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Математическое моделирование формирования ночных повышений электронной концентрации в F2-области спокойной среднеширотной ионосферы и в плазмосфере Земли.

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Ʉɧɹɡɟɜɚ Ɇ.Ⱥ., ɇɚɦɝɚɥɚɞɡɟ Ⱥ.Ⱥ. Ɇɚɬɟɦɚɬɢɱɟɫɤɨɟ ɦɨɞɟɥɢɪɨɜɚɧɢɟ ɮɨɪɦɢɪɨɜɚɧɢɹ…
Ɇɚɬɟɦɚɬɢɱɟɫɤɨɟ ɦɨɞɟɥɢɪɨɜɚɧɢɟ ɮɨɪɦɢɪɨɜɚɧɢɹ ɧɨɱɧɵɯ
ɩɨɜɵɲɟɧɢɣ ɷɥɟɤɬɪɨɧɧɨɣ ɤɨɧɰɟɧɬɪɚɰɢɢ ɜ F2-ɨɛɥɚɫɬɢ
ɫɩɨɤɨɣɧɨɣ ɫɪɟɞɧɟɲɢɪɨɬɧɨɣ ɢɨɧɨɫɮɟɪɵ ɢ ɜ ɩɥɚɡɦɨɫɮɟɪɟ Ɂɟɦɥɢ
Ɇ.Ⱥ. Ʉɧɹɡɟɜɚ, Ⱥ.Ⱥ. ɇɚɦɝɚɥɚɞɡɟ
ɉɨɥɢɬɟɯɧɢɱɟɫɤɢɣ ɮɚɤɭɥɶɬɟɬ ɆȽɌɍ, ɤɚɮɟɞɪɚ ɮɢɡɢɤɢ
Ⱥɧɧɨɬɚɰɢɹ. ɋ ɩɨɦɨɳɶɸ ɝɥɨɛɚɥɶɧɨɣ ɱɢɫɥɟɧɧɨɣ ɦɨɞɟɥɢ ɜɟɪɯɧɟɣ ɚɬɦɨɫɮɟɪɵ Ɂɟɦɥɢ ɢɫɫɥɟɞɨɜɚɧɚ
ɨɬɧɨɫɢɬɟɥɶɧɚɹ ɪɨɥɶ ɬɟɪɦɨɫɮɟɪɧɨɝɨ ɜɟɬɪɚ ɢ ɷɥɟɤɬɪɨɦɚɝɧɢɬɧɨɝɨ ɞɪɟɣɮɚ ɜ ɮɨɪɦɢɪɨɜɚɧɢɢ ɧɨɱɧɵɯ
ɫɪɟɞɧɟɲɢɪɨɬɧɵɯ ɦɚɤɫɢɦɭɦɨɜ ɷɥɟɤɬɪɨɧɧɨɣ ɤɨɧɰɟɧɬɪɚɰɢɢ ɜ ɫɩɨɤɨɣɧɨɣ ɫɪɟɞɧɟɲɢɪɨɬɧɨɣ F2-ɨɛɥɚɫɬɢ ɢ ɜ
ɩɥɚɡɦɨɫɮɟɪɟ Ɂɟɦɥɢ. ɉɨɤɚɡɚɧɨ, ɱɬɨ ɬɟɪɦɨɫɮɟɪɧɵɣ ɜɟɬɟɪ ɨɬɜɟɱɚɟɬ ɡɚ ɜɨɡɧɢɤɧɨɜɟɧɢɟ ɷɬɢɯ ɦɚɤɫɢɦɭɦɨɜ, ɚ
ɷɥɟɤɬɪɨɦɚɝɧɢɬɧɵɣ ɞɪɟɣɮ ɜɥɢɹɟɬ ɧɚ ɮɨɪɦɭ ɢ ɲɢɪɨɬɧɨɟ ɩɨɥɨɠɟɧɢɟ ɜɵɫɨɤɨɲɢɪɨɬɧɵɯ ɫɬɟɧɨɤ ɨɛɥɚɫɬɟɣ
ɩɨɜɵɲɟɧɧɨɣ ɷɥɟɤɬɪɨɧɧɨɣ ɤɨɧɰɟɧɬɪɚɰɢɢ, ɤɨɬɨɪɨɟ ɡɚɜɢɫɢɬ ɨɬ ɜɟɥɢɱɢɧɵ ɫɤɨɪɨɫɬɢ ɷɥɟɤɬɪɨɦɚɝɧɢɬɧɨɝɨ
ɞɪɟɣɮɚ. ɍɫɬɚɧɨɜɥɟɧɨ, ɱɬɨ ɜ ɲɢɪɨɬɧɨɦ ɩɨɥɨɠɟɧɢɢ, ɮɨɪɦɟ ɢ ɫɬɪɭɤɬɭɪɟ ɷɬɢɯ ɨɛɥɚɫɬɟɣ ɩɪɨɹɜɥɹɸɬɫɹ
ɡɚɦɟɬɧɵɟ UT- ɢ MLT-ɷɮɮɟɤɬɵ: ɫɪɟɞɧɟɲɢɪɨɬɧɵɟ ɧɨɱɧɵɟ ɦɚɤɫɢɦɭɦɵ ɱɟɬɱɟ ɜɢɞɧɵ ɜ ɫɟɜɟɪɧɨɦ ɩɨɥɭɲɚɪɢɢ
ɜɛɥɢɡɢ ɦɨɦɟɧɬɚ 00:00 UT ɢ ɜ ɸɠɧɨɦ – ɜɛɥɢɡɢ 18:00 UT, ɩɪɢ ɩɟɪɟɯɨɞɟ ɨɬ ɜɟɱɟɪɧɢɯ ɱɚɫɨɜ ɤ
ɩɨɫɥɟɩɨɥɭɧɨɱɧɵɦ ɷɬɢ ɦɚɤɫɢɦɭɦɵ ɫɦɟɳɚɸɬɫɹ ɧɚ ɛɨɥɟɟ ɧɢɡɤɢɟ ɲɢɪɨɬɵ.
Abstract. The relative role of the thermospheric wind and electromagnetic drift in forming the night middlelatitude maxima of the electron density has been investigated for the quiet geomagnetic conditions by using the
global numerical upper atmosphere model (UAM). It has been shown that the thermospheric wind creates these
maxima, and the electromagnetic drift influences on the form and latitude location of the high-latitude side of the
higher electron density regions, the latter depends on the value of the electromagnetic drift velocity. It has been
found that appreciable UT- and MLT-effects become apparent in the latitudinal location, form and structure of
these regions. The night middle-latitude maxima are clearly seen in the Northern Hemisphere near 00:00 UT and
in the Southern Hemisphere – near 18:00 UT. The maxima are shifted to the more low latitudes when getting
from the evening hours to the postmidnight ones.
1. ȼɜɟɞɟɧɢɟ
ȼɟɪɯɧɹɹ ɝɪɚɧɢɰɚ ɯɨɥɨɞɧɨɣ ɩɥɚɡɦɟɧɧɨɣ ɨɛɨɥɨɱɤɢ Ɂɟɦɥɢ – ɩɥɚɡɦɨɩɚɭɡɚ – ɛɵɥɚ ɨɛɧɚɪɭɠɟɧɚ ɜɨ
ɜɪɟɦɹ ɩɪɹɦɵɯ ɢɡɦɟɪɟɧɢɣ ɢɨɧɧɨɣ ɤɨɦɩɨɧɟɧɬɵ ɩɥɚɡɦɵ ɧɚ ɬɪɚɫɫɟ Ɂɟɦɥɹ-Ʌɭɧɚ ɫ ɩɨɦɨɳɶɸ ɢɨɧɧɵɯ ɥɨɜɭɲɟɤ,
ɭɫɬɚɧɨɜɥɟɧɧɵɯ ɧɚ ɩɟɪɜɵɯ ɥɭɧɧɵɯ ɪɚɤɟɬɚɯ ɜ 1959 ɝ. (Ƚɪɢɧɝɚɭɡ ɢ ɞɪ., 1960; Gringauz, 1963) ɢ, ɧɟɡɚɜɢɫɢɦɨ,
ɩɪɢ ɢɧɬɟɪɩɪɟɬɚɰɢɢ ɪɟɡɭɥɶɬɚɬɨɜ ɧɚɡɟɦɧɵɯ ɧɚɛɥɸɞɟɧɢɣ ɫɜɢɫɬɹɳɢɯ ɚɬɦɨɫɮɟɪɢɤɨɜ ɜ 1963 ɝ. (Carpenter, 1963).
ȼ ɨɛɨɢɯ ɢɫɫɥɟɞɨɜɚɧɢɹɯ ɮɢɤɫɢɪɨɜɚɥɫɹ ɪɟɡɤɢɣ ɫɩɚɞ ɤɨɧɰɟɧɬɪɚɰɢɣ ɯɨɥɨɞɧɨɣ ɩɥɚɡɦɵ ɧɚ ɝɟɨɰɟɧɬɪɢɱɟɫɤɢɯ
ɪɚɫɫɬɨɹɧɢɹɯ ɩɨɪɹɞɤɚ 4RE (RE – ɫɪɟɞɧɢɣ ɡɟɦɧɨɣ ɪɚɞɢɭɫ).
Ɉɛɥɚɫɬɶ ɚɬɦɨɫɮɟɪɵ Ɂɟɦɥɢ ɨɬ ɜɵɫɨɬ ~1000 ɤɦ ɞɨ
ɩɥɚɡɦɨɩɚɭɡɵ, ɩɪɢ ɩɟɪɟɯɨɞɟ ɱɟɪɟɡ ɤɨɬɨɪɭɸ ɤɨɧɰɟɧɬɪɚɰɢɹ
ɡɚɪɹɠɟɧɧɵɯ ɱɚɫɬɢɰ ɩɚɞɚɟɬ ɛɨɥɟɟ ɱɟɦ ɧɚ ɩɨɪɹɞɨɤ ɜɟɥɢɱɢɧɵ,
ɧɚɡɵɜɚɟɬɫɹ ɩɥɚɡɦɨɫɮɟɪɨɣ.
ɋɢɥɨɜɵɟ ɥɢɧɢɢ ɝɟɨɦɚɝɧɢɬɧɨɝɨ ɩɨɥɹ ɜ ɩɥɚɡɦɨɫɮɟɪɟ
ɡɚɦɤɧɭɬɵ ɢ, ɩɪɚɤɬɢɱɟɫɤɢ, ɞɢɩɨɥɶɧɵ (ɪɢɫ. 1). ȼɵɫɨɬɧɵɟ
ɩɨɥɨɠɟɧɢɹ ɧɢɠɧɟɣ ɝɪɚɧɢɰɵ ɩɥɚɡɦɨɫɮɟɪɵ ɢ ɩɥɚɡɦɨɩɚɭɡɵ ɢ
ɮɨɪɦɚ ɩɥɚɡɦɨɩɚɭɡɵ ɡɚɜɢɫɹɬ ɨɬ ɝɟɨɮɢɡɢɱɟɫɤɢɯ ɭɫɥɨɜɢɣ.
ɉɥɚɡɦɨɫɮɟɪɚ ɫɨɞɟɪɠɢɬ ɢɨɧɵ ɢɨɧɨɫɮɟɪɧɨɝɨ
ɩɪɨɢɫɯɨɠɞɟɧɢɹ: ɝɥɚɜɧɵɦ ɨɛɪɚɡɨɦ ɢɨɧɵ ɜɨɞɨɪɨɞɚ ɫ
ɧɟɛɨɥɶɲɨɣ ɞɨɛɚɜɤɨɣ ɢɨɧɨɜ ɨɞɧɨɤɪɚɬɧɨ ɢɨɧɢɡɨɜɚɧɧɨɝɨ
ɝɟɥɢɹ (ɧɟɫɤɨɥɶɤɨ ɩɪɨɰɟɧɬɨɜ ɨɬ ɤɨɧɰɟɧɬɪɚɰɢɢ ɩɪɨɬɨɧɨɜ). ɇɚ
ɞɧɟɜɧɨɣ
ɫɬɨɪɨɧɟ
ɩɨɞ
ɞɟɣɫɬɜɢɟɦ
ɢɨɧɢɡɢɪɭɸɳɟɝɨ
ɫɨɥɧɟɱɧɨɝɨ ɢɡɥɭɱɟɧɢɹ ɜɨɡɪɚɫɬɚɟɬ ɤɨɧɰɟɧɬɪɚɰɢɹ ɩɥɚɡɦɵ ɜ
ɢɨɧɨɫɮɟɪɟ, ɱɬɨ ɩɪɢɜɨɞɢɬ ɤ ɜɨɡɧɢɤɧɨɜɟɧɢɸ ɝɪɚɞɢɟɧɬɚ
ɞɚɜɥɟɧɢɹ ɩɥɚɡɦɵ, ɧɚɩɪɚɜɥɟɧɧɨɝɨ ɜɧɢɡ, ɱɬɨ, ɜ ɫɜɨɸ ɨɱɟɪɟɞɶ,
ɹɜɥɹɟɬɫɹ ɩɪɢɱɢɧɨɣ ɞɢɮɮɭɡɢɢ ɩɥɚɡɦɵ, ɧɚɩɪɚɜɥɟɧɧɨɣ ɩɨ
ɫɢɥɨɜɵɦ ɥɢɧɢɹɦ ɝɟɨɦɚɝɧɢɬɧɨɝɨ ɩɨɥɹ ɜɜɟɪɯ: ɢɡ ɢɨɧɨɫɮɟɪɵ ɜ
Ɋɢɫ. 1. ɋɯɟɦɚɬɢɱɟɫɤɢɣ ɜɢɞ ɨɤɨɥɨɡɟɦɧɨɣ
ɩɥɚɡɦɨɫɮɟɪɭ. ɇɚ ɧɨɱɧɨɣ ɫɬɨɪɨɧɟ ɢɫɬɨɱɧɢɤ ɮɨɬɨɢɨɧɢɡɚɰɢɢ
ɩɥɚɡɦɟɧɧɨɣ ɫɪɟɞɵ
ɨɬɫɭɬɫɬɜɭɟɬ, ɢɞɭɬ ɚɤɬɢɜɧɵɟ ɩɪɨɰɟɫɫɵ ɪɟɤɨɦɛɢɧɚɰɢɢ, ɱɬɨ
144
ȼɟɫɬɧɢɤ ɆȽɌɍ, ɬɨɦ 8, ʋ1, 2005 ɝ.
ɫɬɪ.144-155
ɩɪɢɜɨɞɢɬ ɤ ɩɚɞɟɧɢɸ ɞɚɜɥɟɧɢɹ ɩɥɚɡɦɵ ɜ ɢɨɧɨɫɮɟɪɟ.
ɉɨɞ ɞɟɣɫɬɜɢɟɦ ɧɨɱɧɨɝɨ ɝɪɚɞɢɟɧɬɚ ɞɚɜɥɟɧɢɹ,
ɩɪɨɬɢɜɨɩɨɥɨɠɧɨɝɨ ɞɧɟɜɧɨɦɭ, ɩɥɚɡɦɚ ɢɡ ɩɥɚɡɦɨɫɮɟɪɵ
ɨɩɭɫɤɚɟɬɫɹ ɜɧɢɡ, ɩɨɞɞɟɪɠɢɜɚɹ ɧɨɱɧɭɸ ɢɨɧɨɫɮɟɪɭ.
Ɍɚɤɢɦ ɨɛɪɚɡɨɦ, ɩɥɚɡɦɨɫɮɟɪɭ ɦɨɠɧɨ ɫɱɢɬɚɬɶ
ɪɟɡɟɪɜɭɚɪɨɦ, ɤɨɬɨɪɵɣ ɧɚɩɨɥɧɹɟɬɫɹ ɞɧɟɦ, ɚ ɜ ɧɨɱɧɨɟ
ɜɪɟɦɹ ɨɩɭɫɬɨɲɚɟɬɫɹ, ɩɢɬɚɹ ɢɨɧɨɫɮɟɪɭ.
ɇɚ ɪɢɫ. 2 ɩɪɢɜɟɞɟɧ ɩɨ ɞɚɧɧɵɦ ɫɩɭɬɧɢɤɨɜ DE1
(Chappell, 1988) ɬɢɩɢɱɧɵɣ ɩɪɨɮɢɥɶ ɫɭɦɦɚɪɧɨɣ
ɢɨɧɧɨɣ ɤɨɧɰɟɧɬɪɚɰɢɢ ɧɚ ɧɨɱɧɨɣ ɫɬɨɪɨɧɟ ɜ
ɡɚɜɢɫɢɦɨɫɬɢ ɨɬ ɩɚɪɚɦɟɬɪɚ L (L – ɪɚɫɫɬɨɹɧɢɟ ɞɨ
ɜɟɪɲɢɧɵ ɝɟɨɦɚɝɧɢɬɧɨɣ ɫɢɥɨɜɨɣ ɥɢɧɢɢ ɜ ɡɟɦɧɵɯ
ɪɚɞɢɭɫɚɯ). ɏɚɪɚɤɬɟɪɧɨɣ ɨɫɨɛɟɧɧɨɫɬɶɸ ɷɬɨɝɨ ɩɪɨɮɢɥɹ
ɹɜɥɹɟɬɫɹ ɢɡɥɨɦ ɜɛɥɢɡɢ L ~ 4 (ɤɨɥɟɧɨ), ɩɨɤɚɡɵɜɚɸɳɢɣ
ɪɟɡɤɢɣ ɫɩɚɞ ɫɭɦɦɚɪɧɨɣ ɤɨɧɰɟɧɬɪɚɰɢɢ ɢɨɧɨɜ,
ɨɛɧɚɪɭɠɟɧɧɵɣ Ⱦ.Ʌ. Ʉɚɪɩɟɧɬɟɪɨɦ ɢ Ʉ.ɂ. Ƚɪɢɧɝɚɭɡɨɦ.
Ɋɢɫ. 2. Ɍɢɩɢɱɧɵɣ ɩɪɨɮɢɥɶ ɢɨɧɧɨɣ ɤɨɧɰɟɧɬɪɚɰɢɢ
Ɇɟɧɟɟ ɢɡɭɱɟɧɧɨɣ ɨɫɨɛɟɧɧɨɫɬɶɸ ɷɬɨɝɨ
ɱɟɪɟɡ ɧɨɱɧɭɸ ɫɬɨɪɨɧɭ ɦɚɝɧɢɬɨɫɮɟɪɵ ɜ
ɩɪɨɮɢɥɹ ɹɜɥɹɟɬɫɹ ɭɦɟɧɶɲɟɧɢɟ ɫɤɨɪɨɫɬɢ ɩɚɞɟɧɢɹ
ɡɚɜɢɫɢɦɨɫɬɢ ɨɬ L-ɩɚɪɚɦɟɬɪɚ (Chappell, 1988)
ɤɨɧɰɟɧɬɪɚɰɢɢ ɢɨɧɨɜ ɩɟɪɟɞ ɤɨɥɟɧɨɦ (L ~ 4). ɏɨɪɨɜɢɰɨɦ
ɢ ɞɪ. (Horwitz et al., 1986) ɛɵɥ ɜɵɩɨɥɧɟɧ
ɫɬɚɬɢɫɬɢɱɟɫɤɢɣ ɚɧɚɥɢɡ ɩɪɨɮɢɥɟɣ ɤɨɧɰɟɧɬɪɚɰɢɢ
ɢɨɧɨɜ ɜɨ ɜɧɟɲɧɟɣ ɩɥɚɡɦɨɫɮɟɪɟ ɩɨ ɞɚɧɧɵɦ ɫɨ
ɫɩɭɬɧɢɤɨɜ DE-1, -2. Ɋɟɡɭɥɶɬɚɬɨɦ ɹɜɥɹɟɬɫɹ
ɫɯɟɦɚɬɢɱɟɫɤɚɹ ɤɥɚɫɫɢɮɢɤɚɰɢɹ, ɩɪɢɜɟɞɟɧɧɚɹ ɧɚ
ɪɢɫ. 3, ɤɨɬɨɪɚɹ ɩɪɟɞɫɬɚɜɥɹɟɬ ɫɨɛɨɣ ɜɨɡɦɨɠɧɵɟ
ɬɢɩɵ ɩɪɨɮɢɥɹ (Chappell, 1988). ȼɫɟ ɷɬɢ ɬɢɩɵ
ɢɦɟɸɬ ɛɨɥɟɟ ɢɥɢ ɦɟɧɟɟ ɜɵɪɚɠɟɧɧɭɸ ɨɫɨɛɟɧɧɨɫɬɶ:
ɥɢɛɨ ɬɢɩ Ⱥ – ɭɦɟɧɶɲɟɧɢɟ ɫɤɨɪɨɫɬɢ ɩɚɞɟɧɢɹ
ɤɨɧɰɟɧɬɪɚɰɢɢ ɢɨɧɨɜ ɧɚ L ~ 4, ɥɢɛɨ ɦɚɤɫɢɦɭɦɵ,
ɩɪɨɟɰɢɪɭɸɳɢɟɫɹ ɧɚ 2 ” L ” 4 (ɨɞɢɧ ɦɚɤɫɢɦɭɦ –
ɬɢɩɵ ȼ, D ɢ E, ɢɥɢ ɧɟɫɤɨɥɶɤɨ – ɬɢɩ F). ɏɨɪɨɜɢɰɨɦ
ɢ ɞɪ. (Horwitz et al., 1986) ɬɚɤɠɟ ɨɬɦɟɱɟɧɨ, ɱɬɨ
"ɫɬɪɭɤɬɭɪɢɪɨɜɚɧɧɵɟ" ɩɪɨɮɢɥɢ ɯɚɪɚɤɬɟɪɧɵ ɞɥɹ
ɜɟɱɟɪɧɟɣ ɩɥɚɡɦɨɫɮɟɪɵ, ɚ ɧɚɢɛɨɥɶɲɢɟ ɝɪɚɞɢɟɧɬɵ
ɩɥɨɬɧɨɫɬɢ ɩɥɚɡɦɵ ɧɚɛɥɸɞɚɸɬɫɹ ɧɨɱɶɸ.
ɉɨɞɨɛɧɵɟ ɨɫɨɛɟɧɧɨɫɬɢ ɩɪɢɜɟɞɟɧɧɵɯ ɬɢɩɨɜ
ɩɪɨɮɢɥɟɣ
ɩɪɨɫɥɟɠɢɜɚɸɬɫɹ
ɜ
ɤɨɧɤɪɟɬɧɵɯ
Ɋɢɫ. 3. ɋɯɟɦɚɬɢɱɟɫɤɚɹ ɤɥɚɫɫɢɮɢɤɚɰɢɹ ɬɢɩɨɜ
ɢɡɦɟɪɟɧɢɹɯ
ɪɚɫɩɪɟɞɟɥɟɧɢɹ
ɩɨ
L-ɨɛɨɥɨɱɤɚɦ
ɪɚɫɩɪɟɞɟɥɟɧɢɹ ɤɨɧɰɟɧɬɪɚɰɢɢ ɢɨɧɨɜ ɜ ɩɥɚɡɦɨɫɮɟɪɟ,
ɤɨɧɰɟɧɬɪɚɰɢɣ ɪɚɡɥɢɱɧɵɯ ɢɨɧɨɜ (ɪɢɫ. 4).
ɜɟɪɬɢɤɚɥɶɧɚɹ ɥɢɧɢɹ – ɩɨɥɨɠɟɧɢɟ LEIT (LEIT – Low
ȼ ɛɨɥɟɟ ɩɨɡɞɧɟɣ ɪɚɛɨɬɟ ɩɨ ɢɫɫɥɟɞɨɜɚɧɢɹɦ
Energy Ion Transition – ɝɪɚɧɢɰɚ ɩɟɪɟɯɨɞɚ ɯɨɥɨɞɧɵɯ
ɧɚ ɫɩɭɬɧɢɤɚɯ GPS ɢ TOPEX (Horvath, Essex, 1999)
ɢɨɧɨɜ) (ɢɡ ɨɛɡɨɪɚ Ƚɪɢɧɝɚɭɡ, Ȼɚɫɫɨɥɨ, 1990)
ɪɚɫɫɦɚɬɪɢɜɚɸɬɫɹ ɡɚɜɢɫɢɦɨɫɬɢ TEC (TEC – Total
Ɋɢɫ. 4. Ʉɨɧɰɟɧɬɪɚɰɢɢ ɪɚɡɥɢɱɧɵɯ
ɫɨɪɬɨɜ ɢɨɧɨɜ ɜ ɡɚɜɢɫɢɦɨɫɬɢ ɨɬ L
ɩɨ ɞɚɧɧɵɦ ɫɩɭɬɧɢɤɚ DE-1 ɜ
ɜɟɱɟɪɧɟɦ ɫɟɤɬɨɪɟ: ɚ – 12.11.1981
ɝ., 1 – 03.19-03.35 UT, 2 – 09.5010.21 UT; ɛ – 13.11.1981 ɝ., 1 –
06.17-06.53 UT, 2 – 13.02-13.45
UT (Ƚɪɢɧɝɚɭɡ, Ȼɚɫɫɨɥɨ, 1990)
145
Ʉɧɹɡɟɜɚ Ɇ.Ⱥ., ɇɚɦɝɚɥɚɞɡɟ Ⱥ.Ⱥ. Ɇɚɬɟɦɚɬɢɱɟɫɤɨɟ ɦɨɞɟɥɢɪɨɜɚɧɢɟ ɮɨɪɦɢɪɨɜɚɧɢɹ…
Ɋɢɫ. 5. ɋɪɟɞɧɹɹ ɡɚ ɦɚɪɬ 1995 ɝ.
ɡɚɜɢɫɢɦɨɫɬɶ ɜɟɪɬɢɤɚɥɶɧɨɝɨ ɩɨɥɧɨɝɨ
ɷɥɟɤɬɪɨɧɧɨɝɨ ɫɨɞɟɪɠɚɧɢɹ (TEC) ɨɬ
ɦɟɫɬɧɨɝɨ ɜɪɟɦɟɧɢ (ɥɟɜɚɹ ɩɚɧɟɥɶ) ɢ ɨɬ
ɝɟɨɝɪɚɮɢɱɟɫɤɨɣ ɲɢɪɨɬɵ (ɩɪɚɜɚɹ
ɩɚɧɟɥɶ) ɞɥɹ ɨɫɟɧɧɟɝɨ ɪɚɜɧɨɞɟɧɫɬɜɢɹ.
ɋɩɥɨɲɧɚɹ ɥɢɧɢɹ – ɭɫɪɟɞɧɟɧɧɵɟ
ɷɤɫɩɟɪɢɦɟɧɬɚɥɶɧɵɟ ɞɚɧɧɵɟ ɫɨ
ɫɩɭɬɧɢɤɨɜ GPS, ɤɨɪɨɬɤɢɣ ɩɭɧɤɬɢɪ –
ɦɨɞɟɥɶɧɵɟ ɪɚɫɱɟɬɵ ɫ ɩɨɦɨɳɶɸ
ɦɨɞɟɥɢ PIM 1.6 (Horvath, Essex, 1999)
Ɋɢɫ. 6. Ɂɚɜɢɫɢɦɨɫɬɶ ɜɟɪɬɢɤɚɥɶɧɨɝɨ
ɷɥɟɤɬɪɨɧɧɨɝɨ ɫɨɞɟɪɠɚɧɢɹ (TEC)
ɨɬ ɝɟɨɦɚɝɧɢɬɧɨɣ ɲɢɪɨɬɵ ɞɥɹ
23 ɚɩɪɟɥɹ 1995 ɝ., ɩɨ ɞɚɧɧɵɦ
ɫɨ ɫɩɭɬɧɢɤɨɜ TOPEX
(Horvath, Essex, 1999)
Electron Content – ɩɨɥɧɨɟ ɷɥɟɤɬɪɨɧɧɨɟ ɫɨɞɟɪɠɚɧɢɟ ɜ ɜɟɪɬɢɤɚɥɶɧɨɦ ɫɬɨɥɛɟ ɟɞɢɧɢɱɧɨɝɨ ɫɟɱɟɧɢɹ) ɨɬ
ɦɚɝɧɢɬɧɨɣ ɲɢɪɨɬɵ ɞɥɹ ɫɩɨɤɨɣɧɵɯ ɝɟɨɦɚɝɧɢɬɧɵɯ ɭɫɥɨɜɢɣ (ɦɚɪɬ 1995 – ɮɟɜɪɚɥɶ 1996) (ɪɢɫ. 5, 6), ɜ
ɤɨɬɨɪɵɯ ɬɚɤɠɟ ɨɬɦɟɱɚɸɬɫɹ ɩɨɹɜɥɟɧɢɹ ɩɢɤɨɜ ɧɚ ɧɨɱɧɵɯ ɩɪɨɮɢɥɹɯ ɧɚ ɫɪɟɞɧɢɯ ɲɢɪɨɬɚɯ (ij ~ ±40°).
Ɏɢɡɢɱɟɫɤɢɟ ɩɪɨɰɟɫɫɵ, ɨɬɜɟɱɚɸɳɢɟ ɡɚ ɮɨɪɦɢɪɨɜɚɧɢɟ ɫɪɟɞɧɟɲɢɪɨɬɧɵɯ ɧɨɱɧɵɯ ɩɢɤɨɜ, ɨɛɴɹɫɧɹɸɬɫɹ ɜ
ɬɟɪɦɢɧɚɯ ɩɥɚɡɦɨɫɮɟɪɧɨ-ɢɨɧɨɫɮɟɪɧɨɝɨ ɜɡɚɢɦɨɞɟɣɫɬɜɢɹ ɢ ɧɚɩɪɚɜɥɟɧɧɨɝɨ ɧɚ ɡɚɩɚɞ ɷɥɟɤɬɪɢɱɟɫɤɨɝɨ ɩɨɥɹ.
ȼ ɧɢɡɤɨɲɢɪɨɬɧɨɣ ɢɨɧɨɫɮɟɪɟ ɢɦɟɟɬ ɦɟɫɬɨ ɷɤɜɚɬɨɪɢɚɥɶɧɚɹ ɚɧɨɦɚɥɢɹ, ɫɨɫɬɨɹɳɚɹ ɜ ɬɨɦ, ɱɬɨ ɜ
ɲɢɪɨɬɧɨɦ ɯɨɞɟ ɞɧɟɜɧɵɯ ɡɧɚɱɟɧɢɣ ɦɚɤɫɢɦɭɦɚ F2-ɫɥɨɹ ɢɦɟɟɬɫɹ ɞɜɚ ɝɪɟɛɧɹ ɩɨ ɨɛɟ ɫɬɨɪɨɧɵ ɨɬ ɦɚɝɧɢɬɧɨɝɨ
ɷɤɜɚɬɨɪɚ, ɰɟɧɬɪɢɪɨɜɚɧɧɵɯ ɧɚ ±(15º-20º) ɦɚɝɧɢɬɧɨɣ ɲɢɪɨɬɵ, ɜɦɟɫɬɨ ɨɞɧɨɝɨ ɧɚ ɝɟɨɝɪɚɮɢɱɟɫɤɨɦ ɷɤɜɚɬɨɪɟ,
ɨɠɢɞɚɟɦɨɝɨ ɩɨ ɩɪɨɫɬɨɣ ɬɟɨɪɢɢ ɑɟɩɦɟɧɚ. ɋɭɬɶ ɦɟɯɚɧɢɡɦɚ ɮɨɪɦɢɪɨɜɚɧɢɹ ɷɤɜɚɬɨɪɢɚɥɶɧɨɣ ɚɧɨɦɚɥɢɢ
ɡɚɤɥɸɱɚɟɬɫɹ ɜ ɬɨɦ, ɱɬɨ ɩɥɚɡɦɚ ɩɨɞɧɢɦɚɟɬɫɹ ɜɜɟɪɯ ɧɚɞ ɦɚɝɧɢɬɧɵɦ ɷɤɜɚɬɨɪɨɦ ɩɨɫɪɟɞɫɬɜɨɦ ȿ×ȼ ɞɪɟɣɮɚ,
ɜɵɡɜɚɧɧɨɝɨ ɧɚɩɪɚɜɥɟɧɧɵɦ ɧɚ ɜɨɫɬɨɤ ɷɥɟɤɬɪɢɱɟɫɤɢɦ ɩɨɥɟɦ, ɧɚ ɜɵɫɨɬɵ, ɝɞɟ ɩɪɟɨɛɥɚɞɚɟɬ ɞɢɮɮɭɡɢɹ.
Ɉɬɫɸɞɚ ɩɨɞ ɞɟɣɫɬɜɢɟɦ ɢɡɛɵɬɨɱɧɨɝɨ ɞɚɜɥɟɧɢɹ ɧɚɤɨɩɢɜɲɟɣɫɹ ɜɜɟɪɯɭ ɩɥɚɡɦɵ ɨɧɚ ɪɚɫɬɟɤɚɟɬɫɹ ɜ ɫɬɨɪɨɧɵ
ɨɬ ɦɚɝɧɢɬɧɨɝɨ ɷɤɜɚɬɨɪɚ, ɬɭɞɚ, ɝɞɟ ɦɚɝɧɢɬɧɨɟ ɩɨɥɟ ɢɦɟɟɬ ɨɬɥɢɱɧɭɸ ɨɬ ɧɭɥɹ ɜɟɪɬɢɤɚɥɶɧɭɸ ɫɨɫɬɚɜɥɹɸɳɭɸ
ɢ ɝɞɟ ɩɥɚɡɦɚ ɫɬɟɤɚɟɬ ɜɧɢɡ ɩɨ ɫɢɥɨɜɵɦ ɥɢɧɢɹɦ ɝɟɨɦɚɝɧɢɬɧɨɝɨ ɩɨɥɹ, ɮɨɪɦɢɪɭɹ ɝɪɟɛɧɢ ɚɧɨɦɚɥɢɢ (ɬɚɤɨɟ
ɞɜɢɠɟɧɢɟ ɩɥɚɡɦɵ ɧɚɡɵɜɚɸɬ ɮɨɧɬɚɧ-ɷɮɮɟɤɬɨɦ). Ⱦɢɮɮɭɡɢɨɧɧɨɟ ɪɚɫɬɟɤɚɧɢɟ ɜ ɫɬɨɪɨɧɵ ɨɬ ɷɤɜɚɬɨɪɚ ɢ ɜɧɢɡ
ɢɦɟɟɬ ɦɟɫɬɨ ɢ ɜ ɨɬɫɭɬɫɬɜɢɟ ɷɥɟɤɬɪɢɱɟɫɤɨɝɨ ɩɨɥɹ, ɧɨ ɷɥɟɤɬɪɨɦɚɝɧɢɬɧɵɣ ɞɪɟɣɮ ɫɩɨɫɨɛɫɬɜɭɟɬ
ɞɨɩɨɥɧɢɬɟɥɶɧɨɦɭ ɜɵɧɨɫɭ ɩɥɚɡɦɵ ɢɡ ɨɛɥɚɫɬɢ ɧɚɞ ɷɤɜɚɬɨɪɨɦ, ɩɨɫɤɨɥɶɤɭ ɩɟɪɟɧɨɫɢɬ ɟɟ ɧɚ ɜɵɫɨɬɵ, ɝɞɟ
ɞɢɮɮɭɡɢɹ ɢɞɟɬ ɛɵɫɬɪɟɟ. ɋɛɪɨɫ ɨɫɧɨɜɧɨɣ ɦɚɫɫɵ ɩɥɚɡɦɵ ɩɪɨɢɫɯɨɞɢɬ ɧɚ ɫɢɥɨɜɵɯ ɥɢɧɢɹɯ, ɤɨɧɰɵ ɤɨɬɨɪɵɯ
ɪɚɫɩɨɥɨɠɟɧɵ ɞɚɥɶɲɟ ɨɬ ɷɤɜɚɬɨɪɚ, ɱɟɦ ɜ ɨɬɫɭɬɫɬɜɢɟ ɞɪɟɣɮɚ. ɋɨɨɬɜɟɬɫɬɜɟɧɧɨ ɨɛɥɚɫɬɢ, ɤɭɞɚ ɩɨɫɬɭɩɚɟɬ
ɩɥɚɡɦɚ, – ɝɪɟɛɧɢ ɚɧɨɦɚɥɢɢ – ɨɬɨɞɜɢɝɚɸɬɫɹ ɨɬ ɷɤɜɚɬɨɪɚ.
Ɋɚɡɥɢɱɢɟ ɦɟɠɞɭ ɝɟɨɝɪɚɮɢɱɟɫɤɢɦ ɢ ɝɟɨɦɚɝɧɢɬɧɵɦ ɷɤɜɚɬɨɪɚɦɢ ɩɪɢɜɨɞɢɬ ɤ ɪɚɡɥɢɱɧɵɦ
ɫɨɨɬɧɨɲɟɧɢɹɦ ɦɟɠɞɭ ɫɤɨɪɨɫɬɹɦɢ ɨɛɪɚɡɨɜɚɧɢɹ ɢ ɩɟɪɟɧɨɫɚ ɩɥɚɡɦɵ ɜ ɪɚɡɥɢɱɧɵɯ ɞɨɥɝɨɬɧɵɯ ɫɟɤɬɨɪɚɯ, ɚ
ɬɚɤɠɟ ɤ ɚɫɢɦɦɟɬɪɢɢ ɝɪɟɛɧɟɣ ɚɧɨɦɚɥɢɢ (Ȼɪɸɧɟɥɥɢ, ɇɚɦɝɚɥɚɞɡɟ, 1988).
ɉɨɦɢɦɨ ɷɥɟɤɬɪɨɦɚɝɧɢɬɧɨɝɨ ɞɪɟɣɮɚ, ɜɟɪɬɢɤɚɥɶɧɵɣ ɩɟɪɟɧɨɫ ɩɥɚɡɦɵ ɜɨɡɦɨɠɟɧ ɬɚɤɠɟ ɢ ɩɭɬɟɦ
ɧɟɣɬɪɚɥɶɧɵɯ ɬɟɪɦɨɫɮɟɪɧɵɯ ɜɟɬɪɨɜ. ɇɟɣɬɪɚɥɶɧɵɣ ɝɚɡ ɪɚɫɬɟɤɚɟɬɫɹ ɜɨ ɜɫɟ ɫɬɨɪɨɧɵ ɢɡ ɞɧɟɜɧɨɝɨ ɩɨɥɭɲɚɪɢɹ
ɜ ɧɨɱɧɨɟ ɨɬ ɨɛɥɚɫɬɢ ɩɨɜɵɲɟɧɧɨɝɨ ɞɚɜɥɟɧɢɹ, ɨɛɭɫɥɨɜɥɟɧɧɨɝɨ ɫɨɥɧɟɱɧɵɦ ɪɚɡɨɝɪɟɜɨɦ. Ⱦɧɟɦ ɜɟɬɟɪ ɞɭɟɬ
ɩɪɟɢɦɭɳɟɫɬɜɟɧɧɨ ɤ ɩɨɥɸɫɚɦ, ɧɨɱɶɸ – ɤ ɷɤɜɚɬɨɪɭ. ɇɟɣɬɪɚɥɶɧɵɣ ɝɚɡ ɜ ɫɬɨɥɤɧɨɜɟɧɢɹɯ ɩɟɪɟɞɚɟɬ
ɝɨɪɢɡɨɧɬɚɥɶɧɵɣ ɢɦɩɭɥɶɫ ɡɚɪɹɠɟɧɧɵɦ ɤɨɦɩɨɧɟɧɬɚɦ ɚɬɦɨɫɮɟɪɵ, ɤɨɬɨɪɵɟ, ɜ ɫɜɨɸ ɨɱɟɪɟɞɶ, ɦɨɝɭɬ
ɛɟɫɩɪɟɩɹɬɫɬɜɟɧɧɨ ɞɜɢɝɚɬɶɫɹ ɜɞɨɥɶ ɫɢɥɨɜɵɯ ɥɢɧɢɣ ɝɟɨɦɚɝɧɢɬɧɨɝɨ ɩɨɥɹ. ȼɟɤɬɨɪ ɩɨɥɭɱɟɧɧɨɣ ɜ
ɫɬɨɥɤɧɨɜɟɧɢɢ ɫɤɨɪɨɫɬɢ ɢɦɟɟɬ ɫɨɫɬɚɜɥɹɸɳɭɸ ɜɞɨɥɶ ɦɚɝɧɢɬɧɨɝɨ ɩɨɥɹ: ɧɚ ɞɧɟɜɧɨɣ ɫɬɨɪɨɧɟ ɷɬɚ
ɫɨɫɬɚɜɥɹɸɳɚɹ ɢɦɟɟɬ ɧɚɩɪɚɜɥɟɧɢɟ ɜɧɢɡ ɩɨ ɫɢɥɨɜɨɣ ɥɢɧɢɢ, ɧɚ ɧɨɱɧɨɣ ɫɬɨɪɨɧɟ – ɜɜɟɪɯ. Ɇɚɤɫɢɦɚɥɶɧɵɣ
ɜɤɥɚɞ ɜ ɜɟɪɬɢɤɚɥɶɧɵɣ ɩɟɪɟɧɨɫ ɧɟɣɬɪɚɥɶɧɵɣ ɜɟɬɟɪ ɢɦɟɟɬ, ɤɨɝɞɚ ɷɥɟɤɬɪɢɱɟɫɤɨɟ ɩɨɥɟ ɦɟɧɹɟɬ ɫɜɨɣ ɡɧɚɤ: ɫ
ɧɚɩɪɚɜɥɟɧɢɹ ɧɚ ɜɨɫɬɨɤ ɧɚ ɧɚɩɪɚɜɥɟɧɢɟ ɧɚ ɡɚɩɚɞ (ɫɤɨɪɨɫɬɶ ɞɪɟɣɮɚ ȿ×ȼ ɫɬɚɧɨɜɢɬɫɹ ɪɚɜɧɨɣ ɧɭɥɸ).
ɉɪɢ ɫɦɟɧɟ ɡɧɚɤɚ ɫɤɨɪɨɫɬɢ ɞɪɟɣɮɚ ȿ×ȼ ɩɪɹɦɨɣ ɩɥɚɡɦɟɧɧɵɣ ɮɨɧɬɚɧ ɦɟɧɹɟɬɫɹ ɧɚ ɨɛɪɚɬɧɵɣ, ɤɨɝɞɚ
ɩɥɚɡɦɚ ɧɚɱɢɧɚɟɬ ɞɪɟɣɮɨɜɚɬɶ ɜɧɢɡ ɩɨɩɟɪɟɤ ɦɚɝɧɢɬɧɵɯ ɫɢɥɨɜɵɯ ɥɢɧɢɣ, ɱɬɨ ɩɪɢɜɨɞɢɬ ɤ ɪɚɡɪɭɲɟɧɢɸ
ɷɤɜɚɬɨɪɢɚɥɶɧɨɣ ɚɧɨɦɚɥɢɢ. ɏɨɪɜɚɬɰ ɢ ɗɫɫɟɤɫ (Horvath, Essex, 1999) ɩɪɟɞɩɨɥɚɝɚɸɬ, ɱɬɨ ɩɟɪɟɦɟɧɚ
ɧɚɩɪɚɜɥɟɧɢɹ ɷɥɟɤɬɪɢɱɟɫɤɨɝɨ ɩɨɥɹ ɫ ɜɨɫɬɨɱɧɨɝɨ ɧɚ ɡɚɩɚɞɧɨɟ ɧɚɛɥɸɞɚɟɬɫɹ ɧɟ ɬɨɥɶɤɨ ɧɚɞ ɦɚɝɧɢɬɧɵɦ
146
ȼɟɫɬɧɢɤ ɆȽɌɍ, ɬɨɦ 8, ʋ1, 2005 ɝ.
ɫɬɪ.144-155
ɷɤɜɚɬɨɪɨɦ, ɧɨ ɬɚɤɠɟ ɢ ɧɚ ɫɪɟɞɧɢɯ ɲɢɪɨɬɚɯ. ɗɬɨ
ɩɪɢɜɨɞɢɬ ɤ ɩɟɪɟɦɟɳɟɧɢɸ ɩɥɚɡɦɵ ɩɨɩɟɪɟɤ ɦɚɝɧɢɬɧɨɝɨ
ɩɨɥɹ ɫɨ ɫɪɟɞɧɟɲɢɪɨɬɧɵɯ ɫɢɥɨɜɵɯ ɬɪɭɛɨɤ ɧɚ ɛɨɥɟɟ
ɧɢɡɤɨɲɢɪɨɬɧɵɟ ɢ ɧɚ ɛɨɥɟɟ ɧɢɡɤɢɟ ɜɵɫɨɬɵ, ɪɟɡɭɥɶɬɚɬɨɦ
ɱɟɝɨ ɹɜɥɹɸɬɫɹ ɧɨɱɧɵɟ ɫɪɟɞɧɟɲɢɪɨɬɧɵɟ ɭɜɟɥɢɱɟɧɢɹ
(ɩɢɤɢ) TEC. ɇɟɣɬɪɚɥɶɧɵɣ ɜɟɬɟɪ ɜ ɤɨɦɛɢɧɚɰɢɢ ɫ
ɦɚɝɧɢɬɧɵɦ ɫɤɥɨɧɟɧɢɟɦ ɨɩɪɟɞɟɥɹɟɬ ɚɫɢɦɦɟɬɪɢɸ
ɩɨɥɭɲɚɪɢɣ, ɫɬɟɩɟɧɶ ɪɚɡɜɢɬɢɹ ɢ ɫɢɥɶɧɭɸ ɞɨɥɝɨɬɧɭɸ
ɡɚɜɢɫɢɦɨɫɬɶ ɪɚɫɫɦɚɬɪɢɜɚɟɦɵɯ ɩɢɤɨɜ.
Ɉɛɥɚɫɬɢ
ɩɨɜɵɲɟɧɧɨɣ
ɷɥɟɤɬɪɨɧɧɨɣ
ɤɨɧɰɟɧɬɪɚɰɢɢ ɜ ɫɢɥɨɜɵɯ ɬɪɭɛɤɚɯ ɝɟɨɦɚɝɧɢɬɧɨɝɨ ɩɨɥɹ
ɩɪɨɹɜɥɹɸɬɫɹ ɢ ɜ ɫɭɬɨɱɧɵɯ ɜɚɪɢɚɰɢɹɯ NmF2 (ɪɢɫ. 7),
ɫɬɚɬɢɫɬɢɱɟɫɤɢɣ ɚɧɚɥɢɡ ɤɨɬɨɪɵɯ ɩɪɟɞɫɬɚɜɥɟɧ ɜ ɪɚɛɨɬɟ
(Mikhailov et al., 2000) ɞɥɹ ɲɢɪɨɬɧɨɣ ɰɟɩɢ ɢɡ ɱɟɬɵɪɟɯ
ɢɨɧɨɡɨɧɞɧɵɯ ɫɬɚɧɰɢɣ ɜ ɟɜɪɨɚɡɢɚɬɫɤɨɦ ɞɨɥɝɨɬɧɨɦ
ɫɟɤɬɨɪɟ. Ⱥɜɬɨɪɚɦɢ ɛɵɥɢ ɪɚɫɫɦɨɬɪɟɧɵ ɜɫɟ ɞɨɫɬɭɩɧɵɟ
ɧɚɛɥɸɞɟɧɢɹ foF2 ɞɥɹ ɝɨɞɨɜ ɦɚɤɫɢɦɭɦɚ ɢ ɦɢɧɢɦɭɦɚ
ɫɨɥɧɟɱɧɨɣ ɚɤɬɢɜɧɨɫɬɢ, ɧɚ ɨɫɧɨɜɟ ɤɨɬɨɪɵɯ ɭɫɬɚɧɨɜɥɟɧɵ
ɜɪɟɦɹ ɜɨɡɧɢɤɧɨɜɟɧɢɹ, ɚɦɩɥɢɬɭɞɵ ɢ ɫɟɡɨɧɧɵɟ ɜɚɪɢɚɰɢɢ
ɞɜɭɯ ɧɨɱɧɵɯ ɩɢɤɨɜ ɜ NmF2: ɩɪɟɞɩɨɥɭɧɨɱɧɨɝɨ (1-ɵɣ
ɩɢɤ ɧɚ ɪɢɫ. 7) ɢ ɩɨɫɬɩɨɥɭɧɨɱɧɨɝɨ (2-ɨɣ ɩɢɤ ɧɚ ɪɢɫ. 7).
ȼ ɤɚɱɟɫɬɜɟ ɩɪɟɞɩɨɥɚɝɚɟɦɨɝɨ ɦɟɯɚɧɢɡɦɚ
ɮɨɪɦɢɪɨɜɚɧɢɹ ɨɛɨɢɯ ɩɢɤɨɜ ɚɜɬɨɪɚɦɢ ɪɚɫɫɦɚɬɪɢɜɚɟɬɫɹ
ɤɨɦɛɢɧɚɰɢɹ ɞɨɦɢɧɢɪɭɸɳɟɝɨ ɜ ɧɨɱɧɨɟ ɜɪɟɦɹ
ɬɟɪɦɨɫɮɟɪɧɨɝɨ ɦɟɪɢɞɢɨɧɚɥɶɧɨɝɨ ɜɟɬɪɚ ɢ ɧɚɩɪɚɜɥɟɧɧɨɝɨ
Ɋɢɫ. 7. ɋɪɟɞɧɹɹ ɫɬɚɬɢɫɬɢɱɟɫɤɚɹ ɡɚɜɢɫɢɦɨɫɬɶ
ɜɧɢɡ ɞɪɟɣɮɚ: ɢɦɟɹ ɩɟɪɟɞ ɩɨɥɭɧɨɱɶɸ ɧɚɩɪɚɜɥɟɧɢɟ ɤ ɤɨɧɰɟɧɬɪɚɰɢɢ ɷɥɟɤɬɪɨɧɨɜ ɜ ɦɚɤɫɢɦɭɦɟ F2-ɫɥɨɹ
ɷɤɜɚɬɨɪɭ, ɜɟɬɟɪ ɜɛɥɢɡɢ ɩɨɥɭɧɨɱɢ ɦɟɧɹɟɬ ɧɚɩɪɚɜɥɟɧɢɟ ɧɚ
ɨɬ ɦɟɫɬɧɨɝɨ ɜɪɟɦɟɧɢ (Mikhailov et al., 2000)
ɩɪɨɬɢɜɨɩɨɥɨɠɧɨɟ, ɜ ɬɨ ɜɪɟɦɹ ɤɚɤ ɧɚɩɪɚɜɥɟɧɧɵɣ ɜɧɢɡ
ɞɪɟɣɮ ɭɜɟɥɢɱɢɜɚɟɬ ɪɟɤɨɦɛɢɧɚɰɢɨɧɧɵɟ ɩɪɨɰɟɫɫɵ, ɭɜɟɥɢɱɢɜɚɸɳɢɟ ɩɪɨɜɚɥɵ, ɨɤɚɣɦɥɟɧɧɵɟ ɩɢɤɚɦɢ.
ȼ ɩɨɫɥɟɞɧɢɯ ɞɜɭɯ ɪɚɛɨɬɚɯ (Horvath, Essex, 1999; Mikhailov et al., 2000) ɩɨɩɵɬɤɢ ɬɟɨɪɟɬɢɱɟɫɤɨɣ
ɢɧɬɟɪɩɪɟɬɚɰɢɢ ɦɟɯɚɧɢɡɦɚ ɮɨɪɦɢɪɨɜɚɧɢɹ ɫɪɟɞɧɟɲɢɪɨɬɧɵɯ ɧɨɱɧɵɯ ɦɚɤɫɢɦɭɦɨɜ ɢɦɟɸɬ ɤɚɱɟɫɬɜɟɧɧɵɣ
ɯɚɪɚɤɬɟɪ. ȼ ɧɚɫɬɨɹɳɟɣ ɪɚɛɨɬɟ ɧɚɦɢ ɩɪɨɜɟɞɟɧɨ ɤɨɥɢɱɟɫɬɜɟɧɧɨɟ ɢɫɫɥɟɞɨɜɚɧɢɟ, ɰɟɥɶɸ ɤɨɬɨɪɨɝɨ ɹɜɥɹɥɨɫɶ
ɨɩɪɟɞɟɥɟɧɢɟ ɪɨɥɟɣ ɬɟɪɦɨɫɮɟɪɧɨɝɨ ɜɟɬɪɚ ɢ ɷɥɟɤɬɪɨɦɚɝɧɢɬɧɨɝɨ ɞɪɟɣɮɚ EuB ɜ ɮɨɪɦɢɪɨɜɚɧɢɢ
ɪɚɫɫɦɚɬɪɢɜɚɟɦɵɯ ɦɚɤɫɢɦɭɦɨɜ ɜ ɷɥɟɤɬɪɨɧɧɨɣ ɤɨɧɰɟɧɬɪɚɰɢɢ ɧɚ ɜɵɫɨɬɚɯ F2-ɨɛɥɚɫɬɢ ɢ ɩɥɚɡɦɨɫɮɟɪɵ Ɂɟɦɥɢ
(ɢɦɟɸɳɢɟɫɹ ɩɢɤɢ ɜ ɲɢɪɨɬɧɨɦ ɯɨɞɟ TEC ɢ ɜ ɫɭɬɨɱɧɵɯ ɜɚɪɢɚɰɢɹɯ NmF2 ɞɨɥɠɧɵ ɢɦɟɬɶ ɨɬɪɚɠɟɧɢɟ ɢ ɜ
ɪɚɫɩɪɟɞɟɥɟɧɢɢ ɷɥɟɤɬɪɨɧɧɨɣ ɤɨɧɰɟɧɬɪɚɰɢɢ ɜ ɩɥɚɡɦɨɫɮɟɪɟ).
ȼ ɤɚɱɟɫɬɜɟ ɦɟɬɨɞɚ ɤɨɥɢɱɟɫɬɜɟɧɧɨɣ ɨɰɟɧɤɢ ɷɬɨɝɨ ɹɜɥɟɧɢɹ ɢɫɩɨɥɶɡɨɜɚɥɨɫɶ ɦɨɞɟɥɢɪɨɜɚɧɢɟ ɫ
ɩɨɦɨɳɶɸ ɝɥɨɛɚɥɶɧɨɣ ɱɢɫɥɟɧɧɨɣ ɦɨɞɟɥɢ ɜɟɪɯɧɟɣ ɚɬɦɨɫɮɟɪɵ Ɂɟɦɥɢ (UAM – Upper Atmosphere Model)
(Namgaladze et al., 1998). Ⱦɚɧɧɚɹ ɦɨɞɟɥɶ ɨɩɢɫɵɜɚɟɬ ɬɟɪɦɨɫɮɟɪɭ, ɢɨɧɨɫɮɟɪɭ ɢ ɩɥɚɡɦɨɫɮɟɪɭ Ɂɟɦɥɢ ɤɚɤ
ɟɞɢɧɭɸ ɫɢɫɬɟɦɭ ɩɨɫɪɟɞɫɬɜɨɦ ɱɢɫɥɟɧɧɨɝɨ ɢɧɬɟɝɪɢɪɨɜɚɧɢɹ ɫɨɨɬɜɟɬɫɬɜɭɸɳɢɯ ɧɟɫɬɚɰɢɨɧɚɪɧɵɯ ɬɪɟɯɦɟɪɧɵɯ
ɭɪɚɜɧɟɧɢɣ ɧɟɩɪɟɪɵɜɧɨɫɬɢ, ɞɜɢɠɟɧɢɹ ɢ ɬɟɩɥɨɜɨɝɨ ɛɚɥɚɧɫɚ ɞɥɹ ɧɟɣɬɪɚɥɶɧɨɝɨ, ɢɨɧɧɨɝɨ ɢ ɷɥɟɤɬɪɨɧɧɨɝɨ ɝɚɡɨɜ
ɫɨɜɦɟɫɬɧɨ ɫ ɭɪɚɜɧɟɧɢɟɦ ɞɥɹ ɩɨɬɟɧɰɢɚɥɚ ɷɥɟɤɬɪɢɱɟɫɤɨɝɨ ɩɨɥɹ. UAM ɨɯɜɚɬɵɜɚɟɬ ɞɢɚɩɚɡɨɧ ɜɵɫɨɬ ɨɬ 60 ɤɦ ɞɨ
15RE ɝɟɨɰɟɧɬɪɢɱɟɫɤɨɝɨ ɪɚɫɫɬɨɹɧɢɹ ɢ ɭɱɢɬɵɜɚɟɬ ɧɟɫɨɜɩɚɞɟɧɢɟ ɝɟɨɦɚɝɧɢɬɧɨɝɨ ɢ ɝɟɨɝɪɚɮɢɱɟɫɤɢɯ ɩɨɥɸɫɨɜ.
Ɇɨɞɟɥɶ ɩɨɡɜɨɥɹɟɬ ɪɚɫɫɱɢɬɵɜɚɬɶ ɬɟɪɦɨɫɮɟɪɧɵɣ ɜɟɬɟɪ, ɩɥɨɬɧɨɫɬɢ ɢ ɬɟɦɩɟɪɚɬɭɪɵ ɷɥɟɤɬɪɨɧɨɜ ɢ ɪɚɡɥɢɱɧɵɯ
ɫɨɪɬɨɜ ɢɨɧɨɜ ɢ ɧɟɣɬɪɚɥɶɧɵɯ ɚɬɨɦɨɜ ɢ ɦɨɥɟɤɭɥ ɜ ɬɟɪɦɨɫɮɟɪɟ, ɢɨɧɨɫɮɟɪɟ ɢ ɩɥɚɡɦɨɫɮɟɪɟ, ɦɚɝɧɢɬɨɫɮɟɪɧɵɟ
ɷɥɟɤɬɪɢɱɟɫɤɢɟ ɩɨɥɹ ɢ ɷɥɟɤɬɪɢɱɟɫɤɢɟ ɩɨɥɹ ɞɢɧɚɦɨ ɩɪɨɢɫɯɨɠɞɟɧɢɹ.
ȼ ɛɥɨɤɟ ɧɟɣɬɪɚɥɶɧɨɣ ɚɬɦɨɫɮɟɪɵ ɢ ɧɢɠɧɟɣ ɢɨɧɨɫɮɟɪɵ (ɨɛɥɚɫɬɢ ȿ ɢ F1), ɨɯɜɚɬɵɜɚɸɳɟɦ ɞɢɚɩɚɡɨɧ
ɜɵɫɨɬ ɨɬ 80 ɞɨ 520 ɤɦ, ɢɫɩɨɥɶɡɭɟɬɫɹ ɫɮɟɪɢɱɟɫɤɚɹ ɝɟɨɦɚɝɧɢɬɧɚɹ ɫɢɫɬɟɦɚ ɤɨɨɪɞɢɧɚɬ (ɨɛɥɚɫɬɶ "ɲɚɪɚ"), ɜ
ɛɥɨɤɟ ɢɨɧɨɫɮɟɪɧɨɣ F2-ɨɛɥɚɫɬɢ ɢ ɩɥɚɡɦɨɫɮɟɪɵ, ɨɯɜɚɬɵɜɚɸɳɟɦ ɞɢɚɩɚɡɨɧ ɜɵɫɨɬ ɨɬ 175 ɤɦ ɞɨ 15RE,
ɢɫɩɨɥɶɡɭɟɬɫɹ ɝɟɨɦɚɝɧɢɬɧɚɹ ɞɢɩɨɥɶɧɚɹ ɫɢɫɬɟɦɚ ɤɨɨɪɞɢɧɚɬ (ɨɛɥɚɫɬɶ "ɬɪɭɛɤɢ").
ɉɪɢ ɱɢɫɥɟɧɧɨɦ ɢɧɬɟɝɪɢɪɨɜɚɧɢɢ ɧɟɫɬɚɰɢɨɧɚɪɧɵɯ ɬɪɟɯɦɟɪɧɵɯ ɭɪɚɜɧɟɧɢɣ ɲɚɝɢ ɩɨ ɤɨɨɪɞɢɧɚɬɚɦ ɢ
ɜɪɟɦɟɧɢ ɹɜɥɹɸɬɫɹ ɩɟɪɟɦɟɧɧɵɦɢ (ɫɦ. ɧɢɠɟ).
ɉɚɪɚɦɟɬɪɵ ɬɟɪɦɨɫɮɟɪɵ ɦɨɝɭɬ ɪɚɫɫɱɢɬɵɜɚɬɶɫɹ ɞɜɭɦɹ ɫɩɨɫɨɛɚɦɢ: ɫ ɢɫɩɨɥɶɡɨɜɚɧɢɟɦ ɷɦɩɢɪɢɱɟɫɤɨɣ
ɦɨɞɟɥɢ MSISE (ɜ ɧɚɫɬɨɹɳɟɣ ɪɚɛɨɬɟ ɪɚɫɱɟɬɵ ɩɪɨɜɨɞɹɬɫɹ ɫ MSISE-2000) ɢ ɫ ɬɟɨɪɟɬɢɱɟɫɤɨɣ ɦɨɞɟɥɶɸ, ɤɨɝɞɚ ɜ
ɤɚɱɟɫɬɜɟ ɧɚɱɚɥɶɧɵɯ ɢ ɧɢɠɧɢɯ ɝɪɚɧɢɱɧɵɯ ɭɫɥɨɜɢɣ ɢɫɩɨɥɶɡɭɟɬɫɹ MSISE, ɚ ɪɚɫɱɟɬ ɩɚɪɚɦɟɬɪɨɜ ɬɟɪɦɨɫɮɟɪɵ
ɨɫɭɳɟɫɬɜɥɹɟɬɫɹ ɱɢɫɥɟɧɧɵɦ ɢɧɬɟɝɪɢɪɨɜɚɧɢɟɦ ɫɨɨɬɜɟɬɫɬɜɭɸɳɢɯ ɭɪɚɜɧɟɧɢɣ ɞɥɹ ɧɟɣɬɪɚɥɶɧɵɯ ɤɨɦɩɨɧɟɧɬ.
Ɇɨɞɟɥɶ ɜɟɪɯɧɟɣ ɚɬɦɨɫɮɟɪɵ Ɂɟɦɥɢ ɬɚɤɠɟ ɩɨɡɜɨɥɹɟɬ ɜɚɪɶɢɪɨɜɚɬɶ ɫ ɤɨɦɛɢɧɚɰɢɹɦɢ ɩɪɨɰɟɫɫɨɜ:
ɨɬɤɥɸɱɚɬɶ ɢɥɢ ɩɨɞɤɥɸɱɚɬɶ ɬɟɪɦɨɫɮɟɪɧɵɣ ɜɟɬɟɪ, ɷɥɟɤɬɪɨɦɚɝɧɢɬɧɵɣ ɞɪɟɣɮ, ɞɢɧɚɦɨ-ɩɨɥɟ ɢ ɬ.ɞ.
147
Ʉɧɹɡɟɜɚ Ɇ.Ⱥ., ɇɚɦɝɚɥɚɞɡɟ Ⱥ.Ⱥ. Ɇɚɬɟɦɚɬɢɱɟɫɤɨɟ ɦɨɞɟɥɢɪɨɜɚɧɢɟ ɮɨɪɦɢɪɨɜɚɧɢɹ…
ȼ ɧɚɫɬɨɹɳɟɣ ɪɚɛɨɬɟ ɩɪɨɚɧɚɥɢɡɢɪɨɜɚɧɵ ɦɨɞɟɥɶɧɵɟ ɪɚɫɱɟɬɵ ɤɨɧɰɟɧɬɪɚɰɢɢ ɷɥɟɤɬɪɨɧɨɜ,
ɜɵɩɨɥɧɟɧɧɵɟ ɜ 4 ɜɚɪɢɚɧɬɚɯ: 1) ɫ ɬɟɪɦɨɫɮɟɪɧɵɦ ɜɟɬɪɨɦ ɢ ɞɪɟɣɮɨɦ EuB; 2) ɫ ɜɟɬɪɨɦ, ɧɨ ɛɟɡ ɞɪɟɣɮɚ;
3) ɛɟɡ ɬɟɪɦɨɫɮɟɪɧɨɝɨ ɜɟɬɪɚ, ɧɨ ɫ ɞɪɟɣɮɨɦ; 4) ɛɟɡ ɜɟɬɪɚ ɢ ɞɪɟɣɮɚ. ɐɟɥɶɸ ɚɧɚɥɢɡɚ ɹɜɥɹɟɬɫɹ ɨɰɟɧɤɚ
ɨɬɧɨɫɢɬɟɥɶɧɨɣ ɪɨɥɢ ɜɟɬɪɚ ɢ ɞɪɟɣɮɚ ɜ ɮɨɪɦɢɪɨɜɚɧɢɢ ɧɨɱɧɵɯ ɫɪɟɞɧɟɲɢɪɨɬɧɵɯ ɦɚɤɫɢɦɭɦɨɜ ɜ
ɷɥɟɤɬɪɨɧɧɨɣ ɤɨɧɰɟɧɬɪɚɰɢɢ ɞɥɹ ɫɩɨɤɨɣɧɵɯ ɝɟɨɦɚɝɧɢɬɧɵɯ ɭɫɥɨɜɢɣ ɩɪɢ ɜɵɫɨɤɨɣ ɫɨɥɧɟɱɧɨɣ ɚɤɬɢɜɧɨɫɬɢ.
2. Ɇɨɞɟɥɶɧɵɟ ɪɚɫɱɟɬɵ
Ɇɨɞɟɥɶɧɵɟ ɪɚɫɱɟɬɵ ɩɪɨɜɨɞɢɥɢɫɶ ɞɥɹ ɭɫɥɨɜɢɣ ɪɚɜɧɨɞɟɧɫɬɜɢɹ ɩɪɢ ɜɵɫɨɤɨɣ ɫɨɥɧɟɱɧɨɣ ɚɤɬɢɜɧɨɫɬɢ
(14-16 ɚɩɪɟɥɹ 2002 ɝ.) ɫ ɢɫɩɨɥɶɡɨɜɚɧɢɟɦ ɷɦɩɢɪɢɱɟɫɤɨɣ ɦɨɞɟɥɢ MSISE-2000 ɜɨ ɜɫɟɯ 4-ɯ ɜɚɪɢɚɧɬɚɯ.
ɑɢɫɥɟɧɧɚɹ ɩɪɨɫɬɪɚɧɫɬɜɟɧɧɚɹ ɫɟɬɤɚ ɛɵɥɚ ɩɨɫɬɪɨɟɧɚ ɫɥɟɞɭɸɳɢɦ ɨɛɪɚɡɨɦ. ɒɚɝɢ ɢɧɬɟɝɪɢɪɨɜɚɧɢɹ
ɩɨ ɜɵɫɨɬɟ ɩɟɪɟɦɟɧɧɵɟ: ɦɟɧɹɸɬɫɹ ɩɨ ɧɚɪɚɫɬɚɸɳɟɣ (ɨɬ 1-3 ɤɦ ɧɚ ɜɵɫɨɬɚɯ ɧɢɠɟ 100 ɤɦ ɢ ɞɨ 30 ɤɦ ɢ ɛɨɥɟɟ
ɧɚ ɜɵɫɨɬɚɯ ɜɵɲɟ 400 ɤɦ). ɒɚɝɢ ɢɧɬɟɝɪɢɪɨɜɚɧɢɹ ɩɨ ɝɟɨɦɚɝɧɢɬɧɨɣ ɲɢɪɨɬɟ ɬɚɤɠɟ ɩɟɪɟɦɟɧɧɵɟ: ɨɬ 2° ɞɨ 5°
ɞɥɹ ɨɛɥɚɫɬɢ "ɬɪɭɛɤɢ" ɢ ɨɬ 2° ɞɨ 10° ɞɥɹ ɨɛɥɚɫɬɢ "ɲɚɪɚ" (ɫɨ ɫɝɭɳɟɧɢɟɦ ɫɟɬɤɢ ɜɛɥɢɡɢ ɚɜɪɨɪɚɥɶɧɨɣ ɡɨɧɵ).
ɒɚɝ ɢɧɬɟɝɪɢɪɨɜɚɧɢɹ ɩɨ ɝɟɨɦɚɝɧɢɬɧɨɣ ɞɨɥɝɨɬɟ ɩɨɫɬɨɹɧɧɵɣ (15°).
ɒɚɝɢ ɢɧɬɟɝɪɢɪɨɜɚɧɢɹ ɩɨ ɜɪɟɦɟɧɢ ɩɨɫɬɨɹɧɧɵ: ɞɥɹ ɨɛɥɚɫɬɢ "ɲɚɪɚ" – 4 ɦɢɧɭɬɵ, ɞɥɹ ɨɛɥɚɫɬɢ
"ɬɪɭɛɤɢ" – 2 ɦɢɧɭɬɵ.
Ɋɢɫ. 8.1. Ɋɚɫɫɱɢɬɚɧɧɵɟ ɲɢɪɨɬɧɨ-ɞɨɥɝɨɬɧɵɟ ɪɚɫɩɪɟɞɟɥɟɧɢɹ Lg (Ne, m-3)
ɞɥɹ 00:00 ɢ 06:00 UT ɧɚ ɜɵɫɨɬɟ 300 ɤɦ (ɜɚɪɢɚɧɬɵ ɪɚɫɱɟɬɨɜ 1-4 ɫɜɟɪɯɭ ɜɧɢɡ)
148
ȼɟɫɬɧɢɤ ɆȽɌɍ, ɬɨɦ 8, ʋ1, 2005 ɝ.
ɫɬɪ.144-155
Ɂɚ ɧɚɱɚɥɶɧɵɟ ɭɫɥɨɜɢɹ ɜɵɛɪɚɧɨ ɫɨɫɬɨɹɧɢɟ ɧɚ ɦɨɦɟɧɬ ɜɪɟɦɟɧɢ 24:00 UT 31 ɦɚɪɬɚ 2001 ɝ., ɬɚɤ ɤɚɤ
ɞɚɧɧɚɹ ɞɚɬɚ ɩɨ ɝɟɥɢɨ- ɢ ɝɟɨɮɢɡɢɱɟɫɤɢɦ ɭɫɥɨɜɢɹɦ ɛɥɢɡɤɚ ɤ ɦɨɞɟɥɢɪɭɟɦɵɦ ɞɧɹɦ.
ɉɪɨɰɟɫɫ ɨɬɤɥɸɱɟɧɢɹ ɬɟɪɦɨɫɮɟɪɧɨɝɨ ɜɟɬɪɚ ɜ UAM ɫɨɨɬɜɟɬɫɬɜɭɟɬ ɦɨɞɟɥɶɧɨɦɭ ɪɚɫɱɟɬɭ, ɜ ɤɨɬɨɪɨɦ
ɧɟ ɪɟɲɚɸɬɫɹ ɭɪɚɜɧɟɧɢɹ ɞɜɢɠɟɧɢɹ ɧɟɣɬɪɚɥɶɧɨɝɨ ɝɚɡɚ, ɚ ɜ ɞɪɭɝɢɟ ɭɪɚɜɧɟɧɢɹ, ɤɭɞɚ ɜɯɨɞɢɬ ɫɤɨɪɨɫɬɶ
ɬɟɪɦɨɫɮɟɪɧɨɝɨ ɜɟɬɪɚ, ɨɧɚ ɩɨɥɚɝɚɟɬɫɹ ɪɚɜɧɨɣ ɧɭɥɸ.
Ⱥɧɚɥɨɝɢɱɧɨ ɨɫɭɳɟɫɬɜɥɹɟɬɫɹ ɩɪɨɰɟɫɫ ɨɬɤɥɸɱɟɧɢɹ ɷɥɟɤɬɪɨɦɚɝɧɢɬɧɨɝɨ ɞɪɟɣɮɚ – ɜɨ ɜɫɟɯ
ɭɪɚɜɧɟɧɢɹɯ, ɤɭɞɚ ɜɯɨɞɢɬ ɷɥɟɤɬɪɢɱɟɫɤɨɟ ɩɨɥɟ, ɨɧɨ ɩɨɥɚɝɚɟɬɫɹ ɪɚɜɧɵɦ ɧɭɥɸ.
Ⱦɥɹ ɚɧɚɥɢɡɚ ɦɨɞɟɥɶɧɵɯ ɪɚɫɱɟɬɨɜ ɞɥɹ ɜɫɟɯ 4-ɯ ɜɚɪɢɚɧɬɨɜ ɪɚɫɱɟɬɨɜ ɢ ɦɨɞɟɥɢɪɭɟɦɵɯ ɞɧɟɣ ɛɵɥɢ
ɩɨɫɬɪɨɟɧɵ ɝɥɨɛɚɥɶɧɵɟ ɤɚɪɬɵ ɪɚɫɩɪɟɞɟɥɟɧɢɹ ɤɨɧɰɟɧɬɪɚɰɢɢ ɷɥɟɤɬɪɨɧɨɜ ɧɚ ɜɵɫɨɬɟ 300 ɤɦ.
ɇɚ ɪɢɫ. 8.1 ɢ ɪɢɫ. 8.2 ɩɨɫɬɪɨɟɧɵ ɝɥɨɛɚɥɶɧɵɟ ɪɚɫɩɪɟɞɟɥɟɧɢɹ LgNe ɜ ɝɟɨɦɚɝɧɢɬɧɵɯ ɤɨɨɪɞɢɧɚɬɚɯ ɧɚ
ɜɵɫɨɬɟ 300 ɤɦ ɞɥɹ ɱɟɬɵɪɟɯ ɦɨɦɟɧɬɨɜ ɜɪɟɦɟɧɢ 00:00, 06:00, 12:00 ɢ 18:00 UT, ɫɨɨɬɜɟɬɫɬɜɭɸɳɢɟ ɜɚɪɢɚɧɬɚɦ
ɪɚɫɱɟɬɨɜ 1-4 (ɫɜɟɪɯɭ ɜɧɢɡ). ɇɚ ɤɚɪɬɚɯ ɨɬɦɟɱɟɧɵ ɩɨɥɨɠɟɧɢɟ ɩɨɞɫɨɥɧɟɱɧɨɣ ɬɨɱɤɢ (ɤɪɭɠɤɨɦ ɫ ɬɨɱɤɨɣ),
ɩɨɥɭɞɟɧɧɨ-ɩɨɥɭɧɨɱɧɵɣ ɝɟɨɝɪɚɮɢɱɟɫɤɢɣ ɦɟɪɢɞɢɚɧ, ɥɢɧɢɹ ɬɟɪɦɢɧɚɬɨɪɚ ɢ ɝɟɨɝɪɚɮɢɱɟɫɤɢɣ ɷɤɜɚɬɨɪ.
ɋɪɟɞɧɟɲɢɪɨɬɧɵɟ ɧɨɱɧɵɟ ɦɚɤɫɢɦɭɦɵ ɯɨɪɨɲɨ ɜɢɞɧɵ ɧɚ ɤɚɪɬɚɯ, ɫɨɨɬɜɟɬɫɬɜɭɸɳɢɯ ɜɚɪɢɚɧɬɚɦ
ɪɚɫɱɟɬɨɜ 1 ɢ 2 ɫ ɬɟɪɦɨɫɮɟɪɧɵɦ ɜɟɬɪɨɦ (ɞɜɟ ɫɚɦɵɟ ɜɟɪɯɧɢɟ ɩɚɧɟɥɢ). Ʌɭɱɲɟ ɜɫɟɝɨ ɦɚɤɫɢɦɭɦɵ
ɩɪɨɫɦɚɬɪɢɜɚɸɬɫɹ ɞɥɹ ɦɨɦɟɧɬɨɜ ɜɪɟɦɟɧɢ 00:00, 12:00 ɢ 18:00 UT, ɯɭɠɟ ɜɫɟɝɨ ɞɥɹ 06:00 UT. Ɂɚɦɟɬɧɚ
Ɋɢɫ. 8.2. Ɋɚɫɫɱɢɬɚɧɧɵɟ ɲɢɪɨɬɧɨ-ɞɨɥɝɨɬɧɵɟ ɪɚɫɩɪɟɞɟɥɟɧɢɹ Lg (Ne, m-3)
ɞɥɹ 12:00 ɢ 18:00 UT ɧɚ ɜɵɫɨɬɟ 300 ɤɦ (ɜɚɪɢɚɧɬɵ ɪɚɫɱɟɬɨɜ 1-4 ɫɜɟɪɯɭ ɜɧɢɡ)
149
Ʉɧɹɡɟɜɚ Ɇ.Ⱥ., ɇɚɦɝɚɥɚɞɡɟ Ⱥ.Ⱥ. Ɇɚɬɟɦɚɬɢɱɟɫɤɨɟ ɦɨɞɟɥɢɪɨɜɚɧɢɟ ɮɨɪɦɢɪɨɜɚɧɢɹ…
ɚɫɢɦɦɟɬɪɢɹ ɦɟɠɞɭ ɫɟɜɟɪɧɵɦ ɢ ɸɠɧɵɦ ɩɨɥɭɲɚɪɢɹɦɢ: ɜ ɫɟɜɟɪɧɨɦ ɪɚɫɫɦɚɬɪɢɜɚɟɦɵɟ ɨɛɥɚɫɬɢ ɩɨɜɵɲɟɧɧɨɣ
ɷɥɟɤɬɪɨɧɧɨɣ ɤɨɧɰɟɧɬɪɚɰɢɢ ɱɟɬɱɟ ɜɢɞɧɵ, ɱɟɦ ɜ ɸɠɧɨɦ. Ⱦɥɹ ɦɨɦɟɧɬɨɜ ɜɪɟɦɟɧɢ 00:00 ɢ 18:00 UT ɜ
ɫɟɜɟɪɧɨɦ ɩɨɥɭɲɚɪɢɢ ɫɪɟɞɧɟɲɢɪɨɬɧɵɟ ɧɨɱɧɵɟ ɦɚɤɫɢɦɭɦɵ ɫɦɟɳɟɧɵ ɨɬ ɝɟɨɦɚɝɧɢɬɧɨɝɨ ɷɤɜɚɬɨɪɚ ɛɥɢɠɟ ɤ
ɩɨɥɸɫɭ (ɫɪɟɞɧɟɟ ɩɨ ɭɤɚɡɚɧɧɵɦ ɦɨɦɟɧɬɚɦ ɜɪɟɦɟɧɢ ɪɚɫɩɨɥɨɠɟɧɢɟ ɜ ɫɟɜɟɪɧɨɦ ɩɨɥɭɲɚɪɢɢ ɨɤɨɥɨ 40°
ɝɟɨɦɚɝɧɢɬɧɨɣ ɲɢɪɨɬɵ, ɜ ɸɠɧɨɦ – 25°-30°). Ⱦɥɹ ɦɨɦɟɧɬɚ 06:00 UT – ɧɚɨɛɨɪɨɬ (ɜ ɫɟɜɟɪɧɨɦ – 25°
ɝɟɨɦɚɝɧɢɬɧɨɣ ɲɢɪɨɬɵ, ɜ ɸɠɧɨɦ – 35°). Ⱦɥɹ ɦɨɦɟɧɬɚ ɜɪɟɦɟɧɢ 12:00 UT ɞɥɹ ɪɚɫɱɟɬɚ 1 ɫ ɜɟɬɪɨɦ ɢ ɞɪɟɣɮɨɦ
– ɢɯ ɲɢɪɨɬɧɨɟ ɩɨɥɨɠɟɧɢɟ ɩɨɱɬɢ ɫɢɦɦɟɬɪɢɱɧɨ (ɨɤɨɥɨ 30° ɝɟɨɦɚɝɧɢɬɧɨɣ ɲɢɪɨɬɵ ɞɥɹ ɨɛɨɢɯ ɩɨɥɭɲɚɪɢɣ).
ɏɚɪɚɤɬɟɪɧɨɣ ɨɫɨɛɟɧɧɨɫɬɶɸ ɫɪɟɞɧɟɲɢɪɨɬɧɵɯ ɨɛɥɚɫɬɟɣ ɩɨɜɵɲɟɧɧɨɣ ɷɥɟɤɬɪɨɧɧɨɣ ɤɨɧɰɟɧɬɪɚɰɢɢ
ɹɜɥɹɟɬɫɹ ɢɯ ɜɵɬɹɧɭɬɨɫɬɶ ɩɨ ɞɨɥɝɨɬɟ. Ɉɬɱɺɬɥɢɜɨ ɜɢɞɧɚ ɡɚɜɢɫɢɦɨɫɬɶ ɨɬ ɦɟɫɬɧɨɝɨ ɜɪɟɦɟɧɢ (MLT-ɜɚɪɢɚɰɢɹ),
ɤɨɬɨɪɚɹ ɩɪɨɹɜɥɹɟɬɫɹ ɜ ɫɦɟɳɟɧɢɢ ɪɚɫɫɦɚɬɪɢɜɚɟɦɵɯ ɨɛɥɚɫɬɟɣ ɩɨɜɵɲɟɧɧɨɣ ɷɥɟɤɬɪɨɧɧɨɣ ɤɨɧɰɟɧɬɪɚɰɢɢ ɫ
ɝɟɨɦɚɝɧɢɬɧɵɯ ɲɢɪɨɬ 45°-50° ɧɚ ɲɢɪɨɬɵ 20°-25° ɩɪɢ ɩɟɪɟɯɨɞɟ ɨɬ ɜɟɱɟɪɧɢɯ ɱɚɫɨɜ ɤ ɩɨɫɥɟɩɨɥɭɧɨɱɧɵɦ.
Ɋɚɡɥɢɱɢɹ ɜ ɲɢɪɨɬɧɨɦ ɩɨɥɨɠɟɧɢɢ, ɮɨɪɦɟ ɢ ɫɬɪɭɤɬɭɪɟ ɫɪɟɞɧɟɲɢɪɨɬɧɵɯ ɧɨɱɧɵɯ ɦɚɤɫɢɦɭɦɨɜ ɜ
ɪɚɡɥɢɱɧɵɟ ɦɨɦɟɧɬɵ UT ɩɨɡɜɨɥɹɸɬ ɫɞɟɥɚɬɶ ɜɵɜɨɞ ɨɛ ɢɯ ɫɢɥɶɧɨɣ ɡɚɜɢɫɢɦɨɫɬɢ ɨɬ ɦɢɪɨɜɨɝɨ ɜɪɟɦɟɧɢ, ɬɨ
ɟɫɬɶ ɨ ɧɚɥɢɱɢɢ UT-ɷɮɮɟɤɬɚ, ɫɜɹɡɚɧɧɨɝɨ ɫ ɧɟɫɨɜɩɚɞɟɧɢɟɦ ɝɟɨɝɪɚɮɢɱɟɫɤɨɝɨ ɢ ɝɟɨɦɚɝɧɢɬɧɨɝɨ ɩɨɥɸɫɨɜ.
ȼ ɜɚɪɢɚɧɬɚɯ ɪɚɫɱɟɬɚ ɛɟɡ ɜɟɬɪɨɜ (3, 4) ɫɪɟɞɧɟɲɢɪɨɬɧɵɟ ɦɚɤɫɢɦɭɦɵ ɨɬɫɭɬɫɬɜɭɸɬ ɢ ɫɥɚɛɨ
ɜɵɪɚɠɟɧɚ UT-ɡɚɜɢɫɢɦɨɫɬɶ.
ɇɚɥɢɱɢɟ ɷɥɟɤɬɪɨɦɚɝɧɢɬɧɨɝɨ ɞɪɟɣɮɚ ɩɪɢɧɰɢɩɢɚɥɶɧɨ ɧɚ ɫɪɟɞɧɟɲɢɪɨɬɧɵɟ ɦɚɤɫɢɦɭɦɵ
ɷɥɟɤɬɪɨɧɧɨɣ ɤɨɧɰɟɧɬɪɚɰɢɢ ɧɟ ɜɥɢɹɟɬ. ɉɪɢ ɫɪɚɜɧɟɧɢɢ ɜɚɪɢɚɧɬɨɜ ɪɚɫɱɟɬɚ 1 ɢ 2 (ɨɛɚ ɫ ɜɟɬɪɨɦ, ɨɬɥɢɱɚɸɬɫɹ
Ɋɢɫ. 9. Ɋɚɫɫɱɢɬɚɧɧɵɟ ɜɵɫɨɬɧɨ-ɲɢɪɨɬɧɵɟ ɪɚɫɩɪɟɞɟɥɟɧɢɹ Lg (Ne, m-3)
ɜɞɨɥɶ ɦɚɝɧɢɬɧɨɝɨ ɦɟɪɢɞɢɚɧɚ MLT = 00:30 ɞɥɹ 00:00 UT ɞɥɹ ɞɢɚɩɚɡɨɧɨɜ ɜɵɫɨɬ
h = 200÷1000 ɤɦ (ɫɥɟɜɚ) ɢ h = 800÷3000 ɤɦ (ɫɩɪɚɜɚ) (ɜɚɪɢɚɧɬɵ ɪɚɫɱɟɬɨɜ 1-4 ɫɜɟɪɯɭ ɜɧɢɡ)
150
ȼɟɫɬɧɢɤ ɆȽɌɍ, ɬɨɦ 8, ʋ1, 2005 ɝ.
ɫɬɪ.144-155
ɧɚɥɢɱɢɟɦ ɞɪɟɣɮɚ) ɜɢɞɧɨ, ɱɬɨ ɜ ɜɚɪɢɚɧɬɟ ɫ ɞɪɟɣɮɨɦ (1) ɪɚɫɫɦɚɬɪɢɜɚɟɦɵɟ ɨɛɥɚɫɬɢ ɢɦɟɸɬ ɛɨɥɟɟ
ɫɝɥɚɠɟɧɧɵɟ ɤɨɧɬɭɪɵ ɢ ɦɟɧɶɲɟ ɧɟɨɞɧɨɪɨɞɧɨɫɬɟɣ, ɬ.ɟ. ɞɪɟɣɮ ɜ ɨɫɧɨɜɧɨɦ ɜɥɢɹɟɬ ɧɚ ɮɨɪɦɭ
ɫɪɟɞɧɟɲɢɪɨɬɧɵɯ ɦɚɤɫɢɦɭɦɨɜ, ɜ ɱɚɫɬɧɨɫɬɢ, ɨɩɪɟɞɟɥɹɟɬ ɩɨɥɨɠɟɧɢɟ ɢ ɤɪɭɬɢɡɧɭ ɩɪɢɩɨɥɸɫɧɵɯ "ɫɬɟɧɨɤ"
ɨɛɥɚɫɬɟɣ ɩɨɜɵɲɟɧɧɨɣ ɷɥɟɤɬɪɨɧɧɨɣ ɤɨɧɰɟɧɬɪɚɰɢɢ, ɧɟ ɹɜɥɹɹɫɶ ɩɪɢɱɢɧɨɣ ɜɨɡɧɢɤɧɨɜɟɧɢɹ ɷɬɢɯ ɨɛɥɚɫɬɟɣ.
Ⱦɥɹ ɨɰɟɧɤɢ ɜɵɫɨɬɧɵɯ ɪɚɡɦɟɪɨɜ ɨɛɥɚɫɬɟɣ ɩɨɜɵɲɟɧɧɨɣ ɷɥɟɤɬɪɨɧɧɨɣ ɤɨɧɰɟɧɬɪɚɰɢɢ,
ɤɨɧɬɪɨɥɢɪɭɟɦɵɯ ɦɚɝɧɢɬɧɵɦ ɩɨɥɟɦ Ɂɟɦɥɢ, ɛɵɥɢ ɜɵɛɪɚɧɵ ɢ ɩɨɫɬɪɨɟɧɵ ɧɨɱɧɵɟ ɲɢɪɨɬɧɨ-ɜɵɫɨɬɧɵɟ
ɦɟɪɢɞɢɨɧɚɥɶɧɵɟ ɪɚɡɪɟɡɵ LgNe (ɪɢɫ. 9) ɞɥɹ ɦɨɦɟɧɬɚ 00:00 UT 16 ɚɩɪɟɥɹ 2002 ɝ. ɧɚ ɦɚɝɧɢɬɧɨɦ ɦɟɪɢɞɢɚɧɟ
MLT 00:30. ɇɚ ɪɢɫ. 9 ɦɟɪɢɞɢɨɧɚɥɶɧɵɟ ɪɚɡɪɟɡɵ ɩɪɟɞɫɬɚɜɥɟɧɵ ɞɥɹ ɞɜɭɯ ɩɟɪɟɤɪɵɜɚɸɳɢɯɫɹ ɞɢɚɩɚɡɨɧɨɜ
ɜɵɫɨɬ: ɨɬ 200 ɞɨ 1000 ɤɦ ɢ ɨɬ 800 ɞɨ 3000 ɤɦ. ɇɚ ɪɚɡɪɟɡɚɯ ɧɚɧɟɫɟɧɵ ɫɢɥɨɜɵɟ ɥɢɧɢɢ ɝɟɨɦɚɝɧɢɬɧɨɝɨ ɩɨɥɹ.
ȼ ɪɚɫɱɟɬɚɯ ɛɟɡ ɜɟɬɪɨɜ (ɜɚɪɢɚɧɬɵ 3, 4 – ɧɢɠɧɢɟ ɩɚɧɟɥɢ ɧɚ ɪɢɫ. 9) ɪɚɫɩɪɟɞɟɥɟɧɢɟ ɷɥɟɤɬɪɨɧɧɨɣ
ɤɨɧɰɟɧɬɪɚɰɢɢ ɜ ɨɛɨɢɯ ɞɢɚɩɚɡɨɧɚɯ ɜɵɫɨɬ ɢɦɟɟɬ ɤɭɩɨɥɨɨɛɪɚɡɧɭɸ ɮɨɪɦɭ (ɦɚɤɫɢɦɭɦ ɩɪɨɟɰɢɪɭɟɬɫɹ ɧɚ ɷɤɜɚɬɨɪ).
ȼ ɪɚɫɱɟɬɟ ɫ ɜɟɬɪɚɦɢ, ɧɨ ɛɟɡ ɷɥɟɤɬɪɨɦɚɝɧɢɬɧɨɝɨ ɞɪɟɣɮɚ (ɜɚɪɢɚɧɬ 2) ɫɪɟɞɧɟɲɢɪɨɬɧɵɟ ɧɨɱɧɵɟ
ɦɚɤɫɢɦɭɦɵ, ɨɬɦɟɱɟɧɧɵɟ ɧɚ ɝɥɨɛɚɥɶɧɵɯ ɤɚɪɬɚɯ ɪɚɫɩɪɟɞɟɥɟɧɢɹ LgNe ɧɚ ɜɵɫɨɬɟ 300 ɤɦ, ɩɪɨɹɜɥɹɸɬɫɹ ɜ ɜɢɞɟ
ɨɛɥɚɫɬɟɣ ɩɨɜɵɲɟɧɧɨɣ ɷɥɟɤɬɪɨɧɧɨɣ ɤɨɧɰɟɧɬɪɚɰɢɢ, ɨɪɢɟɧɬɢɪɨɜɚɧɧɵɯ ɩɨ ɝɟɨɦɚɝɧɢɬɧɨɦɭ ɩɨɥɸ. ɗɬɢ ɨɛɥɚɫɬɢ ɧɚ
ɦɟɪɢɞɢɨɧɚɥɶɧɵɯ ɪɚɡɪɟɡɚɯ ɞɥɹ ɨɛɨɢɯ ɞɢɚɩɚɡɨɧɨɜ ɜɵɫɨɬ ɩɪɟɞɫɬɚɜɥɹɸɬ ɫɨɛɨɣ ɜɵɫɬɭɩɵ ɢɡɨɥɢɧɢɣ ɷɥɟɤɬɪɨɧɨɜ: ɜ
Ɋɢɫ. 10. Ɋɚɫɫɱɢɬɚɧɧɵɟ ɜɵɫɨɬɧɨ-ɲɢɪɨɬɧɵɟ ɪɚɫɩɪɟɞɟɥɟɧɢɹ Lg (Ne, m-3) ɜɞɨɥɶ ɦɚɝɧɢɬɧɨɝɨ ɦɟɪɢɞɢɚɧɚ
MLT = 00:30 ɞɥɹ 24:00 UT ɞɥɹ ɞɢɚɩɚɡɨɧɨɜ ɜɵɫɨɬ 200÷1000 ɤɦ (2 ɜɟɪɯɧɢɟ ɩɚɧɟɥɢ) ɢ 800÷3000 ɤɦ (2 ɧɢɠɧɢɟ
ɩɚɧɟɥɢ). ȼɚɪɢɚɧɬɵ 1-4 ɨɬɥɢɱɚɸɬɫɹ ɤɨɦɛɢɧɚɰɢɟɣ ɜɟɬɪɚ ɢ ɞɪɟɣɮɚ ɢ ɧɚɱɚɥɶɧɵɦɢ ɭɫɥɨɜɢɹɦɢ (ɫɦ. ɜ ɬɟɤɫɬɟ)
151
Ʉɧɹɡɟɜɚ Ɇ.Ⱥ., ɇɚɦɝɚɥɚɞɡɟ Ⱥ.Ⱥ. Ɇɚɬɟɦɚɬɢɱɟɫɤɨɟ ɦɨɞɟɥɢɪɨɜɚɧɢɟ ɮɨɪɦɢɪɨɜɚɧɢɹ…
ɫɟɜɟɪɧɨɦ ɩɨɥɭɲɚɪɢɢ ɨɞɢɧ ɲɢɪɨɤɢɣ ɜɵɫɬɭɩ, ɪɚɫɬɹɧɭɬɵɣ ɩɨ ɝɟɨɦɚɝɧɢɬɧɨɣ ɲɢɪɨɬɟ (ɨɬ 30º ɞɨ 60º ɝɟɨɦɚɝɧɢɬɧɨɣ
ɲɢɪɨɬɵ), ɜ ɸɠɧɨɦ – ɞɜɚ ɜɵɫɬɭɩɚ, ɩɪɨɟɰɢɪɭɸɳɢɯɫɹ ɧɚ ɲɢɪɨɬɵ ɩɨɪɹɞɤɚ 25ºy30º ɢ 55ºy60º. ȼ ɜɵɫɨɬɭ ɩɨ
ɫɢɥɨɜɵɦ ɥɢɧɢɹɦ ɝɟɨɦɚɝɧɢɬɧɨɝɨ ɩɨɥɹ ɷɬɢ ɜɵɫɬɭɩɵ ɞɨɫɬɢɝɚɸɬ ɤɚɤ ɦɢɧɢɦɭɦ 2500 ɤɦ. Ɇɚɫɲɬɚɛ ɪɢɫɭɧɤɚ ɧɟ
ɩɨɡɜɨɥɹɟɬ ɩɪɨɫɥɟɞɢɬɶ ɞɨ ɤɚɤɢɯ ɩɪɟɞɟɥɶɧɵɯ ɜɵɫɨɬ ɩɪɨɬɹɝɢɜɚɸɬɫɹ ɨɛɥɚɫɬɢ ɩɨɜɵɲɟɧɧɨɣ ɷɥɟɤɬɪɨɧɧɨɣ
ɤɨɧɰɟɧɬɪɚɰɢɢ, ɬɚɤ ɤɚɤ ɡɧɚɱɟɧɢɹ ɤɨɧɰɟɧɬɪɚɰɢɢ ɧɚ ɛɨɥɶɲɢɯ ɜɵɫɨɬɚɯ ɫɥɢɲɤɨɦ ɦɚɥɵ, ɧɨ ɚɧɚɥɢɡ ɱɢɫɥɟɧɧɵɯ
ɪɟɡɭɥɶɬɚɬɨɜ ɩɨɤɚɡɵɜɚɟɬ, ɱɬɨ ɷɬɢ ɨɛɥɚɫɬɢ ɩɪɨɧɢɤɚɸɬ ɜ ɩɥɚɡɦɨɫɮɟɪɭ ɞɨ ɜɵɫɨɬ a 8000 ɤɦ.
ȼ ɪɚɫɱɟɬɟ ɫ ɜɟɬɪɚɦɢ ɢ ɞɪɟɣɮɨɦ (ɜɚɪɢɚɧɬ 1), ɷɮɮɟɤɬ ɷɥɟɤɬɪɨɦɚɝɧɢɬɧɨɝɨ ɞɪɟɣɮɚ ɩɪɨɹɜɥɹɟɬɫɹ ɜ
ɩɨɞɠɢɦɚɧɢɢ ɢɡɨɥɢɧɢɢ ɫ ɩɨɥɸɫɨɜ, ɱɬɨ ɩɪɢɜɨɞɢɬ ɤ ɫɠɚɬɢɸ ɜɵɫɬɭɩɚ ɜ ɫɟɜɟɪɧɨɦ ɩɨɥɭɲɚɪɢɢ ɢ ɢɫɱɟɡɧɨɜɟɧɢɸ
ɜɵɫɨɤɨɲɢɪɨɬɧɨɝɨ ɜɵɫɬɭɩɚ ɜ ɸɠɧɨɦ, ɢ ɭɜɟɥɢɱɟɧɢɸ ɝɥɭɛɢɧɵ ɩɪɨɜɚɥɚ (ɩɟɪɜɚɹ ɩɚɧɟɥɶ, ɩɪɚɜɵɣ ɪɚɡɪɟɡ ɧɚ
ɪɢɫ. 9), ɨɤɚɣɦɥɟɧɧɨɝɨ ɷɬɢɦɢ ɜɵɫɬɭɩɚɦɢ ɨɛɥɚɫɬɟɣ ɩɨɜɵɲɟɧɧɨɣ ɷɥɟɤɬɪɨɧɧɨɣ ɤɨɧɰɟɧɬɪɚɰɢɢ.
ɇɚ ɦɟɪɢɞɢɨɧɚɥɶɧɵɯ ɪɚɡɪɟɡɚɯ ɜ ɜɚɪɢɚɧɬɚɯ ɛɟɡ ɜɟɬɪɨɜ (3, 4) ɩɨɞɨɛɧɵɟ ɨɛɥɚɫɬɢ ɨɬɫɭɬɫɬɜɭɸɬ.
Ɍɚɤɢɦ ɨɛɪɚɡɨɦ, ɧɚɥɢɱɢɟ ɞɪɟɣɮɚ ɜ ɪɚɫɱɟɬɟ ɫ ɜɟɬɪɨɦ (1) ɩɪɢɧɰɢɩɢɚɥɶɧɨ ɧɚ ɨɛɥɚɫɬɢ ɩɨɜɵɲɟɧɧɨɣ
ɷɥɟɤɬɪɨɧɧɨɣ ɤɨɧɰɟɧɬɪɚɰɢɢ ɧɟ ɜɥɢɹɟɬ, ɚ ɬɨɥɶɤɨ ɨɝɪɚɧɢɱɢɜɚɟɬ ɢɯ ɫɨ ɫɬɨɪɨɧɵ ɜɵɫɨɤɢɯ ɲɢɪɨɬ.
Ɏɨɪɦɚ ɜɵɫɬɭɩɨɜ ɤɨɧɬɪɨɥɢɪɭɟɬɫɹ ɝɟɨɦɟɬɪɢɟɣ ɦɚɝɧɢɬɧɵɯ ɫɢɥɨɜɵɯ ɥɢɧɢɣ.
3. ɂɫɫɥɟɞɨɜɚɧɢɟ ɡɚɜɢɫɢɦɨɫɬɢ ɷɮɮɟɤɬɨɜ ɬɟɪɦɨɫɮɟɪɧɨɝɨ ɜɟɬɪɚ ɢ ɷɥɟɤɬɪɨɦɚɝɧɢɬɧɨɝɨ ɞɪɟɣɮɚ ɨɬ
ɧɚɱɚɥɶɧɵɯ ɭɫɥɨɜɢɣ
Ⱦɥɹ ɨɰɟɧɤɢ ɡɚɜɢɫɢɦɨɫɬɢ ɷɮɮɟɤɬɨɜ ɬɟɪɦɨɫɮɟɪɧɨɝɨ ɜɟɬɪɚ ɢ ɷɥɟɤɬɪɨɦɚɝɧɢɬɧɨɝɨ ɞɪɟɣɮɚ ɨɬ ɧɚɱɚɥɶɧɵɯ
ɭɫɥɨɜɢɣ ɛɵɥɢ ɩɪɨɜɟɞɟɧɵ ɦɨɞɟɥɶɧɵɟ ɪɚɫɱɟɬɵ ɟɳɟ ɨɞɧɢɯ ɫɭɬɨɤ (ɩɨɜɬɨɪɟɧɢɟ ɞɚɬɵ 16.04.2002), ɪɟɡɭɥɶɬɚɬɵ
ɤɨɬɨɪɵɯ ɩɪɟɞɫɬɚɜɥɟɧɵ ɧɚ ɪɢɫ. 10 ɜ ɜɢɞɟ ɲɢɪɨɬɧɨ-ɜɵɫɨɬɧɵɯ ɦɟɪɢɞɢɨɧɚɥɶɧɵɯ ɪɚɡɪɟɡɨɜ LgNe ɱɟɪɟɡ ɧɨɱɧɭɸ
ɫɬɨɪɨɧɭ ɞɥɹ ɦɨɦɟɧɬɚ ɜɪɟɦɟɧɢ 24:00 UT ɧɚ ɦɚɝɧɢɬɧɨɦ ɦɟɪɢɞɢɚɧɟ MLT 00:30 ɞɥɹ ɬɟɯ ɠɟ ɞɢɚɩɚɡɨɧɨɜ ɜɵɫɨɬ.
Ɋɚɫɱɟɬ 1 ɫɨɨɬɜɟɬɫɬɜɭɟɬ ɩɪɨɝɨɧɭ ɞɚɬɵ 16.04.2002 ɝ. ɫ ɜɟɬɪɨɦ ɢ ɷɥɟɤɬɪɨɦɚɝɧɢɬɧɵɦ ɞɪɟɣɮɨɦ; ɪɚɫɱɟɬ 2 –
ɩɪɨɞɨɥɠɟɧɢɟ ɪɚɫɱɟɬɚ 1, ɤɨɝɞɚ ɩɨɜɬɨɪɹɟɬɫɹ ɷɬɚ ɠɟ ɞɚɬɚ, ɧɨ ɫ ɨɬɤɥɸɱɟɧɧɵɦ ɞɪɟɣɮɨɦ; ɪɚɫɱɟɬ 4 – ɩɪɨɞɨɥɠɟɧɢɟ
ɪɚɫɱɟɬɚ 2, ɤɨɝɞɚ ɫɧɨɜɚ ɩɨɜɬɨɪɹɟɬɫɹ ɷɬɚ ɠɟ ɞɚɬɚ, ɧɨ ɜɦɟɫɬɟ ɫ ɞɪɟɣɮɨɦ ɨɬɤɥɸɱɚɟɬɫɹ ɢ ɜɟɬɟɪ; ɪɚɫɱɟɬ 3 –
ɩɪɨɞɨɥɠɟɧɢɟ ɪɚɫɱɟɬɚ 1 ɞɥɹ ɬɨɣ ɠɟ ɞɚɬɵ, ɧɨ ɫ ɨɬɤɥɸɱɟɧɧɵɦ ɜɟɬɪɨɦ. Ɍɚɤɢɦ ɨɛɪɚɡɨɦ, ɤɨɧɟɰ ɪɚɫɱɟɬɚ 1 ɹɜɥɹɟɬɫɹ
ɧɚɱɚɥɶɧɵɦ ɭɫɥɨɜɢɟɦ ɞɥɹ ɪɚɫɱɟɬɨɜ 2 ɢ 3, ɚ ɤɨɧɟɰ ɪɚɫɱɟɬɚ 2 ɹɜɥɹɟɬɫɹ ɧɚɱɚɥɶɧɵɦ ɭɫɥɨɜɢɟɦ ɞɥɹ ɪɚɫɱɟɬɚ 4.
Ⱥɧɚɥɢɡ ɩɨɥɭɱɟɧɧɵɯ ɪɟɡɭɥɶɬɚɬɨɜ ɦɨɞɟɥɶɧɵɯ ɪɚɫɱɟɬɨɜ ɩɨɞɬɜɟɪɠɞɚɟɬ ɨɬɧɨɫɢɬɟɥɶɧɭɸ ɪɨɥɶ
ɬɟɪɦɨɫɮɟɪɧɨɝɨ ɜɟɬɪɚ ɤɚɤ ɩɪɢɱɢɧɵ ɜɨɡɧɢɤɧɨɜɟɧɢɹ ɫɪɟɞɧɟɲɢɪɨɬɧɵɯ ɦɚɤɫɢɦɭɦɨɜ ɷɥɟɤɬɪɨɧɧɨɣ
ɤɨɧɰɟɧɬɪɚɰɢɢ: ɨɛɥɚɫɬɢ ɩɨɜɵɲɟɧɧɨɣ ɷɥɟɤɬɪɨɧɧɨɣ ɤɨɧɰɟɧɬɪɚɰɢɢ ɩɪɢɫɭɬɫɬɜɭɸɬ ɜ ɨɛɨɢɯ ɪɚɫɱɟɬɚɯ ɫ ɜɟɬɪɚɦɢ
(1 ɢ 2), ɚ ɨɬɤɥɸɱɟɧɢɟ ɜɟɬɪɚ ɜ ɪɚɫɱɟɬɚɯ 3 ɢ 4 ɩɪɢɜɨɞɢɬ ɤ ɢɫɱɟɡɧɨɜɟɧɢɸ ɪɚɫɫɦɚɬɪɢɜɚɟɦɵɯ ɨɛɥɚɫɬɟɣ.
Ɍɚɤɢɦ ɨɛɪɚɡɨɦ, ɧɚɱɚɥɶɧɵɟ ɭɫɥɨɜɢɹ ɤɚɱɟɫɬɜɟɧɧɨ ɧɟ ɜɥɢɹɸɬ ɧɚ ɮɨɪɦɢɪɨɜɚɧɢɟ ɨɛɥɚɫɬɟɣ
ɩɨɜɵɲɟɧɧɨɣ ɷɥɟɤɬɪɨɧɧɨɣ ɤɨɧɰɟɧɬɪɚɰɢɢ ɜ ɦɨɞɟɥɶɧɵɯ ɪɚɫɱɟɬɚɯ.
4. ɂɫɫɥɟɞɨɜɚɧɢɟ ɜɥɢɹɧɢɹ ɜɟɥɢɱɢɧɵ ɷɥɟɤɬɪɢɱɟɫɤɨɝɨ ɩɨɥɹ ɧɚ ɮɨɪɦɢɪɨɜɚɧɢɟ ɨɛɥɚɫɬɟɣ ɩɨɜɵɲɟɧɧɨɣ
ɷɥɟɤɬɪɨɧɧɨɣ ɤɨɧɰɟɧɬɪɚɰɢɢ
ȼ ɬɟɱɟɧɢɟ 16.04.2002 ɝ. ɪɚɡɧɨɫɬɶ ɩɨɬɟɧɰɢɚɥɨɜ ɱɟɪɟɡ ɩɨɥɹɪɧɭɸ ɲɚɩɤɭ, ɨɩɪɟɞɟɥɹɸɳɚɹ ɜɟɥɢɱɢɧɭ
ɷɥɟɤɬɪɢɱɟɫɤɨɝɨ ɩɨɥɹ, ɚ, ɫɥɟɞɨɜɚɬɟɥɶɧɨ, ɢ ɜɟɥɢɱɢɧɭ ɫɤɨɪɨɫɬɢ ɷɥɟɤɬɪɨɦɚɝɧɢɬɧɨɝɨ ɞɪɟɣɮɚ, ɧɟ ɹɜɥɹɥɚɫɶ
ɩɨɫɬɨɹɧɧɨɣ, ɚ ɢɡɦɟɧɹɥɚɫɶ ɨɬ 20 ɤȼ (ɜ ɦɢɧɢɦɭɦɟ) ɞɨ 60 ɤȼ (ɜ ɦɚɤɫɢɦɭɦɟ), ɫɨɝɥɚɫɧɨ ɞɚɧɧɵɦ ɧɚɛɥɸɞɟɧɢɹ ɫɨ
ɫɩɭɬɧɢɤɨɜ DMSP, ɤɨɬɨɪɵɟ ɛɵɥɢ ɢɫɩɨɥɶɡɨɜɚɧɵ ɜ ɦɨɞɟɥɢ ɜ ɤɚɱɟɫɬɜɟ ɜɯɨɞɧɵɯ ɩɚɪɚɦɟɬɪɨɜ. Ⱦɥɹ ɬɨɝɨ ɱɬɨɛɵ
ɨɰɟɧɢɬɶ ɜɥɢɹɧɢɟ ɜɟɥɢɱɢɧɵ ɫɤɨɪɨɫɬɢ ɷɥɟɤɬɪɨɦɚɝɧɢɬɧɨɝɨ ɞɪɟɣɮɚ ɧɚ ɮɨɪɦɢɪɨɜɚɧɢɟ ɨɛɥɚɫɬɟɣ ɩɨɜɵɲɟɧɧɨɣ
ɷɥɟɤɬɪɨɧɧɨɣ ɤɨɧɰɟɧɬɪɚɰɢɢ, ɛɵɥɢ ɩɪɨɜɟɞɟɧɵ ɪɚɫɱɟɬɵ ɞɥɹ 16.04.2002 ɝ. ɜ 4-ɯ ɜɚɪɢɚɧɬɚɯ: 1) ɫ ɬɟɪɦɨɫɮɟɪɧɵɦ
ɜɟɬɪɨɦ ɷɥɟɤɬɪɨɦɚɝɧɢɬɧɵɦ ɞɪɟɣɮɨɦ ɢ ɩɨɫɬɨɹɧɧɨɣ ɪɚɡɧɨɫɬɶɸ ɩɨɬɟɧɰɢɚɥɨɜ ɱɟɪɟɡ ɩɨɥɹɪɧɭɸ ɲɚɩɤɭ 20 ɤȼ;
2) ɛɟɡ ɜɟɬɪɚ, ɧɨ ɫ ɞɪɟɣɮɨɦ ɢ ɩɨɫɬɨɹɧɧɨɣ ɪɚɡɧɨɫɬɶɸ ɩɨɬɟɧɰɢɚɥɨɜ 20 ɤȼ; 3) ɫ ɜɟɬɪɨɦ ɢ ɞɪɟɣɮɨɦ ɢ ɩɨɫɬɨɹɧɧɨɣ
ɪɚɡɧɨɫɬɶɸ ɩɨɬɟɧɰɢɚɥɨɜ 60 ɤȼ; 4) ɛɟɡ ɜɟɬɪɚ, ɧɨ ɫ ɞɪɟɣɮɨɦ ɢ ɩɨɫɬɨɹɧɧɨɣ ɪɚɡɧɨɫɬɶɸ ɩɨɬɟɧɰɢɚɥɨɜ 60 ɤȼ.
ɇɚ ɪɢɫ. 11 ɩɪɟɞɫɬɚɜɥɟɧɵ ɲɢɪɨɬɧɨ-ɜɵɫɨɬɧɵɟ ɦɟɪɢɞɢɨɧɚɥɶɧɵɟ ɪɚɡɪɟɡɵ LgNe ɱɟɪɟɡ ɧɨɱɧɭɸ ɫɬɨɪɨɧɭ
ɞɥɹ ɦɨɦɟɧɬɚ ɜɪɟɦɟɧɢ 24:00 UT ɧɚ ɦɚɝɧɢɬɧɨɦ ɦɟɪɢɞɢɚɧɟ MLT 00:30 ɞɥɹ ɜɫɟɯ ɜɚɪɢɚɧɬɨɜ ɪɚɫɱɟɬɚ ɞɥɹ ɞɜɭɯ
ɜɵɫɨɬɧɵɯ ɞɢɚɩɚɡɨɧɨɜ: ɨɬ 200 ɞɨ 1000 ɤɦ ɢ ɨɬ 800 ɞɨ 3000 ɤɦ. Ʌɟɜɵɟ ɤɨɥɨɧɤɢ ɫɨɨɬɜɟɬɫɬɜɭɸɬ ɪɚɫɱɟɬɚɦ ɫ
ɩɨɫɬɨɹɧɧɨɣ ɪɚɡɧɨɫɬɶɸ ɩɨɬɟɧɰɢɚɥɨɜ 20 ɤȼ, ɩɪɚɜɵɟ – ɪɚɫɱɟɬɚɦ ɫ ɩɨɫɬɨɹɧɧɨɣ ɪɚɡɧɨɫɬɶɸ ɩɨɬɟɧɰɢɚɥɨɜ 60 ɤȼ.
Ʉɚɤ ɢ ɪɚɧɟɟ, ɨɛɥɚɫɬɢ ɩɨɜɵɲɟɧɧɨɣ ɷɥɟɤɬɪɨɧɧɨɣ ɤɨɧɰɟɧɬɪɚɰɢɢ ɨɬɦɟɱɚɸɬɫɹ ɬɨɥɶɤɨ ɜ ɜɚɪɢɚɧɬɚɯ
ɪɚɫɱɟɬɚ ɫ ɜɟɬɪɨɦ (ɩɚɧɟɥɢ 1 ɧɚ ɪɢɫ. 11.1 ɢ 11.2). ɉɪɢ ɫɪɚɜɧɟɧɢɢ ɪɟɡɭɥɶɬɚɬɨɜ ɪɚɫɱɟɬɨɜ ɫ ɩɨɫɬɨɹɧɧɵɦɢ
ɪɚɡɧɨɫɬɹɦɢ ɩɨɬɟɧɰɢɚɥɨɜ 20 ɤȼ ɢ 60 ɤȼ ɜɢɞɧɨ, ɱɬɨ, ɱɟɦ ɷɥɟɤɬɪɢɱɟɫɤɨɟ ɩɨɥɟ ɫɢɥɶɧɟɟ, ɬɟɦ ɛɨɥɶɲɟ
ɩɪɨɹɜɥɹɸɬɫɹ ɷɮɮɟɤɬɵ ɷɥɟɤɬɪɨɦɚɝɧɢɬɧɨɝɨ ɞɪɟɣɮɚ: ɭɫɢɥɟɧɢɟ ɫɠɢɦɚɧɢɹ ɢɡɨɥɢɧɢɣ ɫ ɩɨɥɸɫɨɜ (ɧɚ ɜɫɟɯ
ɩɚɧɟɥɹɯ ɩɪɚɜɵɯ ɤɨɥɨɧɨɤ ɫɬɟɩɟɧɶ ɫɠɚɬɢɹ ɜɵɲɟ, ɱɟɦ ɧɚ ɥɟɜɵɯ ɩɚɧɟɥɹɯ), ɚ ɧɚ ɪɚɡɪɟɡɚɯ ɞɥɹ h = 800y3000 ɤɦ
ɞɥɹ ɪɚɫɱɟɬɚ ɫ ɜɟɬɪɨɦ (ɩɚɧɟɥɶ 1 ɧɚ ɪɢɫ. 11.2) ɭɜɟɥɢɱɢɜɚɟɬɫɹ ɝɥɭɛɢɧɚ ɩɪɨɜɚɥɚ, ɨɤɚɣɦɥɟɧɧɨɝɨ ɜɵɫɬɭɩɚɦɢ
ɨɛɥɚɫɬɟɣ ɩɨɜɵɲɟɧɧɨɣ ɷɥɟɤɬɪɨɧɧɨɣ ɤɨɧɰɟɧɬɪɚɰɢɢ (ɤɨɧɰɟɧɬɪɚɰɢɹ ɷɥɟɤɬɪɨɧɨɜ ɢ ɜɵɫɨɬɧɨɟ ɩɨɥɨɠɟɧɢɟ ɷɬɢɯ
ɨɛɥɚɫɬɟɣ ɧɚ ɩɪɚɜɨɦ ɪɚɡɪɟɡɟ ɧɢɠɟ, ɱɟɦ ɧɚ ɥɟɜɨɦ).
Ɍɚɤɢɦ ɨɛɪɚɡɨɦ, ɧɚɥɢɱɢɟ ɢ ɜɟɥɢɱɢɧɚ ɞɪɟɣɮɚ ɜɥɢɹɟɬ ɬɨɥɶɤɨ ɧɚ ɮɨɪɦɭ ɨɛɥɚɫɬɟɣ ɩɨɜɵɲɟɧɧɨɣ
ɷɥɟɤɬɪɨɧɧɨɣ ɤɨɧɰɟɧɬɪɚɰɢɢ: ɢɯ ɲɢɪɨɬɧɭɸ ɩɪɨɬɹɠɟɧɧɨɫɬɶ ɢ ɜɵɫɨɬɭ, ɞɨ ɤɨɬɨɪɨɣ ɨɧɢ ɩɪɨɬɹɝɢɜɚɸɬɫɹ.
152
ȼɟɫɬɧɢɤ ɆȽɌɍ, ɬɨɦ 8, ʋ1, 2005 ɝ.
ɫɬɪ.144-155
5. ɉɪɟɞɩɨɥɚɝɚɟɦɵɣ ɦɟɯɚɧɢɡɦ ɮɨɪɦɢɪɨɜɚɧɢɹ ɨɛɥɚɫɬɟɣ ɩɨɜɵɲɟɧɧɨɣ ɷɥɟɤɬɪɨɧɧɨɣ ɤɨɧɰɟɧɬɪɚɰɢɢ ɧɚ
ɧɨɱɧɨɣ ɫɬɨɪɨɧɟ
Ⱦɢɚɩɚɡɨɧ ɜɵɫɨɬ ɨɬ 200 ɞɨ 1000 ɤɦ ɨɯɜɚɬɵɜɚɟɬ ɨɛɥɚɫɬɶ F2 ɢɨɧɨɫɮɟɪɵ, ɨɛɪɚɡɭɸɳɭɸɫɹ ɩɨɞ ɞɟɣɫɬɜɢɟɦ
ɫɨɥɧɟɱɧɨɝɨ ɭɥɶɬɪɚɮɢɨɥɟɬɨɜɨɝɨ ɢɡɥɭɱɟɧɢɹ ɜ ɞɢɚɩɚɡɨɧɟ ɞɥɢɧ ɜɨɥɧ 100 < O < 900 Å, ɢɨɧɢɡɢɪɭɸɳɟɝɨ ɜ ɨɫɧɨɜɧɨɦ
ɚɬɨɦɚɪɧɵɣ ɤɢɫɥɨɪɨɞ:
O + hQ o O+ + e.
(1)
ɂɨɧ Ɉ+ ɹɜɥɹɟɬɫɹ ɩɪɟɨɛɥɚɞɚɸɳɢɦ ɢɨɧɨɦ ɜ F2-ɨɛɥɚɫɬɢ. ɉɪɹɦɚɹ ɪɟɤɨɦɛɢɧɚɰɢɹ ɢɨɧɨɜ Ɉ+ ɢɞɟɬ ɨɱɟɧɶ
ɦɟɞɥɟɧɧɨ, ɩɨɷɬɨɦɭ ɨɫɧɨɜɧɵɦ ɦɟɯɚɧɢɡɦɨɦ ɢɯ ɢɫɱɟɡɧɨɜɟɧɢɹ ɹɜɥɹɟɬɫɹ ɞɜɭɯɫɬɭɩɟɧɱɚɬɵɣ ɩɪɨɰɟɫɫ: ɫɧɚɱɚɥɚ
ɩɟɪɟɪɚɛɨɬɤɚ ɢɨɧɨɜ Ɉ+ ɜ ɦɨɥɟɤɭɥɹɪɧɵɟ ɢɨɧɵ ɩɨɫɪɟɞɫɬɜɨɦ ɢɨɧɧɨ-ɦɨɥɟɤɭɥɹɪɧɵɯ ɪɟɚɤɰɢɣ ɫ Ɉ2 ɢ N2:
O+ + O2 o O2+ + O,
O+ + N2 o NO+ + N,
(2)
(3)
ɚ ɡɚɬɟɦ – ɛɵɫɬɪɚɹ ɞɢɫɫɨɰɢɚɬɢɜɧɚɹ ɪɟɤɨɦɛɢɧɚɰɢɹ ɨɛɪɚɡɨɜɚɜɲɢɯɫɹ ɦɨɥɟɤɭɥɹɪɧɵɯ ɢɨɧɨɜ:
Ɋɢɫ. 11. Ɋɚɫɫɱɢɬɚɧɧɵɟ ɜɵɫɨɬɧɨ-ɲɢɪɨɬɧɵɟ ɪɚɫɩɪɟɞɟɥɟɧɢɹ Lg (Ne, m-3) ɜɞɨɥɶ ɦɚɝɧɢɬɧɨɝɨ ɦɟɪɢɞɢɚɧɚ
MLT = 00:30 ɞɥɹ 24:00 UT ɞɥɹ ɞɢɚɩɚɡɨɧɨɜ ɜɵɫɨɬ 200÷1000 ɤɦ (2 ɜɟɪɯɧɢɟ ɩɚɧɟɥɢ) ɢ
800÷3000 ɤɦ (2 ɧɢɠɧɢɟ ɩɚɧɟɥɢ). ȼɚɪɢɚɧɬɵ 1-4 ɨɬɥɢɱɚɸɬɫɹ ɤɨɦɛɢɧɚɰɢɟɣ ɜɟɬɪɚ ɢ ɞɪɟɣɮɚ
ɢ ɡɧɚɱɟɧɢɟɦ ɩɨɫɬɨɹɧɧɨɣ ɪɚɡɧɨɫɬɢ ɩɨɬɟɧɰɢɚɥɨɜ ɱɟɪɟɡ ɩɨɥɹɪɧɭɸ ɲɚɩɤɭ)
153
Ʉɧɹɡɟɜɚ Ɇ.Ⱥ., ɇɚɦɝɚɥɚɞɡɟ Ⱥ.Ⱥ. Ɇɚɬɟɦɚɬɢɱɟɫɤɨɟ ɦɨɞɟɥɢɪɨɜɚɧɢɟ ɮɨɪɦɢɪɨɜɚɧɢɹ…
O2+ + e o O2* o O + O,
NO+ + e o NO* o N + O,
(4)
(5)
ɇɚ ɜɵɫɨɬɚɯ F2-ɨɛɥɚɫɬɢ ɩɥɚɡɦɚ ɹɜɥɹɟɬɫɹ ɩɨɥɧɨɫɬɶɸ ɡɚɦɚɝɧɢɱɟɧɧɨɣ. Ɋɚɡɧɨɫɬɶ ɜ ɫɤɨɪɨɫɬɹɯ
ɷɥɟɤɬɪɨɧɨɜ ɢ ɢɨɧɨɜ ɧɟɜɟɥɢɤɚ, ɱɬɨ ɩɨɡɜɨɥɹɟɬ ɪɚɫɫɦɚɬɪɢɜɚɬɶ ɢɯ ɞɜɢɠɟɧɢɟ ɤɚɤ ɚɦɛɢɩɨɥɹɪɧɨɟ. ɉɨɞ
ɞɟɣɫɬɜɢɟɦ ɜɟɪɬɢɤɚɥɶɧɨɝɨ ɝɪɚɞɢɟɧɬɚ ɩɚɪɰɢɚɥɶɧɨɝɨ ɞɚɜɥɟɧɢɹ ɩɥɚɡɦɵ ɢɨɧɵ ɢ ɷɥɟɤɬɪɨɧɵ, ɭɞɟɪɠɢɜɚɟɦɵɟ
ɜɦɟɫɬɟ ɜɧɭɬɪɟɧɧɢɦ ɩɨɥɹɪɢɡɚɰɢɨɧɧɵɦ ɷɥɟɤɬɪɢɱɟɫɤɢɦ ɩɨɥɟɦ, ɦɨɝɭɬ ɛɟɫɩɪɟɩɹɬɫɬɜɟɧɧɨ ɞɜɢɝɚɬɶɫɹ ɜɞɨɥɶ
ɫɢɥɨɜɵɯ ɥɢɧɢɣ ɦɚɝɧɢɬɧɨɝɨ ɩɨɥɹ. ɋɤɨɪɨɫɬɶ ɬɚɤɨɝɨ ɞɜɢɠɟɧɢɹ (ɚɦɛɢɩɨɥɹɪɧɨɣ ɞɢɮɮɭɡɢɢ) ɢɦɟɟɬ ɜ ɫɥɭɱɚɟ
ɧɚɤɥɨɧɟɧɧɨɝɨ ɤ ɡɟɦɧɨɣ ɩɨɜɟɪɯɧɨɫɬɢ ɦɚɝɧɢɬɧɨɝɨ ɩɨɥɹ ɜɟɪɬɢɤɚɥɶɧɭɸ ɫɨɫɬɚɜɥɹɸɳɭɸ, ɧɚɩɪɚɜɥɟɧɧɭɸ ɞɧɟɦ
ɜɜɟɪɯ ɧɚ ɜɵɫɨɬɚɯ ɜɵɲɟ ɦɚɤɫɢɦɭɦɚ F2-ɨɛɥɚɫɬɢ.
ɇɚ ɜɵɫɨɬɚɯ ɩɨɪɹɞɤɚ 500 ɤɦ ɧɚɱɢɧɚɟɬɫɹ ɩɪɨɰɟɫɫ ɩɟɪɟɪɚɛɨɬɤɢ ɢɨɧɨɜ Ɉ+ ɜ H+ (ɨɫɧɨɜɧɨɣ ɤɨɦɩɨɧɟɧɬ
ɩɥɚɡɦɨɫɮɟɪɵ) ɜ ɪɟɚɤɰɢɹɯ ɩɟɪɟɡɚɪɹɞɤɢ (6):
O+ + H l H+ + O,
(6)
ɨɛɪɚɡɭɸɳɢɟɫɹ ɢɨɧɵ ɇ+ ɩɨɞɧɢɦɚɸɬɫɹ ɜɜɟɪɯ ɜ ɩɥɚɡɦɨɫɮɟɪɭ, ɡɚɩɨɥɧɹɹ ɟɟ ɧɚ ɞɧɟɜɧɨɣ ɫɬɨɪɨɧɟ ɢɨɧɨɫɮɟɪɧɨɣ
ɩɥɚɡɦɨɣ. Ɍɚɤɢɦ ɨɛɪɚɡɨɦ, ɩɥɚɡɦɨɫɮɟɪɚ ɫɬɚɧɨɜɢɬɫɹ ɪɟɡɟɪɜɭɚɪɨɦ, ɩɢɬɚɸɳɢɦ ɢɨɧɨɫɮɟɪɭ ɜ ɧɨɱɧɨɟ ɜɪɟɦɹ,
ɩɨɫɤɨɥɶɤɭ ɧɚ ɧɨɱɧɨɣ ɫɬɨɪɨɧɟ ɜ ɫɜɹɡɢ ɫ ɨɬɫɭɬɫɬɜɢɟɦ ɫɨɥɧɟɱɧɨɝɨ ɢɡɥɭɱɟɧɢɹ ɢ ɩɪɟɨɛɥɚɞɚɧɢɟɦ ɩɪɨɰɟɫɫɨɜ
ɪɟɤɨɦɛɢɧɚɰɢɢ ɢɨɧɨɫɮɟɪɚ ɨɛɟɞɧɹɟɬɫɹ ɢɨɧɚɦɢ ɢ ɷɥɟɤɬɪɨɧɚɦɢ, ɱɬɨ ɩɪɢɜɨɞɢɬ ɤ ɫɦɟɧɟ ɡɧɚɤɚ ɝɪɚɞɢɟɧɬɚ
ɞɚɜɥɟɧɢɹ ɩɥɚɡɦɵ, ɤɨɬɨɪɵɣ ɬɟɩɟɪɶ ɜɵɡɵɜɚɟɬ ɞɜɢɠɟɧɢɟ ɩɥɚɡɦɵ ɜɧɢɡ ɩɨ ɫɢɥɨɜɵɦ ɥɢɧɢɹɦ ɝɟɨɦɚɝɧɢɬɧɨɝɨ
ɩɨɥɹ: ɢɡ ɩɥɚɡɦɨɫɮɟɪɵ ɜ ɢɨɧɨɫɮɟɪɭ. ɂɨɧɵ H+ ɩɟɪɟɪɚɛɚɬɵɜɚɸɬɫɹ ɜ ɪɟɚɤɰɢɹɯ ɩɟɪɟɡɚɪɹɞɤɢ (6) ɜ ɢɨɧɵ O+,
ɤɨɬɨɪɵɟ ɩɨɞɞɟɪɠɢɜɚɸɬ ɭɛɵɜɚɸɳɭɸ ɤɨɧɰɟɧɬɪɚɰɢɸ ɩɥɚɡɦɵ ɜ ɧɨɱɧɨɣ ɢɨɧɨɫɮɟɪɟ.
ɉɨɦɢɦɨ ɚɦɛɢɩɨɥɹɪɧɨɣ ɞɢɮɮɭɡɢɢ ɧɚ ɞɜɢɠɟɧɢɟ ɩɥɚɡɦɵ ɜɞɨɥɶ ɫɢɥɨɜɵɯ
ɥɢɧɢɣ ɝɟɨɦɚɝɧɢɬɧɨɝɨ ɩɨɥɹ ɨɤɚɡɵɜɚɟɬ ɜɥɢɹɧɢɟ ɬɟɪɦɨɫɮɟɪɧɵɣ ɜɟɬɟɪ. Ⱦɜɢɠɭɳɢɟɫɹ
ɝɨɪɢɡɨɧɬɚɥɶɧɨ ɧɟɣɬɪɚɥɶɧɵɟ ɚɬɨɦɵ ɢ ɦɨɥɟɤɭɥɵ ɜ ɫɬɨɥɤɧɨɜɟɧɢɹɯ ɫɨɨɛɳɚɸɬ
ɡɚɦɚɝɧɢɱɟɧɧɵɦ ɢɨɧɚɦ ɩɪɨɞɨɥɶɧɭɸ (ɜɞɨɥɶ ɦɚɝɧɢɬɧɨɝɨ ɩɨɥɹ) ɫɨɫɬɚɜɥɹɸɳɭɸ ɫɜɨɟɣ
ɫɤɨɪɨɫɬɢ (ɪɢɫ. 12). ȼɟɪɬɢɤɚɥɶɧɚɹ ɫɨɫɬɚɜɥɹɸɳɚɹ ɫɤɨɪɨɫɬɢ ɢɨɧɨɜ, ɞɨɛɚɜɥɹɟɦɚɹ ɤ
ɫɤɨɪɨɫɬɢ ɚɦɛɢɩɨɥɹɪɧɨɣ ɞɢɮɮɭɡɢɢ, ɜ ɷɬɨɦ ɫɥɭɱɚɟ ɛɭɞɟɬ:
Ɋɢɫ. 12
Viz ~ Vi || sin I ~ Vnx cos I sin I,
ɝɞɟ I – ɧɚɤɥɨɧɟɧɢɟ ɦɚɝɧɢɬɧɨɝɨ ɩɨɥɹ.
ɇɚɩɪɚɜɥɟɧɢɟ ɷɬɨɣ ɞɨɩɨɥɧɢɬɟɥɶɧɨɣ (ɜɟɬɪɨɜɨɣ) ɜɟɪɬɢɤɚɥɶɧɨɣ ɫɨɫɬɚɜɥɹɸɳɟɣ ɫɤɨɪɨɫɬɢ ɢɨɧɨɜ
ɡɚɜɢɫɢɬ, ɬɚɤɢɦ ɨɛɪɚɡɨɦ, ɨɬ ɤɨɦɛɢɧɚɰɢɢ ɧɚɤɥɨɧɟɧɢɹ ɦɚɝɧɢɬɧɨɝɨ ɩɨɥɹ ɢ ɧɚɩɪɚɜɥɟɧɢɹ ɬɟɪɦɨɫɮɟɪɧɨɝɨ ɜɟɬɪɚ.
ȼ ɬɟɪɦɨɫɮɟɪɟ ɧɟɣɬɪɚɥɶɧɵɣ ɝɚɡ, ɪɚɡɨɝɪɟɬɵɣ ɫɨɥɧɟɱɧɵɦ ɢɡɥɭɱɟɧɢɟɦ ɧɚ ɞɧɟɜɧɨɣ ɫɬɨɪɨɧɟ, ɪɚɫɬɟɤɚɟɬɫɹ ɜ
ɝɨɪɢɡɨɧɬɚɥɶɧɨɣ ɩɥɨɫɤɨɫɬɢ ɜɨ ɜɫɟ ɫɬɨɪɨɧɵ ɢɡ ɞɧɟɜɧɨɝɨ ɩɨɥɭɲɚɪɢɹ ɜ ɧɨɱɧɨɟ. Ⱦɧɟɦ ɬɟɪɦɨɫɮɟɪɧɵɣ ɜɟɬɟɪ ɞɭɟɬ
ɩɪɟɢɦɭɳɟɫɬɜɟɧɧɨ ɤ ɩɨɥɸɫɚɦ, ɧɨɱɶɸ – ɤ ɷɤɜɚɬɨɪɭ. ɋɥɟɞɨɜɚɬɟɥɶɧɨ, ɧɚ ɞɧɟɜɧɨɣ ɫɬɨɪɨɧɟ ɬɟɪɦɨɫɮɟɪɧɵɣ ɜɟɬɟɪ
ɫɨɨɛɳɚɟɬ ɩɥɚɡɦɟ ɜɟɪɬɢɤɚɥɶɧɭɸ ɫɨɫɬɚɜɥɹɸɳɭɸ ɫɤɨɪɨɫɬɢ, ɧɚɩɪɚɜɥɟɧɧɭɸ ɜɧɢɡ, ɚ ɧɨɱɶɸ – ɧɚɨɛɨɪɨɬ, ɜɜɟɪɯ.
Ɍɚɤɢɦ ɨɛɪɚɡɨɦ, ɧɚ ɧɨɱɧɨɣ ɫɬɨɪɨɧɟ ɞɟɣɫɬɜɭɸɬ ɞɜɚ ɩɪɨɰɟɫɫɚ ɩɟɪɟɧɨɫɚ ɩɥɚɡɦɵ: ɞɢɮɮɭɡɢɨɧɧɨɟ
ɨɩɭɫɤɚɧɢɟ ɢɡ ɩɥɚɡɦɨɫɮɟɪɵ ɜ ɢɨɧɨɫɮɟɪɭ ɢ ɩɨɞɧɹɬɢɟ ɡɚ ɫɱɟɬ ɬɟɪɦɨɫɮɟɪɧɨɝɨ ɜɟɬɪɚ, ɱɬɨ ɩɪɢɜɨɞɢɬ ɤ
ɭɜɟɥɢɱɟɧɢɸ ɤɨɧɰɟɧɬɪɚɰɢɢ ɷɥɟɤɬɪɨɧɨɜ ɜ ɨɛɥɚɫɬɢ ɦɚɤɫɢɦɭɦɚ F2-ɫɥɨɹ ɡɚ ɫɱɟɬ ɩɨɫɬɭɩɥɟɧɢɹ ɩɥɚɡɦɵ ɢɡ
ɩɥɚɡɦɨɫɮɟɪɵ ɢ ɩɨɞɞɟɪɠɚɧɢɹ ɦɚɤɫɢɦɭɦɚ F2-ɫɥɨɹ ɧɚ ɞɨɫɬɚɬɨɱɧɨ ɛɨɥɶɲɢɯ ɜɵɫɨɬɚɯ ɫɨ ɫɪɚɜɧɢɬɟɥɶɧɨ
ɧɟɜɵɫɨɤɨɣ ɫɤɨɪɨɫɬɶɸ ɩɨɬɟɪɶ ɢɨɧɨɜ.
Ɇɚɤɫɢɦɭɦ ɜɬɨɪɨɝɨ ɷɮɮɟɤɬɚ ɨɛɭɫɥɚɜɥɢɜɚɟɬɫɹ ɦɚɤɫɢɦɭɦɨɦ ɜɟɪɬɢɤɚɥɶɧɨɣ ɫɨɫɬɚɜɥɹɸɳɟɣ ɢɨɧɧɨɣ
ɫɤɨɪɨɫɬɢ, ɤɨɬɨɪɵɣ, ɫɨɝɥɚɫɧɨ ɩɪɢɜɟɞɟɧɧɨɣ ɮɨɪɦɭɥɟ, ɩɪɢɯɨɞɢɬɫɹ ɧɚ ɝɟɨɦɚɝɧɢɬɧɵɟ ɲɢɪɨɬɵ ~45° ɩɪɢ Vnx = const.
ȼ ɡɚɜɢɫɢɦɨɫɬɢ ɨɬ ɝɟɨɦɚɝɧɢɬɧɵɯ ɭɫɥɨɜɢɣ ɢ UT ɩɨɥɨɠɟɧɢɟ ɦɚɤɫɢɦɭɦɚ ɦɨɠɟɬ ɦɟɧɹɬɶɫɹ ɜ ɩɪɟɞɟɥɚɯ
30°-55°, ɬɚɤ ɤɚɤ ɨɬ ɷɬɢɯ ɭɫɥɨɜɢɣ ɡɚɜɢɫɢɬ ɲɢɪɨɬɧɵɣ ɯɨɞ ɬɟɪɦɨɫɮɟɪɧɨɝɨ ɜɟɬɪɚ. ɋɨɨɬɜɟɬɫɬɜɟɧɧɨ, ɛɭɞɟɬ
ɢɡɦɟɧɹɬɶɫɹ ɩɨɥɨɠɟɧɢɟ ɨɛɥɚɫɬɟɣ ɩɨɜɵɲɟɧɧɨɣ ɷɥɟɤɬɪɨɧɧɨɣ ɤɨɧɰɟɧɬɪɚɰɢɢ.
ɗɥɟɤɬɪɨɦɚɝɧɢɬɧɵɣ ɞɪɟɣɮ ɬɚɤɠɟ ɞɨɛɚɜɥɹɟɬ ɜɟɪɬɢɤɚɥɶɧɭɸ ɫɨɫɬɚɜɥɹɸɳɭɸ ɫɤɨɪɨɫɬɢ ɤ
ɞɢɮɮɭɡɢɨɧɧɨɣ ɢ ɜɟɬɪɨɜɨɣ. ɗɥɟɤɬɪɢɱɟɫɤɨɟ ɩɨɥɟ, ɧɚɩɪɚɜɥɟɧɧɨɟ ɧɚ ɜɨɫɬɨɤ, ɜɵɡɵɜɚɟɬ ɞɪɟɣɮ ɩɥɚɡɦɵ ɜɜɟɪɯ,
ɚ ɩɨɥɟ, ɧɚɩɪɚɜɥɟɧɧɨɟ ɧɚ ɡɚɩɚɞ, – ɞɪɟɣɮ ɩɥɚɡɦɵ ɜɧɢɡ. ɇɨ ɜɟɪɬɢɤɚɥɶɧɵɣ ɩɟɪɟɧɨɫ ɩɥɚɡɦɵ ɡɚ ɫɱɟɬ
ɷɥɟɤɬɪɨɦɚɝɧɢɬɧɨɝɨ ɞɪɟɣɮɚ ɜ ɜɵɫɨɤɢɯ ɢ ɫɭɛɚɜɪɨɪɚɥɶɧɵɯ ɲɢɪɨɬɚɯ ɢɦɟɟɬ ɦɟɧɶɲɟ ɡɧɚɱɟɧɢɹ, ɱɟɦ
ɝɨɪɢɡɨɧɬɚɥɶɧɵɣ, ɬɚɤ ɤɚɤ ɩɪɢ ɭɜɟɥɢɱɟɧɢɢ ɝɟɨɦɚɝɧɢɬɧɨɣ ɲɢɪɨɬɵ ɫɤɨɪɨɫɬɶ ɞɪɟɣɮɚ ɫɬɚɧɨɜɢɬɫɹ ɩɪɚɤɬɢɱɟɫɤɢ
ɝɨɪɢɡɨɧɬɚɥɶɧɨɣ ɢɡ-ɡɚ ɜɟɪɬɢɤɚɥɶɧɨɫɬɢ ɦɚɝɧɢɬɧɨɝɨ ɩɨɥɹ. Ɂɚɦɚɝɧɢɱɟɧɧɚɹ ɩɥɚɡɦɚ ɧɚ ɜɵɫɨɬɚɯ F2-ɨɛɥɚɫɬɢ
ɭɱɚɫɬɜɭɟɬ ɜ ɞɪɟɣɮɨɜɨɦ ɞɜɢɠɟɧɢɢ ɩɨɞ ɞɟɣɫɬɜɢɟɦ ɷɥɟɤɬɪɢɱɟɫɤɢɯ ɩɨɥɟɣ ɦɚɝɧɢɬɨɫɮɟɪɧɨɣ ɤɨɧɜɟɤɰɢɢ ɢ
ɤɨɪɨɬɚɰɢɢ. ɇɚ ɜɟɱɟɪɧɟɣ ɫɬɨɪɨɧɟ ɷɬɢ ɞɜɚ ɷɥɟɤɬɪɢɱɟɫɤɢɯ ɩɨɥɹ ɨɤɚɡɵɜɚɸɬɫɹ ɩɪɨɬɢɜɨɩɨɥɨɠɧɨ
ɧɚɩɪɚɜɥɟɧɧɵɦɢ, ɱɬɨ ɩɪɢɜɨɞɢɬ ɤ ɡɚɫɬɨɸ ɩɥɚɡɦɵ ɧɚ ɜɟɱɟɪɧɟɣ ɫɬɨɪɨɧɟ ɢ ɦɟɞɥɟɧɧɨɦɭ ɞɜɢɠɟɧɢɸ ɧɚ ɧɨɱɧɨɣ,
ɝɞɟ ɨɧɚ ɚɤɬɢɜɧɨ ɪɟɤɨɦɛɢɧɢɪɭɟɬ. ɗɬɨɬ ɦɟɯɚɧɢɡɦ ɮɨɪɦɢɪɭɟɬ ɝɥɚɜɧɵɣ ɢɨɧɨɫɮɟɪɧɵɣ ɩɪɨɜɚɥ ɧɚ ɜɵɫɨɤɢɯ ɢ
ɫɭɛɚɜɪɨɪɚɥɶɧɵɯ ɲɢɪɨɬɚɯ, ɷɤɜɚɬɨɪɢɚɥɶɧɚɹ ɫɬɟɧɤɚ ɤɨɬɨɪɨɝɨ ɫɬɚɧɨɜɢɬɫɹ ɜɵɫɨɤɨɲɢɪɨɬɧɨɣ ɫɬɟɧɤɨɣ
ɨɛɥɚɫɬɟɣ ɩɨɜɵɲɟɧɧɨɣ ɷɥɟɤɬɪɨɧɧɨɣ ɤɨɧɰɟɧɬɪɚɰɢɢ (Ȼɪɸɧɟɥɥɢ, ɇɚɦɝɚɥɚɞɡɟ, 1988). ȼ ɷɬɨɦ ɢ ɫɨɫɬɨɢɬ
ɜɥɢɹɧɢɟ ȿ×ȼ ɞɪɟɣɮɚ ɧɚ ɮɨɪɦɭ ɲɢɪɨɬɧɨɣ ɜɚɪɢɚɰɢɢ ɨɛɥɚɫɬɟɣ ɩɨɜɵɲɟɧɧɨɣ ɷɥɟɤɬɪɨɧɧɨɣ ɤɨɧɰɟɧɬɪɚɰɢɢ.
154
ȼɟɫɬɧɢɤ ɆȽɌɍ, ɬɨɦ 8, ʋ1, 2005 ɝ.
ɫɬɪ.144-155
6. ȼɵɜɨɞɵ
ȼ ɪɚɛɨɬɟ ɩɪɨɚɧɚɥɢɡɢɪɨɜɚɧɵ ɦɨɞɟɥɶɧɵɟ ɪɚɫɱɟɬɵ ɷɥɟɤɬɪɨɧɧɨɣ ɤɨɧɰɟɧɬɪɚɰɢɢ ɞɥɹ ɭɫɥɨɜɢɣ
ɪɚɜɧɨɞɟɧɫɬɜɢɹ ɩɪɢ ɜɵɫɨɤɨɣ ɫɨɥɧɟɱɧɨɣ ɚɤɬɢɜɧɨɫɬɢ (14-16 ɚɩɪɟɥɹ 2002 ɝ.), ɜɵɩɨɥɧɟɧɧɵɟ ɫ ɩɨɦɨɳɶɸ
ɝɥɨɛɚɥɶɧɨɣ ɱɢɫɥɟɧɧɨɣ ɦɨɞɟɥɢ ɜɟɪɯɧɟɣ ɚɬɦɨɫɮɟɪɵ Ɂɟɦɥɢ UAM (Namgaladze et al., 1998), ɩɨɡɜɨɥɹɸɳɟɣ
ɪɚɫɫɱɢɬɵɜɚɬɶ ɩɚɪɚɦɟɬɪɵ ɬɟɪɦɨɫɮɟɪɵ, ɢɨɧɨɫɮɟɪɵ ɢ ɩɥɚɡɦɨɫɮɟɪɵ Ɂɟɦɥɢ ɤɚɤ ɟɞɢɧɨɣ ɫɢɫɬɟɦɵ.
Ⱦɥɹ ɨɰɟɧɤɢ ɨɬɧɨɫɢɬɟɥɶɧɨɣ ɪɨɥɢ ɬɟɪɦɨɫɮɟɪɧɨɝɨ ɜɟɬɪɚ ɢ ɷɥɟɤɬɪɨɦɚɝɧɢɬɧɨɝɨ ɞɪɟɣɮɚ ɜ
ɮɨɪɦɢɪɨɜɚɧɢɢ ɧɨɱɧɵɯ ɫɪɟɞɧɟɲɢɪɨɬɧɵɯ ɦɚɤɫɢɦɭɦɨɜ ɜ ɷɥɟɤɬɪɨɧɧɨɣ ɤɨɧɰɟɧɬɪɚɰɢɢ ɞɥɹ ɫɩɨɤɨɣɧɵɯ
ɝɟɨɦɚɝɧɢɬɧɵɯ ɭɫɥɨɜɢɣ ɛɵɥɢ ɜɵɩɨɥɧɟɧɵ ɦɨɞɟɥɶɧɵɟ ɪɚɫɱɟɬɵ ɜ 4-ɯ ɜɚɪɢɚɧɬɚɯ ɤɨɦɛɢɧɚɰɢɣ ɧɚɥɢɱɢɹ ɢ
ɨɬɫɭɬɫɬɜɢɹ ɬɟɪɦɨɫɮɟɪɧɨɝɨ ɜɟɬɪɚ ɢ ɞɪɟɣɮɚ ɫ ɪɚɡɥɢɱɧɵɦɢ ɧɚɱɚɥɶɧɵɦɢ ɭɫɥɨɜɢɹɦɢ ɢ ɩɚɪɚɦɟɬɪɚɦɢ
ɷɥɟɤɬɪɢɱɟɫɤɨɝɨ ɩɨɥɹ (ɪɚɫɱɟɬɵ ɫ ɩɨɫɬɨɹɧɧɵɦɢ ɪɚɡɧɨɫɬɹɦɢ ɩɨɬɟɧɰɢɚɥɨɜ ɱɟɪɟɡ ɩɨɥɹɪɧɭɸ ɲɚɩɤɭ 20 ɤȼ ɢ
60 ɤȼ). ɉɚɪɚɦɟɬɪɵ ɬɟɪɦɨɫɮɟɪɵ ɪɚɫɫɱɢɬɵɜɚɥɢɫɶ ɫ ɢɫɩɨɥɶɡɨɜɚɧɢɟɦ ɷɦɩɢɪɢɱɟɫɤɨɣ ɦɨɞɟɥɢ MSISE-2000.
ɍɫɬɚɧɨɜɥɟɧɨ, ɱɬɨ ɧɨɱɧɵɟ ɫɪɟɞɧɟɲɢɪɨɬɧɵɟ ɨɛɥɚɫɬɢ ɩɨɜɵɲɟɧɧɨɣ ɷɥɟɤɬɪɨɧɧɨɣ ɤɨɧɰɟɧɬɪɚɰɢɢ
ɮɨɪɦɢɪɭɸɬɫɹ ɬɨɥɶɤɨ ɜ ɜɚɪɢɚɧɬɚɯ ɪɚɫɱɟɬɨɜ ɫ ɬɟɪɦɨɫɮɟɪɧɵɦ ɜɟɬɪɨɦ. ɗɬɢ ɨɛɥɚɫɬɢ ɩɪɨɬɹɝɢɜɚɸɬɫɹ ɜ
ɩɥɚɡɦɨɫɮɟɪɭ ɜɞɨɥɶ ɦɚɝɧɢɬɧɵɯ ɫɢɥɨɜɵɯ ɥɢɧɢɣ ɞɨ ɜɵɫɨɬ ɩɨɪɹɞɤɚ 8000 ɤɦ.
ɇɚɱɚɥɶɧɵɟ ɭɫɥɨɜɢɹ ɤɚɱɟɫɬɜɟɧɧɨ ɧɟ ɜɥɢɹɸɬ ɧɚ ɮɨɪɦɢɪɨɜɚɧɢɟ ɨɩɢɫɵɜɚɟɦɵɯ ɨɛɥɚɫɬɟɣ.
ɉɪɨɹɜɥɹɟɬɫɹ UT-ɷɮɮɟɤɬ: ɫɢɥɶɧɚɹ ɡɚɜɢɫɢɦɨɫɬɶ ɨɬ ɦɢɪɨɜɨɝɨ ɜɪɟɦɟɧɢ ɜ ɲɢɪɨɬɧɨɦ ɩɨɥɨɠɟɧɢɢ,
ɮɨɪɦɟ ɢ ɫɬɪɭɤɬɭɪɟ ɷɬɢɯ ɨɛɥɚɫɬɟɣ, ɢ MLT-ɷɮɮɟɤɬ: ɢɯ ɫɦɟɳɟɧɢɟ ɧɚ ɛɨɥɟɟ ɧɢɡɤɢɟ ɲɢɪɨɬɵ ɩɪɢ ɩɟɪɟɯɨɞɟ ɨɬ
ɜɟɱɟɪɧɢɯ ɱɚɫɨɜ ɤ ɩɨɫɥɟɩɨɥɭɧɨɱɧɵɦ.
ɇɚɥɢɱɢɟ ɢ ɜɟɥɢɱɢɧɚ ɫɤɨɪɨɫɬɢ ɷɥɟɤɬɪɨɦɚɝɧɢɬɧɨɝɨ ɞɪɟɣɮɚ ɜɥɢɹɸɬ ɧɚ ɫɪɟɞɧɟɲɢɪɨɬɧɵɟ
ɦɚɤɫɢɦɭɦɵ ɷɥɟɤɬɪɨɧɧɨɣ ɤɨɧɰɟɧɬɪɚɰɢɢ ɫɥɟɞɭɸɳɢɦ ɨɛɪɚɡɨɦ: ɞɪɟɣɮ ɩɨɞɠɢɦɚɟɬ ɤ ɷɤɜɚɬɨɪɭ
ɜɵɫɨɤɨɲɢɪɨɬɧɭɸ ɫɬɟɧɤɭ ɨɛɥɚɫɬɟɣ ɩɨɜɵɲɟɧɧɨɣ ɷɥɟɤɬɪɨɧɧɨɣ ɤɨɧɰɟɧɬɪɚɰɢɢ. ɋɬɟɩɟɧɶ ɩɨɞɠɚɬɢɹ
ɩɪɨɩɨɪɰɢɨɧɚɥɶɧɚ ɜɟɥɢɱɢɧɟ ɫɤɨɪɨɫɬɢ ɷɥɟɤɬɪɨɦɚɝɧɢɬɧɨɝɨ ɞɪɟɣɮɚ.
ɉɪɟɞɩɨɥɚɝɚɟɦɵɣ ɦɟɯɚɧɢɡɦ ɮɨɪɦɢɪɨɜɚɧɢɹ ɷɬɢɯ ɨɛɥɚɫɬɟɣ ɧɚ ɧɨɱɧɨɣ ɫɬɨɪɨɧɟ ɨɫɧɨɜɚɧ ɧɚ
ɬɟɪɦɨɫɮɟɪɧɨ-ɢɨɧɨɫɮɟɪɧɨ-ɩɥɚɡɦɨɫɮɟɪɧɨɦ ɜɡɚɢɦɨɞɟɣɫɬɜɢɢ.
ɇɚ ɧɨɱɧɨɣ ɫɬɨɪɨɧɟ ɞɢɮɮɭɡɢɨɧɧɨɟ ɨɩɭɫɤɚɧɢɟ ɩɥɚɡɦɵ ɢɡ ɩɥɚɡɦɨɫɮɟɪɵ ɜ ɢɨɧɨɫɮɟɪɭ ɢ ɟɟ ɩɨɞɧɹɬɢɟ
ɡɚ ɫɱɟɬ ɬɟɪɦɨɫɮɟɪɧɨɝɨ ɜɟɬɪɚ ɭɜɟɥɢɱɢɜɚɟɬ ɤɨɧɰɟɧɬɪɚɰɢɸ ɷɥɟɤɬɪɨɧɨɜ ɜ ɨɛɥɚɫɬɢ ɦɚɤɫɢɦɭɦɚ F2-ɫɥɨɹ.
Ɇɚɤɫɢɦɭɦ ɷɮɮɟɤɬɚ ɬɟɪɦɨɫɮɟɪɧɨɝɨ ɜɟɬɪɚ ɨɛɭɫɥɚɜɥɢɜɚɟɬɫɹ ɦɚɤɫɢɦɭɦɨɦ ɜɟɪɬɢɤɚɥɶɧɨɣ
ɫɨɫɬɚɜɥɹɸɳɟɣ ɢɨɧɧɨɣ ɫɤɨɪɨɫɬɢ, ɤɨɬɨɪɵɣ ɩɪɢɯɨɞɢɬɫɹ ɧɚ ɝɟɨɦɚɝɧɢɬɧɵɟ ɲɢɪɨɬɵ ɩɨɪɹɞɤɚ 45° ɩɪɢ
ɩɨɫɬɨɹɧɧɨɣ ɦɟɪɢɞɢɨɧɚɥɶɧɨɣ ɫɨɫɬɚɜɥɹɸɳɟɣ ɫɤɨɪɨɫɬɢ ɜɟɬɪɚ (ɜ ɡɚɜɢɫɢɦɨɫɬɢ ɨɬ ɝɟɨɦɚɝɧɢɬɧɵɯ ɭɫɥɨɜɢɣ ɢ
UT-ɩɨɥɨɠɟɧɢɟ ɦɚɤɫɢɦɭɦɚ ɦɨɠɟɬ ɦɟɧɹɬɶɫɹ ɜ ɩɪɟɞɟɥɚɯ 30°-55°).
ȼɥɢɹɧɢɟ ɝɨɪɢɡɨɧɬɚɥɶɧɨɝɨ ɞɪɟɣɮɨɜɨɝɨ ɞɜɢɠɟɧɢɹ ȿ×ȼ ɩɪɢɜɨɞɢɬ ɤ ɪɟɡɤɨɦɭ ɩɚɞɟɧɢɸ
ɤɨɧɰɟɧɬɪɚɰɢɢ ɩɥɚɡɦɵ ɧɚ ɧɨɱɧɨɣ ɫɬɨɪɨɧɟ ɧɚ ɜɵɫɨɤɢɯ ɢ ɫɭɛɚɜɪɨɪɚɥɶɧɵɯ ɲɢɪɨɬɚɯ (ɝɥɚɜɧɵɣ ɢɨɧɨɫɮɟɪɧɵɣ
ɩɪɨɜɚɥ). ɗɤɜɚɬɨɪɢɚɥɶɧɚɹ ɫɬɟɧɤɚ ɷɬɨɝɨ ɩɪɨɜɚɥɚ ɫɬɚɧɨɜɢɬɫɹ ɜɵɫɨɤɨɲɢɪɨɬɧɨɣ ɫɬɟɧɤɨɣ ɨɛɥɚɫɬɟɣ
ɩɨɜɵɲɟɧɧɨɣ ɷɥɟɤɬɪɨɧɧɨɣ ɤɨɧɰɟɧɬɪɚɰɢɢ, ɲɢɪɨɬɧɨɟ ɩɨɥɨɠɟɧɢɟ ɤɨɬɨɪɨɣ ɡɚɜɢɫɢɬ ɨɬ ɜɟɥɢɱɢɧɵ ɫɤɨɪɨɫɬɢ
ɷɥɟɤɬɪɨɦɚɝɧɢɬɧɨɝɨ ɞɪɟɣɮɚ, ɱɬɨ ɢ ɛɵɥɨ ɭɫɬɚɧɨɜɥɟɧɨ ɩɪɢ ɚɧɚɥɢɡɟ ɪɟɡɭɥɶɬɚɬɨɜ ɦɨɞɟɥɶɧɵɯ ɪɚɫɱɟɬɨɜ.
Ɋɚɛɨɬɚ ɩɨɞɞɟɪɠɚɧɚ ɝɪɚɧɬɨɦ ɊɎɎɂ ʋ 05-05-97511.
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