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Book Reviews
Biological Anthropology and Ethics: From
Repatriation to Genetic Identity. Edited by
Trudy R. Turner. x + 327 pp. Albany, NY:
State University of New York Press.
2005. $86.50 (cloth), $28.95 (paper).
Physical anthropology began in America as
the scholarly handmaiden of slavery. Franz
Boas was hired as a physical anthropologist
at Columbia in part because of his prominence
in robbing Eskimo graves. Eugen Fisher, the
most eminent physical anthropologist in
Europe, was accused of being a war criminal
by Franz Weidenreich in the pages of Science.
Josef Mengele, the Auschwitz camp doctor
known as ‘‘the Angel of Death,’’ had a doctorate in physical anthropology, earned under
Theodor Mollison.
History has a lot to say to biological
anthropology, not much of it good. Is the
present any better? Or we have still not
fully emerged from the attitude of the old
days, when ‘‘anything goes’’ as long as it is
in the name of science?
The present volume is the first to grapple
with the issue of ethics in biological anthropology (outside of the narrow issue of NAGPRA),
and while the contributions are wildly uneven,
it nevertheless constitutes an admirable first
step. Based on a symposium in Milwaukee in
1999, and a double session at the AAPA in
2001, Trudy Turner has assembled 20 essays
exploring ethical issues throughout biological
anthropology. Space obviously does not permit
a thorough discussion of all of them, so I will
simply make a few comments.
The book’s principal oddity is that it has five
essays on ethics in primatology and only one on
paleoanthropology. For a field whose history
is so entwined with colonialism and racism, it
is nothing short of bizarre that the only
paleoanthropological ethical issue explored in
detail concerns methodological problems in
the preparation of casts. Mercifully, a commentary by Susan Antón manages to articulate
some others. ‘‘Colonialism’’ does not appear
in the index, and ‘‘racism’’ can be found on
three pages.
A few of the essays also sound a bit more
like apologetics than like explorations, on
such issues as the ‘‘African Ancestry’’ project,
those pesky institutional review boards,
James Neel’s assassinated reputation, and
that old elephant in the parlor, the Human
ß 2005 Wiley-Liss, Inc.
Genome Diversity Project. The latter issue in
particular is dealt with at length in a new
book by a historian of science (Jenny
Reardon, Race to the Finish, Princeton
University Press, 2004).
More importantly, however, there are some
real gems in this collection. Special credit
must be given to Linda Wolfe, both for the
thoughtfulness and scope of her essay on ethical issues in primatology and for her drafting
of the AAPA code. Sloan Williams has contributed an important and wide-ranging essay on
the genetic construction of identity and public
use of genetic data via the relationships
among the Jefferson, Hemings, and Woodson
families. Kaestle and Smith have worked successfully with the DNA of Native Americans
and their ancestors and discuss the value of
such work and the NAGPRA issues it entails.
Jonathan Friedlaender candidly recounts his
efforts to coordinate research in Papua New
Guinea with national and local governments
and educational and medical institutions.
Michele Goldsmith insightfully articulates
the prime concerns in habituating great apes
for their participation in the primatological
endeavor; and Jay Kaplan’s commentary
puts together the historical, political, demographic, and scientific aspects of the importation of macaques for biomedical research (it is
again odd, though, that none of the five contributions on primates engages ‘‘The Great
Ape Project’’). Walsh-Haney and Lieberman
review issues in forensic anthropology, particularly in the context of the legal system; and
Sara Stinson presents human biology research
in the framework of the Belmont Principles of
autonomy, beneficence, justice, and respect.
O’Rourke et al. focus on consultation with
Native American tribes on DNA work, and
they even raise the important question of
what constitutes a ‘‘population.’’ Larson and
Walker’s paper on bioarchaeology is brief but
sharp. Oddly, though, they leave Kennewick
Man to Kaestle and Smith to discuss in the
narrow context of DNA, rather than confronting the exploitation of the skeleton to undermine NAGPRA and the odd (to this reviewer’s
mind) claim that scientists have some kind of
‘‘right’’ to study it, which was being violated by
the tribes and government agencies.
In short, biological anthropologists are
quite far behind the curve in confronting
ethical issues raised by their science, and the
present volume begins the catch-up process.
This will be valuable for seminar use and will
make an especially good pairing with the
recent Wenner-Gren volume, Embedding
Ethics: Anthropological Moralities on the
Boundaries of the Public and the
Professional, edited by Peter Pels and Lynn
Meskell (Oxford, U.K.: Berg; 2005).
Department of Sociology and
Anthropology University of North
Charlotte, North Carolina
DOI: 10.1002/ajhb.20131
Genetic Nature/Culture: Anthropology and
Science beyond the Two-Culture Divide.
Edited by Alan H. Goodman, Deborah
Heath, and M. Susan Lindee. xvii + 311
pp. Berkeley, CA: University of California
Press. 2003. $60.00 (cloth), $24.95
No academic field may unfortunately exemplify C.P. Snow’s two cultures more
than anthropology. Genetic Nature/Culture:
Anthropology and Science Beyond the TwoCulture Divide is much more than the typical
hyphenated-title cultural anthropological
edited volume. It is the outcome of a WennerGren Foundation for Anthropological Research
symposium ‘‘Anthropology in the Age of
Genetics: Practice, Discourse, and Critique,’’
held in June 1999, in Teresopolis, Brazil. Its
aim was to bring together biological anthropologists who specialize in molecular genetic
approaches and sociocultural anthropologists
who emphasize cultural studies of sciences in
their work.
Sydel Silverman, the president of the
Wenner-Gren Foundation for Anthropological Research from 1987 to 1999, provides
a very useful forward in which she describes
the two approaches. As an example of
the approach of this book she states, ‘‘The
critical perspective is probably the major contribution that anthropology can make to
understanding the social construction and
impact of genetic science and practice. If this
perspective is to be taken seriously, however,
cultural anthropologists must show themselves to be fully competent in the biological
components of their subject matter (p xiii).’’
The first section of the book, Part I,
Nature/Culture, opening with ‘‘Human
Populations/Genetic Resources,’’ contains
four chapters dealing with the complexities
of biological sample collection from human
populations. Ricardo Ventura Santos’
‘‘Indigenous Peoples, Changing Social and
Political Landscapes, and Human Genetics
in Amazonia,’’ compares and contrasts two
projects designed to survey human genetic
variation, the Human Adaptability component of the International Biological
Programme (HA-IBP) of the early 1960s
and 1970s and the Human Genome
Diversity Project (HGDP) proposed in 1991.
It provides an excellent overview of the
changing priorities of research agendas to
include human rights and local sentiments
into the justification of such projects.
Another project from the 1960s carried out by
McKusick among the Amish in Pennsylvania,
is described by M. Susan Lindee in her chapter, ‘‘Provenance and the Pedigree: Victor
McKusick’s Fieldwork with the Old Order
Amish.’’ While his aim was to collect blood
samples to investigate the genetics of a dwarfing condition, Ellis–van Creveld syndrome, he
carefully designed his study to incorporate
his subject’s history, medical beliefs, concerns,
and other aspects of their social relationships and networks. His cultural sensitivity
and ethical concerns presaged many of the
same issues highlighted by Karen-Sue
Taussig, Rayna Rapp, and Deborah Heath’s
chapter, ‘‘Flexible Eugenics: Technologies of
the Self in the Age of Genetics.’’ They discuss
the concept of flexible eugenics in the context
of genetic testing for achondroplasia as viewed
by families affected by this condition. Their
interviews and descriptions of Little People
of America conventions demonstrate the
complexity of debates about genetic testing.
Hilary Rose nicely closes this section with
‘‘The Commodification of Virtual Reality: The
Icelandic Health Sector Database,’’ which
again brings the issues of informed consent
of target populations to light, in this case as a
result of a effort to genetically screen the
Icelandic population by a biotech company
with the complicit assistance of a national
health care system.
I found the next subsection, ‘‘Animal
Species/Genetic Resources,’’ the weakest of
the book. Sarah Franklin’s chapter, ‘‘Kinship,
Genes, and Cloning: Life after Dolly,’’ is full
of neologisms (e.g., LifeitselfTM) and new definitions of terms that so frustrate many scientists reading sociocultural critiques (back to
the Two-Cultures divide). However, buried
within this chapter are interesting ideals and
concepts regarding reproduction, maternity,
and discussions of biotechnology. Donna
Haraway’s chapter, ‘‘For the Love of a Good
Dog: Webs of Action in the World of Dog
Genetics,’’ is a fascinating account of the
world of dog owners, breed associations, veterinarians, and the American Kennel Club, with
an interesting theory of the evolution of
domestic dogs thrown in.
Chimpanzee and 35% Daffodil: The Human
Genome in Evolutionary and Cultural
Context’’ is derived from his book What It
Means to Be 98% Chimpanzee (Berkeley:
University of California Press; 2001). His
main focus is to deconstruct the popular factoid of 98% genomic similarity between
humans and chimpanzees. He strongly criticizes molecular anthropologists (of which the
reviewer is one) for being too reductionist by
setting up a series of straw-man arguments
regarding homology, sequence alignment,
comparison, and quantification. All of these
issues are complex, and while discussion of
this complexity is often reduced for publication, especially for popular consumption, most
genomic scientists are well aware of them.
The second half of the book, Part II, Culture/
Nature, opens with the subsection ‘‘Political
and Cultural Identity.’’ Chaia Heller and
Arturo Escobar’s ‘‘From Pure Genes to
GMOs: Transnationalized Gene Landscapes
in the Biodiversity and Transgenic Food
Networks,’’ casts a critical eye on biotechnology and genetically modified organisms.
They provide an interesting comparison
Columbia who are contesting the bioprospecting of tropical biodiversity and the French
farmers’ unions, Confédération Paysanne,
and other anti-GMO groups in their converging fights against biotechnology and globalization. Joan Fujimura’s chapter, ‘‘Future
Imaginaries: Genome Scientists as Sociocultural Entrepreneurs,’’ provides an interesting
history of the growth of genomics in Japan.
Using two examples, she shows how different
actors have used the concept of Nihonjin-ron,
or Japanese cultural uniqueness, to influence
the trajectory of genomic science in Japan with
its heavy emphasis on bioinformatics rather
than ‘‘wet’’ bench science.
Himla Soodyall’s more personal account,
‘‘Reflections and Prospects for Anthropological Genetics in South Africa,’’ sets the
stage for the last part of the book with her
discussion of how important it is to understand sub-Saharan African genetic variation.
The last subsection, ‘‘Race and Human
Variation,’’ opens with Rick Kittles’ and
Charmaine Royal’s ‘‘The Genetics of African
Americans: Implications for Disease Gene
Mapping and Identity.’’ Through mixing the
history of the slave trade with the genetic
analysis of the African Burial Ground rediscovered in 1991 in lower Manhattan during a
construction project, they lay the ground
work for a discussion of African American
genetic diversity and its importance for disease gene mapping.
Alan Templeton provides a long (by ‘‘scientists’ standards’’) and complex chapter, ‘‘Human
Races in the Context of Recent Human
Evolution: A Molecular Genetic Perspective.’’
It nicely summarizes many of the points he has
made over the years in technical articles in the
primary literature that may not be as accessible to the average reader. He clearly defines
and describes the two criteria used by biologists to define subspecies or races of animals,
either by genetic differentiation among populations or as distinct evolutionary lineages. By
either criterion, he shows that humans cannot
be partitioned into biological races.
My favorite chapter of the book was Troy
Duster’s, ‘‘Buried Alive: The Concept of Race
in Science.’’ While agreeing with Templeton’s
biological conclusions, Duster makes a strong
case for not throwing the baby out with the
bath water by denying the existence of race
and hence racism’s effects on health care. The
final chapter is by Frederika Kaestle cutely
entitled ‘‘The Good, the Bad, and the Ugly:
Promise and Problems of Ancient DNA for
Anthropology.’’ She very clearly lays out the
perils and pitfalls of ancient DNA analyses
along with the potential to answer a variety
of interesting questions.
Overall this book seems to have meet
Silverman’s goal of bringing together the two
most disparate subdisciplines of anthropology.
While the sociocultural chapters were generally of a critical nature, the critiques were on
average well informed and not overly negative.
In particular, the chapters by Templeton and
Duster provide an important take on the issue
of race and human genetic variation.
Department of Anthropology
New York University
New York, New York
DOI: 10.1002/ajhb.20132
The Journey of Man: A Genetic Odyssey. By
Spencer Wells. xvi + 224 pp. Princeton:
Princeton University Press. 2002. $29.95
My sister loved this book. Inspired by the
film series to which this volume is the companion, she went out, purchased the book, and
read it. Why she failed to ask for a recommendation from the family physical anthropologist
is beside the point here. But, her enthusiasm
for the book and its topic does underscore one
of the problems faced in reviewing a book directed at a general audience, namely, the divergence between what we as anthropologists
want the public to understand about our discipline and what the public wants to know or
finds interesting.
The Journey of Man is so titled because its
subject matter is the Y-chromosome markers
that allow us to trace relatedness through
the male lineage as opposed to mtDNA,
which is maternally inherited. The Y chromosome has now yielded enough polymorphisms to allow us to make inferences about
relationships between populations. Wells
uses this information in conjunction with
the geographic distribution of the markers
to reconstruct the path modern Homo
sapiens must have taken as they left Africa
and dispersed around the globe. It’s a great
story and well told here.
The first few chapters of the book intersperse a curiously biased history of the study
of human diversity with explanations of the
science employed. Concepts such as genetic
drift, parsimony, molecular clocks, and the
structure of DNA are explained in easy-tounderstand language. Wells uses the recurring simile of a soup recipe to which each generation has made modifications to help the
reader grasp the concept of the accumulation
of diversity and the order of accumulation of
polymorphisms on a chromosome over time.
The heart of the book, in my opinion, is
Chapter 6, titled ‘‘The Main Line.’’ In this
chapter, the author traces hominid migration out of Africa into Central and East
Asia. Information on the distribution of
Y-chromosome markers, climatology, and
geography are combined to draw a picture
of how human populations may have moved
through the middle east into Central Asia,
India, and ultimately all parts of Asia. Then,
of course, he considers the corroborating evidence provided by language and archaeology.
The final chapter considers the effect of
recent migrations on the distribution of
genetic markers. In this chapter, Wells
laments the disintegration of villages in
remote regions of the world and the disappearance of languages as small populations
are incorporated into nation-states. Our history is disappearing, he says, and will soon
be lost to us.
The Journey of Man does tell a great story.
But it is a story, and not science. It is the hero
myth of old in which man ventures forth and
conquers. In this case, instead of the heroic
biped that leaves the jungle and conquers the
savannah, it is the heroic early Homo sapiens
with his advanced technology and problemsolving skills that leaves Africa and conquers
first the steppes of Central Asia and then the
globe. Criticism of this approach to human
evolution has been around for over 20 years
(Landau, 1981, 1991) and has had a major
impact on interpretation of the human
paleontological record within anthropology.
As demonstrated here, it has had less impact
on geneticists.
Anthropological genetics has been criticized for using 21st-century technology
to answer a 19th-century question (A.C.
Swedlund, quoted in Lewin, 1993). While
this criticism might be justified when leveled
at our colleagues, the general public, if my
sister is any representative, still very much
wants to know why people from different
parts of the world look so different. After all,
their knowledge of human diversity is limited
by their experience. For my sister, this book
answered that question. She clearly understood that the variation we see in the human
species today was present at its origin and was
redistributed around the globe through a
combination of microevolutionary forces. So
far, so good.
There is a lot to criticize in this book. I
would not recommend it to my students, and
I dread having to explain to students who may
have read this book why they should not use it
as a guide to future research in human diversity. Most of those criticisms are subtle and of
most interest to those within the profession.
They can be summed up by one revealing fact
about this book. Ironically, Carlton S. Coon is
the villain in Spencer Wells’ curiously biased
history of biological anthropology in which
the discipline is rescued from the scourge
of racial science by Luigi Cavalli-Sforza.
My education in anthropology, which began
in 1971, has never explicitly included a
consideration of Coon’s work, yet I do own a
copy of The Living Races of Man (Coon, 1965),
inherited from a colleague who recently
retired. Taking Coon’s volume from the
shelf, I compared the two books. Both discuss
the influence of language, geography, and climate on the distribution of human variation.
Both use genetic data. Both express concern
that the expansion of global migration since
1492 has muddied the picture of the original
distribution of that variation. Both include
photographs of faces from people from around
the world that contribute to that assumption
so irritating to minorities in the United States
that you can tell where someone comes from
just by looking at them. These striking similarities stem from the fact that both authors
are more interested in history than process.
While an historical approach may reflect the
interest of the general population, as scientists we owe it to them to help them understand the new questions we are now asking.
Wells is more than Coon dressed up in molecular data, but not much. Perhaps we really
haven’t come that far.
Coon C. 1965. The living races of man. New York: Alfred
A. Knopf.
Landau M. 1981. The anthropogenic: paleoanthropological writing as a genre of literature. Ph.D. thesis.
New Haven, CT: Yale University, Department of
Anthropology; 1981.
Landau M. 1991. Narratives of human evolution. New
Haven: Yale University Press.
Lewin R. 1993. Genes from a disappearing world. New
Scientist 138:25–29.
Department of Anthropology
Rhode Island College
Providence, Rhode Island
DOI: 10.1002/ajhb.20133
DNA Sequencing: Optimizing Process and
Analysis. Edited by Jan Kieleczawa. xix +
204 pp. Boston, MA: Jones and Bartlett.
2005. $89.95 (cloth).
Since invention of robust DNA sequencing
less than three decades ago, the technique has
revolutionized the way we study biology. In the
first two decades, DNA sequencing cost was
reduced by 3 orders of magnitude, and
that enabled sequencing of the largest genome,
the human genome. Currently, the cost of
sequencing of a mammalian genome is about
5–10 million dollars, which includes library
construction, template preparation, DNA
sequencing, and analysis. This book, DNA
Sequencing: Optimizing Process and Analysis,
represents the collective wisdom of experienced
investigators in this emerging field. In particular, the authors made an effort to address the
impediments of sequencing by providing the
state-of-the-art practical solutions to sequence
difficult templates. The book is divided into 13
chapters that discuss the advantages and disadvantages of the most of methodologies involved
in DNA sequencing. The text is easy to read, as
we were able to finish the book in one day of
concentrated reading.
The first four chapters of the book discuss
different upstream processes in the sequencing reaction prior to fragment analysis.
There are numerous tips and hints, which
are critical to know for achieving good
sequencing data. Chapters 5–8 discuss the
details of different cloning strategies, the
best conditions for growing bacteria and
how to extract the maximum amount of plasmid DNA from bacteria. Chapter 9 introduces major gel electrophoresis devices in
the market with a fair comparison sheet in
terms of read-length, accuracy, throughput,
and cost per reaction. In addition, the chapter discusses strengths and weaknesses that
help the newcomer make better decisions.
Chapters 10–12 are very useful for core facilities and larger sequencing centers and
discuss GXP qualifications and different
software programs to support sequencing
activities, applications, and database management systems. Chapter 13 provides an
overview of some of the new technologies
that are being used for large-scale sequencing applications.
Overall, this book summarizes an impressive amount of results from large and diverse
areas of research on DNA sequencing. It
demonstrates clearly how large-scale DNA
sequencing is performed and provides hints
about the best methodologies on how the
actual experiments are carried out. This
book is exceptionally useful for scientists,
life-sciences technicians, and even graduate
students who have already some hands-on
experience in DNA-sequencing procedures;
however, we recommend the book neither as
a source to get familiar with this field nor for
the researcher who intends to investigate the
instrumentation or engineering challenges of
the sequencing platforms. The book may be
difficult for an unprepared student, as it does
not provide the details on basic and specific
methodologies. However, this book will be
very useful as a reference and includes examples for teachers updating their courses in
order to include modern concepts in DNA
sequencing. Taken together, this book provides a profound examination of DNA sequencing and it is a good read for any scientist who
is running DNA sequencing routinely.
My prediction is that the book will have a
short life because the area of DNA sequencing
is evolving rapidly and new methodologies
will replace most of the current methods,
although many useful tips in molecular biological methods are described. The last chapter
of this book describes some emerging technologies that are near realization. Implementation of new methodologies, such as
Pyrosequencing and Polony sequencing and
other single-molecule sequencing-by-synthesis techniques, eliminates plasmid preparation and involves different enzymes and
sequencing strategies. In addition, these new
techniques will use different devices for elucidation of nucleotide sequences. However, one
thing is clear; every order of magnitude in
cost reduction will open a new market for
DNA sequencing. Individual genome sequencing can be envisioned if the cost of DNA
sequencing is reduced to a few thousand dollars. This should happen in the next 10 years.
Stanford Genome Technology Center
Stanford University
Palo Alto, California
Department of Electrical Engineering
Stanford University
Palo Alto, California
DOI: 10.1002/ajhb.20134
Functional Metabolism: Regulation and
Adaptation. Edited by Kenneth B. Storey.
xvii + 594 pp. Hoboken, NJ, Wiley Liss.
2004. $129.00 (cloth).
Functional Metabolism is a collaboration of
Kenneth Storey and twelve of his former students. The range of their contributions covers
both classical and contemporary metabolism.
In presenting metabolic theory, this work
takes on the ‘‘elephant in the room’’ that
touches upon all biological subdisciplines:
molecular genetics. The authors recognize the
explosive growth in our understanding of
genetics, and they search for common ground
between mature, quantitative metabolic concepts and the novel but as yet mostly qualitative concepts of the genome.
The book presents a wide range of metabolic subjects: enzymology, energy use and
production, intermediary metabolism, hormonal control, cold adaptation and hibernation, oxidative stress, blood cell biochemistry,
and evolution. Also included, most appropriately, is a series of chapters covering the
basics of molecular biology: signal transduction, transcription factors, inducible factors,
and translational control. Having provided
the reader with the basics necessary to understand DNA control function, the metabolic
theory is presented and linked to the relevant
genetic expression. In some cases, this linkage
is extensive, and in others it is minimal.
The opening chapters introduce the basics of
metabolic theory, in vitro and in vivo enzymology. These well-developed areas are covered in
a quantitative manner, in a style appropriate
for graduate students. Sophisticated methods
of analysis are introduced, although no practice problems are included. Recent developments in this field, e.g., substrate channeling,
add contemporary features.
Following this classical metabolic field, the
molecular genetics is introduced. Most of these
chapters are not specifically aimed at metabolism, but they fill the need to have the appropriate material present for the future linkage
of genetics and metabolism. Among the extensive areas covered are the dynamic nature of
the proteosome; serine/threonine and tyrosine
kinase (and relevant phosphatase) control; the
modular nature of inducible factors and the
transcription factors involved in metabolic
control; and translational control of mRNA
(capping, polyadenylation, splicing) and ribosomes. This material is often covered in other
courses for students, but it will be particularly
useful to older, nongenetic scientists as a
means of coming up to speed in this field. A
later chapter on the hormones involved in
metabolic control (insulin, glucagon, cortisol,
leptin, etc.) and the diseases associated with
them (diabetes and obesity) uses the basic
genetic mechanisms already presented to provide the background for the specific mechanisms of the individual hormones.
The presentation of human carbohydrate,
lipid, and protein metabolism forms the best
linkage of metabolism and genetics. The basics
of these metabolic pathways are provided,
along with recent work on the transcription
factors and control proteins involved in these
pathways. There is as yet no quantitation of
these elements, but their strong linkage with
the known quantitative elements in metabolic
pathways holds the promise of future quantitation of molecular genetics. A four-chapter comparative biology arc covering adaptation,
metabolic rate depression, hibernation, and
cold tolerance provides similar linkage to
advances in genetics. The greater financial
support of human research over comparative
biology presages different time scales of quantitative linkage, but the potential research
goals remain similar in both.
Other chapters have a weaker linkage
between metabolism and genetics. This does
not, however, detract from their excellent
presentations of the different areas. Mitochondrial function is covered, including an
extensive section on apoptosis and its effects
on the genome. Skeletal muscle metabolism,
erythrocyte and platelet control, organ transplantation, effects of oxygen stress, and oxygen
radicals (a particularly impressive section) are
all presented well. The book concludes with a
chapter on metabolic evolution and the origin
of life. This provides appropriate closure
because of the natural conjunction of primitive
metabolism and the primordial genome necessitated by the (speculative) conditions leading
to the development of replicating cells.
The quality of writing is consistent throughout the book, despite the large number of
authors. The black-and-white figures are of
mixed quality, many similar to Power Point
presentations. This book is recommended as
an excellent complement to nonquantitative
molecular biology courses taken by graduate
students. It provides myriad directions for
future research careers of those students
with dual metabolic and genetic interests.
Undergraduates with an excellent biochemical background would also profit from this
presentation. The different subject areas can
be read independently as contemporary
review articles by scientific professionals.
Functional Metabolism is true to the fundamentals and recent developments in metabolic
research and points the way to future, deeper
convergence of metabolism and genetics.
Department of Physiology
Michigan State University
East Lansing, Michigan
DOI: 10.1002/ajhb.20135
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