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Copyright ОАО «ЦКБ «БИБКОМ» & ООО «Aгентство Kнига-Cервис»
G A M E MA N A G E ME N T
MA N U A L
FOR THE BEGINNERS
IN BASKETBALL OFFICIATING
MOSCOW
MOSCOW – 2014
Copyright ОАО «ЦКБ «БИБКОМ» & ООО «Aгентство Kнига-Cервис»
Fedor Dmitriev
Mihail Grigorev
Ildar Latypov
GAME MANAGEMENT
MANUAL
FOR THE BEGINNERS IN
BASKETBALL OFFICIATING
Handbook for basketball referees
Moscow - 2014
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УДК 796.323
ББК 75.566
Д53
Edited by:
Fedor Dmitriev International referee
Mihail Grigoriev International referee, honorary FIBA referee
Ildar Latypov PhD, Head of Department of Theory and Methods of Physical
Culture and Sports of Volga Region State Academy of Physical Culture, Sport
and Tourism (Kazan)
Д53
Game management manual for the beginners in basketball
officiating:
Handbook for basketball referees / Fedor Dmitriev, Mihail Grigoriev,
Ildar Latypov. – Moscow: 2014. – 88 р.
This book is recommended for young and experienced referees. During
the game it is very important to understand principles of the rules, their
interpretations, spirit and feeling of the game. Psychology aspects and pregame
conversations are ones of the main parts of referees’ preparation. We hope that
this book will help you to understand and feel the basketball game much better.
Foto:
Elena Nazarova
Computer edited by:
Stanislav Morozov
УДК 796.323
ББК 75.566
© Fedor Dmitriev, 2014
© Mihail Grigoriev, 2014
© Ildar Latypov, 2014
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Game management manual
for the beginners
in basketball officiating
(Part I)
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Before you decide to be a professional basketball referee you have to contact
or have some conversations with experienced basketball referees. The basketball
referee job is very complicated, combined with a lot of difficulties, stress and
pressure from everywhere, which influence people’s life. At the same time it is
very interesting job which gives young person a chance to make self- affirmation
as an individual personality, to realize his self and to increase self- education.
On the other hand, referee’s job is so specific that it can be lost at any
time due to the injury, age, low rating, the subjective assessments independent
of referee himself, and also his personal behavior in relation to the job or to
colleagues. That’s why there is a question in front of experienced referees about
the correct presence of the content, tasks and prospects of officiating to the
young and how to direct them in the right way. First of all young referees need
to get a high education. This should go in parallel with the beginning of
referee’s career. High education gives a chance to the self-perfection, to
independence from the officiating. Very seldom somebody young thinks about
the life in forty, fifty years old. Time is passing very quickly and perspectives
are rapidly being concluded. Perspectives finish as soon as you are allowed into
the highest group of referees because you immediately become a competitor for
many other referees.
To get upward as a young, great potential referee is easy and possibly
quick but the main thing is to hold selected height, not to roll down. We have a
lot of «well-wishers» everywhere. That’s why it is very important to
strategically determine further activity, to set a goal and move to it.
Having a good education, which you can constantly improve, gives you a
chance not to receive additional stresses when you are older (after 45 - 50
years), when a question can stand out:
- What shall I do from here on?
It is necessary to think about this constantly. We have a lot of different
referees’ careers examples. And each beginner has his/her personal choice,
which is always to be respected.
Before we approach the parts of referee’s preparation it is necessary to
clarify or understand the main destination of his job, namely the control of the
process of game in the limited space and time. It is about high standard
assistance to players and coaches in order to open up their skills. It is important
to emphasize the referee’s role as a defender of valid result of the game.
Considering referee’s preparations it is important to indicate one of the
basic stages - pregame preparation, for in this all other forms of preparation are
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generalized. It then leads to the good performance, good referee’s job. The
success of your job, prospect and future will depend on pregame preparations’
implementation. Authority is not immediately earned; it comes heavily but
collapses more rapidly and easily. That’s why everything that is connected with
the professional officiating should necessarily be related to doing the best. We
do not have trifles in the officiating – all things are important. This is the same
principle as in all human activity. Problems in our life, conflicts occur because
of the trifles. Sometimes it is not visible but it is accumulated and then it is very
heavy to stop the “boiling point”.
Where does the pregame preparation begin? Many referees consider that
it begins with the warm-up in the sport hall, gyms, then the pregame
conversation happens and the team of referees goes out onto the court. This is
wrong opinion and it must be changed. Everything begins from the point when
you have attended all the seminars, have passed the tests and also have got a
referee’s passport along with the first nomination. Feelings of satisfaction,
happiness, increased emotional feeling of success – all are present in such cases.
These feelings are very good. These are your positive, first stage. At the same
time somebody can feel doubts and uncertainty.
Together with the nomination you receive information about your partners,
commissioner or instructor of the game, about the city, where this game will be
held and the teams, which will play there, teams’ positions etc. It is necessary to
collect more information about the game, then to determine the route of your trip
and to begin to be prepared for the game yourself. Preparation for the game does
not mean that you must repeat the rules, interpretations, mechanic of officiating, go
mad, or make same excesses - all homework must be done long before the
nomination. Preparation for the game is the study of the meeting teams, their
leaders (formal and informal), behavior of coaches who accompany the team of
specialists, the team leaders. The collection of such information is difficult but
possible through colleagues and commissioners during the conversations, personal
contacts, survey (analysis) of video, Internet etc. Nowadays with the assist of the
Internet it is possible to obtain much information. To analyze games is to analyze
their participators. For good officiating it is better to make analysis of all players,
especially the leaders of the teams and problematic players, coaches, assistants of
coaches to look at their strong sides and weaknesses. The strong and weak sides of
players can be written down into your diary in order to inform colleagues before
the game if it is necessary.
Detailed information about the game gives the possibility to be prepared
for the game. Who are these formal and informal leaders in the team? It is
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obvious for all that often head coach or captains are leaders in the team. They
are the famous people and captain well-known player, and a lot of spectators,
fans come to look at his game. This is obvious and objective.
But sometimes during difficult game situations, at conflict moments we
can find some players, who by their actions, personal qualities may lead (push)
the team, and motivate it from inside and push it from the heavy, difficult
situation. For them there is no “advantage - disadvantage” principle, feeling of
the game, philosophy of the game. They play according to their personal inner
rules - to fight to the end of the game, to the final signal. They certainly
recognize basketball rules - to play fairly. These are experienced players who
have large life experience. They heavily recognize their errors, mistakes but
they do not pardon the mistakes of others including referees’ mistakes. They
can lose but only in the fight. They are informal leaders. They do not make PR
actions but they clearly make their job and hold discipline inside the team. If
referee finds contact with the informal leader, it means it’s possible that the
game will pass under referee’s control. In such situations referee can earn the
authority and get huge experience, life one including. The selection of tactical
things as parts of the pregame preparation, the analysis of playing patterns and
moments are also necessary. The success of a good forthcoming officiating
depends not only on the preparedness of referees but also on the skillful and
competent fulfillment of their work.
This process consists of several parts: preparation for the game, control of
the processes of game and summing up of the results with analysis of the
performance of work. The formation of strategy and tactics for the game, the
composition of the plan of actions are very important for this. It is necessary to
get basic knowledge about technology and tactics of game in offence and
defense in order to react to the rapid change of game situations.
Do not forget about the necessary official procedures, which should be
observed with each official departure:
- Passport (visa, if it is necessary);
- Tickets (if there are no prepaid tickets);
- To have license or passport of referee;
- Place of accommodation (hotel);
- To know address, telephone, e-mail of your colleagues and commissioner;
- To have official rules, official interpretations, mechanics and regulations of
competitions.
There are no trifles (small things) in officiating. This must be controlled
and understood. Referee must be prepared directly for the game: must examine
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situation after obtaining the nomination, analyze the trip, and collect documents.
Also you must analyze your forthcoming work in the team with your partners. It
is necessary to know your partners, commissioner. Preparation for the game
begins at home. It is necessary to turn attention to two crucial points before the
departure to the game – these are meals and sleep. Meals must be balanced and
correspond approximately with what you will eat during your trip. Vegetables,
fruits, juices must always be included. Heavy, high-calorie food can be used
four hours before the game and as far as possible it is better to refuse such food
before the game and replace it with salads, soup, fish, fruits. Drinking water is
possible in any quantity. Any alcohol is forbidden.
Sleep must be valuable and last for eight hours as minimum. Information
before the game must be as much as possible (about the city, where the game will
be held, hotel, meals, transport, meeting teams, spectators, media, security, time of
the game, playing hall, cloakrooms for the referees, enter into the hall, scorer table,
the arrangement of equipment, signals, video, the benches of the teams, medical
personnel). It is not possible to examine preparation without the administrative
part.
Young referees attend many seminars and clinics. They have a lot of
information but to use it on the court is very difficult for them. It is important in
this situation not to break the young referee psychologically but to competently
bring him to the forthcoming work: to support him psychologically and to help
concentrate on the game itself.
The main thing is not to quiet but to motivate young referee to
concentrate on his successful performance only through the positive thinking.
He must be competent, balanced, intelligent person, able to handle his emotions
and feelings in difficult situation.
Referee - public personality!
Teamwork
Good referees’ team work is a main task each referee faces during the
game. The purpose of the teamwork is to reach the valid result of the game.
No one is secured against the mistakes. Mistakes are the part of the game.
They are, of course, accompanied by negative reactions, appeals, disturbances.
In such situations and cases it is most important not to hurry with making
decision. The technology of making such decisions must be discussed before the
game. It is necessary to determine the sequence of your actions. You must
answer yourselves the following questions: “What? Who? Where? When?”
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Some characteristics of referee
Presentations - these are your face, the first impression. Therefore referee
uniform must be selected by your size, must be clean, pressed, foot-wear
(shoes) be polished. These are not wishes but requirements for everyone without
the exception. Also any referee must possess two whistles (1 extra), small
magnetic the basketball court board and diary, personal computer.
A good referee is always polite, confident. It is necessary to remember
that there is nothing more important than the game. For this it is a must to be
professional in everything and always. One of the postulates of FIBA says: “At
the moment, when referee obtains money for his job (sum is not important), he
becomes professional!” Each person is individuality. He has his own style. The
style of referee must be constantly improved.
The knowledge of basketball and of everything related to it must be
encyclopedic. It is necessary to collect information about the games, players, rules
and also interpretations of game situations on the base of the rules. These are real
requirements, if you actually want to become professional referee. There are no
trifles (small things), and everything is considered when it is desired to reach a
result.
A good referee - is always punctual. Punctuality - very important factor
and not only because of the fact that referees must arrive to the game in time.
Punctuality concerns everything connected with the game, or time before and
after it. A good referee never officiate game alone. Inside the team of referees we
have not only referees on the court but also table officials and commissioner. A
good referee never enters into the long conversations with the players and the
coaches. He makes this briefly, correctly, clearly, rapidly and only if necessary.
On the other hand, the conversation with the table officials if necessary must be
more detailed. A good referee avoids unnecessary gestures, signals, phrases in
order not to have additional conflicts with the players, the coaches, or the
spectators.
A good referee - not slaver of Rules. What’s very important is not
pedantic application of the rules of game but understanding of game through the
prism of the rules. Mistakes occur everywhere and also with everybody. When
it occurs, there must not be any discomfort. When the error, mistake is
correctable - it must be corrected, when - no, game must be continued as soon
as possible. Main thing in control of the game is to achieve officiating not only
by whistle, but also by voices, words, phrases, gestures, and when it is
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necessary, do try to help, to assist coaches, players to express their
craftsmanship more and in the spirit of the rules of game. Each game gives a lot
of information for self evaluations.
Game includes many conflict situations. Do not be afraid of conflicts and
problematic moments in the game. Be prepared for them, expect the motion of
game and try to be looking for a solution in heavy situations. Expect the
unexpected! Referee must feel problematic moments during the games in order to
control them.
Some referees begin intensely to prepare for the game, to physically
practice, to run, to make excesses. All your physical conditions you had to deal
with during the preseason preparation. Now you have only to maintain it and to
prepare yourself psychologically for the answer to the questions:
- How to manage the stress;
- Not to show nervousness;
- To govern self emotions;
- To manage the situation, when an incorrect decision was made.
To manage the stress. Do not catalyze the critical situations.
Not to show nervousness. Officiating – creative job, in which nerves are one of
its components. Nervous states of the young referee are different from
experience referee’s ones. Firstly, it can be connected with inexperience and
small information about the games. Advice is even simple decisions do make
confidently, with the expressive amplitude of gestures.
To govern emotions. It is necessary to understand and to consider that the
conversation/communication is the main part of life. Pressure on referees is just
the one of forms of conversation. Another form consists of the skills to
communicate with people. The negative reactions of fans, players, coaches and
others – all form the part of the game.
To manage the situation, when an incorrect decision was made. Important
element in control of game is a reaction to one’s own incorrect whistle.
Recognize it, show gesture and say: “Excuse me, this is my mistake!” It is
important to see, where the ball is located at the moment of whistle, in order to
continue game. In other cases of making an incorrect decision (whistle or
silence) try not to make extra error in the remained minutes of game. If your
partner made error, help game continue according to the rules. Answers to these
questions will give you the possibility to be more prepared to the next game.
The psychology and self preparation are parts of the pregame preparation, with
its base being the work with people, the skills to communicate, to lead, to
handle your own self.
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Official FIBA rules are the connecting link, when referees correctly use
their requirements. Rules help the different schools of world basketball to speak
in one basketball language. Application of the rules creates a good control of
game, even when you make a strong decision which is accompanied by conflict
or appeal. It is necessary to understand that after selecting the way of sport
referee, you will always be under criticism.
The procedure of control before the game
The important role in a good performance of referees the pregame
conversations play, namely discussions of the most important, problematic
patterns, which are likely to happen during the game. Many game situations
must be determined and discussed before the game. Strategy of communications
in these situations must be fixed. Experienced referee (instructor) can help
young partner to understand the connection between the thinking, feelings and
actions. The analysis of video materials can help to get prepared.
When the referee is prepared for the game always are present
positive and negative thoughts. Experienced referees make all possible for
themselves to think only about the positive things and about good decisions. It
helps them to be concentrated and handle the game well. Below we can find the
plan of self-control - the primary positions, on which should be focused our
attention whilst preparing for the game.
Self-control before the game
To be confident. Confidence gives the possibility to be calm during reaction to
the rapid change of game situations.
To know your job. Do basic duties on the court and outside of it.
Be Calm. Checking of you conditions before the game and during the game.
To make simple things is good. It is necessary to do everything well and in time.
To feel good and confident. A good pregame preparation, conversation and
good physical conditions give freedom and confidence in actions.
To control the game, using only positive moments. During the game it is
necessary to work only through the positive. Analysis of mistakes you will
make next day with video.
To be representative. It is necessary to always be in the form, punctual, correct.
You are public personality. You represent your country, your federation.
To be calm. External calmness gives confidence to all - everything passes under
your control.
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To be strict and independent of game. Strictness - this does not mean
punishment. Strictness - this means that you will not allow players and coaches
to change the rules of game.
To fix moment without the regret. If you are assured that there were the
violations or foul, do not wait – just make decision.
If we examine preparation for the game wider, as the teamwork of
referees, table officials, and commissioner, then it is necessary to note that in
practice we have an adapted collection of positions on which should attention be
focused. These questions to each game are the same, only degree of attention is
different. To have such collection of positions is a must for every referee. It
makes the referees’ job as one team much simpler. Referees preparations begin
not only before the game but before the season. Before the game are determined
the primary positions, the points of understanding of one or another game
moment, or another question, preparation directly for the forthcoming game.
You should be ready to game but not concentrate only on violations. It is
necessary to think about better things for the game, how to react in the difficult
situations with the coaches, the players. Referee should know how to control
speed of game. If the speed of the game is high and appears the risk that some
game situations may go out of control, referee can slow everything down, by
giving the ball to player in/out of bounds with the small pause, visually
controlling situation with the partners, table officials and commissioner. The
main task is to overcome the chaos on court, so everything should be under your
control. Also the speed of game can be increased: you may actively give the ball
to the player in order to re-start the game, and the advice is, do not stop the
game if not necessary.
To each referee it is necessary to know and use official signals and
gestures, provided by the FIBA rules. The official gestures within the rules of
game - this is the language of your contact, communications. They help referee
to associate, communicate with all participants during the game. Referee is
collector, accumulator and analyzer of information on the game. Only skillful
apply of the rules of game will help referee to protect his solution and himself
from all possible appeals. The development of plan directly before the game
must be discussed during the pregame conversation. Investigating the positions
of pregame conversation, I must say that it must always pass only in positive
key, just as analysis after the game. The progress of referee occurs only through
the positive criticism, whilst a negative one pushes the referee down. All
positions examined in the pregame conversation are examples, standards one
must reach. There is no sense for the young referee to discuss all positions
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before the children game. Below are represented the problematic moments,
which are necessary for the different levels of competitions, and what’s
necessary for the given game is determined by the commissioner and
experienced referee. Let us examine the positions, which can be analyzed in the
pregame conversation.
Pregame discussion
1)
2)
3)
4)
5)
Chief referee duties before the game (table, game ball, equipment, signals).
Changing of the Rules. Interpretations.
Jump ball. Arrow of alternative possession. Game clock.
Area of responsibility (back and front court for TRAIL, CENTER, LEAD).
Rotations (systems, visual cooperation during foul, who indicates the rotation
and when it is indicated).
6) Off the ball coverage.
7) Out of bounds situations and throwing situations (eye contact, cooperation
between referee with the ball – other referees, referee with the ball – table
officials/ commissioner, 5 seconds control).
8) Violations: 3, 5, 8, 24 seconds. Pressing defense (responsibility of TRAIL and
CENTER).
9) Hand checking.
10) Screens, holding without the ball.
11) Flopping (official procedure).
12) Technical, unsportsmanlike, disqualifying fouls (procedure).
13) Last shot (responsibility).
14) Basketball interference and goal tending.
15) Double and triple whistles.
16) Substitutions (procedure).
17) Communications with table officials (verbal and visual).
18) Timeout (during the game and the last one).
19) Three points shot attempt (responsibility).
20) Free throws (5 seconds control).
21) Team bench area (behavior of substitutes and team staff).
22) Principle of verticality.
23) Post play (rebound situations).
24) Last five minutes of the game or overtimes.
25) End of the game. Signing of the scoresheet. Leaving the basketball court.
26) After game discussions. Comments.
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Special attention
1) Level of the teams (motivation, players, position).
2) Hall, fans, table officials, signals, basketball court.
3) Criteria of violations and fouls (1 and 2 halves of the game; the double games).
4) First roughness (game by hand checking, holding, pushing).
5) Game without the ball - basic work of referees.
6) Game of centers (rebounds, pushes, screens). Active CENTRAL referee!
7) Difficult, questionable out of bounds violations (AID). Visual contact.
8) Cooperation with the commissioner and the table officials (gestures, verbal
and visual signals).
9) Control of substitutions and timeout (quantity of players).
10) Teams’ benches (players, personnel, coach, assistant, doctor and others).
11) TF and UF criteria (constancy).
12) Control of the signals: 24 seconds, time, buzzer (signals), “the framework”.
13) Clear perception about the team which is throwing the ball in and where it
should be thrown after the timeout.
14) Video equipment.
15) Travelling, carrying the ball through, double dribble (criteria).
16) 3 points shot attempt (CONTROL and AID).
17) Timeout request and substitution (latest possibility).
18) Free throws: early input in 3 seconds area and from 3 points area.
19) Control of 24 seconds devices in frontcourt (along with dropping to 14
seconds).
20) 8 seconds counting of control of the ball in back court (time at the end of
counting).
21) If you have doubts about YES or NOT decisions in the game, then: in 3; 5;
8-seconds situations or in travelling - THERE ARE NO violations; Player in
the act of shooting, interference or goal tending, then count or not – it’s YES.
22) During timeouts: the purpose is the positive dynamics of officiating. It is
important to know how the game would be continued; gesture and time
control; last shot and the end of the game time or 24 seconds.
23) Gestures are official language of game (to use official gesticulation).
24) After foul during the shot - the control of the flight of ball. Responsible are
center and trail referees.
25) During the throw – ball from out of bounds - control game time and 24
seconds team control (trail referee).
All your solutions must be clear to majority of people!
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Duties of the chief referee before the game
It is important to understand that all the referees on the court have the
same rights, but chief referee has more responsibilities. He should verify:
- Score table, equipment (signals of 24- seconds and stop of game);
- To determine game ball;
- To confirm equipment for video;
- To know coaches and their assistants;
- To know the numbers of the captains of teams from the score-sheet;
- The correctness of filling of score-sheet;
- To verify the signals of stop of the game time and 24- seconds, and also the
presence of additional signal (whistle, etc), the score-sheet, signed by coaches,
the arrow of alternative possession; to determine the method of the
demonstration of difficult numbers of players;
- To focus attention on unnecessary things on the table officials (mobile
phones, to press, etc).
Changes in the rules. Interpretations
It is important not only to analyze these or those changes in the rules and
their interpretations, but to give examples of the game situations in which they
can be used in the game. If you inform coaches about the changes before the
game, you won’t have to answer their questions or appeals during the game, so
that you will be able to control the game process.
During discussions about changes and interpretations of rules you should
determine the line of your officiating from the first minutes and to the final
horn. You should be constant in yours solutions. It very often happens that at
the beginning of game young referees fix almost all contacts but in the end of
the game they are afraid of giving fouls because this is the fourth or fifth foul of
players or even team leaders.
This produces nervousness in players and coaches. It is necessary to
remember that game continues up to forty minutes and constancy in decision
making is a guarantee of high qualified job. Constancy is also necessary in the
situations with unsportsmanlike, technical, disqualifying fouls.
Jump ball. Arrow of alternative possession. Game clock
Referee must be confident that partners and table officials with the
commissioner are ready for the beginning of the game. Referee must be sure
after jump ball that the arrow of alternative possession is established correctly,
and game clock and device of 24- seconds are correctly switched on.
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Area of responsibility (back and front court for TRAIL,
CENTER, LEAD)
Mechanics determines the locations of referees depending on game
situations with the ball or without the ball. The eyes of two referees (with the three
persons officiating) must be on the “strong” side. Eye is a tool of collecting
constantly changing information on the court. Having positions on the court helps
your eyes to see the episode at an optimal angle: both on the vertical line and
horizontal. The area of responsibility of referees is not a dogma with strict closed
boundaries but a method of cooperation to control situations on the court during
the game.
Rotations (systems, visual cooperation during foul, who indicates
rotation and when it is indicated)
Rotation is mostly initiated by the Lead referee, when ball is located on
the opposite side of basketball court (to the Lead) and near the central referee,
near the players, but not during the shot or during quick passes of ball. Lead
referee penetrates to another side of base line and this is a signal that it is
necessary to make a rotation of Trail referee to the Center referee, and Center to
Trail. In any case you must control the game without the ball (off the ball) and
near the ball (on the ball), and if it is necessary to wait for the checking of
situation, do not occupy your new position, but just control the game situation.
You will always have enough time to occupy your new position. This case
concerns the Trail and Lead referee. Very rarely Center referee can initiate
rotation, for example, when offensive player with the ball and defender are
located on center referee’s side, near the central line. Center referee goes up,
makes 1-2 steps and becomes Trail referee. Lead passes to other side to the new
Trail referee, and the former Trail becomes a new Center. During any rotation
the cooperation between the partners is necessary. Sometimes there is no need
in rotation. It is possible to use “two steps” rule, which is to displace from your
position by 1-2 steps to the necessary side in order to control the situation and in
this case to learn, where partners are located and then to return back to your
classical place.
During change of positions or transferring to another half court for the best
control of game, referees must practice visual cooperation with the partners, “to
exchange glances”, to look at each other. Referees should always know and control
10 players on the court and also each other, creating the imaginary “triangle”. If
someone of the referees does not make a correct rotation and notices this later,
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there is no need to make a chaos on the court. For new Trail referee it is necessary
to control and to correct situation: to pass (to cross) to the other side of court, after
establishing the regular arrangement of referees. During foul situations two
referees who did not give foul for violation, must control all players, knowing a
number of free throw shooter if a foul situation occurs or know the direction of the
following attack. This is important especially when after fouls or violations pause
substitutions or time out occurs. It is necessary to remember that many conflict
situations appear during the pause in the game. Team work here is very important.
Game without the ball (off the ball)
Game consists of situations near the ball (on the ball) and game without
the ball (off the ball). By percent ratio this is evinced as follows: 20% near the
ball along with 80% of game is without the ball. Therefore the control of game
without the ball is the “key” to the successful officiating. If all three referees
look at the ball then this is a problem. All game is built around settings of
different kinds of combinations, interactions in order to give a chance to one or
several players for the good shot attempts. This always occurs through setting
different kinds of screens. It is necessary to estimate the extended elbows,
hands, arms, shins, knees, delays, blockings which can lead to personal fouls.
This occurs more often without the ball and here referees must be ready to fix
illegal actions of players. The most important thing is the first illegal action, but
not a reaction to it. (ACTION, NOT REACTION!)
Travelling
More often travelling is fixed by Trail and Center referees. Obvious
travelling is an obtaining of the undeserved advantage of the offender over the
defender due to the early detachment of pivot foot and then putting the ball on the
floor.
Experienced defender after determining the pivot foot of that offender
occupies a correct guarding position, while taking off pivot foot earlier than
beginning of dribble does not give a defensive player enough time to take a new
legal guarding position - that’s where blocking occurs. Therefore along with an
offensive player receiving the ball, the nearest referee has to act according to the
diagram “ball – offensive player’s foot – defender’s foot”. So it is possible to
make a correct decision and when referee looks only at the ball he does not
control the whole situation.
Sometimes referees fix a foul to defenders but they pass, ignore or miss
travels before that foul. During one on one game and the game of centers under
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the basket it is necessary to clearly determine pivot foot of the player with the
ball because players change pivot foot or make additional step obtaining the
advantage over the defender. The following diagram will help with the
beginning of dribbling from the certain place when you want to determine the
correctness of displacement: “left pivot foot - pass to the right side or right pivot
foot - pass to the left side”. In 90% of cases occurs a travelling violation.
Out of bounds situations and throwing situations (eyes contact,
cooperation: referee with ball – referee, referee with ball – table
officials - commissioner, control of 5 seconds)
Sometimes during the games referees had difficult situations when ball
went out of bounds, and referee who is responsible for the side line or base line
is closed or does not see from whom the ball went out. Referee should stop
game clock by the appropriate gesture of rules and at this moment establish
visual connection with the partners and then make a final decision. Partners
must be ready to assist in this kind of situations. Assist, help must be clear.
Gestures must be distinct and visible to all. If you have a doubt, then jump ball
is a best decision.
Visual cooperation (contact) is important and necessary. In all cases referee
who is responsible for throwing in is obligated to establish visual communication
with his partners, table officials and the commissioner by the appropriate gesture
and to obtain answer from the partners and the table officials about their
readiness for the continuation of game. Referee, who stands near the player
counts for how many seconds player holds ball. It is known from the practice of
experienced referees that it is better to give a little more than 5 seconds for the
throwing in, because if violation occurred, then 5 seconds must be obvious for all.
It is also necessary to control the lines of the court after throwing in; the player
who receives ball on the court under the pressure can touch the line at the
beginning of his actions. Referee must be ready for this and not look only at the
ball but control the legs, feet of player. This is important especially in the end of
the game when with pass from out of bounds begin the active actions of the team,
due to the shortage of the game time. Sometimes situation out of bounds occurs in
front court near the center line. Advice for the young referees is to stand between
the center line and the player that is closer to the thrower player so that he would
not make the step into back court and would not throw ball into back court thus
immediately making mistake. Extra conflicts or violations you are not in need of.
There is the moment pedagogical, which the smart players and coaches will
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understand. During the shoot pause in the game do not turn head from the game
and the players.
Violations 3, 5, 8, 24 seconds, the violation of 5 seconds
The violations of 5 seconds can occur:
- When spent more than 5 seconds for free throws;
- During close guarding position by defender and offender does not make any
actions;
- When thrower with the ball spends 5 seconds and does not make a legal throw in.
Fixation of the violation of the rules of 5 seconds – it is an easy violation.
When referee takes a visual reading of 5 seconds, this gives possibility for players
not to make mistakes. Because for all it is obvious for what referee counts.
This is the same concerning the counting of 8 seconds.
Violation of 8 seconds
The offensive team must transfer ball from the back court into the front
court during 8 seconds. Ball must touch court, opponent, referees, player in the
front court, or player with the ball passes the central line – therefore two feet
and ball are located in the front court. The counting of 8 seconds continues in all
remaining cases even if one foot of player with the ball and ball itself are in the
front court, or ball on seventh second is flying from back court or crossed the
central line and player receives the ball in the front court on the ninth second this is violation. Trail referee should count of 8 seconds.
For Center referee in this case it is also necessary to control situation in
order to help, assist partner until ball comes to the front court.
Counting 5 and 8 seconds
From the practice: to count each second of possession is very heavy.
Therefore it should be counted with palm by ejecting it to the side of court so
that it would be seen by everybody who is connected with the game. When on
the device of 24 seconds time has passed from 16 to 15 second and ball has not
been transferred into the front court - this is a signal that we are situated in “red
zone” and it is necessary to rapidly make decision.
Trail referee must control 24 seconds devices. It is best to count off by palm
but not to eject fingers on two hands for the counting of 8 seconds. When against
the player with the ball some defender plays closely, in close guarding position,
and offender does not make any action - does not pass the ball, it is important to be
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ready for the visible count of 5 seconds and if necessary - to call violation. The
gesture of counting palm must be with the wide amplitude and be visible for all.
24 seconds violation
Trail or Center referee fixes 24 seconds violation by the mechanics. They
are located on the court, and for them it must be distinctly visible how long players
have already played and how many seconds remain on the 24 seconds devices. As
far as possible Trail or Center referee must visually control the end of time of 24
second-possession, and especially if to the offensive team the ball is given for
throwing in, the front court referees must know how much time of possession
remains. It is possible to direct attention of table officials and 24 seconds operator
to the remained time of team control. Everybody must be ready for the game.
Sometimes it happens when two referees on the court miss signal for the
24 seconds violations or operator of 24 seconds devices incorrectly resets 24
seconds (14 seconds). Referee, who stands on the base line (Lead), can assist, if
he is confident and sure. This is good team work. This is correct for the game.
Mechanics in this kind of situations is secondary. The main task is to understand
and to feel the spirit of the rules, to control situations and to make a good,
correct decision. For referees it is necessary to control and cooperate with the
operator of the 24 seconds device when the correct new countdown of team
control starts after shoot or throw in from out of bounds or when new team is in
control after stealing the ball from the opponent team. It is very important to
know when the team begins to control the ball on the court. When referee fixes
24 seconds violations, referees should know the following information: 24
seconds signal; ball location during the signal.
Back court violations
For the back court violations Center and (or) Trail referees are
responsible. The most important thing, when it comes to the determination of
violations, is to see and to evaluate:
- Who controls the ball?
- Who the last touched the ball in the front court?
- Who first touched the ball in the back court?
You should remember that the width of center line enters into back court!
Press defense
Very often different teams use different kinds of press defense as the
team defense is played. For the full control over the game you must be ready to
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the quick changes of directions of game, be they changes of motions’ directions,
or large number of contacts, or mistakes of players. Here the high concentration
of two referees - Trail and Center – is of importance, but Lead must be ready to
assist his partners and not run so far from the game to the base line.
Trail referee controls the game, staying a little bit behind the last player in
the back court, and also he counts 8 seconds to control the possession of ball.
Center referee does not leave his position near the central line, prepared to assist
his partner at any time. Sometimes it happens that also the lead referee, if
players are not located in the three-second area, remains near the side line for
the total control of the whole game by three referees.
Hand-checking
One of the basic criteria of good teamwork of referees is the
determination of illegal use of hands. On this it is necessary to focus attention
from the very beginning of game. Should be determined all criteria, positions
and conditions of the use of hands by players. Player does not have a right to
touch another player by hands (one or two) when this creates interference with
free movement of offenders and when it may lead to tough game or reactions of
players.
Very often referees fix the reaction of players to the illegal use of hands.
Defender touches, holds the offensive player by hands and does not allow him
to be moving freely but that offender in response to this pushes off the hands of
defender. In the majority of these cases referees fix the second action but not
first, because it is more obvious. In all game situations rules allow the contacts
of players by hands if they do not give advantage to the opponent. It is
necessary to select correct position on the court for the whole control of game
and to stop from the first minutes any incorrect game by hands, to be constant in
decisions and solutions from the beginning to the end of game.
Screens, holding without the ball
Analyzing game situations and problematic moments in the game, we can
make a conclusion that the majority of incorrect decisions (missed fouls and
like) occurs at the moments of game without the ball, because referee very often
intuitively looks for the ball or follows it. “If you always look at the ball, then
we just have another spectator in the basketball hall”, - one of the experienced
referees said. Control of the game - is control of game without the ball, too. The
purpose of each team is to derive player on the prepared position for the shot
and all the combinations (screens, penetrations etc) are made for that and do
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occur, in the majority of cases, without the ball. These playing actions occur
very often with the incorrect use of hands, the delays, the pushes, extension by
knees, by arms, by elbows, etc. It is necessary to be always ready to clear
definition which is permitted within the rules of game.
The clear determination of incorrect game without the ball shows high
level of referee, his class and authority. This is very important especially for the
young referees.
It is necessary to remember that if player is without the ball, then factors
of time and distance are considered. Defender must give some time and distance
to offensive player without the ball for stoppage and changing the direction of
motion. If player is with the ball, then factors of time and distance must not be
considered. Offender must stop with the ball or change direction of motion and
defender must stand or move to the side or back but not forward. Referee must
feel each step, each motion of players during the game.
Screens
Screens - one of the most important elements of game, which very often
happens especially in the offence. Time and space are important factors. It is
necessary to pay attention to each situation of setting screens. The main
criterion for the referees is no move within the cylinder of the player who places
screen. If player who places screen is moving at the moment when contact
occurs, it is considered as a guilty of incorrect setting of screen (blocking).
The main thing for making a decision is how the screen was set: correctly
or not. Referee should remember that offender, while placing screen against the
defender, can occupy the position in front of him or on the side as close as he
desires if this occurs in visible area of opponent. If screen is placed out of
opponent’s vision from behind or on the side of the player against whom the
screen is placed then it is necessary to leave one - two steps so that he could
avoid the charge of illegal contact.
The incorrect use of the widely extended arms, knees, legs, elbows must
be punished. Special attention must be given to the widely extended hands and
elbows during active offensive motions. Screen should be placed so that the
opponent has a chance to avoid contact. Player who places screen must be fixed,
static when the contact occurs.
Sometimes the actions of players, who place incorrect screens, occur
without the attention of referees because they look outside of their primary area
of responsibility that is "on the ball" and commit mistakes. The incorrect screen
made within out-of-control area is usually a beginning of combination and
entails receiving advantage, which is unacceptable.
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Flopping (figure drop, imitation). Official procedure
A lot of players attempt looking for “cheap” fouls from the referees;
imitating and figure falling on playing court after the small contact but often
generally without it. The professionalism of referee consists of the clear
recognizing and a strict warning of this. If we call these “cheap” fouls we break
constancy in the officiating. This is not to be allowed. There are several
methods of determination of figure falling, drop or imitation. It is very
important to speak about this before the game during the pregame discussion. If
contact was not so obvious but referee saw the intentions of defender and
situation did not require operational interference it is necessary with the first
pause in the game to explain to player - in some short friendly phrase everything about his actions and what’ll happen in case of repetition. The main
thing is that the player could understand you immediately without discussions.
During the obvious figure drop or the imitation a technical foul must be
fixed. If a foul for the figure, imagined drop is not given at this moment, the
procedure can be as follows. With the first pause in the game the nearest referee
to the player warns player about the figure drop and technical foul for this, if it
happens next time. The referee nearest to the coach of the team warns coaches
and team on the bench. Everything must be made operationally and clearly.
These actions show your team work and control of the game.
Technically for determining “figure drop” it is necessary to look at the
defender especially at his feet. If he stands on the heels or rolls from the toes to the
heels and at the moment of contact he is also straightening his knees, this is one of
the reasons why player may fall with light contact. He loses the balance of his
body.
Technical, disqualifying, unsportsmanlike fouls
Technology of making decision
These are strong punishments. If game situation requires their adoption,
then they must be immediately used. Control, management and monitoring over
the game are primary for the referees. And if it is necessary for clear vision and
order of the game, all measures and decisions must be accepted. All
provocations and toughness must be punished. However, situations occur, when
referees fail to control some small contacts, violations, which lead, in turn, to
the tough violations, and then referees have large problems with the
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determination of responsible players.
Rarely before the game someone of players, coaches or people following
the team want to receive a strict punishment. In practice such cases are only
few. If such cases are not few, it means referees selected incorrect criteria to
control the situations, they were not constant in solutions, they were not ready
psychologically and physically to the game, did not work as one team,
misunderstood the permissible contacts and they missed motion of game,
feeling of game, control of game.
Technical, disqualifying, unsportsmanlike fouls must be expected
(foreseen). It’s not necessary to be afraid; but one must try to expect what’s real.
“Fire” is easier to prevent than to “put out”! In the conflict situation no one
must see your nerves, confusions, even partners and the commissioner. You will
clearly determine responsible person or persons and actual punishment. In the
difficult situation it is necessary that at least one of the referees would continue
always to control players on the court and team benches area. All solutions,
decisions must be taken without the excess of emotions. Here experience,
internal calmness and authority are very important. Any assist, aid of partners
must be accepted and the solution is determined according to the diagram:
- Conflict situation - fixation;
- The stop of game - the determination of foul;
- Who controls ball;
- The determination of responsible person or persons;
- Punishment.
Procedures must occur as fast as possible. Pauses must be reduced but
also no hurry is acceptable.
Last shoot (responsible referees)
Technology of making decision
We examine last shoot in each period or extra period. In this situation on
the spot of shoot there must be four eyes of referees, one pair closer to the shoot
and partner’s one, depending on game situation in order to determine:
a) Status of shoot;
b) The position of ball at the moment of time signal;
c) The correctness of play of defender or shooters.
In this case the third referee must have his opinion about shoot situations
for the possible consultation with the referees.
In the difficult situations of “last shoot” crew chief must consult with the
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partners, the commissioner, the timekeeper if necessary after which make a final
decision. If the crew chief before the game confirmed video equipment he can
also use it for making final decision concerning the last shoot but only
according to the situations, described in the rules of game.
Goaltending and Interference
It is necessary to see and to determine who made interference with entry
or interference with ball. Trail and Center referees are responsible for the
determination of these violations. During the shoot, take 1-2 steps toward the
side of basket to assist, to help but do not leave the area or turn your head to the
next attack or fast break of offensive.
With the fast break when Trail referee is so far, Center referee can make a
decision concerning the interference with entry and interference with ball.
Sometimes Lead also can assist or help with decision because he does not
always occupy place on the base line during fast break. Sometimes there are no
players yet within Lead referee direct area of responsibility.
Dual, triple whistles
Game situations do not exclude dual or triple whistles. In these cases
there are two moments. The first - referees fixed foul or violation which actually
occurred, this is positive moment. From the other side, referee or two referees
who gave whistle not in their area of responsibility, they left their direct area
without attention. This can occur in the critical situations when actually your
partner does need assist. If referee who is responsible for his area made a
decision and gave whistle, duplicating or assisting in these situations are not
necessary. In these situations it is necessary to focus attention on the following:
- Visual contact with the partner;
- To make a pause, to estimate situation and if you make final decision, to begin
to move to the table officials for the transmission of information. Dual, triple
whistles occur also in “boundary” area of responsibility. The punishment the
referee nearest to the place of violation must define, and he must decide to
whom offense goes - this will be understandable for all. If referee is obviously
making a mistake in his solution, partners must advise, express their opinion but
if the first solution has to be changed, only nearest referee must have a word.
Everything must be executed as fast as only possible.
It is necessary to avoid dual and triple whistles, trust your partners. But if
such situations occur, analyze them after the game and in the pregame
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conversation fix the areas of responsibility and prepare for any kind of
cooperation for good team work.
Substitutions of players
The procedure of the substitutions of players produces the referee nearest
to the table using for this a visual communication with scorer and official
referee signals. Referee must be confident that the player who becomes new
substitution left the playing court and former substitution becomes player. The
procedure of substitutions cannot be so long but also you cannot begin the game
without full confidence that all the necessary procedures have been arranged.
Sometimes it happens that the game begins with six or four players on the court.
If you arranged all necessary procedures for the substitutions, the main thing
remains to control these procedures in order to avoid problems and conflicts.
Cooperation with the table officials
On the court during the game are located three teams - two teams of
players and one team of referees. Team of referees consists of: referees on the
court, the commissioner and table officials. Without a good teamwork of
referees is not going to bring a good result. A constant cooperation between the
referees, the commissioner, the secretaries is necessary for this. Such
cooperation can be verbal and visual. Clear gestures and signals form the
language of good cooperation. The basis of all gestures comes from the official
gestures of the rules of game, which do not require interpretation. It must be
clear and understandable. It’s necessary constantly to repeat and to know them.
Gestures must be executed not very quickly and with amplitude. Before the
game you must decide with the scorer how to demonstrate “large” numbers of
players.
Time out
Time out - this is time for the analysis, planning of further actions, control of
the area of teams’ benches and for small relaxing. At that moment when referees
meet each other during the time out it is very important to determine which team
will have ball, also place for throwing in immediately after the time out, or who
will be shooter and the quantity of free throws. Referees must know and accept any
appropriate idea about the bases of game, the technology, tactics and strategy.
Time out - this is time especially in the end of the game during which
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referees discuss next tactical and strategic tasks and purposes of teams, as they
will play, what forms of offense and defense will be used. If this occurs in the
end of the game, then tactical fouls may be used. Your forecast is a form of
additional concentration and self assist. In the time out all discussions must be
only in the positive direction. All critics and analysis must come after the game.
It is important here and now to make correct decisions. Remember that in the
end of the game the referees do not have right to mistakes. But positive
conversation will only help the team of referees concentrate on the team work
and success at the end of the game. The place for time out for the referees must
be on the playing court, on the opposite side from the table officials and the
teams’ benches. Referees are obligated to control the teams’ benches area. Crew
chief also must be ready to react to the signals from table officials or
commissioner or to any questions of game (game time, 24 seconds device,
team’s fouls, remaining time outs for teams, etc). Visual communication must
be constant.
Ten seconds prior to the end of the time out, two referees nearest to the
teams’ benches invite the teams onto the court and after confidence that all are
ready game continues.
Three points shoot attempt
Mostly 3 point shoots attempts in the mechanics two referees on the court
control - Center and Trail referees. Depending on from which side of area the
shoot is done, one determines the price of shoot (the 2 or 3 points attempt), and
contacts between offender and defender. Sometimes offensive player provokes
referees to foul, seeing that the ball has missed the basket. He extends his feet
widely and provokes defender to the contact. You must control the situation
and, if it is necessary, fix this foul of blocking to the shooting player. This is the
team foul, given to the team, which did not control the ball. It is not offensive
foul.
Another referee from the opposite side determines has basket been hit or
not, and the violations connected with a shoot. The clear communication
between the referees is necessary. It is important for each referee to be ready to
help, to assist partner. It concerns even the Lead referee who stands on base
line, if his partner is completely closed by players and an attempt is being made
at the long distance, say, from the angle of court. Assist is always significant,
especially for making a correct decision.
Three points shoot attempt is to be shown by the hand raised upward with
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the extended three fingers. The raised hand must be the nearest one to table
officials for the clearer checking of situation by scorer and commissioner. With
hand distant from the table the scorer and commissioner won’t be able to see
your clear sign. It is because the raised hand may be hidden by the body of
referee, his head or whatever. With the successful three points shoot attempt the
referee must not turn his head and body to table officials. It is necessary to
continue to control the whole game and to be in visual contact with partners.
Free throws
During free throws it is necessary to be confident that free throws are
made by the player who was fouled. The teamwork of referees is a must for
getting this done. With the entrance into the 3 seconds area to administrate free
throws and give ball to shooter, the Lead referee must look at the table officials.
Still there is a possibility for the substitutions or the time out for both teams. If
there are no such requests, and commissioner or scorer has shown that
everything is under control, then make a gesture about the quantity of free
throws and pass the ball by rebound from the floor to shooter. It is necessary to
control five second violation for free throws.
With the last or single free throw Lead referee controls the output of
players from places where they fought for rebounds and does it earlier than the
ball descends from the hands of the shooter on the distant side of the court.
Center is responsible for the line of free throws, for the entry of ball and for the
control of the output of players from places where they fought for rebounds, and
he does it earlier than the ball descends from the hands of the shooter. Trail
referee controls players beyond 3 points line so that they would not enter the 2
points area earlier than ball touches the ring, and he also helps center referee
with the entry of ball and rebounds.
Team bench area (behavior of followers, coaches, substitutions of
players, the accompanying persons)
One of problematic areas of control by referees is team benches area.
Referees often forget about this after concentrating attention directly on playing
court with players, table officials and score board. Many problematic situations
in the game occur near the benches of teams - incorrect substitutions, extra
people on the team bench, unsportsmanlike behavior, the constantly standing
players and accompanying people, the spilled water, leaving team bench area
without the permission, the late required time out from coach or substitutions
from players and others. All these situations referees must control from the very
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beginning of game. Substitutions, coaches and accompanying persons must feel
and know that they are always under control and are obligated to follow the
rules.
During time out referees must control the teams’ benches. Players cannot
come in on the playing court earlier than the time out finished or cannot delay
game by later output. For referees it is necessary to use the appropriate gestures
and signals for time out procedure. Coaches, assistant, teams accompanying
persons have the right to go onto the playing court only after the permission of
referee. Substitutions do not have the right to stand or warm up during the game.
Sometimes coach leaves the team bench area in order to make observation
to his player or to appeal to the table officials, commissioner, referees, to protest
against the solutions of referees. This cannot be disregarded. After small pause it is
necessary to focus attention of coaches by making a correct warning. Immediately
to enter into the conflict there is no sense. But referee’s word or phrase must be the
last one. After your observation or warning the dialogue must be finished.
The principle of verticality
During officiating of the contacts of players especially near the basket, under
the basket, referee must apply the principle of verticality. Remember that the
contacts cannot be avoided but those which give undeservedly any advantage it is
necessary to fix. During the game each player has the right to occupy any position
on the playing court, not yet occupied by opponent, within the limits of his
cylinder. It is necessary to remember that the player who protects himself must not
be punished for the vertical jump and for the raised hands above his head within
the limits of his cylinder; and that offensive must not cause contact with the
defender, who occupies correct position, by using hands, by pushing player or by
extending legs widely - or hands in the process of shooting. With the principle of
verticality there is no need for fixing the first contact immediately. If it did not
influence the game and did not give the undeserved advantage, continue the game
without the whistle. Feel game and select which is correct for the game and which
is not.
Post players game (rebounds’ situations)
Very often the center players raise hands and show referees that there is no
contact between them. It is necessary to look at the process of fighting to control
the space between the center players, assessing them from the top to the bottom.
The raised hands - this does not mean yet that players are playing by feet
according to the rules. Often the defender locates one foot between the feet of the
given offender thus preventing him from moving freely. This must be fixed and if
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contact is obvious you must make a decision. The good positions of referees and
mechanics applied give a key to the correct and objective solution/ decision.
In general, for the game of center players Lead and Center referees are
responsible. The game of post players occurs often in the three seconds area and
it is important to be ready to the quick change of situations.
The clear and good cooperation of team of referees, especially for the Center
referee, is very important. He is a key in this game situation. The game without the
ball occurs before him. The well selected position of Center referee gives the
possibility to estimate the permissible contacts, to look for space between the
players who fight for the place and for receiving the ball. If there is no space,
which means that contact occurs, then referees are to estimate the degree of the
influence of contacts on the game. Referees team must be ready to make a correct
decision.
The same situation occurs with the fight for the rebound of ball. It is
important not to leave one Lead referee for making all decisions, not to be
removed from the fight under the basket. Of equal importance that the Trail and
Center referees have already come closer to the central line and await there
during the shot, so to meet attack in the opposite direction. Assist and help
under the basket are necessary for the Lead referee. It is a must during the shot
to take 1-2 steps towards the basket in order to reduce “the triangle” of control
between the referees to make a correct decision. You must fix the first action of
players, but not the reaction of opponents to the action. Action, not reaction!
Last five minutes of game. Extra-time
The last five minutes of game are often key and decisive. Right to
mistakes has no one of the referees. It is possible to officiate 39 minutes and 55
seconds excellently and on last seconds to make the incorrect decision which
will cross all your work. You must remember about the possible provocations
from the side of players, coaches and accompanying persons and also:
- About unsportsmanlike fouls, with the ball not thrown in from out of bounds;
- About tactical and quick fouls;
- About a quantity of teams fouls;
- About the remained time outs;
- About the visual communication with the commissioner and table officials;
- About control of 24 second and game clocks;
- About the additional signal or the actions of commissioner or operator of time
in the case of nonoperational siren or horn;
- About the direction of the arrow of alternative possession;
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- About the security service and where it is located;
- About the exit from the playing court.
All these must be controlled at the end of the game. In the additional
period teams attack under the same baskets, and teams fouls remain as in the
fourth period, each team has only one time out. Situation with unsportsmanlike
foul during the throw in/ out of bounds in the last two minutes of game: here it
is possible to preventively avoid strong punishment after warning the defensive
team of the protecting players through the captain.
The end of the game, signing of score-sheet and leaving
the game court
It is important to remember that for referees the end of game occurs after
the procedure of signing the official scoresheet. The crew chief who is obligated
to verify the correctness of calculation puts signature onto the paper. To verify
also the correctness of filling time outs, teams fouls, the name of winner and
other info and to confirm the result of the game by the signature.
Sometimes once the hard game is over it happens that just after the signal
near the table officials all coaches and leaders of teams stay. There is no need
for approaching them. Better to leave playing court, verify and confirm the
scoresheet in the locker room. It is important to remember that you must leave
the locker room before the game and playing court after the game together. You
are one team of referees from the beginning to the end. This is connected also
with the safety of referees. This must not be forgotten.
Conversation after the game and analysis of officiating
In the referees room after game it is necessary to be relaxed. All
conversations about the game must be only positive. Negative comments must be
rejected. Difficult game situations cannot be analyzed without video; therefore,
make a general selection of game. Detailed analysis occurs only after work with the
video recording.
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Game management manual
for the beginners in
basketball officiating
(Part II)
Special attention
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Special attention
1) Level of the teams (motivation, problematic coaches, players, position).
2) Hall, fans, table officials, the game sound signals, basketball court and floor,
entrance and exit to/from the gym and dressing room.
3) Criteria of violations and fouls (1 &2 halves; double games).
4) First roughness (hand-checking, holding, pushing), appeal.
5) Game without the ball - basic job of referees.
6) Post play (rebounds, pushes, screens). Active CENTER referee.
7) Difficult situations with out of bounds violations (HELP). Visual contact.
8) During the throw – in from out of bounds control of the game clock and 24
seconds team control (trail referee).
9) Control of the signals: 24 seconds, the game clock, the game sound signals,
the lighting.
10) Control of 24 seconds clock in front court (stoppage, reset 14 seconds).
11) Gestures – official language (use only official gesticulation).
12) Cooperation with the commissioner and the table officials (gestures, verbal
and visual signals).
13) Control of substitutions and time out (quantity of players on the court).
14) Must know after pauses or time out, who will be throwing-in and from
where or number of the shooting player.
15) Time out request and substitution (latest possibility, special cases).
16) During time outs: purpose - the positive dynamics of officiating. To know
from what place and how to continue the game; gesture and time clock control;
last shot and the end of game or 24 seconds signals.
17) Team followers (coach, assistant, substitutions, personnel and others).
18) Criteria TF; UF (constancy).
19) Video equipment.
20) Travelling, carrying the ball, double dribbling (criteria).
21) Three - point attempt shooting (ALWAYS CONTROL and ASSIST).
22) Free throws: early enter in restricted area and shooting from three point
field goal area.
23) Counting of eighth second’s control of the ball in backcourt (the end of
counting).
24) If you have doubts: YES or NOT in the game with the situations: 3; 5; 8
seconds or travel – BETTER DECISION - THERE ARE NO violations; if you
have doubts - player in act of shooting, interference or goal tending, basket
counted or not - BETTER DECISION - player in act of shooting; interference
or goal tending; basket counted.
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25) After foul during the shot - control of the flight of ball. Responsible center
and trail referees.
All your solutions must be understandable for all!
Your solutions must be intelligible to majority!
Level of the teams
(motivation, problematic coaches, players, position)
Investigating the basic conditions of pregame discussion of referees, you
must pay special attention to the level of the meeting teams, their motivation.
This will help them build strategy and tactics of the officiating in the given
game. In no way the game of the lowest leagues will always be easier. The level
of game, performance and craftsmanship are lower than in highest leagues but
sometimes it is more difficult for officiating.
Difficult, conflict situations, fights in such games there is a lot of, but
rarely the same may be said of basketball quality. All of these push the team of
referees to be maximally concentrated, ready to the development of game in any
direction, ready to immediately stop roughness, dirty game, to fix everything
that interferes with game from the first minutes and to the final sound signal.
The quality of basketball in such games is not high but the level of fight is at
maximum. It is impossible to let this fight be developed into roughness or
provocations. The principle “advantage - disadvantage” is not applicable here.
Referees should fix all the negative things that occur on the court for total
control of the game. Usually when one is constant and objective in applying
one’s solutions, players of both teams adjust to decisions of referees and assume
their line of officiating if it is obviously objective for both teams and for both
sides.
When we are fixing pedantically all violations and fouls it does not mean
we feel the game, we can handle it. Sometimes one team is profitable (for
special reason) to play with fouls, making some fouls on purpose. By these
fouls they bring down the rate, the speed of game of faster team, leaving them
(this team) only at positioning offense and not giving them a chance to make a
fast break and quick (fast attack) offense. Referees must expect this in such
situations and select the criteria of evaluation of violations and fouls which
would not place one of the teams in disadvantage position. It is important to
recognize the concept of tactics of the team whilst game is going onward. If line
is selected correctly, game passes under referees’ control and it does not
frequently require operational interference. “Sometimes there is no need to
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wake up the game by the whistles”. For this it is necessary to consider
everything - the level of the teams, players, their age, positions, the previous
games between the teams, the results of last games, playing of leaders of teams,
the behavior of coaches, leaders, players and informal leaders, court, floor etc.
Everything must be analyzed before the game.
Hall, fans, table officials, the game sound signals, basketball court
and floor, entrance and exit to/from the gym and dressing room
In advance it is necessary to get to know all nuances of the article
“equipment”, basketball court, floor, color of boundary lines on the court,
substitution benches, checking the game sound signals and video equipment (on
the requirement of the regulations of competition). It is also necessary to know
the place of the entrance and exit to/from the cloakroom (dressing room) of
referees. Before each game give several minutes for these procedures and come
more than one hour before the official beginning of the game. During this time
we can meet participants of the game and in unofficial conversation with several
phrases establish friendly contact before the game. It is necessary to examine
more widely the whole process of the game. It is like a large measure, concert,
which is prepared previously and spectacle is culmination. All seems routine but
good finished job shows the quality of conducting concert. Same thing happens
in the basketball game. Preparation part, collection of information, checking
over the situation, installation and preliminary planning of performing work – it
is the basis of the referee job. The well carried out preliminary operation - is the
guarantee of further successful conducting of game.
Criteria of violations and fouls
(1 &2 halves of the game; the double games)
Selection of the strategy and tactics of the forthcoming game in many respects
depends on technical preparations and psychological state of participants. The
criteria of officiating must be constant from the first minute and to the final
sound signal. Referees cannot express differently the identical playing episodes
and actions of players during the game. Constancy - fundamental characteristic
of the craftsmanship of team of referees. If you are not constant and your
criteria change during the game it means you have not enough craftsmanship,
knowledge, experience. It is necessary to understand during the officiating of
difficult, heavy games that if your actions and solutions on the court are
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inconsistent and not intelligible, you will have problems to the end of the game.
If you hold the identical valid line of officiating during the whole game then
team, players, coaches, spectators will accept your work, your decisions. The
main thing - your solutions would be intelligible to majority and would be
objective. Players will play and you just have to hold the selected criteria. Every
team needs from the referees stability and constancy of the whole game and the
same in the case of the double games.
First roughness (hand-checking, holding, pushing), appeal
One of the important elements in the qualified conducting of game is
determination and reaction to first roughness or excessive appeal from the teams
or players. By timely appropriate whistles, gestures, words, phrases, eyes,
actions, body languages referee shows that everything is under his control. This
gives confidence that the player understands referees even without the whistle.
You gave team a chance for the continuation of game but not more roughness.
Otherwise your inconsistency in the solutions or mistakes can lead to the
negative reactions of participants in the game and as a result to the warnings,
technical, unsportsmanlike, disqualifying fouls from referee’s side, pauses in the
game and problems inside, outside and after the game.
Game without the ball - basic job of referees
All game in the basketball occurs near the ball but almost whole work for
referees is far from ball (off the ball). In order to do the work of quality it is
necessary to understand why referee must pay attention to the game without the
ball, within which many incorrect contacts of players happen, that influence the
motion of game situations and perhaps the game as a whole. This aspect of
game is characterized as the basic understanding of game itself through the
prism of rules and estimation of the permissible and not permissible contacts.
Post play (rebounds, pushes, screens, movement).
Active CENTER referee
During the game under the basket offenders and defenders have same
rights to take any position without the violation of the rules. Player has the right
to occupy any place on the court when the opponent did not occupy it earlier.
Random contacts between tall players can occur but the use of the widely
arranged arms and legs for the ejection, the blocking of the motion of opponent
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is not permitted. Protecting himself, player cannot use arms and legs in order to
prevent the free movement of opponent. After protecting himself, defender
player occupies correct position, and offensive player does not have a right to
repulse him for obtaining an advantage position - obtaining ball or for the
shoots. The offensive player does not have a right to clench, hold defender
aiming at obtaining of ball or dribbling to the basket.
It is necessary to remember that the situations when contacts become
excessive or rough are not permitted. Rough game under the basket occurs in
the following situations:
- Offensive player repulses defender, who stands at the correct position, for
taking an advantage position under the basket;
- Offensive player with the aim of obtaining of ball repulses defender;
- Shooter does not have a right by hand or by elbow to repulse or “to remove”
the hands of defender.
For referees it is necessary to feel those situations which can lead to
roughness and also imitation of fouls (flopping) made by both offensive and
defensive players. The movements of center players with the ball in his hands in the
beginning of dribbling or the stoppages have a specific technology. Now and then
insufficient coordination leads to the disturbance of movement. The preliminary
monitoring of the game of post players will help you officiate qualitatively.
Act of shooting
The act of shooting begins when ball is located in hand or hands of player
who makes a shot and player begins continuous motion with the subsequent
motion and leaving (passing) of ball. An attempt of the shot concludes (finishes)
when new motion is made. If foul is accomplished on the player during the shot
motion and he finishes his action by the pass to partner, the process of shooting
concludes (finishes) and no free throws can be given as for the foul during the shot.
Difficult situations with out of bounds violations (HELP).
Visual contact
Out of bounds violation is looking likes easy violation but how many
problematic moments occur in the game when referees fix incorrectly out of
bounds violations. Team work, constant visual contact here is very significant.
It is important to continue to control situation on the court even when the
referees have doubts about out of bounds - who was the last to touch ball. In this
case the clear gesture for the stopping of game clock, visual cooperation with
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the nearest referee about the professional help will contribute to making
decision, and if referees doubt - jump ball must be fixed. Main thing is complete
cooperation with the partners. Help and assist of associates must be visual as
well as the gesture, affirmed in the pregame conversation.
During the throw – in from out of bounds control of the game
clock and 24 seconds team control (trail referee)
With each stoppage of game and either its renewal after the drawing of
initial shot or its renewal after throwing in or unsuccessful free throws and also
after ball having touched the ring, one of the referees has the possibility to
transfer eyes and to control the correctness of starting or stoppage of game
clock and device of 24 seconds. Together with other methods of officiating
referees must create the automatic habits for specific control of each game.
Managing information about “the start, stop, restart”, you have the capability to
correct the mistakes of timekeeper or 24 seconds operator.
Control of the signals: 24 seconds, the game clock, the game
sound signals, the lighting
Usually it concerns trail and center referees. If there is a need for assist to
partners, the lead referee who is located on base line can assist but only in such
case if he is confident and this help is necessary for partners and for the game.
There is not anything more important than the game! Mechanics is secondary,
the main task - correct and valid solution, decision for the game.
Control 24 seconds clock in front court (stoppage, reset 14 seconds)
It is extremely necessary to control during throwing –in the 24 seconds
clock in front court, especially if remaining time for team control is less than 14
seconds and foul or violations happened and new 14 second must be granted. 24
seconds operator must reset time to new 14 seconds. It should be under responsible
referee’s control (usually trail and center, but lead should control situations also).
Gestures – official language of game (use official gesticulation)
Gestures are the language of referee. They help to clearly report the
solution of referee to everyone and to communicate with the table officials
during the game. Gestures (signals) must correspond to the description which is
given in the official rules. They must be intelligible to table officials, to players,
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to coaches, to spectators. Correct signals and gestures create an idea that a
referee knows well his work. It is necessary to remember that a good possession
of official gesticulation is one of many parts of professional referee. Correct
gestures to fix contacts improve the image of referee, his authority on the court.
Referees cannot allow the use of incorrect gestures. The professionalism of
referees is characterized by the calm manner of officiating, by the confident
determination of game situations, through the prism of the rules. The gestures
given in the rules are official gestures. It must be used by all referees in all
games.
Cooperation with the commissioner and the table officials
(gestures, verbal and visual signals)
Before the game referees must determine with the commissioner how
cooperation will occur with him and referee, with table officials during the
game. It is obvious for all that all referees are obligated to use official gestures
according to rules but it is possible to transfer some information with the help of
the way you look, with words and phrases. The algorithm of cooperation must
be built as follows: the eyes of referee, who will restart game, must obtain
information about the readiness of table officials – the relevant gestures the
scorer and partners must give.
Control of substitutions and time out (quantity of players)
The referee nearest to the table officials is responsible for the assignment
of substitutions and time out after the appropriate signal of scorer. During the
substitution the referee who is responsible for this procedure must control that
the player would leave court and he becomes substitution player and
substitution comes onto the court and he becomes player. All procedure is
regulated temporarily and by corresponding gestures. It is necessary to
remember that namely the coach of team or his assistant requests time out, but
for the substitution directly substitution player himself asks by occupying in this
case the appropriate place. Time out is also controlled by referees and after a
lapse of 50 seconds the nearest referee invites the teams to begin game with
signal and corresponding gesture. Referees must be assured that 10 players are
found on the court, substitutions players are situated in the team bench area and
sit there, and table officials with commissioner are ready to continue game.
Pauses and unnecessary stoppages or delay in the game must be minimal.
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Must know after pauses or time out who and from where will be
throwing-in or number of shooting player.
In the pauses or during time out it is necessary to know how and which of the
teams will restart game and in this case who amongst the referees will grant ball.
Time out request and substitution (latest possibility, special cases)
Referees on the court must control situation and during last five minutes they
must be completely concentrated. This means that everything must be under
their control. They must feel and handle the game. The situation when coach in
last seconds of game makes observations to players and practically misses the
possibility to take time out or to send substitute player for the substitution
sometimes occurs. Referee must be sure and ready that if this possibility
remains and ball is not yet transmitted to player to throw it in or still it is dead,
thus it can be made possible for the coach of the team to take time out or make
substitution by his right. This will be correct for the game and correct with
respect to the coaches and team which will surely notice the understanding of
the spirit of the game from the referee’s side.
During time outs: purpose - the positive dynamics of officiating.
To know about where and how will game be continued;
gesture and time clock control; last shot and the end of game
or 24 seconds signals
Team followers (coach, assistant, substitutions, personnel, doctor and others)
One of the weakest points on the court to control for the referee is the team bench
area. Many problematic, conflict moments are initiated by substitution players, the
accompanying personnel and assistants of coach. Substitutions stand during the
game, warm up behind the team bench, they may spill water, wave by towels, and
the assistant of coach may stand together with the coach and make observations to
referees or provoke head coach to conflict with referees.
Criteria TF; UF (constancy).TECHNICAL FOUL
At present technical foul is considered usual, normal, “light” violation.
We do not speak about cases, when aggression, amoral behaviors and
provocation are obvious. We try examining the reactions of players,
disagreements with the decisions made by referees, the disturbances of coaches
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and other participants.
The task, which is put before us - not to reject a technical foul as such but
try to look widely, that is, to find possibilities besides technical foul - short and
clear conversation, warning, conversation (discussion) with the coaches,
players, with the captain, sometimes strict look at the player. Each referee who
gave technical foul is right in his solution, as he tried to save his decision by the
rules. But if we have in our arsenal some other, nonstandard psychological
methods and approaches to find a solution, then we must try, bearing in mind
what we know about players, their characters, how they behaved earlier in such
situations etc. Technical foul is always a conflict. But inside any conflict there
is never a one side only. Put yourself into the players’ shoes; you can imagine
how you would react to a technical foul. Would you agree with this solution?
Would you respect referee for a strict solution - technical foul? Hatred, spite,
anger, fear - only negative qualities are present on the court at such times. Role
of the referee is not to give to these negative emotions a channel to go further
out. It is necessary to use all possible positive methods and only use technical
and disqualifying fouls as last chance. The main thing is referee must give
chance to all participants to correct their behavior. Game is always a dialogue.
There are contacts between all participants. The referee has more rights and
authority in the game than others. There is a force of referee - to use
responsibilities and rights. But sometimes it is useful just to ask yourself: “Are
you always correct giving a technical foul?” Analyzing many game situations
with technical fouls, sometimes it is possible to say that many fouls could be not
fixed or could be avoided. Neither coaches nor players usually seem to be
aggressive or nervous or telling something against referees before the game, so
they do not want to receive a technical foul. They friendly meet each other
before the games, and wish to referees a good job. However, what does occur,
when referees give to player a strong punishment? Is such foul always correctly
fixed? Are really only players and coaches guilty? American specialists of
officiating calculated that about 70% of disagreements with decisions of
referees go back to the erroneous decisions made by referees. This is our main
problem during the games.
For example: ball goes out of bounds from the given player and referee
erroneously gives the ball to the same player who last touched it and even didn’t
look for partners to assist. Opposite team would always disagree with referee’s
decision, but due to the disturbance, referee punishes nervous, emotional player
by technical foul. When some player disagrees with the decision and expresses
his disagreement, usually technical foul follows and all accept this. This is the
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referee’s right by the Rulebook. Everyone knows the Rules. Yes, this is an
action, which cannot be disregarded, but still it is possible to find different
versions of any decision. To call technical foul is the simplest solution
(decision). But here we also have warning, short and strict conversation with the
coach or the player etc. – all may be seen as means of solving the problem in
our games. It is very important for the referee to control actions and correctly
use authority and rights (duties). This gives chance for the dialogue,
understanding of game situations, feeling of game, respect of players, coaches.
You therefore can obtain not anger and hate, but respect regarding you and your
decisions. Give a chance to any player or coach to correct their behavior by
themselves during the games. This will always be appreciated by coaches also
players. We have a lot of examples. The reaction of player, team or coach is
always emotional and often aggressive. Everything, of course, is subjective, and
each participant has a right to make an error. We are all humans, everyone
makes mistakes.
Each violation, serious conflict must be analyzed by referee
At present the following recommendation is given to all referees - for
each unquotable statement (bad words) to punish without the warning by
technical foul. This must be taken into consideration, but let us attempt to
analyze our today's life, living conditions, situations, in which live all players,
coaches, referees. Bad words, unmoral behaviors - became the standard of life.
It is present everywhere: at home, during the training, in the street, in the
school, at Universities, etc. It cannot be avoided. To be insulated only at games
from the entire world - this is clearly impossible. To punish by technical foul this is within the rules. But will such resolution also resolve the very problem
we face? Will the punishment as itself be sufficient or not?
This question we must put before any referee. Tactically, for the short
time interval the answer is yes. You may intimidate player or coach by
sanctions, but strategically the answer is no! And hardly will any player
understand something deeply and honestly thanks only to punishment or
penalties. It is necessary to bring up, to teach, to explain, and not only to judge,
for you do not judge one time only. In a lot of such games situations there must
be deep approach to the problem. It is easier just to give a foul, for it is always
possible to cover yourself by the Rulebook and by its articles. But to be a
participant in the game, to be intelligible and objective, by creating positive
atmosphere, too – it is a mission of referee! To use all methods: conversational
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monologues, official and friendly warnings and finally, if only needed, to give a
FOUL! Clever player will understand that he was not right, that you gave him a
chance to correct himself, which he did not use. This will be obvious for
everybody. Referee must understand why at all he gives a technical foul – it is
not a way to earn authority, experience, class status, professionalism. “Do not
judge - and you won’t be judged, too”! After giving a chance to player and
coach to correct their behavior, without giving penalties, you can receive more
than respect as referee and personality. Tough remark, thrown behind your
back, but left without your attention and punishment, does tell much, yet not
about your weakness, but about your WISDOM! Find more range (kinds) of
solutions (decisions) – it will give you more (ways) versions of dealing with
difficult situations. You must be a diplomat. Diplomat, during the conflict,
never works by emotions. He regulates everything by his mind, intellect and
knowledge. There are many examples in the history, when large conflicts were
solved by diplomatic channel, without the excess of emotions and aggression.
This way must be used by referees. Do not wait, do not search for violations just officiate the game! Experience and confidence come with years!
Video equipment
Crew chief before the beginning of the game must confirm video
equipment. He must know where video cameras are located and who is
responsible of it and where video screen is located to make video control of
quality and to inform coaches about the presence of the video equipment. All
this procedure must be carried out in the appropriate time.
Travelling, carrying the ball, double dribbling (criteria)
More often travelling is fixed by trail and center referees. From the point
of view of FIBA, the travelling means obtaining advantage of an offensive
player over the defender due to the violation in the movement of player with the
ball. With obtaining of ball by that offender the eyes of the nearest referee must
act according to diagram “ball - the feet of offender – the feet of defender”.
When referee looks only at the ball he does not control the whole situation. The
following diagram will help with the beginning of dribbling from the place
concerned when one is determined to correct the displacement: “left pivot foot move to the right or right pivot foot - move to the left”. In 90% of cases occurs
the travelling.
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Three point attempt shot (ALWAYS CONTROL and ASSIST)
The trail and center referees are responsible for the long distant shots.
They must clearly define the price of shot and control all process of shooting:
did the contact happen or not and who was responsible for this contact. It is
important to determine the position of the shooter – when he received the ball
and the moment when and from where he began this act of shooting. The
nearest referee to the shooter is responsible for this by the mechanics. But any
assist and help is extremely necessary from the partners. Even the lead referee
from the base line can help in the cases of fast break or when trail referee is
closed with players and shot is being carried out from the corner of the court.
Referees cannot have a chance to make mistake in such moments. Team work is
extremely important.
Free throws: early enter into restricted area and from three point
field goal area
Very often referees do not pay special attention to the early enter of
players to the restricted area during the free throws and from three point field
goal area.
The entrance to restricted area is permitted after the ball has left the hand
of the shooter, who made the last or only one free throw, and after the ball has
touched the rim, having been thrown from the three point field goal area.
Sometimes players obtain the obvious advantage by early entering the restricted
area without the attention of referees. This must be controlled, even verbally, to
prevent it or to show it by gesture on the line of restricted area or three point
line. Smart player will understand you and others will complete (make)
violations.
Counting eight seconds control the ball in backcourt (the end of counting)
Responsible for counting eight seconds is trail referee. One should
remember that the counting concludes either when ball passed into the front
court - it touched partner, opponent, court, referee in the front court - or player
with the ball passed into the front court with two feet and ball. Sometimes the
long pass from the back court on the 7th second of possession remains without
the attention of referees but the control of eight seconds continues until ball
does touch the front court. Whilst ball is in the air - the control of eight seconds
continues.
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If you have doubts: YES or NOT in the game, then with the
situations: 3; 5; 8 seconds or travel – BETTER DECISION THERE ARE NO violations; if you have doubts - player in act of
shooting, interference or goal tending, basket counted or not BETTER DECISION - player in act of shooting; interference or
goal tending; basket counted
The purpose (task) of referee is to determine if these actions influence the
correctness and objectivity of conducting the game. Professionalism, experience,
craftsmanship of referee is manifested in such moments. Referee on the motion of
game makes about 800 solutions. It is obvious that only the small part of these
solutions is fixed by whistle. The remaining solutions are mostly about visual
monitoring and quite rapid for the analyst of situations. Such solutions start
through the conversations, the gestures, the signals, the mimicry, the phrases, the
words, etc. Sometimes better solution in the game - the silence of the referee (no
whistle, no call) but sometimes whistle is simply necessary. Therefore with the
situations when referee doubts about violations: 3; 5; 8 seconds and travelling the better solution is not to fix violations at all. If player is in act of shooting;
interference or goal tending; basket counted or not - the better solution is: player
is in act of shooting; interference or goal tending; basket counted.
After foul during the shot - the control of the flight of ball
Responsibility of center and trail referees
Many fouls on the shots near the basket are fixed by the lead referee. Team
work on the control of the flight of ball after shooting and fixed foul continues.
Trail and center referees are responsible for this. They must determine the price
of the shot and control the situation with interference or goal tending.
Your solutions must be intelligible to majority!
TYPICAL MISTAKES AND ACTIONS OF BEGINNING RFEREES
Below we show some often-happen mistakes of referees and the practical
advices which will help to create the professional habits for the referees. It is
necessary these requirements be used in the practical officiating.
1. The lead referee - do not show a quantity of free throws whilst staying on the
base line.
2. The lead referee - do not meet offence, whilst running forward by your back.
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3. For the good feeling of the sizes of court and sport hall, floor (sizes, benches,
table of officials, scoreboard) just walk around it, around boundary lines,
looking at the court at different angles.
4. Always - control the throwing - in of ball to the game from out of bounds,
standing a little behind and by the side of the thrower - his feet, ball, and also
the players, who may obtain ball or prevent obtaining ball.
5. For the gestures – during calling a foul it is necessary to make it clear to
which player it is given, by using a palm but not finger.
6. The areas of your responsibility - this is the boundary post which to you is
fixed by mechanics of officiating. At the same time when it is necessary to
protect justice of the game and you are assured in this by 100%, your solution
must be sound without the dogmatic standards of mechanics. You will help
game and partners!
7. The lead referee does not stand right under the basket. The motions of feet
must help eyes to improve the viewing angles of the changing game situations.
8. When the ball goes out of bounds, especially for the base line, do not turn
your head from the game and after the whistle continue to control the situation
on the court.
9. Good (right) position for the referee who is responsible for the throwing – in,
if ball is thrown in from out of bounds and if attack is carried out in the front
court; or if game goes on from back court to front court.
10. With fast break or the rapid (fast) offense you must try to occupy position
on the base line early, try not to assess the game from the side and from behind.
11. The gestures of communication with table officials must not be shown
whilst you are moving – the following scheme is acceptable: rapid (quick) exit
for the connection with the secretary - stoppage – demonstration procedure - the
rapid change of position with partners (if necessary).
12. Control of substitutions procedure (by whistle, by gesture) until the players
become substitutions and substitutions become players.
13. Referees must remember (limit time periods): substitution - as fast as
possible; injury - 15 seconds; 5th foul - 30 seconds.
14. There is no need - when the successful three point shot is made – to show it
directly to the scorer and turn your body away from the game.
15. Checking of bracelets, rings, long nails, large pins during warm up of the
teams.
16. Algorithm of decision with fouls: FOUL - NUMBER of PLAYER
(“WHO?”) - NATURE of FOUL (“WHAT?") - (“WHERE?”) - PLACE AND
BALL - PUNISHMENT.
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17. The lead referee does not show the basket counted to the scorer.
18. It is very important to fix by whistle the first incorrect action of player but
not reaction to this action. (ACTION, NOT REACTION!)
19. The force of whistle varies, and depends on the behavior of player,
violation, fouls, substitution, etc.
20. Requirement for the gestures – must be clear, with the large amplitude,
visual, official, usually in the static position.
21. Algorithm during the fixation of travelling – BALL - THE FEET OF
OFFENDER WITH THE BALL – POSITION AND FEET OF DEFENDER.
22. Three seconds violation is not fixed with gestures – fingers counting each
second.
23. Game finished with the signing of score-sheet.
24. Lead referee does not look at the flight of ball during the shot.
25. Lead referee does not locate close to the base line.
26. Nervous motions and gestures.
27. Control the team bench areas.
28. Fear to fix technical or unsportsmanlike fouls if it necessary.
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Psychology in basketball
officiating
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TABLE OF CONTENTS
1. Communication.
2. Technical foul.
3. Psychoemotional professional burning out in the basketball. Stresses.
4. Body language (language of gesticulation and mimicry). Game language.
5. First victories over yourself. Your first success.
6. Learn how to thank.
7. Out of bounds violation.
8. Emotions.
9. False self-rating.
COMMUNICATION
People at present time can not communicate, even simply, easily, usually
communicate, as this was 20-30 years ago. This concerns especially young
people. In 21 century, era of many modern technologies, cell phones, internet,
computers, young people have difficulties in personal contacts, i.e. in direct
contacts face to face.
There are reasons of many conflicts, problematic situations and others.
Young man cannot express his thoughts, and sometimes to explain something,
to decide dispute, even to apologize for something he finds extremely difficult.
The skill to communicate - this is one of the basic qualities of
communication, communicative person. Sometimes young people, they know
computer very well, are actively in contact with all things technical, but once it
comes to usual, normal contact (communications), many problems and
complexes appear. First of all, there is a problem with their selves.
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Psychologists always pay much attention to the skill of communications. One
who knows how to speak, knows how to express his/her thoughts, to answer
opponents, knows how to listen to opponents, without interrupting them, how to
explain, to solve problem, such person is always useful, as specialist and as
professional.
Nowadays without the skill to communicate it is impossible to reach
one’s goal, to move forward, to make results. Sometimes you ask yourself:
“How earlier people did communicate, kept connected, they did discuss their
work, built plans, without modern devices of communication?” The answer is
simple. Then people were more open, ready for contact, communicable and
went on to have a dialogue, to contact more freely, more easily. They talked, if
not on the phone, but during meetings, looking to each other and into the eyes,
attentively listening to. Now this is rarity. Young people “sit” in the Internet,
internet cafes, Skype, Face-book, twitter, etc. Sometimes we can see that even
sitting in a hall (lobby) of some hotel people send massages to each other,
sitting practically in front of each other, and no one of them interferes to speak.
Habit, so it is more convenient for them.
But to live only with these new modes of communication - this is clearly
not a solution. There is no sincerity in feelings, truth in the eyes, honesty. You
cannot transmit your feelings and thoughts through devises to express them by
words, by views, by signals, by imitating a direct look into each other’s eyes. In
this situation you can not be fully fair or, at least, it will be quite evident that
you are closed, in a way. They themselves feel it. It can be visible for
everybody.
The skill to communicate “face to face, person to person” is a very
important quality, which young generation either loses or does not give proper
value to, or thinks about as unnecessary. Young people lose a feeling of
sincerity, reality. Many are afraid to tell about it. They can accept their errors,
but in no way recognize that they do not know how to communicate or that they
are much afraid of social contacts as themselves. Sometimes because no one
they have to tell about this (they don’t have a teacher).
We have a lot of examples of such a closed nature, of feeling fear, having no
desire to communicate with people. It is not only young persons’ fault, but also
of educational system itself, teachers and instructors including, who do not
teach young persons how to develop simple skills to talk.
We always can hear that one should be harder in his/her solutions, to
defend his/her point of view, not to listen to, but to make tough decisions, like
on the court, because “the referee is always right”. But in this situation, simple
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advice, short phrases, apology, sign of attention, and kind look could solve all
problems. To young referee sometimes it is difficult to find same one to
acknowledge that he has problem in contacts and in behavior, even in simple
situations. Such situations happen not only at games, our entire life consists of
them.
Young man/woman may know all computer programs perfectly, use all
devises of information, know foreign languages, but simple communication
remains mystery for her/him, because he/she fears to communicate or
sometimes has no ability or desire to, and ultimately finds it shameful for
himself/herself.
In these situations, if we speak about the basketball referees, it is
necessary to help young person, to show him ways of how to contact correctly,
to teach him at the very beginning how to tell simple things, how to easily
communicate. We must try to support them during their initial games, not to
break them psychologically. It is one of the basic purposes and tasks of all
instructors, moderators, commissioners. Thus, indeed they prepare not only
referees, but normal, usual, adapted young people, ready for real life, in the first
place, and for the basketball, in particular.
Basketball and usual life are tightly connected. If you cannot normally
communicate, you constantly will have problems in real life, at your workplace,
and then you will have them also in basketball. It is necessary therefore to know
how to communicate efficiently, how to speak directly, “eyes to eyes”.
Then you will not have large problems not only in your life, but also in
basketball. In this computer or other devices can help you, but they will not
protect you or solve all of the life’s problems of communication. Good luck!
TECHNICAL FOUL
At present technical foul is considered usual, normal, “light” violation.
We do not speak about cases, when aggression, amoral behaviors and
provocation are obvious. We try examining the reactions of players,
disagreements with the decisions made by referees, the disturbances of coaches
and other participants.
The task, which is put before us - not to reject a technical foul as such but
try to look widely, that is, to find possibilities besides technical foul - short and
clear conversation, warning, conversation (discussion) with the coaches,
players, with the captain, sometimes strict look on the player.
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Each referee who gave technical foul is right in his solution, as he tried to
save your decision by the rules. But if we have in our arsenal some other,
nonstandard psychological methods and approaches to find a solution, then we
must try, bearing in mind what we know about players, their characters, how
they behaved earlier in such situations etc.
Technical foul is always a conflict. But inside any conflict there is never a
one side only. Put yourself on the place of players; you can imagine how you
would react to technical foul. Would you agree with this solution? Would you
respect referee for a strict solution - technical foul? Hatred, spite, anger, fears only negative qualities are present on the court at these times.
Role of the referee is not to give to these negative emotions a channel to
go further out. It is necessary to use all possible positive methods and only use
technical and disqualifying fouls as last chance. The main thing is referee must
give chance to all participants to correct their behavior.
Game is always a dialogue. There are contacts between all participants.
The referee has more rights and authority in the game than others. There is a
force of any referee - to use responsibilities and rights. But sometimes it is
useful just to ask: “Are you always correct giving a technical foul?”
Analyzing many game situations with technical fouls, sometimes it is
possible to say that many fouls could be not fixed or could be avoided. Neither
coaches nor players usually seem to be aggressive or nervous or telling
something against referees before the game, so they do not want to receive a
technical foul. They friendly meet each other before the games, and wish to
referees a good job. However, what does occur, when referees give to player a
strong punishment? Is such foul always correctly fixed? Are really only players
and coaches guilty?
American specialists of officiating calculated that about 70% of
disagreements with decisions of referees go back to the erroneous solutions
(decisions) made by referees. This is our main problem during the games.
For example: ball goes out of bounds from the given player and referee
erroneously gives the ball to the same player who last touched it and even didn’t
look for partners to assist. Opposite team would always disagree with referee’s
decision, but due to the disturbance, referee punishes nervous, emotional player
by technical foul. When some player disagrees with the decision and expresses
his disagreement, usually technical foul follows and all accept this. This is the
referee’s right by the Rulebook. Everyone knows the Rules.
Yes, this is an action, which cannot be disregarded, but still it is possible
to find different versions of any decision. To call technical foul is the simplest
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solution (decision). But here we also have warning, short and strict conversation
with the coach or the player etc. – all may be seen as means of solving the
problem in our games.
It is very important for the referee to control actions and correctly use
authority and rights (duties). This gives chance for the dialogue, understanding
of game situations, feeling of game, respect of players, coaches. You therefore
can obtain not anger and hate, but respect regarding you and your decisions.
Give a chance to any player or coach to correct their behavior by themselves
during the games. This will always be appreciated by coaches also players. We
have a lot of examples. The reaction of player, team or coach is always
emotional and often aggressive. Everything, of course, is subjective, and each
participant has a right to make an error. All people, everyone makes mistakes.
Each violation, serious conflict
must be analyzed by referee
At present the following recommendation is given to all referees - for
each unquotable statement (bad words) to punish without the warning by
technical foul. This must be taken into consideration, but let us attempt to
analyze our today's life, living conditions, situations, in which live all players,
coaches, referees. Bad words, unmoral behaviors - became the standard of life.
It is present everywhere: at home, during the training, in the street, in the
school, in Universities, etc. It cannot be avoided. To be insulated only at games
from the entire world - this is clearly impossible. To punish by technical foul this is within the rules. But will such resolution also resolve the very problem
we face? Will the punishment as itself be sufficient or not?
This question we must put before any referee. Tactically, for the short
time interval the answer is yes. You may intimidate player or coach by
sanctions, but strategically the answer is no! And hardly will any player
understand something deeply and honestly thanks only to punishment or
penalties. It is necessary to bring up, to teach, to explain, and not only to judge,
for you do not judge one time only. In many such game situations there must be
deep approach to the problem. It is easier just to give a foul, for it is always
possible to cover yourself by the Rulebook and by its articles.
But to be a participant in the game, to be intelligible and objective, by
creating positive atmosphere, too – it is a mission of referee! To use all
methods: conversational monologues, official and friendly warnings and finally,
if only needed, to give a FOUL! Clever player will understand that he was not
right, that you gave him a chance to correct himself, which he did not use. This
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will be obvious for everybody. Referee must understand why at all he gives a
technical foul – it is not a way to earn authority, experience, class status,
professionalism. “Do not judge - and you won’t be judged, too”!
After giving a chance to player and coach to correct their behavior,
without giving penalties, you can receive more than respect as referee and
personality. Tough remark, thrown behind your back, but left without your
attention and punishment, does tell much, yet not about your weakness, but
about your WISDOM!
Find more range (kinds) of solutions (decisions) – it will give you more
(ways) versions of dealing with difficult situations. You must be diplomats.
Diplomat, during the conflict, never works by emotions. He regulates
everything by his mind, intellect and knowledge. There are many examples in
the history, when large conflicts were solved by diplomatic channel, without the
excess of emotions and aggression. This way must be used by referees. Do not
wait, do not search for violations - just officiate the game! Experience and
confidence come with years! Good luck!
PSYCHOEMOTIONAL PROFESSIONAL BURNING OUT IN THE
BASKETBALL. STRESSES
Basketball is a game, the part of our life, packed in time and space! There
are created special conditions for all participants in the process during the
games. In the professional activity many people live the new experience of
relations with themselves and others. During the game we receive a lot of
theoretical knowledge, practical skills and habits, which will be used by others,
too, and used in their own practice. In the process of systematic work
professionally and personally grow all participants, and those, who learn, and
those, who teach.
In our case, we examine professional job of basketball referee, study his
career growth, his progress and problematic moments in the process of
preparation, how he improves his performance to succeed further.
What aims we must set before ourselves? To create conditions, under which any
referee can understand his job from within, working with players, coaches and
other people during the games, i.e. under stressful conditions, in conflict
situations, at problematic moments, and also learn skills, methods of
psychological relaxation, once game is over.
It is important to note that, without advance thinking about stresses and as
years go by, any referee may face so-called psychoemotional burning out, i.e.,
the exhaustion of nervous system may occur, the loss of forces, poor sleep or its
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disturbances, injuries, headaches, fears before future work, and even small
mental disorders.
For normal control of emotions and in order to avoid such boundary states and
situations it is necessary:
- to manage the signs of psychoemotional professional burning out;
- to know a reason of these signs;
- to know how to use methods and approaches of aid for himself and for
colleagues in such situations;
- to know what to do, when this process of burning out has already developed;
- to know how to help young colleagues in the situations of professional stress,
conflict.
For the productive work and good result it is necessary to know
psychological states and difficulties, which appear when referees do their job.
One of the basic problems concerns the fact that the young or inexperienced
referee usually absorbs more stressful and negative information from
participants of the game, uses it, and passes it further and assumes it very
closely to himself.
Finally we collect negative moments in the memory and this leads to
fears, wrong decisions, feeling of guilt – and referee begins to push himself
down. Occurs “the phenomenon of psychological infection”, i.e., our referee
absorbs negative emotions in the game, and thus, he infects himself “by
[emotional] infection”. So the relevant “pills” for unblocking it are in need.
The aid of colleagues and commissioners is extremely necessary.
But aid does not mean just analyzing facts and moments over and over
again, but it primarily means to show that we together will do with it! It is
necessary to push referee from such situations and to prepare him for further
work, but only by means of positive thinking, to help him solve stressful
problems.
Analyzing the work of psychologists in sport we can say that conflicts
and stress situations are not something to fear, it is only necessary to know how
to handle them constantly. Early psychoemotional burning out during referees’
work, professional activity, is a price for the nonprofessional preparations.
Referees mustn’t be given chances to spend emotions for nothing. This leads
referees to stress, and to negative emotions and even to the loss of job, of all
positive emotions, of connection with his self and with others. Referee mustn’t
overload himself by overworking, by absorbing stresses and conflicts and
incorrectly analyzing them after game. In order for him to save himself and to
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reduce negative factors to minimum it is necessary to constantly analyze
officiating with experienced referees and commissioners and psychologists.
Some aspects of this psychological work:
1) To learn how to remove stress, to use relaxations procedures, to learn how to
enjoy your job.
2) Constant exchange of experiences with commissioners and instructors.
3) Creation of strategic purposes and tasks for reaching the result through the
positive approach.
4) Professional contact with the partners, exchange of experiences.
5) To increase confidence in the professional activity, to learn how to believe in
himself. To be confident!
6) To study the style of the work of all participants in the game, their behavior.
7) To know how to recognize the first signs of psychological burning out in his
activity. These are: stress, nervousness and uncertainty in the actions. The desire
not to be separated, to be behind the back of partners in difficult moments of
game, the difficulty in acknowledging his own errors, the closed nature, the
desire to be alone –such features are also undoubtedly telling.
8) To confirm correctness in the selection of profession (job).
9) Feedback from participants in the process of education and improvements.
One must clearly understand just how important not to stress oneself or
highlight conflict situations in the game, but to study its consequences
afterwards instead!
Stress situations in the game cannot be avoided, but to learn how to
correctly handle them is in our hands! Stress certainly includes all whistles,
each solution of referee! Someone always finds it wrong! Stress is a reaction of
man to the emotional, excessive, and aggressive actions. Doctors say that stress
is a reason almost for all illnesses.
There are three stages of stresses, conflict situations: the beginning of
conflict, conflict as itself and its decoupling - effect on the total solution. For the
referee perhaps the most important is the third stage - decision making and
reaction to it. If referee is confident in his solution, albeit under pressure it has
been made, then everything goes within normalcy, and referee manages
(handles) the stress. But sometimes it may happen that even experienced referee
could not manage the conflict. And, due to many reasons, in the last phase of
conflict situation stress does occur. But still it is important here not to collect
stress effects!
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It is very important to understand that the problem here not with the
work, but with you! It is necessary to return, and as fast as possible, satisfaction
from your own job, actions and behavior on the court, feeling of confidence,
and desire to work!
And try to move further in the right professional way, clearly realizing
strong points as well as errors, and only through positive thinking! Good luck!
BODY LANGUAGE
(LANGUAGE OF GESTICULATION AND MIMICRY)
GAME LANGUAGE
Body language is language of movements, voice, signals and the language
of gesticulation and mimicry. Human contact (communication) occurs at different
levels. Words compose only 7% of the communications, and the remaining 93%
body language composes. People don’t pay to this any special attention.
In the sport body language is also very important. Players between
themselves, coaches with the players, and also with referees always
communicate using body language.
Referees, in the view of their profession, cannot communicate verbally,
but knowing the language of mimicry and gestures it gives you chances to
transmit, send messages, express thoughts, and send information to partners,
players and coaches. This is a necessary mean of communication, especially at
present time, which should be learnt.
Experienced referee can express his thoughts, transmit reaction to what
proceeds, take decisions or make remarks about actions of players and partners
without saying a word. It is possible to say one phrase and express your
thoughts by mimicry, gestures and the way you look. This is the professional
language of contact, communication. It is built on the base of general
knowledge of communications and transmission of information.
Speaking about body language, we imply: the height of voice, the rate of
speech, the way we walk, the methods, by which we present ourselves to others,
as we establish visual contact, position of eyes, our motions (hands, legs, etc),
position of back, arms, of chest, position of hands, brushes, our signals, etc.
BODY LANGUAGE - method of your communication with other people
Imagine you are in one room, and you feel very nervous. Each, who is
also there, will understand that you are nervous just by looking at you, your
actions, speed of movements, gestures, and by hearing your voice. You yourself
can feel it. For example, remember your actions, when you passed examinations
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and you were not completely ready to answer. You survived, but you were
disturbed, looked lost, your hands moist, your motions fussy, nervous, your eyes
running, etc.
You can understand and feel when someone is sad, happy, stressed. We
can obtain (receive) many information about people just by studying their body
language. Approximately the same occurs with us during the games. If we are
not ready or lost “game language”, we begin to be nervous, to be disturbed, our
motions, our mimicry and gestures reveal what we feel. When we are assured in
ourselves, prepared to work, we control the situation and we cooperate with the
partners, use body language, and it confirms our confidence and professionalism
on the court and outside the court.
In practice we can speak with anyone by means of our eyes, by mimicry,
by using our body, torso, arms, by looking at people differently, and all can
understand us, all our “body words” are expressive, clear and accessible. When
we use this language, we can show for everybody our fairness in the game,
strictness, apologies, doubts, humor and happiness - and many other
feelings/emotions. Player and coaches will understand you without verbal
communication.
One of the men’s games of FIBA Cup in Athens was indeed much
stressful. In Greece there is no such thing as simple game, though.
Professionalism is earned at such games. The head coach of Greek team during
a second-half of the game psychologically attacked the referees. He made
remarks about referees’ behavior, told what he wished from referees and so on,
albeit in the correct form. Game approached the end, and coach understood that
he could really lose the important game. So he went into a conflict with the
referees in order to receive attention and to try to break the game’s course.
Surely referees did not give him a chance to succeed in doing this.
After one foul, coach began to attempt to provoke referees. Crew referee
went directly to the coach. He looked quite militant, his shoulders and hands
were rigid, his torso advanced forward, with eyes penetrating the coach and
eyebrows moving. When only some meters remained between the coach and the
referee, Greek coach grasped the situation quickly and went back, and he left
the team bench area. Referee’s body language said what he thought about the
coach’s behavior. Referee didn’t say even one word. Only gestures, mimicry,
movement were telling. Body language as itself!
Then coach himself apologized for his behavior. But it was possible for
referee to say much more verbally. And, for sure, verbal way of explanation will
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not be the best one in this situation. This is an example; how it is possible to
handle the game, knowing how to manage it using body language correctly.
We can learn much more about people by observing how they walk, sit,
speak, and we can notice something really interesting in their motions and in
everything that makes people who they are, even without saying anything.
Most repeated errors in the conversation:
- We say too rapidly;
- We say too much;
- Sometimes we do not know, about what to speak further;
- We ask too many questions;
- Incorrect body language: hands are crossed, and feet are located too closely to
each other, etc;
- In the conversation with the stranger we feel ourselves not comfortably;
- We forget what we wanted to say.
This must be done in the correct version:
- To take hands out of pockets;
- To stand firmly;
- During walking hands must not freely dangle;
- Not to look onto the floor (downward view must be avoided) during walking;
- To occupy as much space as possible;
- Not to wear too much dark clothing;
- Always, when you sit, be slanted back. When you are slanted, people around
you begin to be inclined toward you, so that it is better to hear you;
- Touch the people, when you communicate with them, because you are
obligated to create contacts at all levels, not only on the verbal one. You first
must understand why and how people make decisions. Why you have an effect
of attracting attention to yourself, why and how it works, and the whole body
language - eyes, eyebrows, eyelashes, the position of arms, torso, the position of
legs and arms, head, the turning of neck.
The value of body language is very important, especially for referees. It
helps us to use different methods of the transmission and exchange of
information, and to widen the possibilities of communication. It is extremely
necessary to learn body language, if we want to be the best. We must
understand that we can successfully use that knowledge, obtained according to
the methods of communication, in our daily normal life. This is big advantage
in solving many vital, life questions and problems.
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GAME LANGUAGE
Referee use a lot of kinds of communications during the game. But young
referees sometimes use only words and only articles from the Rulebook. They
communicate during the game only by whistles. But officiating is not only
about whistles. There are gestures, mimicry, signals, conversations, discussions,
dialogs, monologs, communications and cooperation. Young referees must
know and especially understand that officiating is wider, more complex
perception of game, which cannot be reduced to whistling alone. There are
contacts, communication and control, thanks to which participants can obtain
objective information from the game. This is “game language”. It is necessary
to know how to speak in “game language”. Many referees know several foreign
languages, but they cannot select necessary words during the game, they are
lost, are disturbed. They do not know how to express their thoughts and desires.
One experienced referee spoke: “I don’t know foreign languages, but I
know one language - this “GAME LANGUAGE”! When I use it, I can explain,
express my thoughts and desires, I can stop and calm down players, stop the
unnecessary emotions, etc. This is my language of communication. I learned
and learn it constantly every time and everywhere. All participants respect me
for this knowledge”.
The knowledge of foreign languages is very necessary nowadays, it helps
referee during the game, in contacts, in private life, during trips, in studies and
businesses but it does not give you complete confidence, that you will find the
language of communication with all players before, during and after the game.
It is of vital importance to know and understand “game language”. Yet it is
difficult language. It is impossible to learn it according only to the Rulebook or
by looking videos, for it is necessary to live with it, to sleep and to arise with it,
constantly practicing it.
“Game language” must be constantly improved, with every change. Your
partners would understand you. For all must learn how to exchange the
knowledge of “game language” with others in the process of practicing it.
Knowing it, you will have a chance during the game to speak with partners in
one language, in one way, in one tone.
The greater advantages will come for those referees, who talk and
communicate by means of and professionally use “game language”. They can
adapt it for the game. If you do everything in the same way, your team will be
stronger on the court, more easily you will understand each other, communicate
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and improve step by step. You will know what you should correct in the future,
how to work to improve your “basic lexical game language”. Only when referee
understands “game language”, then it is possible to indicate that the referee can
communicate and be communicable not only for the game, but also outside the
court.
Basketball does not begin only in the sport hall. People, who work in
basketball, live with thoughts about the game everywhere and, therefore, they
try to learn to communicate in “basketball language”. Referees also must study
it, know it and –most important –understand it.
Many problems leave us, when during the game all participants
understand each other, right after hearing a half word, speaking the same “game
language”. It is equally significant when understanding other persons comes
naturally, not under pressure of authority or some outer force. Any solution
must be understandable for and accepted by all.
We don’t have ideal games, but we must select the standard of high
quality. Language, which is obligatory to referees, must also be understandable
for everybody. It must be approved and accepted by all participants during the
game on the court. You must constantly search for a good style, for some way
to improve “game language” for all.
There are more than 200 countries in the world, where people know
“game language”. Not all basketball players can communicate in foreign
language, but they all understand “game language”. Rules everywhere are the
same, only standards of knowledge and performance are different. Therefore in
order to increase the level of game and to be more understandable, everybody
should be taught and should improve this “game language”, “language of
basketball”! Good luck!
FIRST VICTORIES OVER YOURSELF. YOUR FIRST SUCCESS
Even a puny inconsiderable progress in your work of controlling feelings
and ability to be glad of inconsiderable success can be regarded as small
victory. It means that your abilities, wishes, plans, projects are coming into real
actions. Therefore you are on the right road to your goal. It is necessary to
continue moving in that direction.
Ability to control your fears, feelings, weaknesses, laziness, incertitude
and self-distrust is a prior problem in psychological preparatory process during
the phase of personality conformation of young referee. The faster referee sets
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himself on correct, positive, assertive guidelines of his work, the earlier he gets
a result. It is important to head young referee to the right direction from square
one. It is necessary not to tick over, to study with a cut-and-try method, but to
concorporate tutor’s practical knowledge with young referee’s wish.
With the help of analysis, video materials, self-work, self-perfection of
different preparation aspects: theoretical, practical, psychological, physical, and
lettered help of leading, experienced colleagues it is possible to set up high
goals and reach them. Supposing that small result doesn’t fix your goals and is
not observed by anyone, you can be misdirected. Those who care will be glad at
your victories and success even insignificant ones. Great result and success are
built out of them. Learn to rejoice at every positive result.
Not so long ago you can remember your affection, jittering in the
beginning of the game and your bother about forthcoming game situations. Now
you start the game patiently, control game process and everything else, and
representatively talk to coaches, team managers, players. You have stretched
well, have had a full pregame discussion and come into the game more sedately.
You see all the fouls and violations, you stay patiently and tranquilly, you have
good gestures, signals; cooperation gives you more confidence in game
management, you’re in control of all the playing patterns and behavior of
players and coaches. Maybe those moments are inconsiderable but a lot of
arguable moments are coming up in the game because of referees’
unpreparedness and carelessness. In the beginning of the game they are: wrong
playing direction, wrong amount of players, absence of time controller’s signal,
wrong ball possession etc.
Tutor’s task is to show in theory and then practically significance and
price of every moment of the ballgame from arrival to the court and carrying out
of pregame discussion with colleagues and commissioner. Every act has its
significance and price. If it works for good result and benefit, for making
game’s tasks resolved, and for the team spirit, then it will be positively reflected
on the game itself and on the climate inside the referees’ team. Settled
connections, stereotypes, motive coherences, theoretical and practical
acquirements will be formed in young referee’s mind, which, in turn, is going to
be shaped in game practice. It is very important for referee to feel the
correctness of chosen method, which surely fetches him to the future victories
and success.
Success in referee’s work comes very peacefully in comparison with
players’ and coaches’ one. It is so because supreme mark of referee’s job is
composure in the game and absence of protests on game result. This is a
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success, a supreme mark of quality, objectivity and professional level of
officiating. This is a victory of referee. Not referee, but team of referees. If one
of them officiated badly then the whole team did not manage the game, and if
he officiated well then the whole team has done everything for a success and
their own victory and contention.
Every victory and success comes only with realization that a colossal
labor, patience, self- and teamwork were exerted. Victories come to those who
believe in their strength. It’s like a catalyst of our inner activities. You can reach
a lot if you realize that you can do that. Believe in yourself. Your first victories
and success only confirm the correctness of a chosen way. You have got to
simply work and believe then everything will come off!
LEARN HOW TO THANK
Very often we don’t pay enough attention to the potty details. Sometimes
we don’t even think about that, even though there are no trifles in our life.
Sometimes we forget even to say some thank words for the things that were
made for us. Words like “thanks”, “sorry” are elementary on the first sight, but
we hear them very seldom today. Often we don’t pay attention to trifles, which
are made for us by our colleagues, teachers, and parents. But often it’s enough
to say “thanks” and they would be pleased because something that they made
for us has come available.
“Thanks” is a sign of attention, our gratitude for help. We don’t have to
specially wait or look for a motive to thank. Try to say that word more often.
Don’t forget about that. We have to thank our tutors only because they bring us
into basketball or officiating. They, more or less, have spotted our future
profession, our life.
Talking about thanks we have to remember one ecclesial proverb, where
Jesus Christ has met ten eyeless. He came to them and asked about their life
desire. Eyeless asked to bring back their eyesight. Jesus has put their prayer
through and they went off. And only one of them came back to say “thanks”.
Jesus asked:
-There were ten to cure. Where are other nine? Vade in peace. Your belief
saves you.
It is a simple and demonstrative example of people rejoicing at help but
forgetting to thank. They accept it as a tribute. It mostly depends on self-culture,
education, nurture and intellect level.
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Nothing will happen with you if you thank for a little things made for
you. It will show that you are not apathetic to the actions which are made to
you.
Say “thanks” and you will have an opportunity to be thanked for your
actions by other people. Say “thanks” with great emotions, joy, self-positive and
sincerity.
OUT OF BOUNDS VIOLATION
Throwing the ball out of bounds is a simple violation at first sight, while
everything simple should be simple at identification. Ball comes out of bounds;
official fixes the violation and brings the ball to the other team. Kind of simple
thing, there is. But very often a lot of difficulties are hidden in this moment of
the game. A lot of difficult and necessary decisions should be carried out so that
referee can fairly spot the violation and continue the game positively, being
understood by everybody.
Just remember how often ball comes out of bounds during the fighting for
the ball at the restricted line of the field. Referee has got to see there: who was
the last to touch the ball; if player stepped on the line or he was pushed before
that and referee didn’t see the illegal contact because of wrong position. Maybe
while a jump ball procedure two players came down and touched the line or one
of them touched it first. Maybe a player got the ball in the air out of bounds and
threw it to an opposite team player who was out of bounds, too. There are a lot
of situations which we can call “ball came out of bounds”. Every decision and
situation there has huge significance and price and, of course, brings much
confidence for referee. Very often referee’s authority and experience helps in
right decision making. But experience comes with years, skilled practice, selfwork and analysis.
Out of bounds violation is the simplest decision for an outside spectator.
It gives no huge emotions. It’s not like a made three-pointer or a dunk, not the
situation which leads to a fight, not a buzzer beater, turnover or blocked shot this is just a ball out of bounds. But it can be the most important moment for a
referee: to spot fairly that violation.
Official has to catch every moment of the ballgame and get some positive
feelings and respect from teams, earn some authority when he fairly spots the
violation.
On the other hand, out of bounds violation is pause which referee needs
sometimes. Just to catch a breath, switch over the attention after a nervous
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situation, fix the connection with a secretary’s table, commissioner and
colleagues on the floor. To cool off, stop the game with a minute pause,
sometimes raise the tempo of the game, silence players and warn them friendly,
not applying the official public warnings of a technical foul. And all of that is
done just in order to prevent chaos and nervousness in the game.
Just remember how many times our experienced colleagues told us to
“show everybody a good-looking, correct, official out of bounds gesture and
‘sell’ your gesture to the game!” Of course there is a deep meaning in this
phrase. We have to catch all the positive emotions in this moment because we
fairly made a decision there. That’s an ideal situation.
Choice of the right position pertaining to a player throwing the ball in is
referee’s work and attention which he should pay in the moment of the game.
Referee has to control everything during the throw in because he starts the
game. He has to see secretary’s table, commissioner, colleagues in their right
positions, and all the players on the field and the player who throws the ball in.
We give the ball to that player only when we see a gesture of readiness. It’s a
very important procedure. “The way you start the game is the way it goes”. The
way you give the ball is the way you start your work in our case.
How should referee give the ball to a player? It’s an individual procedure.
We can give the ball from hands to hands, off the floor or by pass. Everything
depends on definite situation. Another important moment is referee’s position
during the throw-in pertaining to the game and players. We have to stay behind
or at the side of inbounder, but never in front of him, because we close the
throw-in process and don’t see it, and we lose control of the game. Maybe it’s a
trifle, but there are no trifles in the game. Even some little mistakes accrue and
then create a big problem. It’s like a snow lump coming down the mountain.
Another situation happens after a difficult, arguable out of bounds violation. A
lot of ardency, relationship ascertainment, emotions and anger start to come up,
because one team is not glad at referee’s decision. Referee has to quickly and
fairly make his decision without talks and inappropriate discussions, after
looking at his partners if he needs some help, then quickly continue the game.
Conflicts and arguing often come up during inappropriate pauses, but during the
game time everybody does his best to win and there is no time for arguing.
That’s why quantity of pauses should be minimal. If arguable violation happens
and your partners can’t help you with your confusion, you always have a couple
of milliseconds to make a decision. Jump ball is the last but sometimes fair
decision in such situations. But you have some time yet, you control the game
and everything is under your control. Referee has to define who is going to have
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the possession by behavior, psychology, actions of players on the floor. Some of
those are: behavioral eye-movement, byplay, gestures, reaction to referee’s
decision, cues. Very often referee, who knows players’ psychology and who
learns who players are and their behavior and temper before the game, he can
fix and even feel who’s been the last to touch the ball. Referee is right in a lot of
situations, but it’s a huge risk. Only experience, authority, everyday analysis of
the game, referee’s concentration and referees’ teamwork give a chance to risk
in the game. A lot of moments of out-of-bounds violation are to be demounted.
It’s a simple violation at first sight, but often it’s a very difficult, crucial
moment which requires some overconcentration and certainty in your actions.
But there is nothing more important than a trifle! The whole life consists of
them. We can say it about the game either. Lost trifle gives start to the “snow
lump” of mistakes. We have to try to feel and pre-see all game moments but
never forget that even a trifle can affect your reaching huge strategic goal. “If
you can see little things then you can see huge either”. But to see, to control and
to call, to fix are not the same things! It’s better to control and to help each other
than to call every time, to stop the game and to argue.
Ball out of bounds is a simple, ordinary violation, trifle as we can say.
But it’s so important to spot that violation in referee’s work!
EMOTIONS
Accurate pass is one of the most basic tricks in basketball. Offensive
efficiency and even victory depends on right and lettered pass execution. Pass is
a basis and painstaking labor in the process of its digestion. Training,
development and perfection of this element require a lot of effort by coach and
players. Perfect ability to pass gives player chance to build teamplay and bring
self or team co-operation to the efficient conclusion.
Pass is a labor, shot is emotions. Everybody wants to take a shot;
everyone looks at finishing phase of offense, at the rim which attracts everyone.
But not many people understand that perfect pass is a guarantee of made shot.
Player, who takes a shot, doesn’t have to make the perfect pass up. If passer
does his job ideally, then shooter has to just catch the ball in ideal position and
take the shot from his standard spot. There is no need to fade away, change
control feet and loose balance for the shooter. The more actions player carries
out to prepare a shot, the less opportunities he has to make it.
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Pass is just like a transfer of information or information exchange thereby
the ball. Good coaches make admonitions for the missed shots very seldom, but
after an incorrect pass they are trying to show that bad pass is one of the reasons
of misses and narrowing down the necessary teamwork productivity. “Guilty
player is not the one who couldn’t receive a pass, but who has made that pass”,
that’s what coaches often say.
We can transfer it into officiating. There are a lot of actions which referee
has to take in order to make the right decision, like moving, watching,
controlling, etc. If preparing for the final decision is ideal then result of this
decision will be conformable. A lot of people think that there is nothing difficult
in making decision for referee, he only has to blow a whistle in time. Maybe
they don’t know how much preparative job referee has to make in order to make
the only right decision. How much labor and analysis have to be done, and how
many affections and nervous energy have to be spent for a qualified work.
Sometimes it’s enough just not to interrupt players with your decisions and
redundant stops. Not to disturb players, coaches, teams, spectators in showing
their best result is a huge work either. That’s why there is some draft-quality
work in every profession, which is very important and leads out to the maximal
result. This work is often not observed by everyone. But you can’t get a better
result and required emotions without it. Emotions run our life. Result can be
earned, having emotions by your side besides intension, abilities. Accumulating
those things together and adding emotional background with appropriate
atmosphere we can make our goals come true. We can save an inside desire for
the future work, recognizing some perspective and necessity in it.
Emotions are drive, rush, satisfaction, flight, euphoria, enjoyment,
tremble in your body, happiness and love. Each and every one of us remembers
some moments, which we want to repeat and feel one more time. Emotions
generate our movement, they are like a drug, which we always need and can’t
forget, having once tried it. It’s very important to spend your emotions in the
right way, not burning and devastating yourself. We have to give our emotions
the right direction and frugally spend them in order to feel ourselves
comfortably in life.
FALSE SELF-RATING
A lot of people think that they are better, more deserving, educated,
intelligent and stronger. Why are we giving ourselves and our abilities a higher
rate? The answer lies rather on surface. But actually everything is more
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complicated. Answers and reasons are deep inside us. They are in our brain,
consciousness, behavior, etc.
We have unlearned to correctly rate our abilities and strengths, that’s
where our misfortune and failure come from. Our abilities are inflated mostly
by us ourselves. Sometimes young person is not easy to come to because he
consists of pathos and omniscience aureole. He knows everything and asks not
to interrupt him, while completely consisting of complexes. He can’t behave
himself naturally, ordinarily because the chosen behavior style doesn’t let him
do this. He opens up and converse only with those who can give him additional
bonus, rate, which he depends on. Others are just looked down on. Not much
sincerity is there, so person can’t give himself a real rate. People who can
objectively rate, give an advice, teach but don’t have some strength and power
are not considered there. People from above know and understand more, they
have higher appointment, so they are more intelligent – that’s today’s
philosophy.
But very often reality is not the same. People who work hard and don’t
advertise themselves can give and prompt you a lot more. They see some things
in profile, deeply. They see the insincerity and work with those who really need
their advice. The price of their advice is high. They don’t only just tell the truth
but prompt some weapons and methods to make your work perfect and, of
course, give more attention to your positive moments. The most important thing
is that it would be truly and selflessly. The way to thank them is up to you.
Surprisingly, sometimes it’s enough to just thank them and show some respect.
Sometimes young people corner themselves just by reprobating
themselves for their mistakes. They think they have no dignity, abilities, etc.
Some idea-work should be done with that group of people. Firstly, you need to
inculcate strength and certainty in them. But to do that, young guy has to
believe in you and in his own self. Not once, making some mistakes in the
career and life, they come up with a total aloofness. Pedagogic abilities, tutor’s
desire and everyday training are needed to bring the young guy “back on track”
and give him self-certainty. Only constant, system work can open up the
“passive reserve of certainty” in young guy with a low self-rating. They can
reach high results then, but the right help and backing are needed.
It is very important to understand that up-to-the-minute result, which
youngsters are looking for, is often temporal. For sure, that would be hard to
repeat it. But result, born in labor, collective work, trainings with tutor, gives
assuredness and self-accomplishment feeling for the rightly chosen way and
profession. It brings the honor and estimation to your teachers because they are
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primary for your success. Of course it means the tolerance, labor, sorrow and
work. Up-to-the-minute result is like a scoop in casino. You take it and lose
then. It comes off quickly. Then they can only say, that you WERE perspective
some time ago.
The biggest talent human has is a hard-working talent! Perspectives never
beat work, exertion and labor. It was proved a lot of times. That’s why only
labor gives you the way to success and result. Labor-rate will come itself.
Literature
1. Hartyani Zsolt. Basketball for Everyone. – FIBAEUROPE, 2004.–231 p.
2. Jungebrant С. Profile of the referee 2000. – Finland, 2000. – 45 p.
3. Official basketball rules 2012 including two- person mechanics, three person
mechanics, basketball equipment.–printed by FIBAEUROPE 2012.
4. Richardson A. Basketball referee camp. In conjunction with Millfield
Enterprises, 2002. – 85 p.
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Sites for the referees:
FIBA site
WWW.FIBA.COM
FIBA Europe site
WWW.FIBAEUROPE.COM
Russian Basketball Federation site
WWW.BASKET.RU
Moscow city basketball Federation site
WWW.MOSBASKET.RU
Russian Basketball Federation referee committee official site
WWW.REF.BASKET.RU
Moscow city basketball site
WWW.BASKET3000.RU
Russian basketball referee’s site
WWW.VKBS.SU
Moscow region basketball Federation site
WWW.MOSCOWBASKET.COM
Basketball referee’s information site
WWW.REFEREECLUB.COM
Basketball referee’s uniform and equipment store
WWW.TWOREFS.COM
Moscow region referee’s site
WWW.REFERY.PRO
VTB United League site
WWW.VTB-LEAGUE.COM
Student Basketball Association (ASB) site
WWW.PRO100BASKET.RU
Moscow basketball league site
WWW.MBL.SU
Republic of Belarus Amateur basketball league site
WWW.NBL.BY
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TABLE OF CONTENTS
Game management manual (part I)……………………………………………..3
Game management manual (part II)…………………………………………...48
Psychology in basketball officiating…………………………………………...64
Literature……………………………………………………………………….85
Sites for the referees…………………………………………………………...86
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NOTES
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Fedor Dmitriev
Mihail Grigorev
Ildar Latypov
GAME MANAGEMENT MANUAL
FOR THE BEGINNERS IN
BASKETBALL OFFICIATING
Handbook for basketball referees
Подписано в печать 05.05.2014. Формат 60х84 1/16. Бумага офсетная.
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Copyright ОАО «ЦКБ «БИБКОМ» & ООО «Aгентство Kнига-Cервис»
Fedor Dmitriev (born on June 16,
1971, in Minsk, Belarus). Began to be
occupied in basketball in 1980 in Minsk
city, Belarus, candidate to Master of sport,
played for junior national team of Belarus.
Finished the Belorussian State Academy of
Physical Culture and Sport (Minsk,
Belarus). Referee career began in 1984.
In 1989 became the referee of national
category, since 1997 referee of FIBA.
Officiated the championships of Europe
2003 (Sweden), 2007 (Italy), 2009 (Latvia),
a lot of FIBA tournaments, was Euroleague
ULEB referee during 2001 – 2004.
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