? ? ????????? ? ?????? ??????????? ??
??????? (???. 3.9). ????????? ?????????? ???????????? ??????????????
???????, ????? ??? ?????? ?????, ??-?????, ??????? ? ???????????? ??????????? ?????????? ????????? ? ??????. ??????????? ????????? ????????? ???????? ??????????. ??? ???????? ? ???? ??????????? ????????? (GPU), ???????
????????????
?????
??????????????????
??????????????,
???????????????? ??? 3D-?????????? ???????; ? ????? Video BIOS, ???????
???????? ???????? ?????????, ??????? ????????? ?????????? ?????????? ?
????????????? ??????????, ??????????? ?????????? ? ???????????? ??????????? ????????????????? ? ??????. ???? ?????????? ???????? ? ???????????
?????, ??? ????? ???????????? ??????????? ?????? ?????????? (RAM), ? ???-
65
?????? ?????? ??? ????? ???? ??????????? ??????????? ??? ????????? Video
RAM. ???? ??? ?????? ????? ????????????? ?? 128 ?? ?? 2 ??. ??????????
????? ????? RAM-DAC (Random Access Memory ? ?????-?????????? ???????????????), ??????? ????? ?? ???? ??????????????? ?? ??????????? ????????
????????, ???????????? ??????????? ??????????, ? ?????????? ??????, ??????? ????? ???? ????? ?? ??????? ??????????. ?, ???????, ??? ??? ????? ??????, ????? ??? ?????? HD15 (??????????? ?????? ????????, ?????? ???????? ?
VGA, D-sub15), ??????? DVI, HDMI, S-Video, ? ????? ??????? ????????????
??? ????????????? ?????.
?)
?)
???. 3.9 ? ?????????? (?) ? ????????? ????? ??????? HD15 (D-sub15, VGA) (?)
???????? ????? ???????????? ????? ????? ??????????, ??????? ???????????? ???? ? ????? ???????? ???????? ?/?? ?????????? ??? ??????????? ???????????? ????????. ?????????????? ???????? ???? ??????? ? ???????????
???????? ???????????? ?????????????? ??????????, ????? ??? ???????????
??????????, ?????????????? ????? ??? ?????, ???????????; ???????? ? ???????????. ?????? ?????????? ????? ?????????? ???????? ???????????, ?
????????? ??????? ?????????????? ???? ?????????? ??? ??????????? ?????????????????.
??????? ????? ???????????? ????? ????? ??????????, ??????? ?????????
??????????? ???????????? ??????? ????? ???? (???. 3.10). ??? ???? ????????????? ??????????? ??????????? ???? ? ?????? ? ??????? ??????? ??? ???????????? ??????????. ???? ?????????? ????????? ??????? ??????????, ??
Ethernet ? ????????? ????? ???????? ????? ???????????? ???????????. ??????
??????? Ethernet-????? ????? ?????????? 48-?????? ???????? ?????, ?????????? MAC-??????? (????????????????? ?????????? ???????), ??????? ???????? ? ???, ?????????????? ?? ?????. ?????? ??? ????? ???? (UTP) ???????
66
?????, ????????? ?? ?????? ??????, ?????????? RJ-45, ? ????? ????????
LAN-??????.
???. 3.10 ? ??????? ?????
3.4 ??????? ??????????? (?????)
??????????? USB (Universal Serial Bus) ???????????? ????? ???????? ???????????????? ???? ??? ??????????? ????????? ???????????? ?????????
(???. 3.11). USB-????????? ????????? ?????????? ? ????????? ?????????? ???
???????????? ??????????. ??? ????? ??????? ???????????? ???????? ?????????????? ?????????????? ?????????? ??????????? ??? ????????????? ????????????? ???????? ?????????. ????? ????, ?????????? ??????????? ?????????? ????????? ??? ????????? ????????? ????????? ?? ?????????????. ??
??????????? ???? USB ???????? ???????????? ????? ??? ???????????
??????? ????????? ? ??????????.
???. 3.11 ? ????????? USB-???????????
??????????? Firewire (????? ????????? ??? IEEE-1394 ??? iLINK ???
Sony) ???????????? ????? ???????? ????????????????? ?????????? ???? ???
???????????????? ????? ? ?????????? ???????? ?????? ? ?????? ?????????
???????, ????? ???????????? ? ???????????? ?????????? (???. 3.12). Firewire
??????? ???????????? ????? ?? ?????? ???????????. ?? ??? ?????? ? ???????? High Definition Audio-Video Network Alliance (HANA) ? ??????????? ????????? ??????????? ? A/V (?????/?????) ??????????? ????? ? ??????????.
????? ??? ??????????? ???????? ??????????? ???????? ???? ????????????.
67
???. 3.12 ? ?????? Firewire
??????????? PS/2 ???????????? ??? ??????????? ?????????? ? ???? ?
??????????. ?????????? ?????????? ? ???? ???????????? ?????????? ? ???
???????? ????????, ??? ?????? ? ???????? ??????????? ????????? ?? ?????
?????? ?????????? ??????????, ????? ?????????? ???????????? ?????. ????
???? PS/2 ???????????? ? ????? ?????????? PS/2, ?? ??? ?? ????? ???? ?????????? ??????????? (???. 3.13).
?)
?)
?)
?)
???. 3.13 ? ??????? ???????????? ?????: ?) ????????????????; ?) PS/2 (????
? ??????????); ?) ???????????? (???????); ?) ??????? (????????, MIDI-????)
???????????????? (serial) ? ???????????? (parallel) ????? (??.
???. 3.13). ??? ?????? ??????? ? ????? ????? ?????????? (???????????? ?????/??????) ? ??????? ????????? ?????? (????????? ??????) ????? ???? ???????????? ???????????? ??? ???????????????? ???????? ??????.
???????????? ???? (??. ???. 3.13) ?????????????, ??? ??? 8 ??? (?. ?.
1 ????) ???????????? ? ?????????? ?? ???? ?? ??????, ? ???????????? (???????????) ???, ??????, ?????? ?? ?????? ???????. ??????? ???????????? ???????? ?????? ?????????? ?????????, ???? ??????????? ??????, ??????????????
? ??????? ????????????? ??????????, ???????? ?????? ????????. ?? ??????????? ?????, ??? ???????????????? ?????? ????, ????????? ?????? ??? ???????????? ???????? ?????? ?????? ????????? ??? ??????? ?????? ????????,
?????? ?? ??????? ???????????? ??? ???????? ?????? ????.
68
???????????? ?????????? ????????????? ????? Centronics, ??????? ???????????? ????????? ????? ???????? ??????????? Centronics. ????? ???????? ??? ???? ??????????? ??????????? ????? ????? ? IEEE-1284.
???????????? ????????? ??? ???????? ?????? ?????????? LPT (Line
Printer). ?????? ???????????? ??????? ???????????? ??? ?? LPT1, ? ?????? ?
??? ?? LPT2.
?????????? ??? ???? ???????????? ??????: ???????????, ??? ? ???.
??????????? ???????????? ???? ???????????? ?????? ??? ????????????? ???????? ?????????? ?? ?? ? ????????, ??? ???????? ? ????????????? ????? ?????. ?? ???????????? ???????????? ???????? ???????? ??????
?? 120 ?? 200 ?????/?.
???? ??? ???????? ???????????????, ?. ?. ???????????? ????????????
???????? 8 ??? ?????? ? ????? ???????????? ? ????????? ????????? ?? ??????????? ??????. ???? ??? ???????? ? ????????? ?????? ????? ? ????? ???
??????? ???????????? ????????????? ?????, ???? ???????????? ??, ??? ???? ???
????? ?????, ??????????? ???????????? ? ??????????? ??????? ?? ???????,
????? ??????? ????? ????? ?? ???????. ??????????? ????? ????????? ?????
??? ?????????? ????? ?????? ??????????????? ?? ??? ?????????? ? ???????
? ???????, ????? ?????????. ??? ????????????? ??????????? ????????????
??????????? ???? ??? ????? ?????????? ? ????????? ?????? ?? ????????? ??
2 ????/?.
???? ???, ??????? ????? ????????????? ????? ???, ???????????? ?????????? ???????? ???????? ?????? ?? ???? ??????? ?????? ??????. ???
?????? ?????? ???????????? ????? RLE (Run Length Encoding), ???????? ???????? ??????? ?????????????????? ?????????? ???????? ?????????? ????? ????
????? ???????: ???? ???? ?????????? ????????????? ??????, ? ?????? ? ?????
??????????. ??? ???? ???????? ??? ????????? ?????? ? ?????????? ?????? ???
?????????? (????? ?????????? ????????), ??? ? ????????? (?????? ?????).
?????? ??????? ?? ???????? ????????????, ??????? ?????, ????????????
?????????? ? ????????? ????? ?? ? ?? ????????????. ??? ????? ???? ???????????, ????? ????? ?????? ?????? ?????????????? ??? ?????? ???, ??? ? ?????????. ?????????? ???????? ???????? ?????? ? ??????? ????? ??? ??????????? ????????? ????? ?????????? ?????? ?? ????????.
????????????? ??????????? ?????????????? ???????????? ?????? ???
? ??? ???????? ??? ??????? ??????????, ?????????????? ????? ?? ???? ??????????.
69
???????????????? ???? (??. ???. 3.13) ???????????? ????? ???????: ????????? ???? ???????????? (??? ???????????) ??????????????? ???? ?? ?????? ?? ?????? ???????, ??? ???? ???????? ????? ??????? ? ???? ????????????, ????? ? ???????? ?????? ?????????????? ? ?????????? ???????? ????????.
??? ???????????????? ??????????? ????? ???????????? ????????? ??????????? ????, ??????? ?? ?????? ??????????? ????? ????????????? ????????? ??? ???????????????? ???????? ??????. ? ???????? ???????????? ??????????? ??? ????????????????? ?????????? ???? ????? ??????????: RS-232
(RS-422, RS-465). ??????? ????????????????? ??????????, ?. ?. ???-????? ??
??, ???????????? ????? D-sub 9-?????????? (?????) ??? D-sub 25-??????????
(?????).
??? ???????????? ????? ????? ???????????????? ????????? ?????????????? ?????????? ???????????????? ??? ??????????????? ???????, ?. ?. ???????, ??? ????? ?????????????? ????? ???????: ???????? ??????, ?????? ??????, ???????? ???????? ? ?. ?. ?????? ???????????????? ?????????????????
?????????? ?????????????? ??????????? ????????, ????? Windows ????????????? ????? ???????????.
??????? ?????, ????????????? ?? ?????? ?????? ??????????. ??????????? ??????? ???????????? (??????) ???????? ?? ?????? ?????? ???????????
????????????? ?????????? (???. 3.14).
8
6
1
3
2
4
5
7
9
???. 3.14 ? ??????? ????? ??????????? ????????????? ??????????: 1 ? ????
(?????? PS/2); 2 ? ?????????? (?????? PS/2); 3 ? LAN-?????? (RJ-45)
??? ???? Ethernet 100BASE-T 8P8C; 4 ? USB; 5 ? ?????? ?????????????????
COM-????? (RS-232) 9-??????????? (DB-9); 6 ? ?????? ?????????????
LPT-????? ??? ???????? 25-??????????? (DB-25); 7 ? ?????? ???????? ?
?????????? VGA (?. ?. D-sub); 8 ? ???????? / MIDI (15 ?????????);
9 ? 3,5-?? ?????: ???????? ?????; ???????? ????; ???????? (????)
? ???????????? ?? ?????????????? PC98 ? ??99 [8] ????????????
??????????, ???????????? ? ??, ? ????? ????????? ?????????? ????????????
????????, ???????????? ?? ??????? 3.15 [13].
70
???. 3.15 ? ??????????? ???????????? ????????? ? ???????????
??? ?? ??????????? ? ?????????? [8, 13]
3.5 ???????? ???? ???????????? ?????????
? ???????? ???????????? ????????? ?????? ????? ????? ???? ?????????
????????????? ? ????? 2 ?????????? ??????? ??????.
??????? ?????????? (??. ??. 2). ???? ? ?? ?? ???? CD- ? DVD?????????? ????? ???? ??? ???????????, ??? ? ????????. ???? ??????? ?????????? ???????? CD-ROM (?????? ??? ??????), ? ????????? ??????? ????????
??? ?????? ???????-?????? (CD-RW), ?? ??????? ???????? CD-RW ???????????? ? USB-????? ? ???????? ????? ??? ??, ??? ??????????. ??? ?? ???????????
? ??? ??????? DVD-??????????, Blu-ray ?????? ? ?????? ????????? ??????.
????-?????????? ????? ?????? ??????????? ???????? ??????????, ????? ???? ?? ??? ?????????, ? ??????? ?????? ???????????. ?????? ?????????????? ????? USB-??????, ?? ????? ???? ? ? ???? ??????? ????-???? ???? SD, miniSD ??? microSD (TF). ????-?????????? USB ???????? ????????,
??????????????????, ????????????????? ? ????????????. ????? ??????
??????????? ?? 64 ?? ?? 32 ?? ??? ?????. ????-?????????? ???????????? ????? ????????????????? ??????? ? ?? ????? ????????????? ???????, ? ???????
?? ???????? ?????, ??? ?????? ??? ?????? ??????? ? ??????????????.
?????? ????????? ???????????? ?????????? (????) ????? ?????
??????? ? ??????? ????????????. ??????? ??????? ????? ???????? ??????? ??????????????? ??? ?????????? ?????????? ???????????, ??? ???????????
71
????????????? ??????????? ???????????? ? ?????? ??? ?????????? ???????????? ?????? ??????????? ???????? ????? ?????????? ??. ??????? ???????
?????, ??? ? ????-??????????, ?????? ?????? ???? ? ????????. ???????
????, ??? ???????, ???????????? ????? USB-??????, ?? ???????? ? ????????? ???????? ?????, ???????????? ???? ??????? ??????????? ???????? ??????
? ????.
??????? ?????????? ?????? ???????????? ????????? ???? ???? ??????????? ? ?. 3.1. ?????? ?????????? ???????????.
1. ?????????? ?????
иииииииииииииииииииииииииииииииииииииииииииииииииииииииииииии
?????????? ????? ? ??? ??????????, ?????????? ??????,
????????? ??? ??????? ? ?????????.
иииииииииииииииииииииииииииииииииииииииииииииииииииииииииииии
?????????? ????? ????????? ?????????? ??????????. ????????
?????????? ?????: ??????????; ???? (? ???????? ??????????: ????????,
???????? ? ?. ?.); ????????? ?????; ????????; ???????? ??????; ??????????
?????????? ?????????? ???????; ??????; ??????????.
?????? ? ?????????? ????? ??????????? ??????????, ????? ???? ???????? ? ???????.
?????????? (????. digitizer) ? ??? ?????????? ??????????, ?????????????? ???? ?????????? (? ??? ????? ? ????????????) ??? ??????????? (3D???????????) ??????????? ? ????????? ? ???? ????????? ???????. ????????
???????? ??????? ??????????????????? ?????????? ???????????? ?????. ?????? ????????? 3D-??????? ???????? ???????? ????? ????? ?????????????
???????????, ??????????, ???????????, ???????????, ?????????????? ??????? ??????????. ????????? ????????? ??????? ???????????????? ???? ???????? ???????? ??????????? ??? ??????????? ?????????????? ??????????????? ????????.
???????? ??????? ?????????? ????????????: ??????????????; ????????????? ?????????????? ???? ??? ?????? ? ??????????????? ??????????????? ????????? (???); ?????????? ??????????????, ???????? ?????????? ? ???????? ??????????; ??????? ????????????.
?????? ??????? ????????? ??????????? ???????????? ???????? ????????????? (?? ?????? ?? ????????). ?????????? ???????????? ???????? ??????????? ???????.
72
??????????? ??????? (?? ????. graphics tablet ??? graphics pad, drawing
tablet, digitizing tablet) ? ??? ?????????? ??? ????? ??????????, ?????????
???????, ??????????????? ? ?????????. ??????? ?? ???? ? ???????? ????????,
??????????????? ? ??????? ??? ???????? ????. ????? ????? ??????????? ??????????? ???? (???. 3.16).
???. 3.16 ? ??????????? ???????
????? ??????????? ???????????, ????????? ? ???????? ????? ???????? ????, ???????? ????????? ?????, ??????????? ?? ?????????? ???????????.
?????? ?????????? ?????????? ?????: ?????????, ???-??????
(???. 3.17), ?????????? ?????????? ?????????? ??????? ? ????? ???????????? ?
??????????? ???????? ? ?????????? ??????????.
???. 3.17 ? ???-??????
2. ?????????? ??????
?????????? ?????? ??????? ?????????? ????????????? ????????? ??????
??? ????????????? ??????????. ???????? ????????????????? ????????
???????????? ?????? ???????? ???????, ????????? ????? (??? ??????????
??), ????????????, ??????? ????? ???? ??????????? ???????? ?????-??????.
??? ?????? ??????????????? ???????????? ?????? ??????????? ? ?????????
?????????? ???????? ???????? (??. ?. 4.1) ? ????????.
73
????????
???????? ????????? ???? ?????????. ???????? ?? ????????????? ??
??????? ??????:
1) ????????;
2) ????????????????;
3) ??????????.
?????????????? ???????? ? ??? ??? ???? ?? ????????????? ????? ??????? ?? ????, ????????? ?? ?? ?????? ?????? ?? ???????? ??? ????? ??? ??????,
? ?? ? ????? ????????. ???? ?????????? ?????? ???????? ?????????????.
????????????? ????????? ?? ????????????? ????????:
1. ??????? (impact).
2. ?????????? (non-impact).
????????????? ????????? ?? ???????????? ?????????? ??????:
1. ?????????.
2. ????????.
3. ????????.
4. LED-????????.
5. ? ?????????????? ???????? ???????.
6. ? ????????????????.
7. ? ?????????? ???? ?????????.
????????? ????????. ???????????????? ??????? ????????? ?????????? ?????????? (impact dot matrix) ???????? ????????? ???????: ???????????? ??? (??? ??? ????) ???, ??? ??????????, Ф???????????╗ ????????? ? ?????
????? ? ??????, ???????? ??????????????? ?????? ?? ????????. ????? ??????? ?????????????????? ???????????? ?????????? (????????????) ?????????
????????. ?????? ????????? ???????-????????? ??????? ??? ??????????
??????? ??????? ? ??????? ??????????? ???, ??? ???? ??????????? ????????
?????? ??????? 1 500 ????? ? ??????. ????????? ???????? ????? ?????? ? ?????? ? ????????????, ?? ??? ?????? ??????????? ?????????? ?? ????????, ???
??? ????? ?????? ???????? ? ???????? ??????. ???????? ?????? ? ????? ??????.
? ????????? ????? ????? ?? ?????????????.
???????? ????????. ???????? ???????? ????????? ? ?????????? ?????????? ???????????. ???????? ?????????? ?????????? ?? ???????? ??????.
???????? ?????????? ???????? ??????????? ? ?????? ???????????????? ????????? ?????????? ?????????? ?????????. ????????????????, ??????????,
?????????, ????????, ?????????? (liquid ink jet) ????????, ? ???? ???????,
74
?????????????? ?? ?????????? ???????????? (continuous drop, continuous jet) ?
??????????? (drop-on-demand) ????????. ????????? ? ????? ?????? ????? ?? ????? ???????????? ???? Ф???????????╗ ?????????? (bubble-jet ??? thermal inkjet), ???? ??????????? (?iez? ink-jet). ? ?????????? ?????????, ???, ???????, ? ?
??????? ????????? ?????????, ?????????? ??????? ???????? ?????? ? ?????????????? ?????????, ? ?????? ???????? ???????????. ????? (????????? ?????????) ?? ?????????? ???????, ????? ??????? ??????????????? ???????, ????????????? Ф???????╗ ?????. ?????????? ????? ? ?????? ??????? ?????????,
??? ???????, ????? ????????????? ?? 12 ?? 64. ????????? ?????? ??????? ?????
??????????? ?????? ???????? ???? (?????? ????????????? ??????), ? ?????????? ????? ????? ???? ??????, ?? ?????????? ??????????? ?????? ???? ?
???? ?????? ????? (???? ??????? ?? ???????????? ?? ??????). ????????????
??????????? ??????????? ????????? ???????? 720 ????? ?? ????. ???? ???????? ???????? ???????????? ??????, ?? ?????? ????????? ????????? ?????????? (??????). ?? ???????? ? ?????? ????????? ?????? ?? ?????? ?????????.
??? ?? ?????, ??? ???????? ?????????? ??????????? ????????? ??? ???????
??????, ?? ??? ?????-????? ?????? ???????????????? ???????????? ????????
???????.
???????? ????????. ? ???????? ????????? ???????????? ?????????????????? ??????? ???????? ???????????. ???? ??????? ???????? ? ???? ????????
??????? ??????????????????? ?????????? ? ???? ?????????????? ? ??????????? ????????????? ??????????? ???????. ?????????? ???????????? ?????????????? ? ??????? ?????? ?????? ??????? ? ??????, ?????????? ?? ??????.
???????? ??????? ??????? ????????? ???????? ????? ??????? ?????????????? ??????? (?????????? ???????), ????????????????? ????? ? ???????????? ??????-???????????? ???????, ???????????? ???. ? ???????? ??????
?????????????? ???????????? ????????? ????????? ?????, ??? ?????????
?????????? ????????? ??????????? ???????????, ??????? ??????????????
??????? (PostScript, TrueType), ????? ?????????? ??????????? ?????? ? ?. ?.
?????????? ????? ??????? ???????????????, ??? ???????? ????????.
LED-????????. ????? ???????? ????????? ?????????? ??? ??????????
LED-???????? (Light Emitting Diode), ??????? ???????? ???? ???????? ??-?? ????, ??? ????????????????? ????? ? ??? ??? ??????? Ф?????????╗ ??????????
???????????. ? ???? ?????? ?? ????????? ??????? ?????????? ??????? ??????????? ?????? ? ????.
75
???????? ? ?????????????? ???????? ???????. ??????? ?????? ???????? ? ?????????????? (thermal wax transfer) ??????? ? ???, ??? ??????????????? ???????? ????????, ?????????? ?? ?????? ????????, ???????? ?? ??????
?????? ? ??? ?????, ??? ??????????????? ?????????? (????????? ????? ? ???)
?????????? ??????? ?????????????? ??????? ???????????. ????????? ?????????? ??????? ?????????? ??????? ????????????? ???????? ????????? ????????? ?????????????? ?????????, ??????? ??????????? ???????? ??? ??,
??? ??????????? ???? ? ??????? ????????? ??????? ????????: ???? ??? ?????? ? ??? ????. ??? ? ??????? ????????? ? ???????? ?????????, ??????????
??????? ????????????? ??????????????? ?????? ? ?????????????? ???????????, ? ?????? ?????? ?????????????? ? ???????????? (???????????????? ????????). ????????? ????? ?????????? ???????? ? ??????? ???????????? ??????? ???????????, ????????????? ????????? ? ?????? ?????????? ?????????.
????? ???????? ???????? ?? ??????????? ??????. ?? ???????? ????? ?????????? ????? ?????????.
???????? ? ???????????????? ?????????. ???????? ? ???????????????? (dye sublimation) ?????????? ??????????, ???????? ??????? ? ??????????
?????????????, ?????? ???????? ?????????? ??????? ??????????? ? ??????
?????? ??? ?? ????? ??????? ???????????. ??? ?????????? ??????? ????????
?? ???????? ????????? ? ???????????? ?????????? ????? ?????? ????????. ????? ???????, ?????? ????????? ??????????? ? ???????? ? ?????????? ?? ?????? ??? ???? ????????. ??????????? ?????? ?????????? ????? ????????? ??????????? ????? ???????? ???????. ?????? ?????????? ???????????? ?????? ???
??????? ??????, ? ??????????? ?? ?????????? ????? ????? ??????? ??????????? ?????????????? ? ????? ???????? ??????. ? ?? ???????? ?????????????
????????? ??????????? ??????????????? ???????? ??????????? ??????????? ?
??????? ????? ???????? ?????? ??? ????????????? ?????????????.
???????? ? ?????????? ???? ?????????. ??????? ?????? ????????? ?
?????????? ???? ?????????, ??? ? ??????? ?????????? (phase change ink-jet,
??? solid ink-jet), ???????? ?????????. ???????? ?????????? ??? ???????
?????????? ????? ????????? ?????????? ????????????? ??????????? ?????????????? ????????? ? ???????? ? ????????? ??????????. ????????????? ????????? ???????? ?????? ??????????? ??????? ? ?????????? ???????, ?????????? ?????? ?? ?????? ????????????. ????? ?????????????? ????????? ??
?????? ????????? ??????????? ?????????, ?? ???????????? ??????????? ? ???
?????????. ? ??????? ?? ??????? ???????? ?????????? (liquid ink-jet) ? ??????
76
?????? ?? ?????????? ?? ????????????, ?? ??????????, ?? ???????? ??????????. ?????? ??????? ????????, ???????????? ?????????? ? ?????????? ????
?????????, ???????? ? ????? ???????. ???????? ?????? ?????????? ?????? ????????????, ? ???? ?? ????????? ? ???????????? ??????.
??????????? ??????? ??????. ??? ??????? ?????? ???????????? ???
??????????, ??????????? ??? ??????????? ??????, ? ????? ???????? ? ???????????????? ????????? (dye sublimation) ? ? ?????????? ???? ????????? (phasechange ink-jet). ??? ??????? ?????????? ?????????? ??????? ? ????????????
??????? ????????????????. ? ??????????? ??????? ??? ?????? RGB ??? ?????? CMYK.
3.6 ???????????????
??????????????? ? ??? ???? ?? ????????? ????????? ?????? ????????????? ??????????, ??????? ????????:
1) ???????;
2) ???????????? (??????????, ??????????? ?????) ?????? ? ???????????
??????????? (GPU) ? ????????????;
3) ?????????;
4) ????? ??????????????? ????????-?????????, ???????????? ? ????????? ? ????????? ??? ? ??????? ?????????? ???????.
??????? ? ???????????? ?????? ????? ??????????????? ???? ? ??????,
??????? ?????? ?? ????? ?? ???, ????? ?????????? ????????? ? ? ??????.
??????? ? ??? ????????????? ??????????? ??????????, ???????????????
??? ??????????? ??????????? ??????????.
??????? ???????:
?
?? ?????? (???????);
?
????? ???????;
?
???? ??????????;
? ???????.
?????????? ??? ??????????? ?? ???????? ????????? ? ????????????
??????????, ???????????? ??????????? (? ?????????? ? ??????????).
? ????????? ??????? ? ???????? ???????? ????? ??????????? ? ?????????.
????????????? ????????? ??????????????:
?
?? ???? ??????;
?
?? ??????????? ??????;
77
?
?? ???? ????????????? (???????);
? ?? ???? ????????????? ??????.
????????????? ????????? ?? ???? ??????:
?
???-??????? ?? ?????? ??????????-??????? ?????? (????. Cathode
Ray Tube, CRT) (???. 3.18, ?);
?
?? ? ???????????????????? ??????? (????. Liquid Crystal Display,
LCD) (???. 3.18, ?);
?
OLED ? ??????? ?? ?????? ?????????? OLED (????. Organic LightEmitting Diode ? ???????????? ??????????????? ????, ????);
?
?????????? ? ?? ?????? ?????????? ?????? (????. Plasma Display
Panel, PDP, gas-plasma display panel);
?
???????? ? ??? ????????????? ? ?????, ??????????? ???????? ???
???????????? ? ????? ??????? (??? ??????? ? ????? ??????? ??? ??????? ??????) ? ???????????? ?????????;
?
????????? ????? (???????????, ?????????) ? ??????? ? ???????????? ????? ??????.
?)
?)
???. 3.18 ? ???????? ?? ?????? ??? (?) ? ?? (?)
????????????? ????????? ?? ??????????? ?????? ? ????????. ????????? ?????? Ф???????????:?????????╗ (? ???????? ????????):
?
4:3 (???????????);
?
16:9 ??? 16:10 (???????????????);
? 25:16 ? ??.
?????? ????????? ?????? ? ?????? (1 ???? = 2,54 ??): 15 (38 ??); 17
(43 ??); 19 (48 ??); 21 (53 ??); 22 (56 ??); 24 (61 ??); 26 (66 ??); 30 (76 ??); 32
(81 ??).
????????????? ????????? ?? ???? ????????????? (???????):
?
VGA (640?480);
?
SVGA (800?600);
78
?
HD 720 (1280x720);
? Full HD 1080 (1920x1080) ? ??.
??????? ???????????????? ????????? ? ??????? 3.1.
??????? 3.1 ? ???????? ??????? ????????????????
????????
???????
??????????
?????
?????????
???????????
??????
???????????
VGA
SVGA
HD 720p
Full HD 1080p
UXGA
640О480
800О600
1280О720
1920О1080
1600О1200
4:3
4:3
16:9
16:9
4:3
307,2 ?????
480 ?????
921,6 ?????
2,07 ?????
1,92 ?????
WXGA++
1600О900
16:9
1,44 ?????
Super Hi-Vision
7680О4320
16:9
33,17 ?????
???????????? (??????????). ?????? ???????????? ?????????????
(???. 3.19):
1) ??????????? ????????? (Graphics Processing Unit, GPU ? ???????????
???????????? ??????????);
2) ???????????????;
3) ???????????;
4) ?????-?????????? ??????????????? (???, RAMDAC ? Random Access
Memory Digital-to-Analog Converter);
5) ?????-??? (Video ROM);
6) ??????? ??????????.
???. 3.19 ? ?????????? Geforce 4200
79
??????????? ????????? ???????????? (GUI), ??????????? ?? ??????
???????????? ???????? 1990-? ??., ???????????? ????? ???? ???????? ?????????????? ? ?????????? ??????????? ???????????.
??????????? ?????????? (graphics accelerator) ? ??? ????????????, ??????? ?????????? ?????????? ????????? ??????????? ??????? ?? ??????????
??????. ??????? ? ???????? ? ???????? ????? ??????????????????? ?????????? ??????? ??, ??? ??????????? ????????? ???????????? (GUI) ?????? ??????
? ??????? ?? ???????????? ?????????? ??????? ?????????????? ????????, ?
??????????? ?????????? ??? ??? ? ??????? ????? ? ???? ???????? ????? ?????????? ?? ?????????????? ?????? ??????????? ?? ?????.
??????????? ????????? (????. graphics processing unit, GPU) ? ?????????
?????????? ????????????? ?????????? (?????????????) ??? ??????? ?????????,
??????????? ??????????? ????????? ??????.
??????????? ??????????? ?????????? ????? ?????????? ????????????
? ?????????? ???????????? ???????. ????????? ?????????????????? ??????????? ??????????? ??? ??????? ??????????? ? ????????? ??????????? ??????????, ??? ???????? ??????????? ?????????.
??????????? ????????? ? ??????????? ?????????????? ??????????? ?
???????? ?????????? ?????????? ???????. ????? ??????????? ??? ? ???????
?????????? ??????????, ??? ? ? ??????????????? ???????? (?????????? ? ???????? ???? ???? ? ????????? ?????????).
??????????? ? ??? ?????????? ??????????? ??????, ?????????? ??? ???????? ??????, ??????? ???????????? ??? ???????????? ??????????? ??
?????? ????????.
??? ???? ? ??????????? ????? ??????????? ??? ??????????????? ????????? ????? ??????????? (???????? ????), ??? ? ????????? ????????? ??? ?
????????? (????????), ??? ? ? ????????? (??????????????, ? ????????? ????????????) ??????.
??? ???????, ???? ??????????? ?????? ??????????? ?????????? ???????? ????? ? ?????????? ???????? ?????, ? ??????? ?? ??????? ??????? ????????? ??????, ??????? ??????????? ? ??????????????????? ??????? ??????
??????????????.
??? ???????????? ????????? ??? ?????????? ????? ???????????? ??????
GDDR3. ?? ????? ?? ?????? GDDR4, ??????? ????? ????? ??????? ?????????? ???????????, ??? GDDR3; ?????? GDDR4 ?? ???????? ???????? ??????????????? ?????????? ??????? ??????????? Ф???? ? ??????????????????╗ ?
80
??????????? ?????????????? ???? ? ????????? ??????????? ???????? ????????
???????? (????????, Radeon X1950XTX, HD 2900 XT, HD3870). ????? ????????? ?????? GDDR5, ??????? ?? ????????? ?? 2012 ?. ???????? ???????? ????????, GDDR3 ???????????? ? ????????? ????????. ??????????? ?????????? ??
Ф???????╗ ????????? ??? ????? ???????? ???????????? ? ?????? ????.
??????????? ???? ?????? ? ??????????, ??????????? ??????????? ?????????
? ?????? ??????????.
????????? ?????????? ??????? ?? ?????????? ???????????? (??????) ?
??????? ???????? (??????).
?????????? ???????????. ??? ???? ???????? ????? (?. 3.3), ???????????
????????????? ????????? ???????? ????? ??? ????????? ????? ? AGP ???
PCI Express. ??????? ?? ??????? ?????? ????????? ?? ?????? ?????? ??????????.
??????? ?????. ????????????? VGA ? ????? ??????? ?????? ?????
????? ???? ?????? VGA (15-?????????? D-sub ????????????) (???. 3.20). ??????? ?????? ?????? VGA-????????? ????? ????? ?????? ??????????? ????????? (9-??????????) ??? ????????????? ?? ??????? ??????????. ????? ???????? ?????? ????????? ??????????????? ?? ????? ?????????????. ??????????
????? ????? ????? ?????? S-Video (???. 3.20).
???. 3.20 ? ????? ??????????????? (????? ???????):
9-?????????? ?????? S-Video TV-out, DVI ? D-sub
??????????? ?????????? RCA (?. ?. ????? RCA-?????? Ф???????╗ ??????? ?????). ?????????? ???????????? ? ????????? ??????????? ??????????
?????? RCA. ???????????? ???????????? ?????? (???. 3.21) ???????? ???????????? ??? ????????????: ??????????, ??????? ? ?????????, ?????? ? ?????????? ???????????, ??? ?? ????????? ?????????? ??????? ???????? ?????.
????? ?????????? ????? ????????? ?????????? ???????????? Y-Pr-Pb
?????????? ? ????? ???????????? ?? ???? RCA-???????? (???. 3.21), ?????????????? ?????????? ???????? ??????????? ?????.
81
???. 3.21 ? ????? ???????????????: ??????????? ?????????? (?????);
???????????? ?????????? Y-Pb-Pr (??????)
??????????? ?????????? ?????? ?????????? ????????? DVI ??? HDMI
????????? ????? (???. 3.22).
???. 3.22 ? ????? ???????????????: VGA, DVI, HDMI, S-Video
????? DVI (Digital Visual Interface) ? HDMI ???????? ?????????????
???????? ???????? ????????? ???????? ????????????, ??????? ??? ??????????
????????? ? ????? ?????? ?????? ???????? ????????????? ????????????
(?????? DVI ? ?????? D-Sub ? ?????????? ??????, ?????? HDMI ? ?????? DVID ? ???????? ??????, ??????? ?? ???????????? ??????????? ???????? ??????
????????? ???? (????. High Bandwidth Digital Copy Protection, HDCP), ???????
??? ??????????? ???????? ??????????????? ????? ? ???????????????????
???????????). ???? DVI-I ????? ???????? ?????????? ???????, ???????????
?????????? ??????? ????? ?????????? ?? ?????? ?????? D-Sub (DVI-D ?? ????????? ????? ???????).
????????? HDMI (High Definition Multimedia Interface) ? ????????? ???
??????????? ??????? ????????, ??????????? ??????????:
1) ???????? ?????;
2) ?????????????? ???????? ???????????? ? ??????? ?? ???????????;
3) ?????????????? Ф?????????╗ ?????????? ?????????? ????????????.
?????? HDMI ???????????? ???????? DVI-?????????? ??????????
????????? ? ??????? ??????????????? ???????. ???????? ???????? ?????
HDMI ? DVI ??????? ? ???, ??? ?????? HDMI ?????? ?? ???????, ? ????? ???-
82
????????? ???????? ?????????????? ???????? ?????????????. ???????? ??????? ?????????? ?????????? ???????????, ????? ??? SCART ? RCA.
?????????????? HDMI ???????? ????????: Hitachi, Matsushita Electric
Industrial (???? Panasonic) (Panasonic/ National/Technics/Quasar), Philips, Silicon
Image, Sony, Thomson (RCA).
HDMI ????????? ????? ????????? ???????? ??????????? ??????????????. HDMI ???????? ?????????? ???????????? ? ???????? ?? 4,9 ?? 10,2 ????/?.
????? ???????????? ?????? ????? ????????? 10 ?, ????? ???????? ??????????
????? ?? 20?35 ? ? ????? ? ??????????? ??? ??????? ??????????????????????, ??? ? ?????????????? ????? ? ??????. ????????? ?????????????
????????????? ?????????? ?????? ? ?????? ? ? ????? ?????? ??? ?????? ??
?????. ?????????? ??????????? ? HDMI ?? DVI ? ???????, ? ????? ????????????? ? ?????????? ????????????, ?? ???????? ?????? ?? ???? ??????/???????. HDMI ???????????? ??????????? ????????? CEC ? ???????????
AV.link.
???? ?????? ??????? HDMI-CEC (CEC ? Consumer Electronics Control)
? ??????????????? ???????????????? ????, ???????????? ???????? ????????????? ????????? AV.Link ??? ?????????? ?????????? ???????????? ????????????. ???????????? ????????? ?????????? HDMI; ? ????????? ????? ???????? ???? ???????????? ?????????? ФCEC Implementation Guidelines╗,
??????????? HDMI Licensing, LLC.
?????????? HDMI-CEC ???????????? ??????????? ??????????? ??????????? (??????????, ???????? ??????????, HTPC ? ?. ?.), ?????? ??? ?????????? ?????????????? ? ?? ???????????? ???????????. ?????? ?? ?????????
?????????? HDMI-CEC ?? ???????????? ??????????? ??? ?????? ?????? ????????? Toshiba, ??????? ??? ?????????? ???????????? ?????? ? ???? ???????
????????? Toshiba. CEC ???? ??????????? ??? ???????? ?????????? ?????????? ????????? ??????? ??????????? ??? ?????? ?????? ?????? ?????????? ?
???????? ?? ????????? SCART. ????? ??????????? ???????????? ???????????? ?? 10 ?????????.
?????????? CEC ? ???????? ?????. ?????????? CEC ????????????? ?????????? ??????????????? ??? ????????? ???????????? ??? ??????? ????????? ??????????: Anynet+ (Samsung); Aquos Link (Sharp); BRAVIA Sync (Sony);
HDMI-CEC (Hitachi); Kuro Link (Pioneer); CE-Link ? Regza Link (Toshiba); RIHD
(Remote Interactive over HDMI) (Onkyo); SimpLink (LG); HDAVI Control, EZ-
83
Sync, ? VIERA Link (Panasonic); EasyLink (Philips); NetCommand for HDMI
(Mitsubishi).
DisplayPort ? ??? ???????? ??????????? ?????????? ??? ???????? ???????? (???. 3.23). ??? ?????? VESA (Video Electronics Standard Association) ?
2006 ?., ???. 1.1 ? ? 2007 ?., ? ???. 1.2 ? ? 2010 ?. DisplayPort ?????????????? ?
????????????? ? ???????? ???????? ???????????? ?????????? ??????????
?????- ? ???????????????, ? ?????? ??????? ??? ?????????? ?????????? ?
???????? ??? ?????????? ? ?????? ????????? ??????????. DisplayPort ????????? ?????????? ?? ??????? ?????????, ? ??? ????? ???????????????, USB????????????? ? ???? ?????????? ?????-??????.
???. 3.23 ? ????????? (?????) ? ????????? (??????) ????? ??????? DisplayPort
????, ? ????????? ????? ?????????? ???????? ????????? DVI ???
HDMI (???. 3.20, 3.22), ???? DisplayPort ? ?????????? ?? ?????? ?? ???? (????????? ?????????? ATi ?????????? ????????? ?????????? ?????? ?????????????).
3.7 ???? ???????
???? ???? ??????? ? ????????? ? ??????????????? ??????????? [14.
?. 175], ?? ??? ???? ??????????? ?????????? ???????????????? ??????????.
иииииииииииииииииииииииииииииииииииииииииииииииииииииииииииии
???????????? ???? ??????? (????. power supply unit, PSU ?
???? ???????, ??) ? ??? ????????? ???????? ??????????????,
??????????????? ??? ????????? ????? ?????????? ?????????????
???????? ??????????? ????, ????? ?????????????? ????????
?????????? ?? ????????? ????????.
иииииииииииииииииииииииииииииииииииииииииииииииииииииииииииии
? ????????? ??????? ???? ??????? ????? ????????? ??????? ???????????? ? ?????? ?? ?????????????? ????? ????????? ??????????.
???????????? ???? ??????? ??? ??????????? ????????????? ?????????? (???. 3.24) ????????? PC, ???????? ???????????? ATX 2.x, ?????? ????????-
84
???? ???????? ??????????: ▒5 ?, ▒12 ?, +3,3 ?, ? ????? +5 ? ????????? ?????? (????. standby).
???. 3.24 ? ???? ??????? ??????????? ?????????? IBM P?
????????? ???????? ?????? ???????? ?????????? +3,3 ?, +5 ? ? +12 ?.
??????, ??? ???? ??????????, ??? ??????? ???????? ?????????? ?? ??????
?????. ????????????? ?????????? ??????? (?5 ? ? ?12 ?) ????????? ????????? ???? ? ? ??????????? ??????????? ?????? ? ????????? ????? ???????????
?? ????????????.
?????????? ?5 ? ?????????????? ?????? ??????????? ISA ???????????
????. ??? ??????????? ?5 ? ??????????? ???? ? ATX ? ATX12V ?????? ?? 1.2
????????????? ??????? 20 ? ????? ??????. ??? ?????????? (? ????? ??????? ?
??????) ?? ???????? ???????????? ??? ? ?????? 1.2 ? ????????? ??????????? ?
??????? 1.3 ? ??????.
?????????? ?12 ? ?????????? ???? ??? ?????? ?????????? ?????????
????????????????? ?????????? RS-232 ? ?????????????? ????????? ??? ??????????? ????????? ? ?????????? ??????????, ??????? ????? ????? ???????????.
?????????? ▒5 ?, ▒12 ?, +3,3 ? ????????? ?????? ???????????? ??????????? ??????. ??? ??????? ??????, ?????????? ????????, ???????????? ???????????? ?????? ?????????? +5 ? ? +12 ?.
??????????? ??????????? ?????????? ?????????? ?????????? ???????
?? ???? +5 ?. ???????? ?????? ??????????? ???????, ????? ??? ??????????,
??????????? ?????????, ???????? ????, ???????????? ????? ??????????? ??
??????????? ????? ??? ?? ?????????? ????????? ??????????????? ? ????????
?? ????? ??? +5 ?, ??? ? +12 ?.
?????????? +12 ? ???????????? ??? ??????? ???????? ?????? ????????????. ?????????? ???????? ?????????? ?? 12 ? ? 5 ? ????????????? ??? ???
85
???????? ????? ?? ???????? ??????????? ????, ??? ? ??? ???????? ??????
??????? ?? ???????? ?????????????? ?????? ????? ???????.
?????????? +3,3 ? ? ????? ??????? ??????????? ?? ?????????? +5 ?, ?
?????? ?????????? ??????????? ????????? ???????????? ???????? ?? ▒5 ? ?
+3,3 ?.
? ??????????? ??????? ???????????? ?????????? ???? ???????, ??????????? ?? ???????????? (???????????) ?????.
?????????? ? ???????????? ????? ???????. ?????? ????????????????
????? ??????????? ????????? ??????? ????????? ?? ???????? 3.25?3.27.
???. 3.25 ? ??????????? ????? ??????????? ????? ???????
???. 3.26 ? ????? ???????????? ???????????????
??????????? ?????????? ? ??????????
86
???. 3.27 ? ?????????? ???? ??????? ?????????? (ATX) ?? ?????? ???????:
A ? ??????? ??????? ???????????, ???? ????? ??????? ??????;
B ? ??????? ???????????? ????????????, ?????? ?????
???????? ?????????????? ????????????; C ? ?????????? ?????????????,
?????? ????? ???????? ????????????? ??????? ????????????;
D ? ???????? ????????? ????????????; E ? ???????????? ????????? ???????
??????? ????. ??????? ??????, ??????????????? ??????????????? ?????????? ????? ? ???????? ????. ????? ????, ??????? ?????? ?????????
?????? ???? ?????? ????????????????? ????????????? ??? ????????? ?? ? ????
(??? ????? ???????? ? ??????????? ???????? ??????????????? ?????). ? ???????????? ??????? ? ????????? (? ???????) ???? ???????? ????????? ???????? (PFC), ????????? ???????? ?? ???????? ????.
??????? ?????????????? ????, ????????????? ?????????? ??????????
? ?????????? ????????????. ?????????????? ??????, ???????????? ????????? ????????????? ??????????.
????????? ?????????? ???? ???????, ???????? +5 ? ????????? ?????? ??????????? ????? ? +12 ? ??? ??????? ?????????? ???????????????
?????? ???. ?????? ?? ???????? ? ???? ??????????????? ??????????????? ??
?????????? ????????? (???? ? ????????? ????????????? ???????? ??????????
????? ?????? ???? ???????????? ??????????? TL431 ? ???? ??, ???? ????????? ??????????????? 7805/7812 ?? ??????) ??? ?? (? ??????? ???????) ??
?????????? ???? TOP Switch.
???????????????. ???????????? ??????????????? ?? ???? ??????????
????????????. ????? ?????????? ???????????????? ? ?????? ?????????? ??
??????????/ ???????? ???????? ??????????, ?????? ?? ??????????????????
?????????? (TL494, UC3844, KA5800, SG6105 ? ??.).
87
?????????? ??????????????? ????????????? ?????? ??? ????????????
??????????? ????????? ??????????, ? ????? ??? ?????????????? ???????? ????? (??????? ?? ????????, ? ?????, ??? ?????????????, ???????? ???? ??
?????). ??????? ?????????? ?? ?????? ???????????????? ??????????????
??????????????? ???????? ????????? ?????????? ? ??????????? ????????? ????????? ????????.
???? ???????? ????? ???????????? ?????????? ?????????? ?? ??????
????? ???????.
????? ? ?????? ??????????????? ?????? ????????????? ?????????? PG
(Power Good, Ф?????????? ? ?????╗), ?????? ?? ????????? ???????????? ????????? (??).
???????? ????. ???????? ???????????. ????????????? ? ????????????? ?????????? (5 ? 12 ?) ?????????? ???? ? ?? ?? ???????? ??????? ??????????????, ? ?????? ???????????? ????????? ?????? ???????????. ??? ???????? ?????? ??? ??????? ???????????? ???? ? ???????? ????????????
?????????? ????? ??????, ?????????? ????? ?????? ???????? ??????????.
???????? ???????? ????????? ????????????. ???????? ?????????? ????????, ?????????? ??????? ????? ?????????? ? ???????? ????????????.
?????? ??? ??????? ? ????????????????? ??????? ????? ?????? ????????
??????????. ???, ???? ?? ??????-???? ?????? ?????????? ???????????? ???,
??? ?????? ?????????? ? ???? ????, ???????? ????????? ????????????, ???
?????????????, ??????????????? ?????? ?????????? ?? ?????? ???????? ?????. ???? ???????? ????? ????????? ???????? ?????????? ?? ?????? ? ???????? ????? ?????? ???????, ??? ??????????? ????????? ???????? ??????????.
???????? ??????????? ????????????. ???????? ???????????? ??????
? ????????? ????????? ???????????? ??????????? ????????, ??? ????? ??????? ??????????? ???????? ??????????, ???????, ????????? ???????? ????????? ????????????, ??????????? ???? ?????????? ? ?????? ??????????????.
???? (?? ???? ?????) ??? ????????? (?? ????????? ?????, ?????? +5 ? ?
+3,3 ?) ??????????? ?????????? 10?25 ?? ???????????? ?????????? ?????? ??
???????? ????.
???????? ????????? ??????? ?????? ??????? ????????? ? ???????? 3.2
? 3.3.
88
??????? 3.2 ? ???????? ???????? ?????????? ? ?? ??????
?????
?????? ??????? ??????? ????????
???????
?????????
+12V 1DC
▒5%
+11,40
+12,00
+12,60
?????
+12V 2DC
▒5%
+11,40
+12,00
+12,60
?????
+5V DC
▒5%
+4,75
+5,00
+5,25
?????
+3,3V DC
▒5%
+3,14
+3,30
+3,47
?????
?12V DC
▒10%
?10,80
?12,00
?13,20
?????
+5V SB
▒5%
+4,75
+5,00
+5,25
?????
??????? 3.3 ? ??????????? ???? ???????? ??? ?? ????????? 300 ??
?????
??????? ??????????? ????????
???????
?????????
+12V DC
1,0
18,0
18,0
?????
+5V DC
1,0
16,0
19
?????
+3,3V DC
0,5
12,0
?
?????
?12V DC
0,0
0,4
?
?????
+5V SB
0,0
2,0
2,5
?????
??????????? ??????????? ????? ???????:
1. ??????? ???????????? ? ?????????????????? ????????? ????????????
???????? ??????????.
2. ??????? ??? (65?70%). ???????? ?????? ?????????? ?? ??????????
????????, ??????? ?????? ??????????? ??????? ?????, ??? ?????????? ?????????.
3. ????? ???????? ? ?????, ????????????? ??? ????? ?????????? ????? ?? ???????????? ????????, ??? ? ?????? ?????????? ??????????????, ????????? ????, ??? ????????? ???????? ?? ??????? ???????
(????? ????????).
4. ????? ??????????????, ????????? ???? ?????? ?????????? ????????? ??????? ????? ??????? ????????????????, ???????? ?? ??????? ?????????.
5. ??????????? ??????????? ? ????? ? ??????? ?????????? ??????
?????????? ? ??????, ??? ???? ????? ??????????? ????. ?????????
????? ???????? ?????????? ???????, ???????????? ??? ?????????
????? ????, ? ?????? ? ?? ??????????? ??? ???????? ????????????.
89
?????????? ????????????? ????? ??????? ?? ?????????? ????????????:
1. ??? ?????????? ???? ??????? ??????????? ????????????? ?????????? ???????????? ? ???????? ???????? ????????? ??????? ?????
??? ??????????. ?????????? ??????????? ????????????? ???????
???????????? ?????? ???????.
2. ??? ?????? ???????????? ?????? ??????? ???????? ?? ????? ???????
?????? MOSFET-????????????. ???????????? ????? ????????????
?????? ??????? ??????????? ? ???? ??? ???????????? ????, ??? ? ?????????????? ????????????????. ??? ?????????????? ??????????????? ?????????? ? ????????????? ????? ??????? ? ??????????????
???????????????? ???????????? ??????????? ????? ??????? ???????
?????????????? (100?150 ???).
3. ??????? ?????????? ?????????? ???????, ????????????? ??????????????? ??? ??????? ???? ?????? ???????. ????? ??????? ???????
??????????????? ???????????? ??.
4. ?? ?????? ??????? ????????????? ???????????? ????????? ?????????? ?? ???????. ???????? ????????? ???????????? ?? ????????? ? ??????? ????????? ???????????? ???????? ?????????? ?? ???? ???????.
????? ???????, ? ????? ?????? ??????????? ????? ??????? ????????? ?????????? ▒5 ? ? 3,3 ? ? ??????? ????????? ???????????????? ?? ?????? 12 ?.
?????? ????? ??????? ??? ????????? ?????, ??????????? ????????? ??
ATX. ??? ??????? ????? ??????? ????????? ????????? ???????? 13 (??????) ?
14 (???????) ? ???????, ???????????? ?? ????? (???. 3.28, 3.29), ??????? ???????????? ? ????????? ?????. ??? ???????, ????? ??????????, ?? ?????? ???
?????? ?? ????????? ?????????? ?????????????? ???????? ?? 5 ? (????????,
?????????? ??????? ????). ??????????? ?? ? 24-??????????? ?????????
(???. 3.30) ??????????? ??????????.
???. 3.28 ? 24-?????????? ATX-??????, ? ???????? ????????? 4 ????????
????? ???? ????????, ??? ??????????? ?????????????
? 20-?????????? ??????? ?? ????????? ?????
90
???. 3.29 ? ???????? 20-?????????? ??? ?????? ??? ??????????? ?????
?) ??? ?? ?????; ?) ??? ?? ?????????? ???????
???. 3.30 ? 24-?????????? ??? ?????? ??? ??????????? ????? (?),
?????????????? ??????? ??? ??????????? ????? (?)
??????? ????? ???????. ??????????? ?????????????? ???????????? ?
????? ??????? ? ??????? ??????? ? ????????? (???. 3.31?3.34):
1) AMP 171822-4 ????-??????? ??? ??????? 5 ? 12 ? ?????????????
?????????? (??????, ????????);
2) Molex ???????? ??????? (molex 8981);
91
3) 5-?????????? ??????? MOLEX 88751 ??? ??????? ?????????? ? ??????????? SATA: ?????? MOLEX 675820000 ??? ????????????? ?
?????????? Molex 675810000 ??? ??????????????;
4) PCIe8 connector ??? ??????? ??????????, ???????????? ?? PCIe6
connector (??? ??????? ??????????);
5) PCIe6 connector ??? ??????? ??????????;
6) EPS12V (????. Entry-Level Power Supply Specification) ??? ??????? ??????????? ?????;
7) ATX PS 12V (P4 power connector) ??? ??????? ??????????? ?????;
8) ATX12V ????????? ??????? ??????????? ?????: MOLEX 39-01-2040
??? ????????????? ? ?????????? Molex 44476-1112 (HCS).
???. 3.31 ? ????? ??????? ??????? (?? ????? ???????),
??? ???????????? ? ?????????
???. 3.32 ? ?????? ??????? SATA ?????????
???. 3.33 ? ?????? ??????? IDE ????????? (??????????)
? ??????? ???? ???????????? (??????????? ? ?. ?.)
92
???. 3.34 ? ?????? ??????? ????????? ???? ??????-????????? (3,5" ????????)
????? ??????? ?????????. ???? ??????? ??? ???????? (? ?????? ????????? ???????????) ??????????? ??? ??? ??????? ??? ?????????????? ???????
(???), ??? ? ??? ??????????? ?????? ??? ????????????. ?? ???? ??????????
?? ???????? ???? ????? ???????????? ????? ??????? ???? (???. 3.35).
???. 3.35 ? ???? ??????? ????????
????? ???? ??? ????????????? ?????????????? ????????? ??????? ????????? ????? ?????? ???????????, ?? ??????? ????? ??????? ???? ??? ???????
????????? ? ?? ????? ???????, ??? ???????, ?? ???????????????. ??????????
?????????? ?? ?????????????? ?????? ??????? ??? ?????????.
????????????? ????????? ????? ?????????? ????????? ??????? ???????
(?? ???????? ????????? ???????? ?????, ???? ?????? ?????????????? ????? ?????????, ???????????? ???? ????????? ???????). ??????????? ???????????
?? ??? ??????????? ????????????? ??????? ? ????????????? ??????????
???????????, ???? ?????????? ??????? ? ? ???????? ???????????.
??????????? ???????? ??????????: ?????? ??? 18,5 ? ??? 19 ?, ????
??????????? ???????? ? ??????????? 15 ? ??? 16 ? (? ???????? ???????????);
19,5 ?; 20 ? ??? ???? 24 ? (Apple).
????? ??????? ?????????? ???????????? ???????? ?????????, ???????
??? 3,16 ? (??? ?????? ?????); 3,42 A; 4,74 ?; 6,3 ?; 7,9 ?, ? ??????????? ?? ????, ????????? ?????? ????????? ?????????????? ??????.
93
? ?????? ????? ??????? ???????? ??????? ????????? ? ?????????????
(?????????? ?????? ????? ?????????? ??????????, ??????? ? ????????
??????????, ?? ??????????? 0,5 ?, ? ????? ??????????? ????????), ?????
??? ????? ???????? ? ?????? ????????? ?? ?????.
??????????? ????? ????????????? ????? ???????, ???????????? ?? ???????? ?????? ??????? ? ????????? ??????????????. ????? ?? ????? ????????????? ?????????? ? ????? ??????? ???????? ??? ???????????.
иииииииииииииииииииииииииииииииииииииииииииииииииииииииииииии
??????????? ??????? ?? ????? 3
иииииииииииииииииииииииииииииииииииииииииииииииииииииииииииии
1. ??? ????? ???????????? ???????????
2. ??? ????? ???? PCMCIA ? ??? ???? ??? ??????????????
3. ??? ????? ???? AGP ? ??? ???? ??? ??????????????
4. ????? ????????????? ????????????? ????? ?????????? ? ?????? ??
???????????????
5. ??? ????? ?????? ? ??? ???? ?? ?????????????
6. ?????? ???????? ?????????????? ????????? ??????????
7. ????? ????????????? ????????? ?? ??????????? ?????? ? ???????
????????? ??????.
8. ??? ????? ??????????? ???????????
9. ??????????????? ???????????? Y-Pr-Pb ?????????? ??? ??????????? ????????.
10. ??? ????? ?????????? HDMI-CEC, ??? ???? ??? ??????????????
11. ?????? ??????? ??????? ????? ????? ??????? ???
94
4 ??????????? ???????????? ??? ????
4.1 ???????
? ???? ???????????? ?????, ???????? ????????? ???????????????????
?????????????? (????, CAD ? Computer Aided Design), ??? ?? ????????????
????????????? ??????????? ?????????? ??????? ?????? ?????????????? ????????????? ???????????? (???????????? ??????????? ????), ??? ???????, ??
???????? ???????? ? ?????? ???????? ????????????? ???????????. ????????? ???? ??????????? ???? ??????????? ???? ?? ????? ??????????? ??????????? ???????????? [15].
иииииииииииииииииииииииииииииииииииииииииииииииииииииииииииии
???????, ??? ????????????????, ? ??? ?????????? ???
??????????????? ???????????? ? ??????? ????????? ???????
????????, ????, ????????, ???? ? ?????? ??????????? ??????????
?? ?????? ??? ?????? ????????, ???????? ?????? ??? ?????.
иииииииииииииииииииииииииииииииииииииииииииииииииииииииииииии
?? ??????? 4.1 ???????????? ??????????? ?????????????? ??????????
???? ??-7051?, 1980?1983 ??. ???????? ???????????? 50 ??/?. ?????????????
?????? ?? ???????? ?????????: ?????, ????? ? ?????? ????????? ?? ??????,
??????????? ?? ??? ??? ????????? ?????????? ??????
???. 4.1 ? ??????????? ?????????????? ?????????? ???? ??-7051? ????
(??????????????? ?????, ?. ??????, 2011 ?.)
95
???????? ????????? ??? ??????????? ?????????? ? 2D CAD-????????,
??? ??? ??????????? ??????? ??????????? ?? ?????? ???????? ???????, ??????? ?????????? ?????????? ?? ??????? ????????.
???????? ?? ??????????????? ?????????? ???????:
1) ?? ???????? (??????????);
2) ?????????? (???????).
???????? ???????? ???????? ?? ???????? ???????????? ????????? (??????) ? ??????? ??????, ??????????? ??? ????? ?????????? ?????????? X, a ?
?????????????? ?????????? ????????? ??????? (???. 4.2). ? ???????? ????????? ???????? ???????????? ???????? ???????, ? ????? ????? ????????? ?????.
??????? ???????????? ???? ?????????? ???????? ??????????? ???????? ???????????? ???????????? ??????, ?? ??????????? ?????????????? ?????.
???. 4.2 ? ???????? ????????? ???????? ???????-??????
?? ?????? ???? ????????? ? ?????????? ????????????????? ? ??????
????????????? ?? ????????? ? ?????????? (???. 4.1). ??? ?????????? ??????????????? ???????? ????, ???????????? ?????????????? ?? ???? ???????????. ?????????? ????? ?????? ??????????? ? ???, ??? ????????? ????????????,
??????????????? ???? ?????????????? ???????. ?? ???????????? ????? ??????? ???????? ??????? ???????? ???????????????? ???? ? ?????????????? ???????? ?????? ???????, ?????????? ?? ??????. ???????? ??????? ????????? ????? ??????????? ?????????? ??????????? ? ??????? ?????? ??????? ? ?????.
????? ????, ?? ???? ??????? ???????? ???????:
1) ?? ?????????;
2) ?????????,
? ?? ???? ????????? ???????????:
1) ?? ????????;
2) ????????.
96
?????????? ????????????????? ?????????? ???????? ?????? ? ???????
??????????? ????????????, ??????????? ???????????? ?????? ? ????????
????????? ??????????? ?????? ??????? ??????????????? ???????? ?????????
???????? ????????. ??? ???? ????????? ???????? ???????? ????? ??????? ??
????????.
???????, ??? ? ??????????? ????????? ????? ????????? ???????? ?
??????????? ???????, ????????????? ?? ????? ???????. ????? ??????????????????? ?????????? (???) ????????? ?? ?????? ???????? ??????????? ??????? ? ?????, ?? ? ??????????? ????? ????????? ????????? (????????, ???????,
??????????? ???????), ? ????? ????????? ????? ?????????? ??? ?? ????? ?
CAD-???????.
????? ????, ?????????? ??????????????? ??????? ????????, ??????????? ?? ????? ?????? ???????? ??????? ????????? ?????? ????????? ??
???????? ? ????????????? ????????? ?????????????? ? ??????????? ??????,
?????? ?????? ?? ?????? ??????????????? ?????? ? ?????? ??????. ??? ?????????? ??? ??????? ????? ????????????, ? ????? ???????????? ?????? ???? ?
???????. ??????? ??????? ???????? ???????????? ??? ????? ???????? ?
?????? (????. ?utter ? ?????).
??????? ?????? ?????????? ????? ? ??????????? ?? ????????? ? ??????? ?????? ? ??????????. ??? ?????? ??????????? ???? (???. 4.3) ? ? ????
?????? ??????? ??????????? ?? ???????? ? ????????? ?????????, ? ?????????
??? ???????? ??????????? ?? ???????????? ???????, ????????? ???? ? ???????? ????????????? ????? ???????, ? ??? ???????? ???????, ???????? ???????????, ? ????????? ???? ? ??? ?????????? ????????? ???????????, ? ?????
???? ???????????, ??? ????? ?? ? ??????? ??????.
???. 4.3 ? ??????? ???????/?????? Graphtec FC4510-60
97
???????????? ??????? ????????? ?????? ???????? ?? ?????????? ???????? (?????), ?????????????? ?????????? ? ?????? 1 ??? = 0,025 ?? =
= 25 ???, ?? ???? 40 ?????/?? ??? 1016 ?????/????.
??????????? ???? HPGL [16]. HPGL (??? HP-GL) ???????? ???????? ?????? ?????????? ?????????? Hewlett-Packard ? ?????? ????. ??? ???????? ???????????? ????? ???????????? Hewlett-Packard Graphics Language (???????????
???? ?? ???????-???????). ?? ?????? ?????? ?? ???????? ?????????? Ф???????╗ ??????????? ??? ???? ?????????.
?????????????? ???? HPGL ?? ??????????? ????? ????????? ??????
?????. ???? ???????? ??????????? ???????, ???????????????? ? ???????.
? ?????????? ?????? ???????? ????????? ?????? ????? Ф??????╗, ?????????
? HPGL-??????, ?????? ???? ??????????????? ?? ???????? ??? ??????? ????,
??? ???????????? ????? ???????? ?????????? ???????, ???????????????? ??????? ????????. ? ????? ? ???? ? ??????????? HPGL/2 ?????? ???????????
???? ????????????? ??????????????? ?? ?????? ?????, ??? ????????? ???????????????? ?????? ????. ????? ?????? ????????? ??? ???????? ????????
??????. ??? ???????????? ????????? ?????? ?????? ? ????? ?? ?? ????????.
????? ???? ???????? ??????????? ??????????.
???? HPGL ???????????? ????? ????????? ???? ?? ???? ???? ? ????????? ?? ??? ?????????????? ??????????. ????????, ???? (arc) ????? ?????????? ?? ?????? ????????? ????????:
AA 100,100,50;
??? AA ? ?????????? ?? Arc Absolute; 100, 100 ? ?????????? ??????????? ?????
????; 50 ? ????????? ????, ?????????? ?????? ??????? ???????. ????????? ????????, ?????????????? ? ?????? ??????, ?????????? ???? ????????? ???? ? ??
????????? ????? 5 ????.
?????? HPGL-????? ?????????? ? ?????????? ??????, ??????????????? ?????????, ? ???????????? ??????? ??????? ??????????? ??????. ?????? HPGL-????? ???????? ? ??????? 4.1.
???????, ??? ?????? ?????? ????????? ???????????? ? ?????????? ????? ???????????????? (?. ?. ???, RS-232) ??? ???????????? (?. ?. LPT, Centronics, IEEE1284,) ?????, ? ??????????? ?????? ???????????? ????? USB????.
????, ???????? ?? ?????????? ???????????? ?????????? ??????????
??????????? ???????? ? ??????????, ??????????????? ???????? ??? ???????? ???????????????. ??? ???????????? ??? ?????? ????????, ????, ???????????
98
???????????? ????????????. ??????????? ???????????? ????????, ???????
?????????????, ??????? ???????? ?????, ???????? ????????????? ???????
??????????? ??? ?????? ??????????? ??????????. ???????? ?? ????????????
???????? ??????? ?????? ??????????? ???????????, ?. ?. ???????? ????????
????? ????? ?? ???? ???? ?? ????? ?????? ??????????? ?????????? ???????
???? ????????? ? ?????????????, ? ?????? ???????? ?????????? ????????????
??? ????????? ??????? ????? ??????????? ?????? ? ??? ??? ?????? ?????
?????????????. ? ???? ???????? ???????? ?????? ?? ????? ????? ???????,
???????? ?? ???????????? ???????? [15].
??????? 4.1 ? ???????? ????-??????? ????????? ???? ?????????? ??
???????
????????
IN
?????????????, ?????? ???????? ????????
IP
?????????? ????????? ?????, ? ?????? ?????? ??
????????? 0, 0
SC 0,40,0,40
????????????? ??????? ???????? ?? 0 ?? 200 ????? ? ???????????? X ? ?? 0 ?? 100 ????? ?? Y
(1 ?? = 40 ?????)
SP 1
???????? ???? 1
PU 0,0
?????????? ???? ? ????????? ???????
???????? ? ??????? ???? ?? ???????? ????????
PD 100,0,100,100,0,100,0,0 (?????? ????????????? ?????? ???????? ???????
?4 ??????)
PU 50,50
????????? ? ?????????? ???? ? ??????? 50,
50 ?????
CI 25
?????? ?????????? ? ???????? 25 ?????
SS
???????? ??????????? ?????
DT*,1
????????????? ? ???????? ?????????? ???????????
?????? * ? ????????? ??? ?????? ?? ?????? (1 ?
Фtrue╗)
PU 1000,100
????????? ? ?????????? ???? ? ???????
? = 1 000 ?????, Y = 100 ?????
LB Hello World*
?????? ???????
4.2 ?????????? ????????? ???????????? ??????????
???????? ???????????? (????. Digital Manufacturing) ? ??? ????????????
? ?????????? ?????????? ???????? ??????? ? ???????? ?????????????? ? ???-
99
????????? ???????????????? ??????. ??? ???? ? ???? ???????? ???????
???????????? ?? ?????? ???? ??????? (????????, ? ???? ????????? ??? ?????????? CAD-????????), ?? ? ??? ??????????? ???????? ????????????, ? ?????
???????????????? ? ????????????? ????????.
????, ?????? ?????????????????? ???????????? (???), ????? ???????????? ???????????? ???????? CAM (????. Computer Aided Manufacturing ? ???????????? ? ??????? ???????????), ? ??? ????????????, ?????????? ?? ??????????????? ???????????? ? ???????? ??????????? ???????????.
???????? ??????????? ?????????? (???) ? ?????????????????? ???????
??????????, ??????????? ????????? ???????????????? ????????????, ???????
????????? ????????. ???????????? ? ??? ? ??? ??????, ???????????? ??????, ?????????????? ?????? ? ?. ?.
???????????? ??? ????????????? ???? ???????????? ? NC ? CNC, ?????????? ???????? ???????? ?????? ?????????? ?????????????:
?
??????? ???? NC (????. Numerical Control ? ???????? (????????)
??????????), ??????????? ???????, ??????????????? ?????????????
?????? ???????? ???? ?????????? ?????????? ? ????????, ???????
????????? ? ??????? ???????? ??? ??????????????, ???????? ???????? ?? ??????? ?????????. ?????-???? ????????? ????????????
???????? ??????, ??????????? ??????????? ?? ?????????????????;
????? ??????????? ??????? ???, ?????????? CNC (????. Computer
Numerical Control), ? ??????? ??????????, ??????????? ????????????
??? ??????????? ???????????? ?/??? ????????? ????? ????????
??????????? ????????. ????? ??? ?????????? ??????????? CNC ???????? ???????????????? ?/??? ???????????????.
????????? ??????? ? ??? ????? ???????????? ? ?????? ?????????????????? ???????????????? ??????? (???), ???????, ? ???? ???????, ?????
???? ????????? ?????? ?????????????????? ???????? (???) ? ????? ? ??????
?????????????? ????? (???????????? ???????? ??????? ???? ????), ???.
? ???????? ??????? ?????????? ??????? ?????????????? ? ???????????? ?????????? ???????? ???? ??????? ??????????????? ? ???????? ????????
????????????. ???? ??????? ??????? ?? ???? ????????? ??????.
1. ???? ???????????????? ?????????????? (???????????????). ?????????? ?????????????? ?????? ??????? ? ??????? ???????????????????
?????????????? (????, CAD), ???????? ? Altium Designer (P-CAD),
AutoCAD, ??????, Corel Draw ? ??. ????????? ? ??????????? ???
100
???? ??????? ? ???? ???????????? ???????????????? ?????????. ???????? ???????????.
2. ???? ??????????????? ?????????? ???????????? (???). ??????????
??????????? ????????, ?????????? G-??? ??? ??????? ? ???. ???????????? ???-?????????, ???????? LazyCAM ? ?. ?. ????????
????????-???????????.
3. ???? ???????????? ???????? ???? ??????? ??????????????? ???????? ????????? ??????????????? ????????:
?) ???????????? (????. milling) ??????? ? ?????? ?? ??????????? ???????? ????? (??);
?) ????????? (????. drilling) ????????? ??? ??????? ????????????????????? (???) ?? ??. ???????????? ???-???????, ????????
Mach3. ???????? ???????? ?????? ? ???.
?????? ???????????? ???? ?? ????????????? ???????? ?????, ????????????? ??????? ???????????????, ??????? ?? ??????? 4.4.
???. 4.4 ? ????? ???????????? ???? ?? ????????????? ???????? ?????:
???????? ????? ????? ??????????????? (??????); ???????? ????? ? ????? (?????)
????????? ??????????-?????????? ?????? ? ??? ???????? ?? ??????? 4.5.
101
???. 4.5 ? ??????????? ????? ???????????????? ???????????? ? ???????????
????????? ???????????? ??????????
??????????-????????? ?????? ?????? ? ?????? ??? ??????? ?? ??????? 4.6.
???. 4.6 ? ????????-??????????? ?????? ? ???? ?????????? ?? (??????????)
??????????????? ???????? (???????? ?????) ? ??????? ??????????
(???????? ?????) ??? ????????-???????????? ?????? ???????? ?? ??????? 4.7.
?)
?)
???. 4.7 ? ??????????????? ???????? ? ??????? ??????????:
?) ? ???????? ?????; ?) ? ???????? ?????
102
???????, ??? ? ?????? ?????? ?? ???? X ? Y ???????????? ?? ???????
??????????, ? ???? ? ?????????? (???. 4.8). ??? ????? ? ????, ??? ???? ???????
??????? ?? ??????? ????????????? ????? ????? (???. 4.9, ?), ?? ?? ?????
???????? ????? ??? ??????? ? ?????? ?????? (???. 4.9, ?).
???. 4.8 ? ????????????? ???????? ??????????? ? ????? ??????
0
X+
Y+
X+
Y+
?)
?)
???. 4.9 ? ?????? ????????? (?) ? ?????????? ???????? ????? (?) ? ????????
? 2:1 ? ????????? ????? ?????? ????????? (??????? ???????)
?????? ????????? ???????? ?????, ?????????? ?? ??????? 4.9,
??????????? ?????????? ??? ?????????? ?????? ? ??? ?????? ? ????????
??????????? G-????, ?????????????? ? ??????? 4.2.
? ?????????? ???????, ??? ??????????? ????????? ??????????? ???
???? ??????? ? ???, ??????? ? ???????????????? 3D-???????, ???????????? ?
G-?????.
иииииииииииииииииииииииии
?????? и и и и и и и и и и и и и и и и и и и и и и и и и
????? ???????, ??????????? ??????????? ??????????????? ????????????, ? ??? ????? ????????-??????????? ?????? ? ???????? ???????????
???????????, ????? ????????????? ??? ??????? ????????????? ??????????.
иииииииииииииииииииииииииииииииииииииииииииииииииииииииииииииииииииииии
103
??????? 4.2 ? ??????????? G-????
F100
X0 Y12.5
????????? ???????? ?????? G0 Z2
???????? ??? ? ??????
M1
Z0
???????? ?? ??????? 0 ??
G0
G1
Y10
X2.5
????????? ??????? ???
???????? ?? Y
???????? ?? X
X1.25
Y1.25
Z-0.2
Y7.5
X0
Y5
X2.5
Y2.5
X0
Y0
G0 Z2
X0 Y12.5
Z0
G1
X7.5 Y12.5
Y0
X0
G0 Z40
??????? ??????
???????? ??? ? ??????
???????? ?? ??????? 0 ??
??????? ???
??????? ?????? ?? 2 ??
???????, ????? ???????????: ????? ?? ??????
??????? ????????????????
?????. ????????????????
???????./?????????. ?
0,2 ??
?????? ?? 2 ??
Z2
Y3.75
Z-0.2
Z2
Y6.25
Z-0.2
Z2
Y8.75
Z-0.2
Z2
Y11.25
Z-0.2
Z2
M5 M30 ???? ????????, ???? ?????????
?????. ?????? ?? 40 ??
4.3 ???????????????? 3D-???????
????? ?? ?????, ???????? ? ???? (CAD), ???????? ?????? ???????? ????????????????, ??? ??????? ??????? ? ????????? ????? ??? ???? ????????
??????????? ???????????????? ????????, ?????????? 3D-??????????, ??????? ????? ????? ????????????? ??? ??????????????? ???????????? ? ????????
??????????? ???????????.
иииииииииииииииииииииииииииииииииииииииииииииииииииииииииииии
??????? ???????????????? (????. rapid prototyping) ? ?????????? ???????? ???????? ?????????? ?????????????? ???????
(???????) ??????? ? ??????, ??????????? ??????? ??????? ??? ??????, ????????? ???????? ???????????, ???????? ???????????
?????????, ?????????? ??????-?????? ??? ???????????? ?????.
иииииииииииииииииииииииииииииииииииииииииииииииииииииииииииии
104
??? ?????????? ?????? ??????????? ? 80-? ??. XX ?. ? ???????????????
???????? ?? ???????? ???????????? ??????????? (??????????) ????????? ???
????????? ???????? ????????? ???????? ? ???????? ??????? ????????????. ??
?????? ?????? ????????????? ????????? ???????? ?????????? ??????????
???????????? ?????????? ???????? ?? ?? ???????????? ???????.
?????????? ????????? ?????????? ?? ?????? ????????????? ?????? ??
CAD-?????? ??? ?????? ? ?????????? ?????????????? ?????????. ??????????? ????????? ???? ???????????? ??????? ??????? ? ??????? STL, ?????????? ?????????? ??-????? ??? ???????? ????????????????.
??????, ?????????? ? ???? ???????, ??????????? ?? ?????? ???? ? ?????????? ??????? ? ??????? ??????????? ?????????, ?????? ??????? ???????
???? ????? ??????????? ??????????? ???????????? ?? ?-??????????. ????
??????? ?????????? ??????????. ?????????? ?????? ?????????? ???????? ??
??? ???, ???? ?? ????? ??????? ?????????? ???????? (???. 4.10).
?)
?)
?)
???. 4.10 ? ???????? ????? ?????????? ?????? ??? ?????????? ???????????:
?) 3D-??????; ?) ????????? ?? ?????? ???? ? ???????? ????? (????????);
?) ???????????? ?????????? ??? ?????????? ???? [15]
?????????????? ????? ???? ????????? ???????????????? ?????????: ??
??????? ???? ????????? ?????? ???? ?????????, ???????????????? ?????? ??????? ???????, ????? ???? ????????? ?? ??? ????, ? ????????? ?????????
????. ????? ???????, ???? ?? ????? ??????????????? ?????? ????? ???????
??????, ???????? ????????? ????? [15].
???????? ????????? ????? ???????????? ???????? ???????????? ???????? ? ?????? ??? ?????????.
???????? ????????????????, ????????? ? ??????? ? ????????????? ???????? ?????????? ???????????? ?????????? ?????? ??????? ??????????? (????.
Fused Deposition Modeling ? FDM). 3D-????????, ???????????? ????? ??????????, ?????????? ??????????.
105
??????? ????????? ? ????????? 3D-???????? ???????? ?????????, ? ??????? ????????? ???????? (?????? ?? ???????? ????????). ? ?????????? ???????? ????????????? ? ????????????? ?? ???????? ????????. ???????? ???????? ? ?????????? ?? ???? ?????????????? ? ??????? ??????? ??????????.
??????????? ????????????? ???????? ???????????? ????? ??????, ??? ????????? ?????? ??????????? ????? ????. ????? ?????????? ?????? ??? ??????????
???????, ?? ??? ?????? ?????? ????????? ? ??????? ???????????.
?? ??????? 4.11 ?????????? ??????????? ????? 3D-????????, ??????????? ?? ?????????? ????????????? ??????? ???????????.
???. 4.11 ? ??????????? ????? 3D-???????? RepRap Prusa Mendel v2.0
??? ?????? ????? ?????????????? ABS ???? PLA-???????. ABS-???????
(??????????????????????????) ? ??? ???????, ??????? ? ??????? ? ???????
???????????? ????????. ?????? ??? ??? ???????????? ?????? ?????. ???????????? ????? ???????? ? ???, ??? ?? ???????? ????? ??????? ????????????
?????????? ? ???????? ????????????? ????????? ???????? ?????.
106
PLA (??????????) ? ??? ?????????????? ???????, ??????????? ??? ???????????? ??????????? ??????, ??????????? ??????? ? ??. ?????? ??? ???
???????????? ?????? ???????? ? ???????? ????????.
????, 3D-??????? ? ??? ???????????? ??????????, ??? ???????, ???????????? ????? ?????????? ???????? ??????????? ??????? ?? ???????? 3D??????.
???????? ????????? ??? ?????????? ?????? ?????? ???? ?????? ?????? ?
??????? ????????? ? ??????????????, ??? ???????, ??????? ???????????
??????. ??????????? ?????????? ????????? ? ??????? ?????????, ?
??????????? ????????? ? ? ?????????? ????? ????????? 3D-??????. ??? ????
????? ? ???????????? 3D-????????, ??????? ?????? ??????? ??????????? ?
????????????? ???????????? ????????????. ?? ????????? ? ?????????????
??????? ?????, 3D-???????? ???????? ? ????? ??????? ????????? ? ?????? ??????????????
?????????? Ф???????? ??????╗, ???????????? ??????????? ????????,
???? ??????????? ? ?????????????? ??????????????? ?????????, ? ?????? ?
???????? ?????????????? ???????????? ????? ???????? Z Corporation.
3D-???????? ???????? ????????????? ?????? ??????????? ???????????.
?????? ??????????? ????? ?????? ????????? ?????? RepRap. ?? ?????? ?????? ??????? ??? ?????????? ????? ???????? ??????????? ???????.
?????????????? 3D-??????? RepRap Prusa Mendel v2.0, ??????? ??????
???????????? ? ???????????? ????????, ??????? ?? ???. 4.12.
??????????????? ????????? ??????? ?????????? 3D-????????? RepRap
Prusa Mendel v2.0 ?????????????? ? ??? ?????:
1) ????????? ????????? USB-????? ??? ????????????? ??????????????
3D-???????? ? ???????????;
2) ???????????????? ???????????????? ATmega 1284, ?. ?. ?????????
???????? ? ?? ???????? ? ?????????? ?????? ????????????????
(????) ????? ?????????? 3D-?????????. ????????? ???????? Marlin ? ???????????? ? ??????????? 3D-???????? ? ?? ???????? ? ??????
???????????????? 3D-???????? ?????????????? ? ???????????????
????? ?????????? Arduino 1.0.6.
?????????????? ???????, ?????????? ???????????? ?? 3D-????????,
????? ?????????, ????????, ? ?????????????? ?????????? ?????????
??????-3D (??????????? ???????? ??? ??????????? ?????????????? ???????). ?????????? ????????? ????? ? .STL.
107
???. 4.12 ? 3D-??????? RepRap Prusa Mendel v2.0
???????????????? ?????????? 3D-????????? ?? ?????????? ?????????????? ? ??????? ??????????? ?????????, ???????? Repetier-Host V0.95F. ? ??
??????? ????? ??????????? ??????? ?? ?????????????????, ? ????? ?????????
?????? ?????-???? ??????.
?????????? ? ?????????? ?????? ?? 3D-???????? ?????????????? ? ???
?????:
1) ????? ? ???????? ????? 3D-?????? (??????????? ?????? ? ???????
STL) ? ??????????? ?????????;
2) ?????????? ????????? 3D-?????? ??? ????????? ???????????? G????;
3) ?????? ???????? ?????? ?????? (?????????? ??????).
иииииииииииииииииииииииии
?????? и и и и и и и и и и и и и и и и и и и и и и и и и
????, 3D-??????? ? ??? ?????????? ??????????? ???????????? ???????????? ??????????, ?????????? ??????????? ????????????? ? ??????? ???????????? ??????????? ????.
иииииииииииииииииииииииииииииииииииииииииииииииииииииииииииииииииииииии
108
иииииииииииииииииииииииииииииииииииииииииииииииииииииииииииии
??????????? ??????? ?? ????? 4
1.
2.
3.
4.
5.
иииииииииииииииииииииииииииииииииииииииииииииииииииииииииииии
?????? ???????? ???????????? ????????? ? ????????? ? ???????????
??? ????? NC?
?????????? ??????? Ф??????? ????????????????╗.
?????? ??????????? ????? 3D-????????, ??????????? ?? ??????????
?????????? ????????????
????? ??? ???????????? ???? ???????????? ??? 3D-???????
109
??????????
? ?????? ??????? ??????? ???? ??????????? ??? ??????????? ?????
??????????, ??? ? ??? ???????????? ??????????, ? ??? ????? ????????????
?????????? ? ??????????? ???????????? ??? ????.
?????????? ???????? ???? ??????? ?????????? ??????????? ????? ?
??????????? ????????? ? ???????? ??????, ?????? ? ????????? ????????? ?????, ??????? ????????? ????, ? ????? ???? ?????????? ?????????? ? ???????????? ??????????.
????????? ????? ????????? ???????????? ???????????, ??????????
????????????? ????????? ?????? ??????????. ???????? ??????????? ??????? ??????????, ??????????? ?? ????????? ?????????? ?????????, ? ??? ????? ?????????? ?? ??????? ????????? ??????, ?? ?????????? ??????, ? ?????
????????????? ? ????-??????????.
???????? ??????????? ???????? ???? ???????????? ?????????, ???????
???????????????, ? ????? ????? ??????????????? ????????? ??? ???? ???????.
????????? ????? ????????? ???????????? ????????????, ????????????? ??????????? ??????????? ???? ? ??????????? ????????, ?????????? ????????? ???????????? ??????????, 3D-????????.
110
??????????
1. ?????? ?. ?. ??????????? ??? ? ?????? : ????. ??????? ??? ????. ????? / ?. ?. ??????, ?. ?. ?????, ?. ?. ??????????. ? ?. : ?? Ф????????╗, 2006. ? 320 ?.
2. ??????? ?. ?. ??????????? ??? ? ?????? : ??????? / ?. ?. ???????,
?. ?. ??????? ; ??? ???. ?. ?. ??????. ? ?. : ?????? ???, 2008. ?
400 ?.
3. ????? ?. ?. ??????????? ??? ? ?????? : ??????? ??? ????? /
?. ?. ?????, ?. ?. ???????. ? 2-? ???. ? ???. : ?????, 2011. ? 688 ?.
4. ???? 15971-90 ??????? ????????? ??????????. ??????? ? ???????????. ? 12 ?.
5. ???????? ????? ??? ?? ?? ?? ???? [??????????? ??????]. ? ?????
???????:
http://www2.sscc.ru/Information/PagHist/Park%D0%A1%D0%A1.htm. (???? ?????????: 13.09.2016).
6. ????????? ?. ?. ??????????? ??????: ??????????, ????????? ?
???????????? ?????????? / ?. ?. ?????????. ? ???. : ????????????, 2010. ? 640 ?.
7. ??????? ? ??????????? ????????? ISO/IEC 2382-1 [??????????? ??????] / ???. ? ????. ?. ?. ??????. ? ????? ???????:
http://www.morepc.ru/informatisation/iso2381-1.html?print#s01.03 (???????? https://www.iso.org/obp/ui/ru/#iso:std:iso-iec:2382:ed-1:v1:en) (???? ?????????: 13.09.2016).
8. PC 99. System Design Guide. A technical reference for designing PCs and
peripherals for the Microsoft Windows family of operating systems. ? Intel
Corp., Microsoft Corp., 1997. ? 662 ?.
9. ??????? ?. ????????? ???? [??????????? ??????] / ?. ???????. ?
????? ???????: https://www.colocat.ru/texts/bus.html (???? ?????????
13.09.2016).
10. ??????? ?. ?. ?????????????? ??????, ??????? ? ???? : ??????? /
?. ?. ???????, ?. ?. ??????????. ? 2-? ???. ? ?. : ?? Ф????????╗,
2007. ? 560 ?.
11. ???? ?. ?. Assembler : ??????? ??? ????? / ?. ?. ????. ? 2-? ???. ?
???. : ?????, 2007. ? 637 ?.
111
12. Dandamudi S. P. Introduction to Assembly language programming: Pentium and RISC processors / S. P. Dandamudi. ? 2nd ed. ? New York :
Springer, 2004. ? 701 ?.
13. ?????? ?. ?. ??? ? ???????????? ??????????. ?????????? ??????????? : ??????? ??? ????. ?????????? ????. ????. ??????????? /
?. ?. ??????, ?. ?. ?????. ? ?. : ?? Ф????????╗, 2013. ? 224 ?.
14. ??????? ?. ?. ??????????? ? ???????????? ?????????? ???????????
?????????????? ??????? / ?. ?. ???????, ?. ?. ?????, ?. ?. ????? ;
??? ???. ?. ?. ????????. ? ?. : ????? ? ?????, 1999. ? 344 ?.
15. ????? ?. ?. ???????? ? ??????????? ???? : ???? ?????? /
?. ?. ?????. ? ? .: ??? ?????, 2010. ? 192 ?.
16. HPGL [??????????? ??????] // ?????????. ? ????? ???????:
http://ru.wikipedia.org/wiki/HPGL (???? ?????????: 13.09.2016).
112
?????????
??????????? ??? ? ??? ??????????? ????????????? ???, ??????? ???????? ?? ???????????, ???????????????? ? ?????????? ???????????.
??????? ?????? (????. external storage) ? ??????, ?????? ? ??????? ???????? ???????????? ?????????? ??????????? ???????? ?????-??????.
?????????????? ?????? (????. computer) ? ???????????? ???????????
???????, ????????? ??????????? ?????????? ????????? ?????????? ? ????????? ?????????? ? ??????????? ?????. ??? ???????, ? ?????? ??????????????
?????? ?????? ? ????????? ??????????? ???????????.
??????? (????. driver) ? ??? ???????????? ??????????? ???????????, ?
??????? ???????? ?????? ??????????? ??????????? (???????????? ???????)
???????? ?????? ? ??????????? ??????????? ??????????, ???????? ?????????????, ??????????. ?????? ? ????????????? ????????? ???????????? ???????? ??? ???????? ??????????? ??????????? ???????????, ??? ??????? ??????? ?? ?????? ????????.
????????? (????. interface) ? ???????????? ??????? ? ??????, ?????????????? ?????????????? ????????? ?????????????? ?????? ??? ??????? ????????? ?????????? ? (???) ????????.
??????????????? (????. microcontroller unit, MCU) ? ??????????, ??????????????? ??? ?????????? ???????????? ????????????. ???????? ??????????????? ???????? ?? ????? ????????? ??????? ?????????? ? ????????????
?????????, ???????? ??? ? (???) ???.
?????????????? ? ?????????? ??????????? ?????????? ??? ?????????
??????????, ??????????? ?? ??????? ???????????? ?????? ? ??????????? ?
??????????? ? ?????????????????? ??????????.
??????? (????. monitor) ? ??? ????????????? ??????????? ??????????,
??????????????? ??? ??????????? ??????????? ??????????.
????????? (????. mainframe) ? ??? ?????????, ?????? ? ????????????
??????, ?????????? ??????? ???????? ???????????? ? ????????, ? ???????
????? ???? ????????? ?????? ??????????, ???????????? ??? ??????????? ?
???????.
???????? ?????? (????. main storage) ? ??????????? ?????? ????????????
?????????? ??? ?? ?????, ?????????????? ?????? ???????????? ??????.
113
???????????? ?????????? (????. peripheral device) ? ??? ??????? ?? ????????? ? ???????????? ?????????? ? ???????? ?????? ??????????????
??????????????? ??????????, ??????????????? ??? ????? ?/??? ?????? ?????????? ? ????????? ? ??????????? ??? ?????????????? ???????????.
???? (????. computer bus) ? ??????????? ?????????? ? ??? ??????????,
???????? ??? ???????? ?????? ????? ??????????????? ??????? ??????????. ? ?????????? ???? ????????? ????????????, ????????????? ? ??????????
(???????????) ??????.
????????. ?????????????? ??????, ???????????? ????????? ????????????? ??????????.
????????? ?????????? ???? ???????, ???????? +5 ? ????????? ?????? ??????????? ????? ? +12 ? ??? ??????? ?????????? ???????????????
?????? ???. ?????? ?? ???????? ? ???? ??????????????? ??????????????? ??
?????????? ????????? (???? ? ????????? ????????????? ???????? ??????????
????? ?????? ???? ???????????? ??????????? TL431 ? ???? ??, ???? ????????? ??????????????? 7805/7812 ?? ??????) ??? ?? (? ??????? ???????) ??
?????????? ???? TOP Switch.
???????????????. ???????????? ??????????????? ?? ???? ??????????
????????????. ????? ?????????? ???????????????? ? ?????? ?????????? ??
??????????/ ???????? ???????? ??????????, ?????? ?? ??????????????????
?????????? (TL494, UC3844, KA5800, SG6105 ? ??.).
87
?????????? ??????????????? ????????????? ?????? ??? ????????????
??????????? ????????? ??????????, ? ????? ??? ?????????????? ???????? ????? (??????? ?? ????????, ? ?????, ??? ?????????????, ???????? ???? ??
?????). ??????? ?????????? ?? ?????? ???????????????? ??????????????
??????????????? ???????? ????????? ?????????? ? ??????????? ????????? ????????? ????????.
???? ???????? ????? ???????????? ?????????? ?????????? ?? ??????
????? ???????.
????? ? ?????? ???????
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