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??? 215
?.а?.а???????*
???????? ??а???????
?ал?????????? ???????╗ ??????? ??????**
????? ?????? ????????? ?? ?????? ???????? ???????????????? ????????? (?????????
??а???????), ??????? ????? ???? ??????? ?а????????? ?а??? ???????????? ?????? XVIII?
XIX ??. ??????????????? ???????? ???????????????? ????????? ?????????? ?а?????????
???????? ?????? ?ал?????????? ???????╗ ?а1692а?. ?????? ???????? ???????? ?????
??а????? ???????????? ????????????? ????????????? ????????? ??????? ?а????????,
?а?????? ???????, ????????? ????????? ?.а????? л???????????? ????????╗ (1800).
?????? ?????? ??? ??????????? ????????? ?а???? ??????? ???? ???????? ?а?????
??????? ????????? XVII ?. ?????????? ?????????????? ???????? ??????. ?????
?????? ?????? ?а??????????????? ????? ????? ????????? ????????????? ???????????
?а??????????? ???????? ?????? ?а??????????? ?????????? ?а?.-?.а????? ?а?.а?????.
???????? ?????: ??????????????, ???????????? ????????, ??????????????? ????????, ???????? ??а???????, ???????? ???????, ????????????, ?????? ?????, ??????
??????.
I.аA.аKoshelev
The Argument from Design in Boyle?s Lectures by Richard Bentley
The article deals with the development of the teleological argument (the argument from
design) by a theologian and a philosopher Richard Bentley at Boyle?s lectures delivered in 1692.
This argument, being one of the most convincing proofs for the intelligent design, is mostly
known due to a famous work Natural Theology by William Paley. But the foundation for the
modern research in the area was laid during the age of the Scientific Revolution of the 17th
century by an Anglo-Irish natural philosopher Robert Boyle and his followers. The author
brings an issue of the continuity between refutation of naturalism by forgotten Bentley and
famous analogies by J.-J.аRousseau and F.аHoyle.
Keywords: philosophy of nature, natural theology, teleological argument, argument
from design, rational design, Christianity, Robert Boyle, Richard Bentley.
* ??????? ????? ?????????????а? ??????? ??????????? ???????????? I ?????????,
??? л????????? ?????? л???????╗, [email protected]
** ?????? ???????? ???а ????????? ????, ????? л?????????? ?а ???????????????
????????????: ??????? ?а?????????????╗, ? 15-03-00211.
??????? ??????? ???????????? ???????????? ????????. 2015. ??? 16. ?????? 4
77
??????-??????????????? ????????, ???????? ??а??????? ??? ??а???????,
?????????????? ????? ?????????? ??а???????????????, ?????????????
?а???????????????? ???? ?а????????????? ?а??????? ????????? ?????????,
????????, ??? ????? ?????? ????????, ????? ??а????? ???????????? ??????????? ????????????? ????, ??? ??????? ???? ???????????????? ??а????????? ?ал??????????????╗ ????: л??? ?????????????? ???????????, ????? ?а???
?????? ????????? ?а?????????. ??? ????? ??????, ????? ????? ?а????????
??????????????? ?????????? ????????????? ?????? ????????. ?? ?????????
?а???????? ???????, ???а?? ??? ?? ??? ???????? ?????? ???? ?????? ?а???????
??? ????? ????. ?? ?????? ???? ?а????????? ????, ??? ???? ?????????? ????
??а??????????а?? ??, ?а????????? ???? ?????? ?а???????, ??????????????
?????? ?????????, ??????? ???????? ????????? ??? ???????. ?а???? ???????
??? ?????? ?????? ??а???? ???????, ?а?????? ??а????????? ??а????, ?а??????? ???? ?а??????? ?????? ???? ??????????? ?????????.
??????? ????а?? ??а?????? ????????, ??а?а?????????? ???????? ????????
??????? ???????? ????? ??????????????╗ [3,а?.а375]. ??а????? ????????, ??? ????
???????? ??????? ???????????? ???????????? ?а????????????? ??????? ??????? ????? ?а??? ?????????? ?????? л???????????? ????????╗ (1800). ?????,
??а????? ?????????? ????????, ??? ?? ??? ?????????? ??? ?а??????????, ????
???????? ??? ????? (??????, ?????? ?а??.) ??а???????????? ??? ????????????
????????????? ?а?????? ?????? ????? ?????, ????????? ????????? ?????
????????????? ?а???????????????? ???????????.
????? ????????, ??? ???????????? л??????╗ ?а???? ??????? ??? ??????
?????????????????? ??????????? ?а?????? ??????а? ????????, ?????????
???????, ??????????, ??????? ?????????? (VIII ?.). ???, ????????? ?ал??????
????????? ???????????? ????╗ ?????: л??? ???? ?????????? ??, ??? ??а????,
?а??? ??а?????, ?а??? [????????] ??а???????, ?а??? [?????] ???а?????, ?а???
?????, ?а????????? ?а????, ???? ?а?????, ?а??????, ?а??????? ??? ????, ???
?а????? ??? ????????? ??? ?а?????????? ??? ??????? ??? ?а???????? ?а??????
???????????? ?а????????????????? ????? ??а???????? ????? ?а??а??? ????????? ?????????, ??а???????? ????????? ?а???? ????? ?????, ?а????????????
??а??? ???????? ?????? ????? ??а???, ??? ?????? ??? ?а?????? ?а?????? ??????
??? ?? ??а????? ?????? ???? ???? ??????. ??? ????? ??????????? ??????
?????????????, ?а????а? ?????????? ???? ??????, ??????????? ?????? ?а???.
????а??а? ?????????? ?а????????? ???????, ????????? ?а???????? ??? ??????? ?????????????? ??????????, ???????, ????? ??????. ??а??? ?????? ???
????, ???? ??а????╗ [2,а?.а35]
???????????, ????? ???????, ???????????? ??????????????? ????????
??????? ????????? ???? ?????????? (??. 1225?1274), ??????? ?????????????
?????????? л???? ?????╗а? ?????????? ?а?????? ????????????? ????. ????????
??а??????? ?а??? ????????????? ???????? ????????? ???????: л????? ????
??????? ??а?????????? ?????. ?а????? ????, ?? ?????, ??? ????, ????????
?????????????? ???????????, ?а?????? ????????? ????, ????????? ???? ????????? ????, ?а??? ???????? ??а????, ??? ??? ?????? ??? ????? ?????? ?????????
????? ?а???а?? ??????? ???, ??? ????????? ?а?????????? ?????????? ??????????. ?????? ????, ??? ??? ????????? ????? ???? ??а????????, ??а??а???????.
78
?????? ??, ?а???? ??? ?????????????? ???????????, ????? ?????????? ?а????
?????? ?а??? ??????, ???? ??? ???????????? ???-??а?????????? ???????
?а?????????, ??? ?????? ???????????? ?а???? ????????. ?????????????,
?????????? ????????? ???????? ????????, ??????? ??? ????????? ????
???????????? ?а????? ????; ?а??? ?? ???????? ?????╗ [6,а?.а27]. ??????????
?аXVIII ????????а? ?а?????, ??????????????? ???????????????? л???????????╗ ????? (??. ????)а? ??? ??????????? ???? ????? ????????????? ???
(?????? ?а???????????? ?ал??????-??????????? ??????????╗): ???? ??????????
?????? ??? ??а?а????????, ?а?а????????? (??. ????а?? ??????????? ????????),
??????????? ??????? ?????????? ???? ?а???????????? ??а?????? ???????
???????? ?а??? ??????????????.
??????????? ????? ????????? ?????? ????? ?????? ??а??????? ?????
????? ????????? ?а????? ???????????, ???????? ?????????????? ???????????? ??? ??????? ????, ??????? ?а????????? ???????? ???????????????.
?????? ????? ??а????? ?????????? ???????????????? ?????????а? ?а????????
?????????? ???????? ?а??????????????а? ?а????????? ????????? ?????????.
?а???? ??????? ????????? XVII ?. ???????? ?? ??????????????? ???????
????, ?а??????? ????????? ??????????? ??? ?а???????? ?????????? ?????????, ?а??? ????????, ??????? ?а??, ??????? ?????????? ?а????? ??????????,
????????? ????????????? ?а????????????? ???????????. ?????? ??? ??а????
??????????????? ??????????? ??а??? ???????? ??а?????????? ????????
????? ????????, ??а????????? ???????? ??????? ????? ??????. ????? ??а???
??????? ????????? ???????? ??а???????, ?????????? ??????????? ????????
??? ?????????? ???????????? ?а???????? ?????? ????? (1627?1691), ?????????? ?а???, ??? ??????????????? ????????? ???????? ????????? ???????.
??? ??????????? ????? ????????????????? ??? ??????? ????? ?????????????, ?????? ?????, ?а??????? ?????-????????, ?????????? ??? ??а?????????
????? ??????. ??, ??? ?????????? ???????? ?????, ????? ?а????? ??? ?????????????, ??????? ????????????? ??????????? ????? ??? ???????????????
??????? ??????????, ?а????? ?????????? ???????? ??????? ?а??????? ??????
?????????????? ?????? ???????? ????????. ??????, ??а???????? ????????,
?????? ????? ?а??? ?а?????? ??????????? ????????????? ??? ????, ??? ?????
????? ??? ????????? ??????????, ??????? ????????????? ???????????????
???????????? ????, ??????? ?????? ??????? ??а???????? ?????? ?а????????????? ????????????. ??а????????? ??????? ???? ??????? ???????????? ?????
??????????? ??а????????? ???????? ?а????????????? ???????????, ????
??а??????? ??????? ?????????? ?а?????????????? ???????, ?а????? ???????,
??????????? ??????? ?????а? ???????????, ?а?????????? ?ал????????????╗
????? ?????? ?а????? ?????. ?а???????????? ??? ??????????-????????????
?????? ?а???????? ??а??????? ????а? л??????????? ??а????? ?????????????
??????????╗а? ???? ???????????? ???? ?а2013а?. [??. 1]
?????? ????? (??? ?а?????? ?????? ?а??? ????????? ??а[5]) ??????? 25а?????? 1627а?. ?а???????? ????????? ?а????????. ?? ??? ???????, ???????
????? ?а????????????? ???????? ?а????? ??????? ?????, ????? ?????????а?
?????? ??а?????????????? ?а?????????? ?????????? ????????????. ???????
????????? ??????????? ?а???????? ????????, ?а????? ???? ???а????????????
79
??????????, ??????, ?????? ?а?????? ????????? ?а???????????, ??????????
??? ??????????? ??????????? ??а??????????? ?????????, ??? ??а????? ?????? ?????????? ?а?????? ??????? ????????? ??а?????????? ?????????????
?а????????? ????. ????? ??????????? ?а???????? ????? ??????? ?????????
???????-???????????? ?????????, ?а?а1654а?., ????????????? ?а???????, ???????
?????????????????? ?????????????? ?а??????? ?????? ?а?????. ??а??????
??????????? ???????? ????? ??????? (1777?1859) [11,аp.а322], ????? ????? ??????
??а???? ??????????, ?????? ?аXVII ?., ??а???????? ????? ??????? ?????????
?а??????? ????????????????? ?????????, ??? ?????? ?????.
??? ??????? ??????????????? ??????? ????? ????а? ????????????
?????? ????? ???????? ??? ????????. л??? ????? ????? ?а???????? ?????????
????????? ???? ?????╗,а? ?????????? ???????? ???????????? ??????? ????? ????? ?????? [14,аp.а254]. ??а?????? ??????? ????? [18,аp.а189], ??????
??????????? ?????????? ???????? ??????? ?а??????? ???? ???? ??а????????
??????? ??? ???????????????? ????????????.
?????????????? ??????? ?а????????, ?.а?.а??????????????? ?????????????? ????????????? ????, ????? ?????? ???????? ?????????? ????????????
????????. ?????? ????? ?а????????? ???? ??а??? ????????? ?????а? л???????
?а???????? ???????? ???????????? ?????, ?а??????? ???????????, ?а??????
????????????????? ???????????? ?????? (?а??????а?? ??????) ??а????????╗
(лA Disquisition about the Final Causes of Natural Things Wherein It Is Inquir?d,
Whether, and (If at All) with What Cautions a Naturalist Should Admit Them?╗),
?????????? ?а1677а?., ?а?????????????? ?а1688а?., ??а??? ???? ??а?????? ??????. ??а?????? ?.а????????, ???????????? ???? ???????? ?????????????
????????????? ??????? ??????? ????? ???? ??????, ?????????????? ?аXVII
?а[20,аp.а177].
?????? ?а????????????? ???????? ?????? ????? ??????? ?????? ??????: ???? ??????? ??????????, ??, ??????????? ???, ?? ??а?????? ????????
??????????? ?????? ?????????? ?????, ??а?а??????? ????????? ?????????????? ??а????????? ?а??????. ????? ??????????? ??????, ?а????? ???????,
???????????, ????????????, ??? ??? ?????? ????????? ?????? ?,а?????????????, ?а????? ??а????? ???? ??а??????, ??а????? (?????? ????? ??????
????? ?????? ??а??????? ????????????? ????????), ?,а?а?????? ???????,
????????????, ?????????, ??? ???????? ???????, ???? ?а????? ?????, ??а?????????? ????????????? ?????????. ?? ???????, ??? ??????????, ????????
?????????? ???, ????????, ??? ??? ???????????? ??????????????? ?а???????
??????? ?а????. ?а???????? ??????? ????? ???????? ???? ???????? (?а?????????), ????????????????? ?????? ??????? ?,а????????, ???????????????
??? ????, ????? ???? ??????? ??????, ?а??????? ????? ?????? ?????????????
?????????? ??????, ?????? ??????.
????? ????? ???????????? ???? ??????????, ??????? ????????? ??а????
????????. ????? ??а???????????? ???????? ?????? ????? ??????? ?????????????? ??а????????? ?а????, ??????? ?????? ???? ??? ??? ????? ?????.
л?????????? ?????, ??????? ????? ???????? ???????????? ????? ??????
(??.а18:1), ????????? ????? ??????? ??? ????? ?а?????????????? ??а?? ?????,
??????? ?? ????? ??? ????????╗ [7,аp.а403].
80
??? ??? ???? ????????, ?????? ????? ???????? ???????? ????????? ????????????? ??????? ??????? ??а?????? ?????? ?????????. ????? ??????????
???????? ???????????????? ?????????????? ????????????? ????: ???????
????????? ??????? ?,а??????????????, ??????, ??????????????? ?а??????????
?????????? ?а???????????? ??????????? ????, ???, ??а?????? ?????, ???????? ???????????? ?????? ?????????????.
?????, ?????????????? ???????????? ?????????, ??????? ????? ???????
??а??? ???????? ????????? ????? ?а50 ?????? ?????????? ??? ?????????????? ????????? ?????? ?а?????????? ?а?????? ???????????? ???? (????????
??? л?????????? ??????╗), ??????? ???????????? ?а?????????? ??а??????
???????? ???? ?а????? ????????????? ?а2004а?. ?????? ?????????????
??????????? ?????? ????? ??????????? ?????? ??????? ??????? ??????
(1662?1742), ???????? ?а??????? ???????, ???????? ????? ???????-????????
?а???????????? ????????????.
?????? ?????? ??????? 27а?????? 1662а?. ?а???????, ???????? ????????
???????, ?????? ?а?????????????? ????? ?а?????????, ?а?????а? ?а???????????? ????????????. ?а1690а?. ?????? ??? ??????????? ?а???????, ?а?????
??? ????а? ?а??????????. ?а1693а?. ?? ??? ???????? ?????????? ???????????
??????????, ?а?а1700а?., ????? ??? ????? ????, ??? ???? ???????? ??????????,
????????? ???????-???????. ?а?????????? ???????? ????????????????, ??????????? ??? ????????????????? ?????????, ?а1718а?. ?????? ??????? ??????
?????? ?,а???? ????? ????? ??? ??? ???? ?????????????, ??а??????? ??а????
?а???????? ???????? ???????????? ??? ?????? ?????а? ?а????? ?????????
????? ???????? ??? [??. 16].
??? ??????? ?а?????? ??????????, ?????? ???? ????????????? ?????????
????? ?????? лEpistola ad Joannum Millium╗ (1691); ????? ?? ??? ???????? ?а???
???????? ????????????, ??? ????????? ???? ?????????? ??а?????? ?????.
??а????????? ?????????????? ??????????????????? ??????????????, ??????
???????? ????????????? ????????????? ????? ?,а?а?????????, ??????? ??????????????? ???????????? ?а????????? [8,аp.а176].
???? ????????? ????????????, ??? ??а????? ??????? ??????? ??? ???????? ????? ??????, ?а???????? ?????? ????????? ??а??????? [4,а?.а98]
(?????? ??а???????????? л?????????????? ?????? ??????????? ?????????╗
(лPhilosophiц Naturalis Principia Mathematica╗), ?????????????? ??а??????
????? ???? ??а???? ??? ??а?????? ?????? ??????, ???? ????? ??а???????? ???????? ?? ????????????). ?а???????? ??а????????? ?????? ??????? ??????
???????, ???????? ???????? ???????????? ?????? ???????????? ???? ?????
?,а?????? ?????, ??????, ???????? ????????????? ????????????? ??????????
????????????? ????????? ??????? [15]. ????? ????, ?????? ???????, ??? ?????????? ???????????? ??????????????? ?а??????? ???????, ?????? ??????????
???????? ?а???????? [10,аp.а317]. ?,а??? ??а?????, ?????? ?а??????? ????????
??????????? ?????? ???????? ??а?????????? ????? ?????????. ??????а??,
???????? ?????? ????????????????, ??????? ???? ?????????? ?а???? ??????????????? ????? [12,аp.а102].
?????? ???????? ?????? ??????-?????????? ?а????????????? ??????? ?а?????? ?а7а????? ??а5а??????? 1692а?., ??????? ???? ?????? ????? ???
81
???? ???а????????? л???????? ?а???????????????? ???????╗ (лThe Folly and
Unreasonableness of Atheism╗). ??а????? ???????? ????? ????????? ?????? ???????. ???? ??????, ??? ???????, ??а???????? ?а????? ?????????? ??????????
????, ????????????? ?? ?????? ?????????????? ?а????, ?а?????? ???????,
?а ?????????? ?????????-????????????? ??????? ??????? (1588?1679)
[8,аp.а177].
?????????? ??? ?а?????????, ??? ?а???????????? ??? ??????????????, ?????? ?????????? ???????????????? ?????????. ??????, ??а??????
?????????? ?????, ?????? ???????????, ??????????? ?????????? ????????
?а?????????????? XVII?XVIII ??., ??????????? ??? ????????????? ??????
???? ????????????? ??ал???????????? ????????????╗ ?????? [16,аp.а128]
(л????????????? ???????????╗ ?????? ???????? ??????? ?а??????? ?????????, ??????????? ??а????? ???????), ????????? ???????????? ????? ???????????????? ????????????,
?????? ????????? ?????? л???????? ??????? ?а????, ??? ?????????? ??????? ?а????????? ?а????????? ?????╗ ???????????, ?а????????, ???? ???????
?а???????? ?а??????????? ????????? ?????????????? ??????????????? ???
???????????? ?а??????. ?????? ?????????, ????????????? л??????? ?а???????? ??а????? ??????, ??? ???????????? ???????, ????????? ??а????????????
????╗, ???? ????????? ??????? ????????????. ????????? ?а??????? ??а?????
????????? ????????? ??а??????? ??а???????? ???????? ????????????? ????,
?а????????? ???, ???а????? ????????? л???????????? ??????? ??а????????????? ?а?????????? ????╗а? ???? ?????????. ????? ???????, ???????????????
???? ????????? ??а????????????? ??????? ???? ????????? ????? ??????????
??????, ??????? ??????? ????? ????????? ??а??? ??????.
?????? ?????? ?????????? ?????? ???????? ?а???????????? ??????????? ???????? ?а???, ???, ????????? ?а????? ??????????? ?????????? ???????
?а????, ??а??? ?????????????? ?????? ??? ?????????????. ????? ???????,
??а??????????? ??????? ???????? ?????????? ?а?????? ?????? ???? [9,аp.а23].
??а??? ?????? ????????: ??? ??? ???????? ???????????? ???? ?а?????, ?а?????
??????? ?????, ????????? ??????? ??? ??????????? ??? ?????. ????? ????,
?????????? ?????? ?а???? ???????а?? ???? ?а???? ?????????? ???????????
?а??????а?? ?? ?????? ????????????????, ?а????????а? ??????? ????.
????? ?????? ?????????? ???????? ???? ??????????? ????? ?????????
?а??????????? [9,аp.а24]. ?а??, ?а?????? ????????, ??? ???? ???????? ?а???????? ????????????? ??? ????????? ???????, ?????? ????????? ????? ?а????
????????????? ?а???????? ??????? ?а?????? ??????, ???????а??а? ??????
??????. ?????? ???????? ??а??а?????????? ?????? ????????? ???????.
??????? ??????????, ??? ???? ???????? ??а???????? ????????? ????????? ???????, ????????? ?????? ?а????? ???????? ?а???????? ???????а?? ???
??????? ??????????? ??????, ?????? ???? ???, ??а??????? ????, ?????а??
??а??а????????????. ?????? ??????? ??а?а????????? ????????, ??? ??????
??????? ?????? ?????????? ?а??? ???? ???????? ??а?????. ???а?? ????????
???????? ??? ??????, ??????? ???????, ??? ?????????? ?????????, ?????????
??? ????????? ??? ??а?????????????, ?а????????? ?????? ??? ????а?? ??а??????????????, ?а??????????.
82
?????? ??????????, ?????????? ????, ????????? ?а??????, ???????????
????? ?????????? ????????????, ????????? ??????? ??? ??????? ???????????
?????? ?а???????? ?????????????, ?а?????? ??? ??? ??? ?????? ????????
????, ???????? ???????, ?а??????а? ??? ????? ??????? ???? ?а???? [9,аp.а26].
?????? ???????? ??а???? ???????? ?????: л?а?? ???, ???????, ??? ??????? ?а?????? ??????? ??????а?? ?????????? ???: л????? ?? ???? ??? ???????╗
(???а9:а20). ???????????? ????????? ?????????????? ?а?????? ????? ???
????????????? ????????????, ????? ???????? ?а??? ????? ?????? ?а???????.
??? ????????? ???????? ???????? ??а????? ???????, ??? ??? ???????, ???
?? ?????, ??? ???? ???????? ????????? ?????? ??? ?а???????? ?????, ?????? ?????????? ???????? ?а????????????, ????? ???????? ????????, ???????
????????а?? ???????? ????. ??????? ?а????????? ?????????? ???, ??? ????
????????? ???????. ????? ????, ??????? ??? ???????? ?????????? ?????а??
???????????????. ???а?? ???????? ????????? ?????, ??а??????? ??? ?????
??????????а?? ??а???, ???? ????а?? ?? ???? ??а????? ??? ??????, ??? ????
?????? ???а? ??? ????? ??а????????? ?а?????????, ??????? ?????? ??? ??????
?а??????? ???? ?????????: л??? ???????? ???? ???????? ???????? ?а????????,
?а????????? ???? ???????? ?а??????????╗ (1 ???а15:а53).
???????, ??? ?????????? ??????, ???? ??????? ??а??????????? ???? ?а?????? ?а??????? ?а????????????? ????????. ???? ???????, ??? ?? ???????????
?????, ??????а? ??? ?а???? ???? ??????. ?????????, ?а???? ???????, ?????
??а????? ??????????? ????? ????? ???????????? ????, ??? ????????? ?????
?????? ???а?? ???? ????? ?????? ??????. ??????а?? ???????? ??, ??? ???????????????? ?????????? ?????? ?????????, ??а?????????????? ???????????,
??а?????????????? ????????? ????????, ?????? ??а????? ????? ????? (?.а34)
?,а?а????а??, ????????????? ?????????????? [9,аp.а39]. л????? ???????,а? ????????? ??????,а? ?? ??????????? ??????????????????, ??? ??? ???? ?????
???????, ?????? ????????? ????????? ?а???? ????? ?а???? ????????? ????
????? ?????? ??????? ?а????????????? ????????????? ???????????????????
????????╗ [9,аp.а41].
?????? ?????? ?????????? ?????: ??? ?????????? л??????╗, ??а??? ??????,а? ???? ???? ?????? ???????????; ?????? ?а???, ??? ????? ?????????
????????, ?? ???? ??? ????? ??????????? ?????? ??, ??? ????? ???а?????
???????? ???????, ??????? ?? ?????? ?????????? ??? ????????а? ?????
???а??, ??? ?????? ???????, ?????????? ??? ?????? ??? ??????? [9,аp.а44].
?????? ??????? ????????? ????????????? ???????? ???????????? ??а?????
???? ???????? ??????? ??а???????????? ????????? ??????: ????? ???а?? ????? ????а?? ????????? ??????????? ?????????? ????????? ?????? л??????╗
???????? ??а???????????? ?????? ???? ???????? [9,аp.а49].
?????? ?????? ??????????, ?????????? ???????????? ????????? ??????? ??а?????????, ?????? ????? ???????? ?а??????? ?????????? ????????.
??-??????, ?? ???????????? ????????????? ????????????? ?????, ??????
?а?????? ?????? ?????: ???? ?а????????? ??????????? ??????? ??????? ?а???????, ??а??????????? ??а?????????? ????????? ????? ??а??????? ????????:
????????????? ??а????? ???? ?????????? ?а??????? [9,аp.а58]. ?????, ?? ????????? ????????, ??????? ??????????, ??? ??? ?????? ???????????? ?????
83
??????, ??? ??а??? ???? ???????? ??а??????. ???? ????????? ????? ???????
???????, ??а???????, ?????????? ??????, ?????????? ?????: ????? ??а?????
???????? ????? ??а?????? ????, ??????? ??а????????? ???? ??а???? ??а???????
[9,аp.а4961]. ?????? ????????? ??а??????????, ??? ??? ??а?????? ??? ??????
?????а? ?? ??? ?????? ?????? ?а?????????? ?????-???????, ???????
?а???????? ???????? ?????.
?а???? ????????? ??????? ?????? ??а??????????? ????????????? ????????,
??а?????? ??????????????? ???? ???????, ?????????? ?аPrincipia. ????????
?????? ??? ???? ???????? ???? ?????????? [9,аp.а64], ??????? ?? ??????? ????????? ????????? ???? ?????????? ???.
?????? ??а????, ??? ??????? ????? ?????????а? ??? ???????, ?????? ??????
?????, ??? ????, ??а????????, ??? ?????????? ???????, ?а?????????? ???????????
???????? ???????? ???????? ????, ???????????а?? ????? ????????? ?????????? ??????, ??????????? ???? ??а????? ??а????? ???????????? ??????????,
??? ??а???????????? ????????????, ?????????????? ???????? ???????? ????,
????а?? ????????? ???????????. ?????? ??????????, ??? ???????? ?????????? ??? ??а???????? ???-??а?????????? ?а?????????? ???????????? ???????
[9,аp.а68], ?а????? ???? ???????? ?? ???? ?????. ?а???? ???? ?????????, ???
????????? ??????? ?????????? ?а???????? (??? ???? ??? ??????? ?????????),
??а???????????? ????а?? ??????? ????? ?????????, ?????? ???????????? ????
???????? ??? ???? ?а??? ???????, ?????????? ?а????? ??? ?????????????
?????? ??? ????? ?????? ???? ??а?????.
????????????? ?????????, ???? ???????? ???, ???????????? ????????
??????????, ?а??а???????? ??а??????? ???????? ???? ????????? ????????????????? ??????????? ?????. ?а???, ??а?????? ??????, ???????? ?????????
?????????? ?а?????? ????????????? ????????? ??????.
????? ???а??, ??? ?а?????, ??????? ?а????? ???????? ?а???????? ????????
???????? ?????????????? ??????????? ?а???, ??? ??? ???????? ???? ????
??????? ????????????? ??? ????? ???????? [7,аp.а420], ?????? ???????, ???
?а??? ????? ???? ?????????? ???? ??????????????, ?????? ??????? ????????
???????????? ????? ???????? [9,аp.а76]. ?? ?????????, ??? ??а?????? ????????
????? ????? ???? ???????? ?????????, ??? ?а??а?????.
?????? ?????????? ?а??????? ??????, ??????? ???? ?а?????, ??? ???????
??а????? ????? ????а?? ??????????. ??? ??????? ?????? ??? ????, ?????
??? ??а????? ??????? ????? ??а?????????? ??а???? ????????? ??????, ???????
????????? ?????? ????. ?????а?? ??????????? ??а???? ??а????? ???????????
??????????: ????а?? ??? ???? ?????, ??? ????????, ??а???? ?а??????? ????????а?? ?а??????????, ?а??? ????? ???????а??, ??? ?а??????????? ????; ????а??
?????????? ??а?????? ??а?????????? ???????, ??а???а?? ??а??? ????????,
?а????? ????? ????а?? ??????????. ??? ???, ??? ?а???????? ????? ??????
????? ???, ????????? ???? ???? ????????? ?????, ???? ???????? ??????????????
???????? ??????? ?а??????? ?????? [9,аp.а77?79].
?а?????????? ????? ?????????? ?????? ?????? ?????: ??? ????????????
??????????????? ??а???????????? ??????? ??????, ??????? ??а????? ????
????? ????, ??? ?????? ?а?????????? ?????, ??????? л???????????? ??????? ?????, ?????? ???????? ???????╗ (????. 3:19).
84
??? ????? ?.а?.а????-?????, л????????? ?????? ????? ??????????? ?????
?а??????? ??????? ???? ??а??????? ????????╗ [4,а?.а98], ??? ??????????????
???????, ??????????? ????????? ??????а??. ??????: л?????, ?а???????
?????? ????????? ???????????? ????????, ??????????? ??а?????? ?а????????????? ??а???????????, ??????? ??а??? ?????????? ??а??? ??????? ????????
?????????╗ [17,аp.а39]. ????????? ???????????? ?????? ???? ??????????????
?а??????????? ????????. ???, ??????????? ??????? ?а????????? ????? ??????????? ???-??? ????? (1712?1778) ?а??????? л??????????? ???? ??????????
???????╗ (1762) ?????? ??????????????? ???????????? л?????, ??? ?а??????????╗ ????? ???????? ????????? ????? ?????? ?а????????????? ??????????
????????? ?????? л??????╗ ???????? ??а???????????? ?????? ???? ????????:
л????а?? ???-?????? ??? ??????, ??? ????????? ?????? ???????????? ??????
???? ????? ?????????а?? ?а?????? ????? ????????, ?а??а??????а?? ??а????,
????? ??? ?????????╗ [19,аp.а573]. ?а????? ?а???? ????????? ??????: ??а???а??
????? ???????????? ?а?????? ??? ????????????? ??а??????????? ??????????
??? ????, ?????? ?????????? ???????? ????????? ??? ?аXX ?. ?а???????????
??????????? ????? ????? (1915?2001), ??????????? ??????????? ?????????? ?????????? ????? ?а????? ???????????, ?????????????? ?ал?????-747╗
?а?????????? ??????????? ????? [13,аp.а105].
????? ???????, ??? ????????? ??????, ??????????? ??а?????? XVII ?.,
??????? ??а?????? ????????????, ??а?а???????????? ??????????? ??????
??????????????? ????????? ?????????? ?????????????? ????? ???????
?????????, ??????? ???????? ??????, ???????? ?????????? ????????? ???
??????????????? ???????????? ??????????? ???? ????????.
? ? ? ? ??? ? ??
1. ?????????а?.а?????? ?????. ??????????? ??а????? ????????????? ??????????
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