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From simple electrolyte solutions through polymer electrolytes to superionic rubbers some fundamental considerations

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Polymer International 47 (1998) 85È86
Book Reviews
Vol. 3 also includes an interesting account (at some length)
of the various processes employed for the production of latex
foam rubbers, and the complex legal actions which took place
to determine the validity (or otherwise) of certain patents. As
it stands, it is probably out-of-place in a volume with this title
È although the author was obviously involved È but any
polymer scientist who may become enmeshed in this complex
area would certainly Ðnd the discussion interesting, if only as
a reÑection of the strange (to scientists) attitudes of mind of
patent lawyers.
This is useful, often unusual, work, rather expensive (the
price is over 4000% greater than the First Edition !), with
fewer than 20% of the listed references later than 1980 : and
hardly any in languages other than English (the deep mines of
German and Japanese patents are largely untouched, even
with access through Chemical Abstracts). Many topics discussed at length are not available in such detail elsewhere. In
e†ect, the treatment is historical, and the work should be welcomed as a precursor which places many works on current
practice and performance in perspective.
Polymer latices : Science and technology. Second edition
Vol. 1, Fundamental principles.
Vol. 2, Types of latices.
Vol. 3, Applications of latices.
D. C. Blackley.
Chapman & Hall, London, 1997.
pp. Vol. 1 : xvii ] 557 ; Vol. 2 : xvii ] 592 ; Vol. 3 : xxi ] 653,
price £370.00 (set).
ISBN : Vol. 1, 0412 62870 8
Vol. 2, 0412 62880 5
Vol. 3, 0412 62890 2
These volumes are the Second Edition of “High Polymer
LaticesÏ, also by Dr Blackley, published in 1966 (in 2 volumes
for 168/- (£8.40 !)), and long unavailable. This earlier work
provided a comprehensive treatment, with many of the basic
references on the subject, of the fundamentals of polymer
science in relation to dispersions, both theoretical and practical. Much of this treatment has been retained in the volumes
under review, with signiÐcant emphasis of the aspects of the
authorÏs experience (and many publications in the Ðeld). The
topics covered include, especially, the many areas of polymer
science which relate to colloid science, and especially in Vol. 1,
to colloid stability and the destabilization behaviour of latices
by physical and chemical inÑuences, their Ñow properties and
handling, and the measurement of standard latex properties
(there are many useful references to British and International
Standards), and, notably, of their particle size.
Much of Vol. 2 is devoted to studies of natural rubber latex,
rubber-like latices obtained by emulsion polymerization of
vinyl monomers, especially butadiene and styrene, and their
chemical modiÐcations and functionalized products È notably,
of course, vulcanized rubbers. This is followed by a useful
chapter on “artiÐcial laticesÏ by which the author means
redispersed solid polymers in aqueous media, an industrially
important and rather neglected Ðeld (again, mainly concerned
with rubbers) ; two chapters on “chemically-modiÐedÏ latices È
on prevulcanized latices, and on other types of modiÐcation,
notably epoxidation, graft copolymerization, halogenation,
and surface modiÐcation, (with a brief description of interpenetrating polymer networks).
Vol. 3 is chieÑy devoted to the preparation of solutions, dispersions and emulsions, their compounding and the use of
latices (both natural and synthetic) in a range of dipping processes, formation of foams, textile coating, paper and adhesives manufacture, and many other miscellaneous, and useful
applications, including the production of vulcanized rubber
thread, latex-based moulding and casting (including rotational
moulding), manufacture of latex bonded Ðbre pads (including
use of waste Ðbrous materials, latexÈcement mixtures, and
some modiÐcations employing bitumens.
C. A. Finch
Technology for waterborne coatings, ACS symposium series
No. 663
Edited by J. E. Glass.
American Chemical Society, 1997.
pp. viii ] 304, price US$109.95.
ISBN 08412 35015
This symposium series of the American Chemical Society is
designed to publish symposia as rapidly as possible from
camera-ready copy, although the insistence of the ACS on
“peer reviewÏ (i.e. comments by a worker in a related sphere
who knows less than the author) inevitably causes some delay.
This volume is based on a symposium in August 1995.
Various methods have been used to avoid or reduce organic
solvents in coatings, including powder coatings, but the classical method of using waterborne materials, still a major
branch of coatings technology, is mainly based on polymer
latices (which are also known as emulsions).
The 15 chapters discuss conventional types of latices and
also those based on epoxides and polyurethanes (chapters 5
and 9), with a useful chapter on the problems of the manufacture of paint from alkyd emulsions, stressing the major di†erences on drying behaviour compared with traditional
solvent-based paints.
( 1998 Society of Chemical Industry. Polymer International 0959-8103/98/$17.50
Printed in Great Britain
Book reviews
Two introductory chapters survey the manufacture of the
various polymers followed by a chapter on particle morphology. Possibly the main theme is particle coalescence and Ðlm
formation, including particleÈparticle morphology. (My copy
has four pages of chapter 6 printed badly, so that the ends of
the lines are partially obscured).
Radiation curing is the subject of chapter 7. Chapter 8
describes carbodiimide chemistry which gives a scope for
crosslinking, and gives many potential uses for carbodiimide
coatings technology including coatings for wood, most metals
and plastics and automotive applications.
Electrostearic stabilized latices, e.g. where particles have
ionized carboxylic acid on the surface of the particles to assist
stability are described, whilst further chapters consider aspects
of Ðlm formation including porous structure, spray application and some mathematical aspects of the drying process.
This is a useful book to add to the knowledge of those for
whom emulsion polymers are a practical activity.
H. Warson
Block copolymers, polyelectrolytes, biodegradation.
V. Bellon-Maurel, A. Calmon-Decriaud, V. Chandrasekhar,
N. Hadjichristidis, J. W. Mays, S. Pispas, M. Pitsikalis, F. Silvestre.
Advances in polymer science No. 135, Springer-Verlag, Berlin,
Heidelberg, 1998.
pp. vi ] 237
ISBN 3-540-63156-9
This book reviews three di†erent topics. The purpose of the
Ðrst article Non-linear block copolymer architectures is to
review their synthesis and properties, with emphasis on synthetic aspects, including graft and star-block copolymers, for
which a number of excellent earlier reviews already exist, as
well as extremely interesting novel structures made possible by
recent advances in synthetic techniques. The latter include
miktoarm stars, H-shaped and super-H polymers, umbrella
polymers, dendrimers, and cyclic block copolymers. The focus
throughout is on synthesis and properties of well-deÐned,
well-characterized systems. For this reason, most of the attention to graft copolymers deals with macromonomer methods,
which allow the synthesis of reasonably well-deÐned graft
copolymers incorporating an extremely wide range of monomers.
The synthesis and study of such materials is essential for
developing the understanding of how macromolecular architecture inÑuences block copolymer properties. Theoretical and
experimental results on solution and bulk properties of nonlinear block copolymers are also reviewed, and issues regarding additional study are identiÐed.
The second topic deals with Polymer solid electrolytes : synthesis and structures. These are materials of high technological
promise in several electrochemical applications such as highenergy-density batteries, gas sensors, electrochemical devices
etc, where they have attracted much attention and hold great
promise in this area. Several types of polymer hosts have been
investigated. These include polyethylene oxide and its several
modiÐed forms, comb-like polymers such as polyacrylates and
inorganic polymers such as polyphosphazenes and polysiloxanes. Various instrumental techniques have been
employed in the structural characterization of polymer electrolytes. The structural information obtained from methods
such as extended X-ray absorption Ðne structure (EXAFS),
X-ray di†raction methods, vibrational spectroscopy and
nuclear magnetic resonance (NMR) is also discussed.
The third topic discusses Standard methods for testing the
aerobic biodegradation of polymeric materials review and perspectives.
There is an on-going world-wide research e†ort to develop
biodegradable polymers for packaging from renewable
sources, which has caused a need to evaluate the biodegradation of these polymers in di†erent environments, e.g. dumping
in marine, freshwater, compost or land Ðll sites. Many organizations such as ASTM, OECD, the European Committee of
Normalization, the Japan Biodegradable Plastics Society etc.,
have developed accelerated laboratory test procedures for
evaluating potentially biodegradable materials.
This report gives an overview of the standardization activities for biodegradability measurements of polymers and a
comparison of the methods used for biodegradability tests on
solid polymers and packaging materials.
F. Schue
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simple, polymer, solutions, rubber, electrolytic, considerations, superionic, fundamentals
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