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Handbook of forensic archaeology and anthropology. Edited by D. Morse J. Duncan and J. Stoutamire. Tallahassee FL The Editors. 1983. xix + 240 pp. figures tables references appendices. $16.95 (cloth) $10

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chapter contain problems to be worked out
by students, with detailed answers provided
a t the back of the text. There are plenty of
useful illustrations and tables throughout,
and instructors will be delighted to find
“boxes” that detail derivation of specific formulae, thereby saving thein class time.
Some may think the shortcoming of this
book for anthropologists is that of context: A
human orientation is absent, although there
are many examples of evolutionary forces operating on our species, and many of the problems are drawn from human genetics. For
use in a n anthropology course, Population
and Evolutionary Genetics will have to be
supplemented by readings from the human
biological literature. I tend to think that this
is one of the text’s greatest strengths. It presents the basic mechanisms of change that
are common to eukaryotic organisms, leaving the more extensive species-specific illustrations to the instructor.
All textbooks have their errors, omissions,
and infelicitous remarks. This one is no exception, though the number of such items are
few. For example, effective population size is
equated with breeding population size (p. 751,
something that is true only when specific
conditions are met. Elsewhere individuals
with Down’s syndrome are claimed not to
reproduce (p. 104). The discussion of linkage
disequilibrium seems barren without men-
tion of the major histocompatibility complex,
HLA, in humans, and I would have preferred
a discussion of the Rh complex as the illustration of a “supergene” to Ayala’s pin-thrum
phenomenon in the primrose. The description of the achondroplastic phenotype (p. 104)
is implicitly value-laden-something that is
particularly discordant in a text that is otherwise sensitive to social issues and concerns
ranging from eugenics (p. 65) and race (p.
151), to heritability of I.&. (p. 174).
These minor points aside, I think Ayala’s
book succeeds admirably in what it seeks to
do. It does introduce students to the classical
principles of population and evolutionary genetics; it does offer a glimpse into the field of
molecular evolution. Experience tells us that
mastery of the basics encourages students to
delve more into population biology. Population and Evolutionary Genetics is a good point
of departure to satisfy one’s basic curiosity
and whet one’s appetite for more.
McMaster University
Hamilton, Ontario, Canada
Ayala, FJ, and Kiger, JK Jr (1980) Modern Genetics.
Menlo Park, CA: BenjamidCummings.
Hartl, DL (1981)A Primer of Population Genetics. Sunderland, MA: Sinauer Associates.
material, such a s a n inventory of the bones
Edited by D. Morse, J. of the skeleton. Much of the data presented
Duncan, and J. Stoutamire. Tallahassee, in this volume is the result of a training and
FL: The Editors. 1983. xix + 240 pp., fig experimentation program begun in 1976 inures, tables, references, appendices. $16.95 volving the faculty and staff of the Department of Anthropology, Florida State
(cloth), $10.95 (paper).
University, and the Florida Department of
Law Enforcement. Most of the experiments
have been of a long-term nature designed to
This volume presents much new material determine the preservation characteristics of
in the new and rapidly expanding field of a variety of different forms of evidence.
forensic anthropology. There are nine auThe volume was published by the editors
thors for the nine chapters and three append- after attempts to have it published by other
ices. The three editors all have experience in presses, including university presses, failed.
forensic anthropology and archaeology. They With most chapters written by different auhave attempted to draw together a diverse thors, it lacks continuity and consistency.
The editors (p. ii) state that “All profits
amount of information: some new, such as
estimation of the time interval since death from the sale of this book will be donated to
and information on the deterioration of hu- the Florida State University Foundation, Inc.
man hair, and some a repeat of well-known to be used toward the promotion of a research
and training program in Forensic Anthropology.” This handbook, as stated in the introduction, includes some topics that have not
been emphasized in the past, such as the
estimation of the time of death by the degree
of deterioration of associated death scene materials, tables for the estimation of the weight
of the victim by clothing size, underwater
crime scene investigation, deterioration of
human hair, and a computer-aided profile
reconstruction from the skull x-ray of the
victim. The book stresses cooperation and
teamwork between the anthropologist and
the many law enforcement, medical, and legal personnel that must participate in the
Chapter 1 (by Jack Duncan, a Florida
Crime Laboratory supervisor with 16 years’
experience in crime scene processing) discusses the methods of visual, aerial, and
probe searches for both buried and surface
bodies. This section has good line drawings
and like most chapters, contains references
a t the end of the chapter.
James Stoutamire, a professional archaeologist, contributed chapter 2, on excavation
and recovery and chapter 9, which discusses
the course design for the training and experimentation projects. The excavation and recovery chapter is well illustrated with
photographs and helpful hints gained from
actual cases.
“Underwater Crime Scene Investigation”
(chapter 3) was written by two professional
underwater experts-Richard Johnson, a n
archaeologist who has done underwater survey archaeology, and Peter Steuer, a criminologist in the Academic Diving Program a t
Florida State University. Techniques in underwater mapping, grid systems, photography, and excavation are discussed and well
illustrated with line drawings.
“Osteology for the Investigator” (chapter
4) is provided as a basic review of human
osteology to enable the investigator to recognize human remains. Not all bones are illustrated and the line drawings of the bones are
dark. Chapter 4 and part of chapter 5 were
written by Richard C. Dailey, a physical anthropologist a t Florida State University. The
questions of human versus animal as well as
basic techniques for determining the age, sex,
race, and stature are discussed and illustrated in chapter 5--“Identification of the
Victim.” Tables are provided to aid in obtaining a rough estimation of weight during life
from examination of wearing apparel.
Part of chapter 5, and all of chapter 6, “The
Time of Death,” and chapter 7, “The Skeletal
Pathology of Trauma,” were provided by Dan
Morse, a retired physician who holds the position of research associate in the Department of Anthropology, Florida State University. After a general discussion on decay
rates of human tissue, most of chapter 6 deals
with a n experiment begun in 1978 on the
decay rates of various textiles (natural, manmade, and blends). Good comparative data
are offered.
The 40 pages of chapter 7 make it the longest, but 13 are full-page illustrations of damage done to bone by animals, of blunt trauma,
fractures, cuts, and puncture wounds to bone,
and of bullet wounds to various parts of te
body. There is a short discussion of the type
of damage done to bone by dogs, pigs, rodents, vultures, deer, and sheep, much of
which was studied in field experiments in
north Florida.
Dr. Joseph H. Davis, the chief medical examiner for Metropolitan Dade County
(Miami), Florida, is the author of chapter 8,
“Principles of Evidence Interpretation”
(eight pages). He discusses the importance of
making a positive identification of the victim
and offers some helpful hints on terms and
behavior to be used and avoided as an expert
The volume concludes with three appendices (41 pages). Appendix A, by Dan Morse,
gives basic statistical data on the deterioration of cloth. Appendix B, by Patricia Lasko,
a crime laboratory analyst for the Tallahassee Crime Laboratory, reports on a n experiment on the deterioration of buried human
hair. A number of interesting observations
are reported. Appendix C, “Computer-Aided
Profile Reconstruction,” by Geoffrey F.
Walker (associate professor, School of Dentistry, University of Michigan), reports a
method of computing a soft tissue profile,
based on measurements of the facial bones.
The method requires a lateral x-ray of the
This is a n interesting volume and would be
a n asset to individuals interested in forensic
anthropology. It would be of value to conduct
experiments similar to those reported here
in other geographic areas for comparative
University of Tennessee
Knoxville, Tennessee
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cloth, figuren, handbook, editor, tallahassee, references, stoutamire, morse, duncan, 1983, 240, archaeology, forensic, xix, edited, Anthropology, tablet, appendices
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