American Journal of Primatology Supplement 1:127-129 (1982) Veterinary Issues: Discussion Group Report WILLIAM C. SATTERFIELD AND K.I. OROURKE, Moderator and Co-chairpersons The purpose of this discussion group was to examine a number of medical issues related to the fertility of great apes in captivity. Scientists and clinicians representing institutions and projects that impact these areas were invited to present their most recent findings and to describe the diagnostic resources available to the primary health care team. (See Table I.) The final goal of the group was to suggest a protocol for a medical examination to determine the cause of infertility. This protocol, given in Table 11, is an outline for the clinician gathering data on a n individual infertile ape as well as on reproductively successful individuals and groups. It should be used as a starting point; any of the headings may be fully explored by the investigator as suggested by the case. Key words: great apes, infertility,testicular biopsy, autoimmunity,ureaplasma, mycoplasma TABLE I. Veterinary Issues Discussion Group Speakers 1. Janis E. Ott, D.V.M. Resident Veterinarian, Brookfield Zoo Brookfield, Illinois 60513 2. R.L. Heberling, Ph.D. Assoc. Director Southwest Foundation for Research San Antonio, Texas 78284 3. James Ebert, D.V.M. Chief of Primate Research CDC-Hepatitis Labs Phoenix, Arizona 80514 4. Ruth B. Kundsin, Sc.D. Harvard Medical School Boston, Massachusetts 02115 5. Harold W. Clark, Ph.D. Arthritis Institute 2455 Army-Navy Drive Arlington, Virginia 22006 6. Peter Randall, D.V.M. Calgary Zoo Calgary, Alberta, Canada 7. James W. Foster, D.V.M. Director of Science Woodland Park Zoo Seattle, Washington 8. William C. Satterfield, D.V.M. Director of Biomedicine Boston Zoological Society Boston, Massachusetts 02121 VIRAL ZOONOSES AND INFERTILITY IN CAPTIVE GREAT APES SEROLOGIC TESTING OF NON-HUMAN PRIMATES HEPATITIS TRANSMISSION AND KEEPER HEALTH UREAPLASMAS AND MYCOPLASMAS NEW PATHOGENS IMPLICATED IN INFERTILITY MYCOPLASMA INFECTION AND RHEUMATOID ARTHIRITIS IN GORILLAS: TESTING PROCEDURES MEDICAL AND SURGICAL MANAGEMENT OF AN INFERTILE GORILLA AT THE CALGARYZOO INTERPRETATION OF TESTICULAR BIOPSIES TESTICULAR AUTOIMMUNITY: A REVIEW OF RESEARCH IN PROGRESS 0275-2565/82/0081-0127$01.500 1982 Alan R. Liss, Inc. 128 Satterfield and O’Rourke TABLE 11. Protocol for Fertility Examination 1. History: Previous medical and reproductive history, physiological profiles, diet, date of birth, present and previous housing facilities, weight 2. Behavioral profile: Current behavioral assessment of the individual and the group it is housed with 3. Environmental analysis: Floor heat, pollutants, noise, light, appropriateness of the exhibit for the individual and the group 4. Viral screens: Including apes and keeper staff, including serial titers and frozen serum for retrospective study. Parital list includes: a. Hepatitis B, antigen and antibody b. Hepatitis A c. Cytomegalovirus d. Herpes hominus type I and type I1 e. Epstein-Barr virus f. Rubella g. Mumps h. Measles i. Influenza j. Polio k. Coxsackie virus 1. Echovirus rn. Lymphocytic choriomeningitis n. Other viruses affecting adult health and fetal survival 5. Virus isolation: In aborted fetal tissues, postmortem samples from adults and infants, cervical swabs 6 . Bacterial a. Brucella b. Salmonella c. Mycoplasmdureaplasma (serology and isolation from throat, urinary-genital tract, placental tissue, aborted fetal tissues, endometrial lesions, semen) 7. Rheumatoid factor titer 8. Pathoimmunology: Antisperndantitesticular antibodies, circulating immune complexes 9. Endocrine profile: Serial examination of plasma and/or urine to determine normal or abnormal endocrine function 10. Electroejaculation: Quantity, sperm count, morphology, motility, immune complexes, bacterial culture 11. Testicular biopsy: Cellular morphology, histopathology 12. Pathology review: Complete examination (gross and microscopic) of aborted fetus and placenta, and postmortem examination of the reproductive system of adult and immature animals RESOURCES FOR TESTING Viral antibody testing can be done through many human viral laboratories and through the Simian Virus Reference Cente, Southwest Foundation for Research and Education, San Antonio, Texas. Rheumatoid factor titer can be requested from the Arthritis Institute, 2455 Army-Navy Drive, Arlington, Virginia. Antisperm antibody testing can be requested from Dr. K.S.K. Tung,MD, University of New Mexico School of Medicine, Albuquerque, New Mexico. Veterinary Issues: Discussion Group Report 129 REFERENCES Alexander, N.J. 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