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Жанрово-стилевое своеобразие публицистики В. Е. Максимова.pdf

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33
K.o. Kauypuu. )l(aHpoBo-CnWeBOe csoeocpaaae ny6m1l\HCTHKH H.E. MaKCHMOBa
JKAHPOBO-CTMJIEBOE CBOE0.6PA3HE
IIY.6JIHII.MCTHKH RE. MAKCHMOBA
KO. KN-IYPIIH
Karpenpa
PYCCKOH H 3apy6e)l(HoH
rmreparypu
POCCHHCKOro yanaepcarera npY~bl uaponos
6, 117198, Mocxsa, POCCHH
YJI. MHKJIYXo-MaKJIaH,
B crarse HCCJlen.YJOTCH oc06eHHocTH )I(aHpOBO-CTHJleBOH CTPYKTYpbl ny6J1HLJ.HCTHKH
MaKcHMoBa KaK HHn.HBHn.YaJlbHOH ¢OPMbl oznroro H3 rnrreparypnux xcaapoa.
B.E.
B.E. MaKcHMoBa (1930-1995) - npxuesarensaoe xaneaae B HCTOpHH
pyCCKOH mrreparypsr BTOPOH nOJIOBHHbl XX sexa. Heaaveseaaoti OCTaJIaCb era
nepaas KHHra "TIoKOJleHHe aa -racax" (Hepxeccx, 1956), rne 6blJlH cofipanu secsva
TBOpqeCTBO
nocpencrsennue
CTHXH, He non.HHMaBWHeCH
asnne ypOBHH
ra3eTHOH n0 33HH
"Msi 06)1(HBaeM
(1961) H "}I(HB senoaex" (1962) CBHn.eTeJlbCTBOBaJIH 0 nOHBJleHHH HOBOro
TaJIaHTJIHBoro nHCaTeJIH, paccxaauaasurero 0 neycrpoeanoa, Tpy.n.HOH )I(H3HH JIJOn.eH,
paiioinroro MaCWTa6a . Ho nOHBHBWl1eCH HeCKOJIbKO n03)1(e nOBeCTH
3eMJIlO"
xoropue paaee
He BCTpeqaJIHCb na CTpaHHLJ.ax Torn.aWHHX KHHr.
B. MaKCHMOBblM see
rparavecxae HOTbl, ace ocrpee OKa3bIBaJOTCH KOJIJIH3HH, B
On.HaKO no Mepe era TBOpqeCKOra pa3BHTHH B HanHcaHHOM
OneTJIHBee ssysar
KOTOpbIX
06Ha)l(aeTCH
COLJ.HaJIbHOe
aefinarononyxae,
ofiurecrae. POMaHbl "CeMb n.HeH TBopeHHH"
LJ.apHLLJ.ee
B
COBeTCKOM
(1971) H "KapaHTHH" (1973) yxce He
MOrJIH yaaners CBeT B nonuensypm,ix COBeTCKHX H3n.aHHHX - ny6JIHKaLJ.HH I1X B
B.
nareparypu. I1cKJIlOqeHHbIH B 1973 rony H3 COl03a
caMH3n.aTe H na 3ana.n.e aaxpenana ace 60JIee pe3KO BblHBJlHJOLLJ.eeCH OTqy)l(Jl.eHHe
MaKCHMOBa OT COBeTCKOH
nHCaTeJIeH, OH B
1974 rony 3MHrpHpyeT BO <1>paHLJ.HJO H yzce B cearxfipe roro )I(e rona
H3.1laeT nepssni HOMep »cypna.ra "KoHTHHeHT", OqeHb CKOpO crasruero HaH60JIee
aBTOpHTeTHblM nepaoziaxecxa« H3n.aHHeM B pyCCKOM aapytiexcse.
AKTHBHOCTb COLJ.HaJIbHOH
n03HLJ.HH
nHCaTeJlH BnOJlHe BblHBJlHeTCH
06pameHHH ero K )I(aHpaM paccxasa, nOBeCTH, pcxaaa: OHH
crpacrao
YTBep)l(n.afOLLJ.HM
CBOH
narmcanu
(OCHoBbIBalOLLJ.HeCH ,
KaK
yxe
npa
xy.n.O)l(HHKOM,
BbIHCHHeTCH,
aa
xpacrnaucxnx LJ.eHHOcTHX) MblCJlH 0 )I(H3HH, 0 nOJIO)l(eHHH qeJIOBeKa B cOBpeMeHHOM
ofinrecrse.
YTBep)l(n.eHHIO
6yKBaJlbHo
aucrpananuux HM n03HLJ.HH BCeLJ.eJIO
nO.1llJHHeHa ny6JIHLJ.HCTHKa, 3aHHBwaH - B oc06eHHocTH BO BpeMH npe6bIBaHHH B
BbIHY)l(.1leHHOH
3MHrpaLJ.HH
-
HCKJIlOqHTeJlbHoe
MeCTO
B
ero
TBOpqeCKOH
.1leHTeJIbHOCTH.
TIy6JIHLJ.HCTHKa yxce no npapone CBoeH HBJlHeTCH Cpen.cTBOM npaxoro 06LLJ.eHHH
rmCaTeJIH C qHTaTeJIbCKOH MaccoH, ofipauiena K COLJ.HyMy. 3T0 acerna - epopMa
nOJIeMHqeCKH saocrpseaoro MOHOJlora, LJ.eJIb xoroporo - y6en.HTb qHTaTeJlH B CBoeH
npasore, rtpaanexs era sa CBOIO CTOPOHY.
B
TaKOM MOHOJIOre JlHqHOCTb aaropa
OTlJeTJIHBO otinapyacaeaer ceos He TOJIbKO B crpce MblCJleH (lIaCTO - B CTpaCTH HX
aupaxenn»), HO H B narpoce, B CTHJIe. 3n.eCb TOllHOCTb H3JIO)l(eHHH, CTpOroCTb
apryMeHTaLJ.HH
OXOTHO
ycrynaer
MeCTO
MHor03Hal.{HOCTH,
3MOLJ.HOHaJIbHOH
34
BeCTIUlK
PY,nH, cep. Jlumepamypoeeoeuue. )J(ypHaJlUCmUKa, 2008, N~ 1
Pasyveercx,
HaCbIllleHHOCTH CJIOBa, 06pa3HOCTI1 .
H ny6JIHUI1CT 03a60l.leH 60JIee scero
TeM, l.lT06bI .uOHecTH no l.lHTaTeml CBOIO C06CTBeHHyIO KOHuenUHIO, H.ueIO H TeM
caMbIM n06y.uI1Tb ero K nencrnaro. UeJIb ny6JIHUHCTa - He npOCTO y6e.uHTb l.lHTaTeml
B cnpaBetJ,JIHBOCTH CBOHX cy~eHHH, HO B036Yll,HTb B HeM na 3TOM OCHOBaHHH
onpeneneaasre
3MOUHOHaJIbHbIH nom.ev, TOJIKHyTb na
nocrynxa. ITy6JIHUHCTHKe
npOTHBOnOKa3aHa 6ecnpHCTpaCTHOCTb, aanasa ny6JIHUHCTa - y6e~aTb H . saymars,
nponosensrsars,
3aHHMaH aKTHBHyIO 06111ecTBeHHyIO n03HUHIO,
noyxars.
Ilpaso
aa
3TO ztaer eMy y6e)l{)leHHOCTb B TOM, xro ero CHCTeMa KOHuemlHH, H.ueH - etJ,HHCTBeHHO
sepnaa, H60 OnHpaeTCH na npaenexaewsre HM !lJaKTbl,
BblrJIH.uHT
xoropsre caxa
no ce6e HpKH,
neocnopaasraa.
Oc060e
MeCTO
B
crpyxrype
ny6JIHUHCTHl.leCKOrO
06pa3HOCTH. IToHHTHe 3TO HeH36e)KHO B03HHKaeT npa
TeKCTa
ofipaiueaaa
npHHa.uJIe)KHT
K xy.uO)KeCTBeHHOH
nareparype KaK HCKYCCTBy CJIOBa. Ho OHO yMecTHo H TaM, rnc pexs 3axO.uHT 0
ny6JIHUHCTHKe, ozmaxo C Yl.leTOM
TOro 06CTOHTeJIbCTBa, -rro B 3TOM cnyxae
ofinanaer HHbIMH CBOHCTBaMH.
Apxnnoauv: "ITy6JIHUHCTHl.leCKHH 06pa3
06Pa3HOCTb
06 3TOM roBOpHTCH ,
He
nanpaxep, H.
MeHHeT xapaxrepa nOCTH)KeHHH
3To
lI,eHCTBHTeJIbHOCTH - OH OCTaeTCH paUHOHaJIbHbIM.
CBH3aHO, B l.laCTHOCTH, C reM,
-rro "CKB03b" ny6JIHUHCTHl.leCKHH 06pa3, KaK 6bl HH 6bIJI OH "nacsnuea''
!lJHrypaMH,
see
BpeMH
"npocaexaeaer"
nOHHTHHHaH
rponaaa
OCHOBa.
H
3TOMy
ofipasa, a
BO-BTOpbIX, npacyuiaa eMy CXeMaTHl.lHbIH xapaxrep oT06pa)KeHHH npoofipasa.
CXeMaTHl.lHOCTb, KOTopaH HBHO npocrynaer B ny6JIHUHCTHl.leCKHX ofipasax,
cnOC06CTByIOT, so-rrepasrx, nOHHTHH,
xoropsre
ero
BXO.uHT B CTPYKTYPY cavoro
onpenenaercs BbICOKOH CTeneHbIO 0606111eHHH, CBOHCTBeHHOH He TOJIbKO ofipasy B
ueJIOM,
HO H OT.ueJIbHbIM ero .ueTaJIHM.
orofipaacaiouma )KH3Hb
ny6JIHUHCTHl.leCKHH,
BO
acex
ee
Bcerna
06pa3 xy.uO)KeCTBeHHbIH,
MHOro06pa3HH, 6y.ueT MHoronJIaHOBbIM, a
cnocoficrayiouiaa
.ueHcTBHTeJIbHOCTH , - o.uHOnJIaHOBbIM"
( . . .)
[I,
TOJIbKO nOJIHTHl.leCKOMY
c.
nOCTH)KeHHIO
48 - 49].
Cnenyer CKa3aTb H euie 06 O.uHOM 06CTOHTeJIbCTBe: B xy.uO)KeCTBeHHoH mrreparype
npoasaenenae - nnon nacarenscxoro Bo06pa)KeHHH (OCTaBHM B CTOpOHe TOT !lJaKT,
xro OHO HMeeT B CBoeM OCHOBaHHH peaJIbHOCTb) 11 CJIy)KHT I1HLlHBI1LlYaJII13aUI1H
asotipaacaevoro, rorna KaK ny6JII1Ul1CT 60JIee scero 03a60l.leH C03.uaHHeM 3!lJ!lJeKTa
.uono.unHHHOCTH roro, 0 l.leM OH sener pess, 11 C :nOH UeJIbIO npHHUHnl1aJIbHO
HCKJIIOl.laeT see TO, -rro MO)KeT 6bITb OTHeceHO
pasyaeerca, H B nytinmmcrnxe I1cnOJIb3YIOTCH
K 06JIaCTH
e.uHHHl.lHOro. XOTH,
sapaaarensnsre 11 H306pa3HTeJIbHbIe
rponaua C uenuo B03LleHCTBHH He
cpencrsa, aBTopCKaH pel.lb MO)KeT 6bITb yxpaureaa
TOJIbKO na pa3YM , HO 11 aa cepaue xararena. )J,pyrHMI1 CJIOBaMH, ny6JII1UI1CTI1l.leCKOe
CJIOBO - sccrna CJIOBO narpocaoe, npassamroe soonyureanars l.lI1TaTeJIH, aacsnncaaoe
CTpaCTblO. ITo
B.
fieJIHHCKoMy, snecs 06513aTeJIbHO npacyrcrsae "11.ueH-CTpaCTH",
KOTOPYIO nHCaTeJIb " c o sep u aer ( ... ) He pa3yMOM, He paCCYLlKOM, He l.lyBCTBOM ( .. .) , HO
sceio nOJIHOTOIO H ueJIOCTblO csoero HpaBCTBeHHoro 6bITHH"
3TOMy
Me)K.ll-Y asropoa
11 l.lHTaTeJIeM
[2,
c.
312] . Bnaronaps
B03HHKaIOT OTHOWeHI1H ocofioro pona: B
aucrynaer
npunaaneaorr, 3!lJ!lJeKT
ny6JIHUHCTHKe CJIOBO npHMO anpecosaao l.lI1TaTeJIIO - sa CKa3aHHbIM
peansnas, a He yCJIOBHaH !lJHrypa roro, KOMy 3TO CJIOBO
npHcyTcTBHH B TeKCTe
cneUH!lJHl.leCKOH
asropa, ero OTKpbITO
oc06eHHOCTbIO
BbIpa)KeHHOH n03HUHH HBJIHeTCH
ny6JIHUHCTHl.leCKOrO
BbICKa3bIBaHI1H:
aBTOp
H
l.lI1TaTeJIb CBH3aHbI snecs, TaK CKa3aTb, nanpavyio. HeMaJIOBa)KHbIM HBJIHeTCH 11 TO
06CTOHTeJIbCTBO, -rro 3Ta n03HUHH ny6JIHUHCTa sccrna 06111eCTBeHHO 3Hal.lI1Ma, era
35
K.O Kauypuu. )£(aHpoBO-CTHneBOe caoeotipaaae ny6nHUHcTHKH B.E. MaKCHMOBa
uens, KaK y:>Ke 6blJIO
CKa3aHO
HanpaBJIeHHOCTI1 11 <popMe
ssnue,
KOTOpOro
COCTOSlHI1}!, B KOTOpOM HaXOAI1TCSI
-
n06y:>KAeHl1e K AeHcTBI1IO,
I1AeT pess
B
B TeKCTe .
0
CMblClle,
3aBI1CI1MOCTI-f OT
ofiurecrsennoe MHeHl1e B AaHHbIH MOMeHT, CJIOBO
aocrpefioaannuv. Xapaxrepno, l.fTO
ny6JII1I.(l1cTa MO:>KeT 6b1Th fionee I1JII-f MeHee
ncrpefinocrs B
HeM 3Ha'iliTeJIbHO B03paCTaeT B
nepenouusre
ofiuiecraa
AJISI
(aapona)
speaena, KorAa npeziensao 060CTpSleTCSI fiopsfia I1AeH, KOHuenUI1H, MHeHI1H, xorna
O~I1Ul1aJIbHOH
I1AeOJIOrl111
Bce
60JIee
aKTI1BHO
nocnennea
OTIn03HUHOHHaSl, npa TOM, 'ITO cnexrp
npOTI1BOCTOI1T
I1AeOJIOrl1S1
scerna 4pe3Bh!4aHHO WHpOK,
xapaxrepasyercs npOTI1B060pCTBOM npeACTaBJIeHI1H 0 eAI1HCTBeHHO
sepnsrx
nyrsx
pa3BI1T11S1 ofiuiecrna.
Bee
3TO He06xOAI1MO I1MeTb
B BI1AY
npa
06pameHI111
K ny6JII1Ul1CTI1Ke
B.
MaKCI1MOBa.
ITo npl13HaHI11O cajaoro nI1CaTeJISI, OH C'II1TaJI ce6S1 AI1CCI1AeHTOM 11 .0.0 BblCbIJIKI1
"He BnI1CblBaJICSI", "scerna BbICKa3blBaJICSI B pe3KO aHTI1KOMMYHI1CTI1'IeCKOM ziyxe, He
nOHI1MaJI TOH CI1CTeMbl, He npl1HI1MaJI ee 11 npl1HSlTb He Mory"
[3].
11, OKa3aBWI1Cb B
BbIHy)K,L'(eHHOH 3MI1rpaUI111 aa 3anaAe, csoe OTHOWeHl1e K MapKcI13My (KOMMyHI13My)
"Cosercxas
xapaxrepaaosan 'Ipe3Bbl'IaHHO pesxo:
BJIaCTb
11
KOMMYHI1CTJ1lIeCKaSl
CI1CTeMa KYJIbTI1BI1PYIOT cavoe xyzruree B qeJIOBeKe, npexcne acero HeHaBI1CTb K
JI
onnoneary. ( ... ) .lJ:a, SI npOTI1B KOMMyHI13Ma.
Y B. MaKCI1MOBa, KaK
aoofiute naxcscy KOMMYHI1CTl1qecKYIO
[4, c. 8].
H.lleOJIOrl11O npecrynaoii"
6bIJIO 3aMeqeHO npopafiorasunnr aocexs JIeT B xasecrse ero
B. Hexpacossrv, "cepnue y Hero
H. Topfiaaeacxax, CMeHI1BWaSl B.
3aMeCTI1TeJUI B peAaKU1111 :>KypHaJIa "KOHTI1HeHT"
Ao6poe (XOTSI yM I1HOH paa 11 3JIOH)"
Hexpacoaa
[5,
c.
95].
.lJ:a 11
na YKa3aHHOM nocry, BCnOMI1HaeT 0
KOTOpbIH reprrers
He
Mor TO SlBJIeHl1e,
'ITO
"fieureusrx
COll:>KeHI1UbIH
KOllOHKax pezraxropa,
OKpeCTI1JI
"HaWI1MI1
Honecxo - "HOCOpOraMI1" oo' [6, c. 307].
nmOpaJII1CTaMI1", a caa MaKCI1MOB - BCJIeA sa
Ho 06bSlcHSleTcSI 3TO npeacae scero He TOJIbKO .lleHCTBI1TeJIbHO CJIO:>KHbIM - B3pblBHbiM
• xapaxrepou
B.
MaKCI1MOBa, a ero ynopasia :>KeJIaHl1eM roBOPI1Tb 6e3 06I1HSlKOB,
Ha3bIBaTb seura CBOI1MI1 I1MeHaMI1,
He
60SlCb
0611AeTb onnonenra
I1JII1 npOCTO
B.
MaKCI1MOBa­
'II1TareJISI.
IlO:>KaJIyH, C Hal160JIbWeH CI1JIOH 06meCTBeHHblH rennepaaenr
ny6JII1Ul1CTa 06Hapy:>KI1JICSI B aamyvesure« naM<pJIeTe "Cara 0 nocoporax"
Y!cnOJIb30BaB BCTpeqalOml1HCSI y 3. 110HecKo 06pa3,
CapKa3MOM 06JII1QaeT "nOI1CTI1He paCTI1TeJIbHYIO
'IaCTI1
"Al1aJIeKTI1QeCKI1
06CTOSlTeJIbCTBaM"
[7,
c.
MbICJISlmI1X"
31].
B. MaKCI1MOB
(1981),
C y611HcTBeHHbIM
npl1CnOC0611SleMocTb 113BeCTHOH
I1HTeJIJIeKTyaJIOB
K
nOJII1TI1QeCKI1M
3TO OTHOCI1TCSI, B nepsyio osepens, K TaK Ha3bIBaeMoMY
B. MaKCI1MOBa, "nOJIYQaIOT npasa
Monsars B 3TI1X YCJIOBI1S1X - 3HaQI1T, npenars
H,lleallbI, sa xoropsre MbI 60POJII1Cb Y cefis na pOAI1He, 11 monea, xoropsre nOCJIe Hac
nOIlIJlI1 BO I1MSI 3TI1X I1AeaJIOB B KOHUJIarepSl" [7, c. 44]. ABTop naM<pllera pacyer
"OTKpbITOMy
06meCTBY",
rne,
no
CJIOBaM
rpa)K,L'(aHCTBa 11 BJIaCTI1 JIO:>Kb 11 HaCI1JIl1e.
CaTl1pl1QeCKI1
asrpaaarensaue noprpersr
60Pb6bI lllOAeH,
OXOTHO Cnl1CbIBalOml1X
liJ.llep:>KeK <pI1JIOC0<pCKOro nOI1CKa",
caMOAOBOJIbHbIX,
"coficrseaasre
asrronao
axcnnyarapyiourax
HOBbIe MI1<pbI "ce6e aa MaTepl1aJIbHYIO norpefiy"
[7,
c.
31] .
coanaaaevsre
OT
CQeT
I1MI1
xaxoe nacres QeJIOBeKY
B 06meM npOTI1B060pCTBe TeMHoH 11 fieaycnonso 3110H CI111e
MYQI1TellbHblM I1CnbITaHl1eM
aa
.lJ:JI}! pyccxoro nI1CaTeJISI,
ofinaaaaurero aa ponane "ropnsu; C03HaHI1eM caoeii npasorsr,
Yl.JaCTl1eM
oTcTpaHSllOml1XCSI
npecTynJIeHI1S1
(oo .),
caMblM
aa 3anaAe SlBI1110Cb cueuienae cnexrpa 3TI1QeCKI1X,
36
BeCTHHK PY,D.H, cep. Jlumepamypoeeoeuue. )f(YPHClJIucmww. 2008, N~ I
3CTeTH":IeCKHX H nOJIHTH'IeCKHX KpHTepHeB, npHHlITbIX snecs B ouenxax JIl0aeH,
C06bITHH, uennocrea. OKa3bIBaeTCji, 'ITO B 06IUeM-TO BCe MO)KHO H BCe a03BOJIeHO" [7,
c . 30]. 3TH 06BHHeHHlI B nOJIHOH Mepe OTHOCHCji, H K npacnocofinenuaa - a HX TaK
MHOro - H3 'IHCJIa pyCCKHX 3MHrpaHTOB: "DHCaTeJIH 6e3 KHHr, <pHJIOCOepbI 6e3 HaeH,
nOJIHTHKH 6e3 MHpOB033peHHji, OHH CaeJIaJIH MopaJIbHylO 3JIaCTH'IHOCTb CBoeH
rtporpeccaeti" [7, c. 31].
Kpyr TeX, KOMy anpecosanu
'raxoro pona
aunanu, 'Ipe3BbI'IaHHO IlIHpOK: 01'
cofiapaauraxcs 13 MIOHxeHe TpyCJIHBbIX (KaK 6hT Rpanl He HCnOJI1>30BaJ11'1 HX peva)
MOJIOabIX CHOHHCTOB H "asanrapna eBpoKoMMyHH3Ma" (caMOH , KaK yaepsior
BXOallIUHe Bee COCTaB "nesrena'', "He3aBHCHMOH 01' MOCKBbI KOMnapTHH 3anaaa") no
<I>paHcya MH1'TepaHa C ero asrcnpenuea pHTOpHKOH.
DYIUeHHble aBTopOM "Caru" crperiu aOCTHraJIH ueJIH: He uaaaanusre no HMeHaM
06'beKTbI YHH'ITO)KaIOIUe pe3KHX CaTHpH":IeCKHX 06JIH":IeHHH, Y3HaB ce611 B
HapHCOBaHHOM B. MaKCHMOBblM KOJIJIeKTHBHOM noprpere ero 6blBWHX - a reneps C
BblroaOH aJIlI ce611 H3MeHHBWHX npe)KHHM aaeanaa - copaTHHKOB, 06HaeJIHCb. OaHOH
H3 nepasrx OT03BaJIaCb M. P03aHOBa (xceaa A. CHHjiBCKOro, C KOTOpblM pe3KO
nOJIeMH3HpOBaJI B. MaKCHMOB, npennosorauras asropy "Cam" ny6JIH":IHO H3BHHHTbClI
H npHOC1'aHOBHTb ee rre-raranae; B. MaKCHMOB OueHHJI 31'0 YKa3aHHe KaI< rtocrynox
HenpHJIH'IHbIH, KaK HamOC1'b. "300JIOrH'IeCKH HeBeCeJIblMH O'IepKaMH" Ha3BaJI HX
HeKHI1 MapTbIHOB; B ":IeM 1'OJ1bKO HH 06BHHjiJIH asropa "Cam" E. KaHHaK, WMHaT H
ztp, - B. MaKCI1MOB aOCTOHHO O1'BeTHJI 3THM "onnoaenraa", 3HaIOIUHM, "":ITO Hy)KHO
ztenars B aeMOKpaTl1":1eCKOM 06IUeCTBe" [8, c. 258]. Ho 60JIee scero B03MyTHJIO ero
onofipeuae aa "":IeCTHOe, CMeJIOe, cB060aHoe aucrynnenae" co CTOpOHbl
neaaaecraoro eMy B. MeJIbHHKOBa , asrcrynaaurero 01' JIHua "MOJIlIaJIHBoro
60JIbWHHcTBa". B. MaKCHMOBlIpOCTHO KJleHMI1T 31'0 TpyCJII1BOe 60JIbWHHCTBO,
noraxaiouiee pasryny He'IHCTH: "Tne, B KaKOH paKOBHHe, B KaKOM nonnonse
6appHKaaHpyewbCji
Tu , sorna oroJITeJIOe MeHbWHHCTBO 6ecHyeTCji cpena 6eJIoro
aHji, paapyuras OC1'a1'KH <j)yHaaMeH1'a, na KOTOpOM euie nepscarca xpynxoe sztaaae
CB060abI. ( . . .) 31'0 MeHbWHHCTBO ysce aOBeJIO TBolO nOJII1TI1":1ecKYIO crpyxrypy no
roro, 'ITO OHa rorosa CeH'IaC (eCJIH He BbIHy)K)leHa!) 6POCHTbCji B CMepTeJIbHOe aJIji
cefis 06'bjiTHji "HCTOpH'IeCKoro xovnpovacca'' C abjiBOJIOM" [7, c. 43].
K )KaHpy naM<j)JIe1'a, I1CnOJIb3Yji ero paaauiyio CHJIy, B. MaKcHMoB npafieraer B
CBoeH ny6JIHUHCTHKe o-rens 'IacTO. OH HCnOJIb3yeT xapaxrepnoe aJIlI naM<j)JIeTa
pesxoe 11 sxcnpeccaaaoe 06mI'IeHHe, aanpaanennoe He npOTHB OTaeJIbHbIX <j)aKTOB, a
npOTHB nOJIH1'H'IeCKOH, rocynapcrsemrof CHCTeMbl JII160 KOHKpeTHbIX, BJIHjiTeJIbHblX
B 06IUecTBe nOJIH1'HKOB, nareparopoa . DaM<j)JIe1'bI B. MaKcHMoBa O1'KpblTO
TeHaeHUH03HbI,
npecnezrytor
arHTaUHoHHylO
uens,
paCC":IHTaHbI
aa
nenocpencrseanyio peaKUHIO WHpOKOH ny6JIHKH. B naM<j)JIeTe "Bcs KOpOJIeBCKall
pars" OH HaXOaH1' rnesnue CJIOBa zins xapaKTepHCTHKH npaBHTeJIeH nOCTCOBeTcKoro
rocynapcrsa : " ... Pe)KHM, BOCTOp)KeCTBOBaBWHH cerozms B POCCHH, xyzce,
6eCCOBeC1'HeH 11 Gecnpocaernea rtpexcnero, rrorovy 'ITO npennaraer 06IUeCTBy arpy
6e3 npaBHJI, CYIUeCTBOBaHHe BHe 3aKOHa, H snnser c06010 BJIaCTb yroJIOBHOH
OJIHrapXHH" [9, c. 53]. OH H3aeBae1'ClI nan YKa3aMH rrpeannenra H pacnopsssennsvn
HCnOJIHH1'eJIbHOH BJIaCTH, BcrynalOIUHMH B rrpornaopesne KaK C KOHCTH1'YUHel1, TaK H
C 3JIeMeH1'apHol1 31'HK0l1 [9, c. 116]. He MeHee fiecnoutaneu OH, xorna roBOpHT B
"3H5iIOIUHX aucorax xaaonepscaaas" 0 HbIHeWHeM pyxoaoztcrae nacarenscxoro
COI03a, scerna H seaae YCJIY)KaIOIUero BJIaCTb HMYIUHM, 0 "nHCaTeJIjiX 6e3 KHHr, rnonsx
37
K.G. Kavypuu. )I{aHpoBO-CTHileBOe caoeoepaaae ny6i1HuHCTHKH B.E. MaKCHMOBa
6e3 npuaunrroa, nOJIHTHKax 6e3 y6e)l():(eHHH .. . "
Hero
"faJIHHe
EOpHCOBHe",
KaK
[9,
133].
c.
H3BHTeJIbHO
Oc06eHHo ,llOCTaeTCH OT
HMeHyeT
OH
OTelJeCTBeHHYlO
roc6e30naCHOCTb, pbHHO roHHBWylOCH aa "H3MeHHHKaMH", TOr,lla KaK fly nee non
60KOM asnpeaann
MbICJIHMble
CJIaBHble OpJIbI,
rocyrrapcrserrasre cexpersr" [10,
B.
rrOJIHTHKY E. EJIbu.HHa,
B.
B P03HJ.fI\Y
327]. Xapasrepasya
c.
'Tocynapcrno -
A.
HOBO,llBOpcKylO,
HyHKI1Ha,
ace
n03Hu.HIO H
3TO H!", U.HTHpyH: HOBOHBJIeHHbIX
A.
"ECJIH 3TO ,lleMoKpaTHH, TO lJTO IKe 'rorna <pawH3M ?"
Ho, pasyaeercs, 06JIHlJeHHHMH
aanpsxermo
H
MaKcHMoB BcrrOMHHaeT nexansao 3HaMeHHT)'1O <pPa3Y
O)J.HOro H3 <PpaHU.Y3CKHX xoporreii
)J.eMoKpaToB
pacnponasasiuae onTOM
B.
Qy6ai1ca, rHeBHO aenoyaesaer :
[9,
c.
103].
MaKCHMoB-ny6JIHu.HCT He OrpaHHlJHBaeTCH: OH
Pa3MbIWJIHeT 0 TOM, lJTO MO)i(eT nOMOlJb POCCHH - aapoziy, ofiutecrsy ­
BblCTOHTb, yuerrers B ceroznrxumee aa pe,llKOCTb rpynnoe -
csryrnoe!
-
BpeMH.
MaCllITa6HOCTb, 3HalJHTeJIbHOCTb 3TH X Pa3MbIWJIeHHH 06yCJIOBJIeHbI npHCTaJIbHbIM
BHHMaHHeM nHCaTeJIH K npofineae caaoonpenenenas lJeJIOBeKa B MHpe, HCl10JIHeHHOM
TparI-PleCKHX
npOTHBOpelJHH,
HO
6e)J.CTBeHHoro COCTOHHHH POCCHH,
HCXO)J.HT H3 npe,llCTaBJIeHHH 0
eute
-
nOHCKaMH
06meCTBeHHaH
ceronnsumero
Ha3HalJ:eHHH, CMbICJIC rnrreparyprroro TBOplJeCTBa,
"B
C)J.eJIaBllIHX pyccxyio mrreparypy nOHCTHHe BeJIHKOH:
He 6bIJI TOJIbKO I1HCaTeJIeM
rrpHlJHH
nOHCKaMH nyreji ee cnaceaas. ITPH 3TOM OH
orroro,
-
,lleHTeJIhHOCTh,
naaepnoe,
npaasiuxa
K
POCCHH nHCaTeJIb naxorna
lJTO 06meCTBeHHaH
HeH
6bJJ1a
c Jla60H,
MbICJIb,
Hepa3BHTOH,
HH<paHTHJIbHOH. ITHcaTeJIh 6hIJI acesr nOHeMHO)KKY - H a,llBOKaTOM , H ,llyXOBHHKOM, H
BpalJ:OM - na see
pyxa, A
CeHlJaC - TeM 60JIee"
[11,
c.
399]. B
pyCCKOH mrreparype
BH)J.HT OH "CnJIaB H3bIKa H ,llYXOBHbIX 60raTcTB MHomx naponee, cy,llh6a KOTOpbIX, K
ClJ:aCTblO HJIH HeClJaCTblO, conpsranacs BO BpCMeHH C TpamlJeCKOH H HpOCTHOH
[12,
cy)J.b60H POCCHH"
c.
174].
3,lleCb 06bHcHeHHe n03Hu.HH nHCaTCJljI, nOHCTHHe
Cnenyer
6hlOmero B KOJIOKOJIa.
oc060 OTMeTHTb,
lJTO OCBoeHHe 6bITHH
-
H B
co6CTBeHHO 3CTeTHlJeCKOM, H B ny6JIHu.HCTHlJeCKOM acnexre - y Hero npOHCXO,llHT B
peJUlrH03HOM
OCBemeHHH ,
rrpOHH3aHO
TOCKOH
no
xpHCTHaHcKoMy
nzreaxy,
crpeanenaex no Mepe CHJI CBOHX cnoc06CTBOBaTb BOCCTaHOBJIeHHIO aaxpennenaoro
HCTOpHlJeCKOH - xpHCTHaHCKOH! - Tpa,llHU.HeH ,llyXOBHOro 06JIHKa H MHpoomymeHHH
pyccxoro lJeJIOBeKa.
"5I
scerna KpHlJaJI 06 O,llHOM H TOM xce: "JIlO,llH, 6Y,llbTe JIlO,llhMH!
MhI Bce-TaKH 60)KhH C03,llaHHH", - TaK orrpenerraer CBOIO n03Hu.HlO
B.
MaKCHMOB,
y6e)I()J.aH, lJTO BhIXO,ll ,llJIH lJ:eJIOBeKa JIHWb O,llHH - ")KHTb no COBeCTH, no aepe"
16]. 11,
[13,
c.
crpacrao yraepscaas MbICJIb 0 'fieccaeprnoil OTBeTCTBeHHOCTH lJeJIOBeKa
soofiute, a
sepyrourero B oc06eHHocTH, nepen 6y,llymHM, a rnasuoe - nepezt fOCnO,llOM
[14, c. 285], B. MaKcHMoB ssrcryrraer B pOJIH
o Berxou, lJeM 0 HOBoM 3aBeTe.
npopoxa, 3aCTaBJIHH BcnOMHHTb cxopee
Orciona OTMelJeHHOe ssnue npncrpacrae nHCaTeJIH K naM<pJIeTy, TOlJHee npHcymei1 3TOMy »caapy crpacraocrn TOHa, 06JIHlJHTeJIbHoMY
narpocy, Ilpa 3TOM
K
eziaa
JIH He BCHKHH pas TaKHe TeKCTbI BocnpHHHMalOTCH He TOJIbKO KaK nponosens, HO
O)J.HOBpeMeHHO
MaKCHMOBa aa
-
H KaK
onsrre
ncnoaens.
Ilpaso
YlJHTb npyrnx OCHOBblBaeTCH
y
B.
c06CTBeHHOH )KH3HH - IKH3HH lJeJIOBeKa, npourenurero xepea
6ecnpH30pmHHy, CKHTaHHH, 3aKJIlOlJeHHe, na ce6e
acnsrrasurero
rorron H XOJIO,ll,
TIDKeCTb HenOCHJIbHO Tpy,llHOH pa6OTbI, cyxeauiero nO,llHHTbCH 6YKBarIbHO C cavoro
)J.Ha )KH3HH .
Ofipauienae
K npO)KHToMy HM caMHM ,llHKryeTcH y
B.
MaKCHMOBa
)f(eJIaHHeM He pa3)KarI06HTb lJHTaTeJIH, a nozixpernrrs CKa3aHHOe OTCbJJ1KOH K TOMy, BO
xro HeB03MO)KHO He nosepars. fOBOpH 0 BJIaCTH, yrsepnnaureacs B POCCHH B aarycre
38
BeCTHHK
PY.ll.H, cep. Jlum epamypoeeoeuue. )/{YPHaJ/UcmuKa, 2008, N2 I
1991 rolla, B. MaKCHMOB CKa3aJ1: "3TO - CMeHa naaaaparenea". BbI3BaHHble 3THM
MpalJHble npoposecrsa OCHOBbIBanHCb He ronsxo aa "3neMeHTapHOM 3HaHHH HCropHH
scex peBOmOLl}IH" [9, c. 289]: lJTO raxoe anacrs naznrrparenea, nacarerrs 3HaJI He C
lJy:>KHX enos. B OCHOBaHHH oueaxa pOnJ1 HHTenmlTeHUHH B 06meCTBeHHbIX
npoueccax ("3TO HelJTO yxcacaiouiee") ne:>KHT :>KH3HeHHbIH orrsrr xenoaexa,
npouienurero xepea nareps, rne OH "K csoeuy senaxony pa30lJapOBaHHIO cronxayncs
C TaKOH 6ecnpeLlenbHOH asropansnocrr.ro, C TaKHM BbI3bIBalOIllHM UHHH3MOM, C TaKOH
MenOlJHOH anlJHOCTblO, no cpaBHeHHIO C KOTOpbIMH KOMMYHaJlhHall arvocdrepa MOHX
LleTCTBa H IOHOCTH BHLlHTCSI MHe H3 cerozmsumero ztanexa 030HOBblM paev". 3LleCb, B
narepe, 6YLlYIllHH nncarens snonae OC03Han, lJTO B OCHOBe "nCHXOnOrHlJeCKoro
MexaHH3Ma, LlHKTYIOIllero pyCCKOMy HHTennHreHTy cnoco6 cyuiecraoaanns H
3aKOHOMepHOCTH ero nOBeLleHHH B ofiuiecrse (oo .) ne:>KHT nOlJTH naronorasccxas
aronerrrpasa" [12, c. 353].
06nHlJeHHe LlnH. B. MaKcHMoBa
- He castouens. rHeBHO KneHMH roranarapaaa, B
aaxarre LleBHHOCTbIX ronoa BOUapHIOIllYIOCH B . crpaue yCHnHHMH "BlJepaWHHX
naproxparos" nceBLlOLleMOKpaTHIO, npHCYlUHe HHTennHreHUHH npsfinocn, nyrueansrx
CHn, cnafiocrs aorm, CKnOHHOCTb K LleMarorHH, nacarens HaCTOHlJHBO auier BbIXOLl H3
nyraiourea ero caryauna, B KOTOpOH oxasanacs COBpeMeHHaH POCCHH, H BHLll1T ero B
Heo6xOLlHMOCTH cornacas, npHMHpeH1U1. "ELlHHCTBeHHbIH BbIXOLl, no-xoeay, ecna OH
soofiuie B03MO:>KeH, - B LlOCTH:>KeHHH cornacas" [9, c. 298].
DpHCYIllaH. naM<t>nery passuiaa cana cnoaa HeOTLlenHMa B ny6nHUHCTl1Ke B .
MaKcHMoBa OT CBoHcTBeHHoH npOnOBeLll1 cTpacTHocTH , 3MouHoHanbHoH
3apH:>KeHHOCTH, H 3TO - TpaLlHUHH pyCCKoH mrreparypsr, B. MaKcHMoB 6bIn y6e:>KLleH:
"Pyccxas mrreparypa scerna OCTaBnH.na HaLle:>KLlY. B 3TOM BCH. cyrs, BOT ee
LleHcTBHTenbHo BbICOKoe HaJHalJeHHe. ,[{OCToeBCKl1H - 3TO BenHKaH aaneaczra, sepea
KaTapCl1C - K HaLle:>KLle" [15, c. 158]. Ha sonpoc "voryr nH xopoume KHHrH H3MeHHTb
MHp K nysurexy?" B. MaKcHMoB OTBeTHn C 3aMelJaTenbHOH TOlJHOCTblO: "yi"3MeHHTb ­
zra. Ho He cnacra" [16, c. 49]. Ho H3MeHeHHH 3TH, no ero y6e:>KLleHHIO, LlOn:>KHbI 6bInH
cnY:>KHTb HMeHHO cnaceuaio MHpa. nOTOMy-TO nncarens paarosopy C lJHTaTeneM
npennoxaraer HHylO <t>opMY 06IlleHHH - OH, no co6CTBeHHoMy Bblpa:>KeHHIO, KpHlJHT:
"....5I KpHlJan H 6YLlY xpasars: nIOLlH, OCTaHOBHTeCb! Y Hac OCTaJlCH eLlHHCTBeHHbIH
BbI60p - Hml xonoxon sceaaponaoro acse, l1nH nOMHHanbHblH 3BOH HaWHX noxopoa,
H nOHMHTe :>Ke: eH-6ory, xorroxon He MO:>KeT rtpenynpexorars Hac LlO 6eCKOHelJHOCTH"
[9, c. 300] .
Pauaoaansnoe
nasano HBnHeTCH B ny6nHUHcTHKe crpyxrypoofipaayioutax. Do
OTHoweHHIO K ny6nHUHCTHlJeCKHM npoH3BeLleHHHM B . MaKcHMoBa 3TO sepno naurs C
oroaopxava : snecs SlBHO CKaJbIBaeTCH zrapoaaaae HMeHHO XYLlO:>KHHKa. 11, npeacae
scero, OHO ofiaapyzcaaaer cefia B crpeuneaaa rryfinauacra B03LleHcTBoBaTb na
lJHTaTenH He ronsxo CHCTeMOH LlOBOLlOB, apryuearauaeii anrennetcryansnoro ronxa,
HO asrpaaarensnocruo xapaxrepncrax KaK nepcoaazcea, OKaJaBWHXCH B uearpe
BHl1MaHHH nacarenx, TaK H cHryaul-lli (npezcae scero - nOnHTHlJeCKHX), 0 xoropsrx
HLleT pexs. YaK ssrcrpoeaa "Cara 0 rrocoporax", rrre uens 3apHCOBOK 6yKBaJlbHO C
aarypsr, noprpersi BCTpelJalOIllHXCH asropy rpycnassrx H H3BopOTnHBbIX
npacnocotinesuea, nbITaIOIlll1XCH arpars pons 60PUOB aa CBo6oLlY H LleMOKpaTHIO,
cnyxcar HaLle:>KHbIM OCHOBaHHeM LlnH BbIHeceHHoH B aarnaaae npeapnrensaoa KnHlJKH.
Y6e:>KLleHHbIH aHTl1KOMMyHHcT, OH HaXOLll1T y6HHcTBeHHO peaxae cnosa LlflH HOBbIX
npasarenea CTpaHbI, paccraauraxcs C naprfianeraan, HO HH B lJeM He l13MeHHBllIHXCH :
Kt).
Kasypu«. )I(aHpoBO-CTflneBOe caoeofipaaae ny6nHUHcTHKH B.E. MaKCHMOBa
39
"cepue 3aBJTa6bI H3 aamoxaansrx HMI1 H MaccoBHKH-3aTeHHHKH H3 npOBHHUHaJlbHblX
KBH", OHH npe.ucTaBJT~1OT C060H B POCCHH "ee anoponnoe TeJTO, ee MOpaJIbHYJO
60JIe3Hb, ee HpaBcTBeHHylO aHOMaJIHIO" [9, c. 53]. "3TH JTIO.uH, - roBOPHTC~ B zipyroa
MeCTe, - 6e3.uapHO pyKOBO.uHJTH, xorna B pyxax y HHX 6blJIa TOTaJIHTapHa~ BJTaCTb. ( . .. )
11
nOJlY'UIB BJIaCTb .ueMOKpaTHlJecKylO, OHH OKa3aJ1HCb euie 6e3.uapHee" [12, c. 324].
roBOP~ 0 caryauna, CJIO)KHBweHCSI B POCCHH K HalJaJTY 90-x ronos, OH HeycTaHHO
nosropaer, TOlJHee, eCJTH HCnOJIb30BaTb ero coficrseansre CJTOBa, KpHlJHT: "Crpaaa
HeOTBpaTHMo .uBH)KeTC~ K caoeuy KOH~. K rH6eJIH [17, c . 161] ; "flo amHHSI, H He
npOCTO arenas CTpaHbI B
crpane "<popMa
Ilpasev
arouas ueJIOH UHBHJTH3aUHH" [15 , c. 151] ; yrsepacaaiourasca
cYlUecTBoBaHH~ 06I..UeCTBa" onpenensercs KaK "JTIOMneHH3aUH~.
JTIOMneHH3aUH~ na
acex YPOBH~X" (TaM )I{e) . 11 euie : CTpeMHTeJIbHa~
KpHMHHamf3aUH~ POCCHH - 3TO HbIHlJe HaUHOHaJIbHa~ 6e.ua... " [9, c. 5].
XapaKTepHCTHKH 3TH OTKpOBeHHO
npacrpacrnsr, C HHMH MO)l{HO COrJIaWaTbC~ HJTH
oueuox, 6ecnpHCTpaCTHOCTb TOHa
He cornaurarscs, HO o6'beKTHBHOCTb Cy)l{.ueHHH H
ny6JIHUHCTHKe no npnpone ee 3aKa3aHbI.
Cavsre
MpalJHble npoposecraa
B.
MaKCHMOBa, K ClJaCTblO, He onpaaaanacs - OH He .uO)l{HJT no roro BpeMeHH, xorna ero
ponaas crpana
aasana
Bb16HpaTbC~ 1013
COCTO~HH~.
KpH3HCHoro
Ho
Ba)l{HO
nonsepxnyrs: naxonauiajica B 3MHrpaUHH nHCaTeJIb HHKor.ua He CMOTpeJT na
npoucxonauiee B POCCHH co CTOpOHbl. " .. . 51 .ueHCTBHTeJTbHO ~BJI~IOCb xacrsto
crpansr,
)KHB~ ee pa.uOCT~MH 101 6e.uaMH. <I>H3HlJeCKH ~ na 3ana.ue , a nyuroa snecs'', - rOBOpHJl
OH BO BpeM~ ozmoro 1013 CBOHX npneaaos B MOCKBy [5, C. 8].
B.
Cnenyer CKa3aTb oc060:
MaKCHMOB Mor 06JIHlJaTb, K1TeHMHTb, napaposan 3BYlJaBWHe B ero anpec pesxae
CJIOBa, HO nuxorna He
onYCKaJlC~
no 3JIOpa.uCTBa.
ny6JIHUHCTHlJeCKHe TeKCTbl ero sauie scero BbICTpaHBaIOTC~ KaK
lJHTareJIIO
crpacrasre
TaK, xopeas
ofipaiuenasre
K
MOHOJTOrH, rtponaaaaaue OTTOlJeHHblMH <pOPMYJIHpOBKaMH .
nOpOlJHOCTH .ueMOKpaTHlJeCKOH
CHCTeMbl "B
ee Tpa.uHUHOHHOM
nOHHMaHHH" OH BH.uHT B TOM, lJTO ".ueMOKpaTH~ - 3TO He BbI60p JTylJWHX, a Bbl60p
ce6e no.u06HbIX" [9, c. 171].
Becsua
KpHTHlJeCKH OTHOC~Cb K 3MHrpaUHH, nHCaTeJIb
KOHcTaTHpyeT: "K CO)l{aJTeHHIO, 3MHrpaUH~ - nOH~THe He CTOJIbKO COUHaJlbHOe HJIH
nOJIHTHlJeCKOe, CKOJTbKO nCHXOJIOrHlJeCKoe. 3TO
npesczte scero -
nCHXOJIOrH~
)I{a)l{.uoH OTpHuaHH~" [12, c . 150].
n06e)K.ueHHblx, xoropas )I{HBeT
pasasnunsa 0 npasax lJeJIOBeKa, OH TaK nonaomrr aror 3THM
Haxoaeu,
Pa3MbIWJIeHH~M :
"Pa3YMeeTc~,
npexpacno, xorna lJeJTOBeK OT P0)l{.ueHHSI 06JIa.uaeT BceMH
rapaHTHpOBaHHblMH eMy 3aKOHOM rtpaaasor, HO euie nysure 6blJIO fisr, eCJTH 6bl OH
yMeJI H XOTeJI 60POTbC~ aa 3TH npasa. CB060.ua, aa KOTOpylO HHKTO He XOlJeT yMHpaTb,
06pelJeHa" [12, c. 288].
ny6JIHUHCTHKa ~BJT~eTC~ .uJT~
B. MaKcHMoBa .ueHCTBeHHbIM cpeztcraou B ero
paspyureaa,
aeycraaaoii fiopsfie aa B03Po)l{.ueHHe POCCHH , rne TOTaJTHTapHa~ CHCTeMa
HO B )KH3HH crpanu eute He yTBep.uHJIHCb no.uJIHHHO .ueMOKpaTHlJeCKHe na-rana
06lUeCTBeHHOrO
yCTpOHCTBa.
Crpana, y6e)l{.ueH B. MaKCHMOB, "ceroznrs B
npaasrsaer K ee npeo.uOJIeHHIO. TpH6yHoH .uJI~
onacaocra" [9 , c . 298] H nHCaTeJTb
Hero
~BJI~JIC~
npezcne
acero )KypHaJI
"KOHTHHeHT",
HO OXOTHO
HCnOJIb3yeT
B03MO)KHOCTH 06paTHTbC~ CO CBOHM CJIOBOM K caMOH pa3HOH - WHpOKOH - aynaropnn
B crpanax
Esponu, AMepHKH, bJTH)I{Hero H Cpennero Bocroxa. A KaK TOJTbKO npen
HHM OTKPbIBaIOTC~ nsepn B penaxunsx
(yasr, .uaJIeKO
He MHOrHX) raaer H )I{ypHaJTOB
nOCTCOBeTCKOH POCCHH, OH nexaraerca B "Tpyne" H "He3aBHCHMOH rasere", B
"MOCKOBCKOH npasne" 101 "113BecTH~X" , B "POCCHHCKOH raaere" 101 "KOMCOMOJTbCKOH
40
BeCTHHK
rrpaaae", pesxo,
PY)J.H, cep. Jlumepamypoeeoeuue. )/(ypHaJlUCmUKa, 2008, N2 I
rrOJIeMHtIeCKH
3aOcTpeHHO
asrcrynas nporns
pa.n.HKaJIbHbIX
H
nocneumsix rrepeverr KaK B 06meCTBeHHoi1:, TaK H B 3KOHOMHtIeCKOH )l(H3HH POCCHH.
napaaoxcansno, era HMSI BCTpetIaeTCSI na CTpaHHI.{ax
"Ilpaaasr''. Ocraaascs "y6e)I(.LJ.eHHbIM aHTHKoMMYHHCTOM" [9, c. 15, 22, 50], OH
npaxoztar B rasery; KOTOpaSl, no ero CJIOBaM, He CTaBHT nepen HHM HHKaKliX yCJIOBHH,
OT3bIBaSiCb 0 HeH KaK 0 ".n.eHCTBHTeJIbHO .n.eMOKpaTHtIeCKOH", yuepss, tITO "aaxorna,
HH B KOH apevena 51 He ouiyuran TaKOH 06paTHOH: CBSl3H C tIHTaTeJIeM, KaKaSI B03HHKJIa
Y MelLq nOCJIe rry6mHGu,J;HM B "Ilpasne" [9, c. 301 - 302]. Bnposeu, cau OH, .n.UCCH.n.elIT
rro narype, COmaIIIaJICSI C TeM, tITO asrcrynars C aHTHKoMMyHHCTHtIeCKHX n03HUHH B
Ho oc06eHHO tIaCTO , KaK 3TO HH
KOMMYHHCTHtIeCKOH
rasere
.n.eMoKpaTbI"
caryauan",
caaue rnasasre
3HatIHT - OKa3aTbCSI nOHCTHHe B "roroJIeBCKOH
H 06'bSlCHSlJI 3TO TaK: " ... Korna KOMMyHHCTbI B onn03HUHH - OHH
[18, c. 5].
He npHeMJISI H.n.eOJIOrHH , KOTopaSi
HaCa)I(.LJ.aJIaCb B COBeTCKOH cTpaHe B 3noxy
rocnoncraa TOTaJIHTapH3Ma, B. MaKcHMoB CTOJIb )l(e peIIIHTeJIbHO B03pa)l(aJI "nporas
pa.n.HKaJIH3aUHH crpansi BO acex 06JIaCTSIX - B nOJIHTHKe, 3KOHOMHKe, xynsrype, (...)
npOTHB TOTaJIbHOH peBH3HH npOIIIJIoro" [9, c . 24]. Bopeu H 60eu (HaH60JIee spxoe
.n.OKa3aTeJIbCTBO TOMy - ero rry6JIHUHCTHKa), nHCaTeJIb HaCTOHtIUBO nOBTOpSlJI : ""ECJIH
He 6y.n.eT POCCHH, TO BCSI MOSI )l(U3Hb a6COJIIOTHO 6eCCMbICJIeHHa"
3THMH CJIOBaMH
onpenenserca natpoc
TBoptIeCTBa
[18, c. 6]
B. MaKcHMoBa.
JIl1TEPATYPA
1. Apxanos H. K sonpocy 0 cymecrsosanaa C06CTBeHHO ny6JIHUHCTHtIecKOro ofipasa II
BeCTHHK MrY. - CepIDI XI: )l{ypHaJIHCTHKa. - 1974. - NQ 5. - C. 48-49.
2. OeJIHHCKHH B. I10JIHOe C06paHHe COlfHHeHHH: B 13 T. - 1955. - T. 7.
3. MaKCHMOB B. C .n.yrneBHoH 60JIbIO sa POCCHIO: Becerra C B. EOJIbrnaKOBbIM 11I1paB.n.a.
- 1995, 28
MapTa.
B. Eyner JIH ny-rure? Becerra C E. Menseneasra II Mocxsa - 1992, Mai1:­
mons.
5. Ilepenacxa Cepres ):(oBJIaTOBa C BHKTOpOM Hexpacossra II 3Be3.n.a. - 2006. - N2 9.
6. Iopfiaaeacxas H. "110 xasars, KaKHM 6bIJI JKYpHaJI na CaMOM zterre... " : Beceny BeJIa E.
Cxapnsrrana II Bonpocsr mrreparypsr. - 2007, MapT-anpeJIb.
4.
MaKCHMOB
7. MaKCHMOB B. Cara 0 aoccporax. - <I>paHK<pYpT-Ha-MaHHe. - 1981.
8. Trraa Il. Becenu B H3rHaHHH: Pyccxoe JIHTepaTYpHoe sapyfezcse, - M ., 1991.
9. MaKcHMoB B. CaMoHCTpe6JIeHHe . - M., 1995.
10. MaKcHMoB B. Meraaoprpossr faJIHHbI OOpHCOBHbl II KOHTHHeHT. - 1991. - NQ 67.
11. MaKcHMoB B. Tpesora: Pa3roBOP C B. MaKcHMoBbIM (BeJIa B. l1BepHH) II KOHTHHeHT.
- 1980. - N225.
.
12. MaKCHMOB B. Mocxsa - I1epyCaJIHM II MaKcHMoB B. C06paHHe cOlfHHeHHH: B 8 T. ­
M., 1993. - T. 9 (.nonOJIHHTeJIbHbIH).
13. MaKCHMoB B. "EcJIH oprarrasa 60JIbHOH, TO... ": Becerra C A. Pa<pHKoBbIM II
Tearpansaaa )l(H3Hb. - 1990. - NQ 16.
14. MaKCHMOB B. I1HTepBblO oH-6H-CH II BecTHHK pyccxoro xpacraaacxoro ,l:{BIDKeHIDI. ­
I1apIDK - Hsro-Hopx - Mocxsa. - 1977. - N2 120.
15. I1HcaTeJIb, .n.HCCH.n.eHT, 3MHrpaHT, narpaor: Becena C B. MaKcHMoBbIM II
Meaoryaaponaas )l(H3Hb. - 1992, S1HBapb.
K.G. Kauypuu.
)l(aHpoBO-CTlfJleBOe csoeocpasae ny6JJifUlfCTlfKIf
B.E. MaKCIfMOBa
41
16. MaKCHMOB B. "ECJIH 6 jI 3HaJI, lITO see TaK ofepnercs ... ": Becerra c ,l(.KOBaJIeBbIM II
Ha 6oeBoM IIOC1)'. - 1993. - N2 5-6.
17. MaKcHMoB B. "516e3 Poccan - HH4TO": Becena C B. MOP030BhIM 9 moml 1993 rona II
Ham cOBpeMeHHHK. - 1993. - N2 11.
18. MaKCl1MOB B. "51 - xpHcTHaHCKl1H anapxacr: MHe 6y.n.eT neynofino IIpH caMOH
HJl.eaJIhHOH BJIaCTl1... ": Becena C A.ll{YIIJIOBhlM II KHl1)I(HOe o603peHHe. - 1994, 27
.ueKa6pjl.
GENREAND STILlSTICS MAKSIMOV'S PUBLICICISM
K.O. KACHURIN
Department of World Literature
Peoples s Friendship University of Russia
Miklukho-Maklaja str., 6, 117198 Moscow, Russia
Genre and stylistic pecularities of Marsimov s pubJicism as on of the literary genre is
the subject of this article.
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