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Veterinary issues Discussion group report.

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American Journal of Primatology Supplement 1:127-129 (1982)
Veterinary Issues: Discussion Group Report
WILLIAM C. SATTERFIELD AND K.I. OROURKE, Moderator and Co-chairpersons
The purpose of this discussion group was to examine a number of medical issues
related to the fertility of great apes in captivity. Scientists and clinicians representing
institutions and projects that impact these areas were invited to present their most
recent findings and to describe the diagnostic resources available to the primary health
care team. (See Table I.) The final goal of the group was to suggest a protocol for a
medical examination to determine the cause of infertility. This protocol, given in Table
11, is an outline for the clinician gathering data on a n individual infertile ape as well
as on reproductively successful individuals and groups. It should be used as a starting
point; any of the headings may be fully explored by the investigator as suggested by
the case.
Key words: great apes, infertility,testicular biopsy, autoimmunity,ureaplasma, mycoplasma
TABLE I. Veterinary Issues Discussion Group Speakers
1. Janis E. Ott, D.V.M.
Resident Veterinarian, Brookfield Zoo
Brookfield, Illinois 60513
2. R.L. Heberling, Ph.D.
Assoc. Director
Southwest Foundation for Research
San Antonio, Texas 78284
3. James Ebert, D.V.M.
Chief of Primate Research
CDC-Hepatitis Labs
Phoenix, Arizona 80514
4. Ruth B. Kundsin, Sc.D.
Harvard Medical School
Boston, Massachusetts 02115
5. Harold W. Clark, Ph.D.
Arthritis Institute
2455 Army-Navy Drive
Arlington, Virginia 22006
6. Peter Randall, D.V.M.
Calgary Zoo
Calgary, Alberta, Canada
7. James W. Foster, D.V.M.
Director of Science
Woodland Park Zoo
Seattle, Washington
8. William C. Satterfield, D.V.M.
Director of Biomedicine
Boston Zoological Society
Boston, Massachusetts 02121
VIRAL ZOONOSES AND
INFERTILITY IN CAPTIVE
GREAT APES
SEROLOGIC TESTING OF NON-HUMAN
PRIMATES
HEPATITIS TRANSMISSION
AND KEEPER HEALTH
UREAPLASMAS AND MYCOPLASMAS
NEW PATHOGENS IMPLICATED
IN INFERTILITY
MYCOPLASMA INFECTION AND
RHEUMATOID ARTHIRITIS IN GORILLAS:
TESTING PROCEDURES
MEDICAL AND SURGICAL MANAGEMENT
OF AN INFERTILE GORILLA AT THE
CALGARYZOO
INTERPRETATION OF
TESTICULAR BIOPSIES
TESTICULAR AUTOIMMUNITY:
A REVIEW OF RESEARCH IN
PROGRESS
0275-2565/82/0081-0127$01.500 1982 Alan R. Liss, Inc.
128
Satterfield and O’Rourke
TABLE 11. Protocol for Fertility Examination
1. History: Previous medical and reproductive history, physiological profiles, diet,
date of birth, present and previous housing facilities, weight
2. Behavioral profile: Current behavioral assessment of the individual and the
group it is housed with
3. Environmental analysis: Floor heat, pollutants, noise, light, appropriateness of
the exhibit for the individual and the group
4. Viral screens: Including apes and keeper staff, including serial titers and frozen
serum for retrospective study. Parital list includes:
a. Hepatitis B, antigen and antibody
b. Hepatitis A
c. Cytomegalovirus
d. Herpes hominus type I and type I1
e. Epstein-Barr virus
f. Rubella
g. Mumps
h. Measles
i. Influenza
j. Polio
k. Coxsackie virus
1. Echovirus
rn. Lymphocytic choriomeningitis
n. Other viruses affecting adult health and fetal survival
5. Virus isolation: In aborted fetal tissues, postmortem samples from adults and
infants, cervical swabs
6 . Bacterial
a. Brucella
b. Salmonella
c. Mycoplasmdureaplasma (serology and isolation from throat,
urinary-genital tract, placental tissue, aborted fetal
tissues, endometrial lesions, semen)
7. Rheumatoid factor titer
8. Pathoimmunology: Antisperndantitesticular antibodies, circulating immune
complexes
9. Endocrine profile: Serial examination of plasma and/or urine to determine
normal or abnormal endocrine function
10. Electroejaculation: Quantity, sperm count, morphology, motility, immune
complexes, bacterial culture
11. Testicular biopsy: Cellular morphology, histopathology
12. Pathology review: Complete examination (gross and microscopic) of aborted fetus
and placenta, and postmortem examination of the reproductive system of adult
and immature animals
RESOURCES FOR TESTING
Viral antibody testing can be done through many human viral laboratories and
through the Simian Virus Reference Cente, Southwest Foundation for Research and
Education, San Antonio, Texas. Rheumatoid factor titer can be requested from the
Arthritis Institute, 2455 Army-Navy Drive, Arlington, Virginia. Antisperm antibody
testing can be requested from Dr. K.S.K. Tung,MD, University of New Mexico School
of Medicine, Albuquerque, New Mexico.
Veterinary Issues: Discussion Group Report
129
REFERENCES
Alexander, N.J. Sperm antibodies and infertility. pp 123-143 in MALE INFERTILITY:
WORK UP, TREATMENT AND RESEARCH. A.T.K. Cockett and R.L. Urry, eds.
New York; Grune and Stratton, Inc, 1977.
Alexander, N.J.; Anderson, D.J. Vasectomy:
Consequences of autoimmunity to sperm antigens. FERTILITY AND STERILITY
32(3):253-260, 1979.
Andrada, J.A.; von der Walde, F.; Hoschoian,
J.C.; Comini, E.; Mancini, E. Immunological
studies in patients with mumps orchitis. ANDROLOGIA 9(3):207-215, 1977.
Brown, T.McP.; Clark, H.W.; Bailey, J.S. Rheumatoid arthritis in the gorilla: A study of
mycoplasma-host interaction in pathogenesis
and treatment. pp 259-263 in THE COMPARATIVE PATHOLOGY OF ZOO ANIMALS, Washington, D.C., The Smithsonian
Institution Press, 1980.
Buynak, E.B.; Roehm, R.R.; Tytell, A.A.; Bertland, A.U.; Lampson, G.P.; Hilleman, M.R.
Vaccine against human hepatitis B. JOURNAL OF THE AMERICAN MEDICAL ASSOCIATION 235(26):28324, 1976.
David, C. INFECTIONS IN OBSTETRICS
AND GYNECOLOGY. Philadelphia, W.B.
Saunders Company, 1980.
Foster, J.W. Fertility evaluation in the gorilla-testicular biopsy. in ANNUAL PROCEEDINGS OF THE AMERICAN ASSOCIATION OF ZOO VETERINARIANS, 1980 (in
press).
Kundsin, R.B.; Rowell, T.; Shepard, M.C.; Parreno, A.; Lunceford, C.D. T-strain mycoplas-
mas and reproductive failure in monkeys.
LABORATORY
ANIMAL
SCIENCE
25(2):221-224, 1975.
Lerner, A.M. Infections with herpes simplex
virus, pp 847-851 in HARRISON'S PRINCIPLES OF INTERNAL MEDICINE, 9th edition, New York, McGraw-Hill, 1980.
Ott, J.E. Virus diseases of primates-Their hazards to human health. pp 733-741 in CURRENT VETERINARY THERAPY VII. R.
Kirk, ed. Philadelphia, W.B. Saunders Company, 1980.
Szumess, W.; Stevens, C.E.; Harley, E.J.; Zang,
E.A.; Oleszko, W .R.; William, D.C.; Sadovsky,
R.; Morrison, J.M.; Kellner, A. Hepatitis B
vaccine: Demonstration of efficacy in a controlled clinical trial in a high-risk population
in the United States. THE NEW ENGLAND
JOURNAL OF MEDICINE 303(15):83341,
1980.
Tarry, G.; Bankfi, D.; Randall, P.; McDonald, T.
Lowland gorillas at the Calgary Zoo.
DINNY'S DIGEST, quarterly publication of
the Calgary Zoological Society. 1980.
Tung, K.S.K. Autoimmunity of the testis. in
IMMUNOLOGICAL ASPECTS OF INFERTILITY AND FERTILITY REGULATION.
D.H. Dhindsa and G.F.B. Schumaker, eds.
New York, Elsevier North Holland Press,
1980.
Tung, K.S.K.; Teuscher, C.; Meng, A.L. Autoimmunity to spermatozoa and the testis. IMMUNOLOGICAL REVIEWS December 1980
(in press).
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