close

Вход

Забыли?

вход по аккаунту

?

724

код для вставкиСкачать
THE ODYSSEY REVISITED
A T h e s is
P re s e n te d to
The F a c u l t y o f th e G ra d u a te S c h o o l
S o u th e r n C o n n e c tic u t S t a t e C o lle g e
In P a r tia l F u lfillm e n t
o f th e R e q u ire m e n ts f o r t h e D e g re e
i n M a s te r o f S c ie n c e
T h e s is S p o n so r:
F r e d e r i c D. W e in s te in
C hairm an o f t h e D e p a rtm e n t o f L i b r a r y S c ie n c e
Py
F r a n c e s M c T ro tte s H ughes
A p r i l i 960
Reproduced with permission of the copyright owner. Further reproduction prohibited without permission.
T hesis
I960
238
c .1
UMI Number: EP27071
INFORMATION TO USERS
The quality of this reproduction is dependent upon the quality of the copy
submitted. Broken or indistinct print, colored or poor quality illustrations
and photographs, print bleed-through, substandard margins, and improper
alignment can adversely affect reproduction.
In the unlikely event that the author did not send a complete manuscript
and there are missing pages, these will be noted. Also, if unauthorized
copyright material had to be removed, a note will indicate the deletion.
UMI
UMI Microform EP27071
Copyright 2009 by ProQuest LLC
All rights reserved. This microform edition is protected against
unauthorized copying under Title 17, United States Code.
ProQuest LLC
789 East Eisenhower Parkway
P.O. Box 1346
Ann Arbor, Ml 48106-1346
Reproduced with permission of the copyright owner. Further reproduction prohibited without permission.
TABLE OF CONTENTS
CHAPTER
I.
II.
PAGE
INTRODUCTION..............................................................................
1
The P r o b l e m ........................................................................
1
S ta te m e n t o f t h e p ro b le m .......................................
1
Im p o rta n c e o f t h e s tu d y
. . . . . . . . .
2
O r g a n iz a t i o n o f r e m a in d e r o f p a p e r . . . . .
2
HOMER'S W O R L D ..............................................................
B r i e f l y Homer
........................
. . . . . . . . .
H is C i v i l i z a t i o n ...............................................
4
5
P o l i t i c a l c o n d itio n s
6
. . . . . .
J
. . . . . . . . . . .
11
. . . . . . . . . . . .
13
. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
I3
W orld and i t s C h a r a c t e r s . . . . . . . . . .
l4
C u ltu r a l c o n d itio n s
WORLD OF THE ODYSSEY
Theme . .
W orld .................... . . . . . . .
C h a ra c te rs
IV .
3
H i s t o r y .....................................................................
S o c ia l c o n d itio n s
III.
3
. . . . . . . .
. . . . . .
................................
l4
17
JAMES JOYCE AND HIS WORLD.....................................................22
Jam es J o y c e
22
H is C i v i l i z a t i o n
C i ty l i f e
S c ie n c e
................................................. 2 6
..................................................... 2 6
.............................................................................. 29
M oral s t a n d a r d s
. . . . . . .
........................
Reproduced with permission of the copyright owner. Further reproduction prohibited without permission.
31
CHAPTER
PAGE
R e l i g i o n ................................................................................... 33
P o l i t i c a l c o n d i t i o n s .................................................3 6
A r t s .............................................................................................36
Ire la n d
V.
. . . . .
.....................................................
3^
WORLD OP ULYSSES..........................................................................39
Theme . . . . .
3^
W orld an d I t s C h a r a c t e r s . . . . . . . . . .
4l
W o r l d ...........................................................
4l
C h a r a c t e r s .............................................................................. 44
V I.
COMPARISON AND CONCLUSION..................................................51
Reproduced with permission of the copyright owner. Further reproduction prohibited without permission.
CHAPTER I
INTRODUCTION
I n 1922 t h e n o v e l U l y s s e s w as p u b l i s h e d , th e c r e a t i o n
o f Ja m es J o y c e , a n I r i s h a u t h o r .
From th e t i t l e , and fro m
J o y c e 's own a d m is s io n o f h i s p l a n , 1 i t c a n be s e e n t h a t t h i s
n o v e l i s p a t t e r n e d a f t e r The O d y s s e y , a n e p i c poem , com posed
p r e s u m a b ly b y H om er, a G re ek p o e t , o v e r tw e n ty s e v e n h u n d r e d
y e a rs ago.
I n t h e s e tw e n ty s e v e n h u n d re d i n t e r v e n i n g y e a r s
g r e a t c h a n g e s h a v e come a b o u t i n o u r w o r ld .
The mode o f l i v i n g
an d e v e n t h e i d e a l s an d i d e a s men h o l d p a ra m o u n t h a v e a l t e r e d
r a d i c a l l y fro m Homer t o J o y c e .
L i t e r a t u r e i s s a id to be th e
m i r r o r o f e x p e r i e n c e and l i f e and a im s t o co m m u n icate a s p e c 0
i a l v is io n o f r e a l i t y .
The w o r ld s a n d i d e a l s o f Homer and
J o y c e w e re d i f f e r e n t , so o f n e c e s s i t y t h e i r l i t e r a t u r e
s h o u ld
r e f le c t d iffe re n tly .
I.
THE PROBLEM
S ta te m e n t o f t h e p r o b le m .
p a p er to i l l u s t r a t e
I t i s th e p u rp o se o f t h i s
t h e a b o v e s t a t e m e n t s ; n a m e ly - Homer and
1 ---------------------------------
H a r r y L e v i n , Jam es J o y c e : a c r i t i c a l i n t r o d u c t i o n
( N o r f o l k , C o n n .: New D i r e c t i o n s , 19^*1) , p . 6 6 .
2
F r a n c i s X. C o n n o l ly , L i t e r a t u r e : t h e c h a n n e l o f c u l t u r e
(New Y o rk : H a r c o u r t , B ra c e a n d C o ., 1 9 5 3 )# P« 55*
Reproduced with permission of the copyright owner. Further reproduction prohibited without permission.
2
Jo y c e em erg ed fro m d i f f e r e n t w o r l d s , b o t h a s t o w ays o f l i v i n g
an d to t h e i d e a l s t h a t m o ti v a te m en, and s e c o n d l y , t h e i r w o rk s
a s r e f l e c t i o n s o f t h e i r w o r ld s d i f f e r t o th e same d e g re e t h a t
t h e i r w o r ld s d i f f e r .
D iffe re n t c iv iliz a tio n s f o s te r d if f e r e n t
a t t i t u d e s and m i r r o r d i f f e r e n t r e f l e c t i o n s .
Im p o rta n c e o f t h e s t u d y .
Much a t t e n t i o n h a s b e e n p a i d
t o th e s i m i l a r i t i e s i n t h e tw o w o rk s o f a r t ; who c o r r e s p o n d s to
whom an d w h at s c e n e i n J o y c e i s a r e p r e s e n t a t i o n o f w h at s c e n e
i n Hom er.
H ow ever, t h e d i f f e r e n c e s b e tw e e n t h e tw o a r e g r e a t
en o u gh t o o v e rsh a d o w t h e s i m i l a r i t i e s .
I t i s th e s e d if f e r e n c e s
b e tw e e n t h e s e two w o rk s w id e ly s e p a r a t e d by tim e an d e n v i r o n ­
m en t t h a t make c o m p a ris o n v a l u a b l e .
II.
ORGANIZATION OP REMAINDER OF PAPER
I n c o m p a rin g U ly s s e s a n d The O d y ssey t o d e te r m in e t h e
d i f f e r e n c e s and t h e i r c a u s e s we w i l l f i r s t ex am in e Homer a n d
h i s w o rk .
W hat s o r t o f a w o rld d i d h e l i v e i n ?
a w ork w as The O dyssey?
to Jo y c e .
W hat s o r t o f
W hat w ere i t s c h a r a c t e r s l i k e ?
Who w as Jam es J o y c e ?
How d i d h e p o r t r a y i t i n U ly s s e s ?
T hen
W hat was h i s w o rld l i k e ?
W hat a r e t h e d i f f e r e n c e s
b e tw e e n t h e two r e f l e c t e d w o rld s ?
Reproduced with permission of the copyright owner. Further reproduction prohibited without permission.
CHAPTER I I
HOMER'S WORLD
S c h o o l c h i l d r e n and a d u l t s a l i k e a r e t r a n s p o r t e d i n t o
th e w o rld o f A n c ie n t G reece th r o u g h t h e c l a s s i c s o f H om er,
The I l i a d and The O d y sse y .
They r e c r e a t e a w o rld o f t r i b a l
w ar an d w a r r i o r s , h e r o e s who w ould d i e t o d e fe n d t h e i r h o n o r .
T h ese a r e th e two m o st fam ous poems o f t h e e p i c c y c l e d e p i c t ­
in g The T r o ja n W ar, an e v e n t o f 1200 B .C ., b u t t h e y a l s o r e ­
f l e c t c u s to m s , t i m e s , a m b itio n s and v a l u e s o f t h e i r p e o p l e .
H om er, o f c o u r s e , l i v e d much l a t e r th a n t h e T r o ja n W ar, b u t
th e v a l u e s i n t h e e p i c s w ere i n r e a l i t y t h e i d e a l s o f h i s own
tim e a s w e l l .
I.
BRIEFLY HOMER
P e rh a p s one o f th e g r e a t e s t s c h o l a s t i c e n ig m a s r e v o l v e s
a ro u n d t h e i d e n t i t y o f th e b a r d Homer - r e m in d in g u s t o a d e ­
g r e e o f t h e enigm a s u r r o u n d in g a more r e c e n t b a r d , S h a k e s p e a r e .
The f i r s t p r i n t e d copy o f Homer was made i n lH 8 8 , b u t n o com­
p l e t e m a n u s c r ip ts o f Homer h a v e come down t o u s fro m b e f o r e
th e 1 0 th C e n tu ry B .C ., a lth o u g h some f r a g m e n ts d a t e b a c k t o
t h e 3r d C e n tu ry B . C.
The en ig m a seem s d e s t i n e d to be s o l v e d
o n ly i n t h e m inds o f i n d i v i d u a l s .
E ven A n c ie n t A th e n s o f t h e
5 t h C e n tu ry B .C . h a d o n ly t r a d i t i o n s o f h im , b u t no f a c t s .
Who w as Homer?
T r a d i t i o n s a y s h e was a b l i n d p o e t , Homer
m ean in g " u n s e e in g G re e k ."
Of c o u r s e , t h e r e i s s p e c u l a t i o n
Reproduced with permission of the copyright owner. Further reproduction prohibited without permission.
4
a b o u t t h e u n i t y o f Homer - w as h e one o r many men?
W here h e
l i v e d i s a l s o u n s e t t l e d - A s ia M in o r, a s w e ll a s G re e c e p r o p e r ,
i s a s c r i b e d a s h i s b i r t h p l a c e , a n d h i s b i r t h d a t e v a r i e s fro m
I I 59 B .C . t o 685 B . C . , a lt h o u g h t h e m a j o r i t y o f s c h o l a r s p i n ­
p o i n t him b e tw e e n t h e J t h a n d 8 t h C e n tu r y , B .C .
I t seem s t o
m a tte r l i t t l e , e x c e p t a s a m a tte r o f h i s t o r i c a l s c h o la r s h ip ,
a s t o t h e e x a c t a u t h o r s h i p o f t h e s e p o em s.
As i t i s , Homer
i s n o t t h o u g h t t o b e t h e d i r e c t and s o l e c r e a t o r o f t h e s e
t a l e s , b u t g e n e r a l l y a s c h i e f c o m p ile r a n d p r o b a b l y b e s t m in ­
s tre l.
p e o p le .
T h e s e w ere f o l k t a l e s , co m in g fro m an d g o in g t o t h e
As s u c h , t h e y a r e e x c e l l e n t m i r r o r s o f t h e v a l u e s o f
th e s e a n c e s to r s o f o u r s .
II.
H IS CIVILIZATION
Homer and h i s e p i c s e m e rg e d fro m a l a n d o f m o u n ta in s
and i s l a n d s .
G re ec e w as d i v i d e d i n t o many n a t u r a l d i s t r i c t s ,
bound by h i g h im p a s s a b le m o u n ta in s , an d s u r r o u n d e d by t h e u n ­
b e lie v a b ly b lu e s e a .
s u l a and e a r l y
F e r t i l e l a n d was l i m i t e d on t h i s p e n i n ­
h e r i n h a b i t a n t s t u r n e d t o t h e s e a f o r f o o d and
f o r c o m m u n ic a tio n .
The s m a ll c o m m u n itie s t h a t a r o s e e n c o u r a g e d
i n t e n s e l o c a l p a t r i o t i s m and l o v e o f l i b e r t y .
E v e ry c i t i z e n
h ad r e s p o n s i b i l i t y i n m an a g in g t h e s t a t e and a l l w e re c o n 3
s id e re d e q u a l.
T h i s w as a l a n d t h a t r e q u i r e d i t s i n h a b i t a n t s
to b e i o u g h , a c t i v e , e n t e r p r i s i n g an d i n t e l l i g e n t .
■^G. Low es D i c k in s o n , T he G reek V iew o f L i f e
D o u b le d a y , D o ra n , a n d C o ., I n c . , h : d . ) , p . 7 1 ,
Reproduced with permission of the copyright owner. Further reproduction prohibited without permission.
(New Y o rk j
5
H is to ry .
The p e r i o d we a r e c o n c e rn e d w ith i s t h e l a t e
M ycenaean and e a r l y H e l l e n i c p e r i o d .
A bout 2000 B .C . a
g ro u p o f In d o - E u r o p e a n s in v a d e d G re e c e p r o p e r and i n f i l t r a t e d
t h e A s i a t i c c o a s t a n d A egean i s l a n d s .
G r a d u a lly t h e M inoan
c u l t u r e and c i v i l i z a t i o n , w h ich h a d grown u p u p o n C r e te i n t e r ­
m in g le d w i t h t h a t o f t h e s e p e o p le and t h e y d e v e lo p e d a new
c u l t u r e o f t h e i r ow n, M y cen aean .
They l e a r n e d t o p r a c t i c e
a g r i c u l t u r e f r o m t h e p r e v i o u s i n h a b i t a n t s , t h e A eg ea n s o r
C re ta n s .
T hey a l s o d e v e lo p e d t h e a r t o f n a v i g a t i o n fro m
t h e s e p e o p l e , w h ic h t h e y now u s e d f o r b r ig a n d a g e r a t h e r t h a n
fo r tra d e .
T h ey d i d e s t a b l i s h d i p l o m a t i c r e l a t i o n s w i t h
E g y p t an d o t h e r p l a c e s .
N e v e r t h e l e s s , a w a r l i k e p e o p le w ere
t h e s e M y c e n a e a n s, H e l l e n e s , A r c h i a n s , D o r i a n s and A r g i v e s ,
an d i t w as t h e i r a c t i v i t y w h ich r e s u l t e d i n t h e s i e g e and d e ­
s t r u c t i o n o f T ro y i n 1183
T hey th e m s e lv e s w e re n o t f r e e
fro m a t t a c k a n d a b o u t 11 0 0 B .C . t h e D o r i a n s , a n o t h e r I n d o E u ro p e a n g r o u p , in v a d e d and o v e r th r e w t h e i r c i v i l i z a t i o n .
T h is t r i b e , a l t h o u g h much more p r i m i t i v e , h a d I r o n w h ic h th e
A ch ean s, o r M y cen aean s, d id n o t h a v e .
By 900 B .C . t h e H e l l e n i c r a c e and c i v i l i z a t i o n w ere
e m e r g in g , a l t h o u g h l i f e
c o n ti n u e d much a s b e f o r e .T h e f o r t h ­
co m ing t h r e e a n d o n e - h a l f c e n t u r i e s w ere u s e d t o p r e p a r e f o r
t h e g r e a t f l o w e r i n g o f G reek c u l t u r e , The H e l l e n i c A g e, a f t e r
H om er.
T h is c i v i l i z a t i o n r e t a i n e d i t s h i s t o r i c a l a n t e c e d e n t s
i n d i v i n e m y th o lo g y an d h e r o i c l e g e n d s s u c h a s The I l i a d an d
O d y s se y .
"T h ro u g h H om eric e p i c s a l l G re e k s becam e f a m i l i a r
Reproduced with permission of the copyright owner. Further reproduction prohibited without permission.
6
w i t h t h e same Gods an d w i t h t h e h e r o i c d e e d s o f t h e i r own a n c e s to r s ."
T hese l e g e n d s f o s t e r e d a s e n s e o f c u l t u r a l n a t i o n ­
a l i s m among th e s e p a r a t e p o l i t i c a l u n i t s b r i n g i n g o n e l a n g u a g e ,
l i t e r a t u r e and r e l i g i o n t o a l l H e l l e n e s .
P o litic a l c o n d itio n s .
In th e e a r l y y e a r s o f th e H e lle n ­
i c r a c e th e p o p u l a t i o n o f b o t h G re ec e and i t s a d j a c e n t i s l a n d s
was s p a r s e .
E ven s o , fro m 1200 B .C . and f o r s e v e r a l g e n e r a ­
t i o n s many G reek s l e f t t h e p e n i n s u l a b e c a u s e t h e l a n d c o u ld n o t
p r o d u c e enough f o o d .
Due t o t h e n a t u r e o f t h e p e n i n s u l a s m a ll
in d e p e n d e n t s t a t e s h a d grow n up th r o u g h o u t th e l a n d d o m in a te d
by n o b le f a m i l i e s .
w ith one a n o t h e r .
T h e se s t a t e s w ere i n c o n s t a n t r i v a l r y
T h ese s t a t e s , c a l l e d
c lu d e d t h e s o v e r ig n c i t y an d i t s
" c ity s t a te s ," in ­
s u r r o u n d i n g a r e a s , w hich
m ig h t mean a d d i t i o n a l to w n s .
S o c ie ty w as r o u g h l y o r g a n i z e d , a lth o u g h s t r o n g l y a r i s ­
t o c r a t i c , w ith l a r g e m e a s u re s o f i n f o r m a l i t y , f l u i d i t y and
5
f l e x i b i l i t y m a rk in g a l l p o l i t i c a l i n s t i t u t i o n s .
T h e se s m a ll
s t a t e s w ere m o s tly p e t t y m o n a rc h ie s u n t i l a b o u t t h e 8 t h Cen­
t u r y B .C . when t h e m e r c a n t i l e c l a s s b e g a n t o d o m in a te .
S oc­
i e t y w as d iv id e d i n t o t h r e e g r o u p s - k i n g s , n o b l e s a n d common
p e o p le .
The k in g r u l e d m a in ly by p e r s o n a l p r o w e s s , w i t h th e
k i n g s h i p te n d in g t o b e h e r e d i t a r y .
He was d e p e n d e n t f o r s u p -
^ C a r l e t o n , J . H. H a y es an d o t h e r s , H i s t o r y o f E urop e
(New Y o rk : The M a c m illa n C o ., 1 9 ^ 9 ) > P* 23*
^m. I . F i n l e y , The W orld o f O d y sse u s (New Y o rk : The
V ik in g P r e s s , 195*0 > P . 8 5 .
Reproduced with permission of the copyright owner. Further reproduction prohibited without permission.
7
p o r t on t h e g r e a t e s t a t e s a t t a c h e d t o t h e s c e p t e r , p e r s o n a l
o r f a m ily p r o p e r t y , g i f t s fro m h i s s u b j e c t s , e t c .
The s t a t e
w as a n u n d e v e lo p e d i n s t i t u t i o n an d i t was th e k i n g 's d u ty t o
p r o t e c t t h e p o p u l a t i o n fro m f o r e i g n e n e m ie s .
t h e c o m m a n d e r - in - c h ie f o f t h e arm y.
He w as th u s
The k i n g a l s o assum ed
j u d i c i a l p o w er t o p r o t e c t t h e weak s t a t e fro m i n t e r n a l p o w e rs ,
and he fu n c tio n e d
as a
p r i e s t t o a v e r t t h e a n g e r o f t h e Gods
fro m t h e s t a t e s .
W h ile t h e k i n g p r o t e c t e d t h e s t a t e , th e
s t a t e d id n o t h i n g t o p r o t e c t t h e i n d i v i d u a l - t h e r e was no
p o l i c e f o r c e n o r e v e n an arm y i n tim e o f p e a c e .
The k i n g 's
p o w er was l i m i t e d , h o w e v e r, e x c e p t o n t h e b a t t l e f i e l d w here
i t was a b s o l u t e .
B o th
a C o u n c il o f E l d e r s a n d a p o p u la r a s ­
sem b ly e x i s t e d a t
home t o c u rb h i s p o w e rs .
C i t i z e n s w ere
a llo w e d a g r e a t m e a su re o f s e l f - g o v e r n m e n t , o r fre e d o m fro m
r u l e s , a s law m ak in g and e v e n f o r m a l g o v e rn m e n t w e re n o te d
m ore b y t h e i r a b s e n c e .
C i t i z e n s h i p i n t h e s e s t a t e s was e x ­
c l u s i v e , a m a t t e r o f b i r t h , b lo o d r e l a t i o n s h i p a n d r e l i g i o u s
a s s o c ia tio n .
S o c ia l c o n d itio n s .
p r e d o m in a n tly a g r i c u l t u r a l .
L i f e w as s im p le .
The economy was
M ost o f t h e fa rm s w ere s m a ll e x ­
c e p t f o r th e v a s t e s t a t e s o f th e n o b le s .
R o ta tio n o f c ro p s
was unknow n, so p e r i o d i c a l l y th e l a n d l a y f a l l o w .
In d u s try
w as p r a c t i c a l l y unknow n; t h e o r d i n a r y f a m ily w as s e l f - s u f f i c ­
i e n t u n to i t s e l f .
Reproduced with permission of the copyright owner. Further reproduction prohibited without permission.
8
Many p e o p le l i v e d i n c i t i e s o r to w n s f o r s a f e t y and
w e n t o u t t o t h e f a rm s e a c h m o r n in g .
The k i n g b u i l t h i s h o u se
w i t h i n t h i s a r e a , g e n e r a l l y on a lo w h i l l t o p .
The p u b l i c
s q u a r e becam e t h e c e n t e r o f a c t i v i t y f o r m en, f o s t e r i n g f r e e d ­
om o f i n t e r c o u r s e .
T he k e y n o te t o a l l a s p e c t s o f G reek c i v i l i z a t i o n o f
t h i s p r e - G o ld e n Age p e r i o d - p o l i t i c a l ,
s o c i a l and m o ra l -
w as th e p e r v a d i n g a d h e r e n c e to t h e s a c r e d n e s s o f k i n s h i p .
The s t a t e i t s e l f w as b u t a n e x t e n s i o n o f t h e f a m i l y , o f t e n
c o n t r o l l e d , u n d e r t h e l e a d e r s h i p o f t h e k i n g , by a g ro u p o f
n o b le f a m i l i e s .
T h e se w e re n o t t h e d a y s o f v a s t s t a n d i n g
a r m ie s a n d p e r s o n a l p o w e r r e s u l t e d fro m t h e s t r e n g t h o f
h o u s e h o ld and f a m i l y .
I t w as t h e i n d i v i d u a l an d h i s f a m i l y ,
n o t th e s t a t e , t h a t h a d t o
see to i t t h a t th e r i g h t s o f i t s
m em bers w e re p r o t e c t e d a n d t h a t j u s t i c e was a c c o m p lis h e d .
I n d i v i d u a l s , b u t n o t t h e c o m m u n ity , w ere p e r m i t t e d t o s e e k
a llie s .
I f a com m unity h o p e d t o
s u rv iv e i t h ad to have a
k i n g o r l e a d e r a b l e t o command t h e r e s p e c t , l o y a l t y a n d a i d
o f o t h e r men o u t s i d e t h e co m m unity p r o p e r .
t o ex p an d th e k i n s h i p c i r c l e
6
M a r r ia g e s e r v e d
a n d m u tu a l o b l i g a t i o n s .
T h e f a m i ly h a d o t h e r d u t i e s , t o o , b e s i d e s p r o t e c t i o n .
I t a ls o h a d th e r e s p o n s i b i l i t y o f p r e s e r v in g s ta n d a r d s o f co n ­
d u c t and p u n i s h i n g an y b r e a c h w hen c r i m i n a l a c t s w ere i n v o lv e d .
Of c o u r s e , t h e r e w e re d i f f e r e n t s t a n d a r d s o f c o n d u c t p r e s c r i b e d
fo r d if f e r e n t s o c ia l c la s s e s .
G re e k s o c i e t y h a d a s p e c i f i c
s o c i a l s t r u c t u r e , w i t h a d i v i d i n g l i n e b e tw e e n t h o s e c o m p e lle d
I b i d . . p . 103.
Reproduced with permission of the copyright owner. Further reproduction prohibited without permission.
9
t o l a b o r a n d th o s e n o t .
H ow ever, a s Homer w as m a in ly c o n ­
c e r n e d w ith t h e a r i s t o c r a c y , so w i l l we b e .
T h e re w ere
s t r o n g l y e n tr e n c h e d n o t i o n s r e g a r d i n g p r o p e r w ays f o r a main
t o b e h a v e , w ith r e s p e c t t o p r o p e r t y a n d to w a rd o t h e r men.
One o f t h e m o st r e s p e c t e d s o c i a l c u sto m s was t h a t o f
th e r i t e
of h o s p ita lity .
T h is i n v o lv e d f e e d i n g a v i s i t o r ,
w h e th e r k i n , g u e s t , f r i e n d , e m m issa ry o r s t r a n g e r a t a b a n ­
q u e t.
T h is s h a r i n g o f a m eal was c a l c u l a t e d t o e s t a b l i s h
p e a c e f u l r e l a t i o n s a n d a l s o a c t e d a s a t i e b i n d i n g men a n d
g o d s , a s s a c r i f i c e w as a lw a y s o f f e r e d t o t h e g o d s a s p a r t o f
th e c e re m o n ia l.
h im g i f t s .
When a g u e s t d e p a r t e d t h e h o s t o f t e n g a v e
T h is r i t e
o f h o s p i t a l i t y w as one o f t h e few
s o c i a l v i r t u e s I n s t i l l e d by r e l i g i o n .
A n o th e r g u id e t o s o c i a l a c t i o n w as h o n o r and t h e h e r o ­
i c code.
A ll v a l u e s r e v o l v e d a ro u n d t h e s e two p r i n c i p l e s and
c h o ic e i n a c t i o n w as made a c c o r d i n g t o t h i s c o d e , n o t t o e x ­
p e d ie n c y .
To l i v e o n e 's l i f e
a c c o r d i n g t o o n e 's s o c i a l p o s i ­
t i o n an d r e s p o n s i b i l i t i e s a n d t o e a r n t h e r e s p e c t and a d m ir a ­
t i o n o f o n e 's fe llo w m a n a l s o r e s u l t e d i n th e c o m p e ti t io n f o r
h o n o r, e s p e c ia lly in b a t t l e .
I n t h i s q u e s t f o r h o n o r t h e G re e k s lo o k e d f o r d i v i n e
in te rv e n tio n .
T h is w as t o come n o t b e c a u s e o f m e r i t b u t
th r o u g h c h a n c e .
o r a to n in g .
Man was t h o u g h t i n c a p a b l e e i t h e r o f s i n n i n g
He c o u ld o f f e n d t h e g o d s b y d i s h o n o r i n g o r
sh am in g th e m ; a n d , i f t h i s h a p p e n e d , h e h a d t o b u y h i s way
Reproduced with permission of the copyright owner. Further reproduction prohibited without permission.
10
b a c k i n t o t h e i r good g r a c e s .
The g o d s , t o t h e G re e k s , w ere
v e r y s i m i l a r t o man - m ore th a n th e y h a d e v e r b e e n b e f o r e o r
s in c e .
God w as c r e a t e d i n m an’ s im age - a n th ro p o m o rp h is m on
a v e ry a d v a n c e d s c a l e .
The g o d s w ere i n v e n t e d o r i g i n a l l y t o
make n a t u r e m ore u n d e r s t a n d a b l e .
A ll men w ere b e l i e v e d
d e s c e n d e d fro m g o d s - H e r e c l e s f o s t e r e d t h e r a c e s o f t h e
D o r i a n s , Io n t h e l o n i a n s , a n d so o n .
w as a s o c i a l w o rld ;
The w o rld o f th e g o d s
pow er a c c ru e d t o them th r o u g h s t r u g g l e
an d f a m ily i n h e r i t a n c e , i d e n t i c a l to t h e G reek w o r ld .
The
g o d s d i f f e r e d among th e m s e lv e s i n th e q u a n t i t i e s o f pow er
th e y p o s s e s s e d and t h e f i e l d s i n w hich th e y c o u ld e x e r c i s e
it.
They w ere a l l im m o r ta l, th o u g h , a n d a l l d i v i n e pow er
w as s u p e r n a t u r a l .
B e c a u se t h e s e g o d s w ere lo o k e d on a s a
v e ry s p e c i a l b r e e d o f hum ans t h e r e was no r e v e r e n t i a l f e a r
to w a rd th em .
Man t u r n e d t o them f o r h e lp i n a c t i v i t i e s an d
f o r g i f t s b u t n o t f o r m o ra l g u id a n c e .
and m a n - s a n c tio n e d .
E t h i c s w e re manmade
The g o o d n e s s o f man was ju d g e d by h i s
c o n d u c t and e x e r c i s e o f t h e f o u r c a r d i n a l v i r t u e s o f c o u r a g e ,
te m p e r a n c e , j u s t i c e and w isd o m .^
T h e re was no c h u rc h o r c r e e d i n G reek r e l i g i o n .
P r i e s t s t h e r e w ere b u t t h e y w ere u s e d o n ly to p e r f o r m r e l i g ­
io u s r i t e s .
R e l a t i o n s w i t h t h e g o d s w ere n o t in w a rd and
s p i r i t u a l b u t m e re ly o u tw a rd and m e c h a n ic a l.
I n tim e s a c r i -
70 . M. B o w ra, The G reek E x p e rie n c e ( C l e v e l a n d , O h io :
The W orld P u b l i s h i n g C o ., 1 9 5 8 )* P» 91 *
Reproduced with permission of the copyright owner. Further reproduction prohibited without permission.
11
f i c e becam e m ore a n a c t o f h o s p i t a l i t y t h a n i n v o c a t i o n o r
a p p e a s e m e n t.
Women m a i n t a i n a c o n s t a n t l y c h a n g in g s t a t u s i n t h e
w o rld o f m en.
D u rin g t h e e a r l y H e l l e n i c y e a r s t h e y w ere
h i g h l y t h o u g h t o f and h o n o r e d .
A f f e c tio n and lo v e , n o t e x ­
p e d ie n c y , b o u n d man a n d w if e and c h i l d r e n t o g e t h e r .
Women
w ere a llo w e d b y t h e s i d e s o f t h e i r men a t b a n q u e ts a n d i n
th e c i t y .
T h e i r a d v ic e w as s o u g h t a n d o f t e n t a k e n .
w as a p o s i t i o n o f r e s p e c t and i n f l u e n c e .
T h e irs
B u t by H o m e r's
tim e i t w as a s o c i e t y o f
m en, n o t o f women and
T h is s o c i e t y o f w a r r i o r s
a c c o rd e d an i n f e r i o r s t a t u s t o
women.
c h ild re n .
T h e re was no r o m a n t ic a tt a c h m e n t n o r s p i r i t o f c h i v ­
a l r y , a lt h o u g h th e y w ere r e s p e c t e d a s e h i l d - b e a r e r s a n d hom e-
8
b u ild e rs .
T h e re w as no
tw een men an d women.
d e p th o r i n t e n s i t y i n
Monogamy i n
m a r r ia g e was
fe e lin g be­
th e r u l e , b u t
m a r i t a l f i d e l i t y w as a n unknown c o m m o d ity , e s p e c i a l l y s i n c e
m o st o f t h e s l a v e s i n t h i s s o c i e t y w ere women.
C u ltu ra l c o n d itio n s .
In s p i t e o f th e p o s i t i o n a c c o rd e d
t o women t h i s was n o t a b a r b a r i c c i v i l i z a t i o n by a n y m e a n s.
G reek l i t e r a r y t r a d i t i o n w as a l r e a d y b e g i n n i n g w i t h t h e H om eric
e p i c s , a l t h o u g h t h i s w as n o t s t r i c t l y
t h e G olden Age o f G re e c e ;
t h e f u l l f l o w e r i n g o f H e l l e n i c c u l t u r e w as y e t t o com e.
How­
e v e r , a new s u p p l e n e s s a n d n a t u r a l i s m ; a new a w a r e n e s s i n v i s -
A ndre B o n n a rd , G reek C i v i l i z a t i o n
m i l l a n C o ., 1 9 5 7 ) , p . 1 2 9 .
(New Y o rk : The Mac­
Reproduced with permission of the copyright owner. Further reproduction prohibited without permission.
12
u a l e x p r e s s i o n , d e s c r i p t i v e n o t s y m b o lic , w as co m in g i n t o
being.^
T h is w as t h e e r a o f poem s a n d t h e m o st m a tu re p e r ­
i o d o f o r a l c o m p o s itio n .
The 8 t h C e n tu ry B .C . b r o u g h t a
new k i n d o f a u d ie n c e to t h e s e p o e m s.
The c u l t u r a l n a t i o n a l ­
ism w h ic h w as e m e rg in g b r o u g h t G re e k s t o g e t h e r fro m a l l o v e r
t h e p e n i n s u l a t o th e n e w ly e s t a b l i s h e d f e s t i v a l s a n d gam es.
H ere t h e y w ere l e a r n i n g t o r e s p o n d t o a f e e l i n g o f u n i t y i n
t h e i r common h e r i t a g e a s e x p r e s s e d i n The I l i a d a n d The
O dy ssey .
T h e se poem s h e lp e d t o u n i t e th em .
C e r t a i n v a l u e s , t o o , w ere m ore o r l e s s common t o a l l
G re e k s and h e l p e d t o s h a p e t h e i r c i v i l i z a t i o n .
Two e s p e c i a l ­
l y s t a n d o u t a s b e a c o n s - th e d o m in a tin g im p o r ta n c e a n d d i g ­
n i t y o f m an, a n d s e c o n d l y , t h e i d e a l o f harm o n y an d h arm o n ­
io u s a c tio n .
R a t i o n a l man w as t h e c e n t e r o f t h e w o rld - e v e n th e
g o d s w e re made t o h i s im a g e .
s p e c i a l w o rth o f man.
The G re e k s b e l i e v e d i n t h e
T hey d i d n o t s e e h im a s a c o r r u p t o r
f a l l e n b e in g , b u t r a t h e r b e lie v e d t h a t he d e se rv e d r e s p e c t
f o r s o m e th in g u n iq u e i n h i m s e l f .
T h e i r i d o l on t h e p e d e s t a l w as t h e p e r f e c t m an. T h is
c a l l e d f o r b e a u t y b o th i n body a n d s o u l - t h e p r o p e r e x c e l l ­
e n c e o f man w as a b e a u t i f u l s o u l I n a b e a u t i f u l b o d y .
T h e ir
i d e a l o f harm ony p l a y s I t s r o l e h e r e - a l l p a r t s o f man m u st
C e d r ic H . W hitm an, Homer a n d t h e H e r o ic T r a d i t i o n
( C a m b rid g e , M a s s .: H a r v a r d U n i v e r s i t y P r e s s , 1 9 5 ^) * P« 295*
Reproduced with permission of the copyright owner. Further reproduction prohibited without permission.
13
f i t t o g e t h e r t o fo rm th e p e r f e c t w h o le .
I d e a l man w as s t r o n g
an d w e ll- f o r m e d i n body - good i n s p o r t s , gam es and w a r.
He
was q u i c k - w i t t e d and w is e , b u t above a l l h i s s o u l w as k e p t i n
h a rm o n y , o r r i g h t o r d e r , by t h e p r e s e n c e o f t h e a l l - i m p o r t a n t
v i r t u e o f m o d e r a tio n .
To th e G reek no a c t i o n w as b a d i n I t ­
s e l f , j u s t d e g re e o f a c t i o n - to o much o r to o l i t t l e .
M odera­
t i o n w as th e k e y n o te .
The w o rld Homer l i v e d i n , t h e n , was one o f s m a l l , i n d e ­
p e n d e n t s t a t e s , u n i t e d w i t h i n th e m s e lv e s by t h e t i e s o f k i n ­
s h ip .
T h ese t i e s p e rm e a te d n o t o n ly p o l i t i c a l b u t s o c i a l i n ­
s t i t u t i o n s a s w e ll and gave o r i g i n , s a n c t i o n , an d s t r e n g t h to
m o st o f t h e m o ral and e t h i c a l v a l u e s p o s s e s s e d by t h e G re e k s .
W h ile r e l i g i o n w as an e v e ry d a y p a r t o f t h e i r l i v e s , t h e i r
Gods w ere l i t t l e
more th a n su p e rh u m a n s.
The d i g n i t y o f man
an d r e s p e c t f o r h i s a c h ie v e m e n t w ere h e l d h ig h i n t h e i r
i d e a l s a n d gave fo rm to much o f t h e i r c r e a t i v e a c t i o n .
T h e ir
c i v i l i z a t i o n was f a i r l y h i g h and t h e ag e o f G reek c u l t u r a l
g r e a t n e s s was j u s t com ing i n t o b e in g .
Reproduced with permission of the copyright owner. Further reproduction prohibited without permission.
CHAPTER I I I
WORLD OF THE ODYSSEY
Now i t i s tim e to go t o The O dyssey i t s e l f , one o f th e
two g r e a t w orks o f t h e H om eric e p i c c y c l e , an d se e w h at t h i s
w o rld o f Homer p ro d u c e d a s i t s l i t e r a r y e x p r e s s i o n .
I.
THEME
The s t o r y o f The O dyssey i s a s im p le o n e , t h e w an d eri n g s and a d v e n tu r e s o f a man and h i s t r o u b l e s i n r e a c h i n g
hom e.
The T r o ja n War i s o v e r , t h e G re ek s t r iu m p h a n t .
h a s come t o r e t u r n home and a l l d e p a r t .
Time
M is f o r tu n e a w a its
O d y s s e u s , h o w e v e r, and th r o u g h t h e i n t e r v e n t i o n o f t h e g o d s,
p a r t i c u l a r l y P o s e id e n , God o f t h e S e a , he i s k e p t w a n d e rin g
f o r te n y e a rs .
A few a t a t im e , he l o s e s h i s c o m p an io n s u n ­
t i l h e i s th e s o l e s u r v i v o r o f t h e I t h a c a n p a r t y .
E v e n tu a l­
l y h e r e t u r n s home and a sa d s t a t e o f a f f a i r s a w a i t s h im .
Gone so l o n g , s u i t o r s h a v e come t o woo h i s w if e P e n e lo p e ,
h o p in g to g e t t h e kingdom a s w e l l .
H is s o n , T e le m a c h u s, a l ­
m o st a f u l l grow n man h a s gone t o s e a r c h f o r word o f h i s
fa th e r.
Upon h i s r e t u r n , f a t h e r a n d so n t o g e t h e r m anage to
e l i m i n a t e th e s u i t o r s b y k i l l i n g them o f f .
The f a m i ly i s r e ­
u n ite d ,
Reproduced with permission of the copyright owner. Further reproduction prohibited without permission.
Ik
II.
W o rld .
WORLD AND ITS CHARACTERS
The w o rld O d y sse u s l i v e s i n i s s i m i l a r t o
t h a t o f H o m e r's .
I t i s a w o rld o f f e u d a l m o n a rc h y , r e s p e c t e d
s o c i a l c o d e s , g r e a t l o v e o f s p o r t and g a m e s, a n d r e s p e c t f o r
i n d i v i d u a l h o n o r and w o r th , f o r p h y s i c a l p ro w e s s o r a r t i s t i c
a c c o m p lis h m e n t.
I t i s a w o rld d o m in a te d by t h e g o d s an d
t h e i r i n t e r v e n t i o n i n human a f f a i r s .
I t h a c a , one o f th e G reek " s t a t e s , " i s t h e home and
p r o p e r ty o f O d y sseu s,
As s u c h , i t
s h o u ld r i g h t f u l l y b e i n ­
h e r i t e d by T e le m a c h u s , h i s o n l y s o n .
I t i s o b v io u s i n th e
o p e n in g c h a p t e r t h a t t h i s i s n o t t h e c a s e .
S u i t o r s a r e woo­
i n g P e n e lo p e , w ith e x p e c t a t i o n o f o b t a i n i n g I t h a c a a s w e l l ,
s i n c e T elem a ch u s i s to o y o u n g , i n e x p e r i e n c e d an d a lo n e t o
f i g h t f o r w h at s h o u ld be h i s .
The r i t e
of h o s p ita lity ,
p l u s t h e l a c k o f k i n a s s i s t a n c e w i t h w h ic h t o e x p e l t h e s u i t ­
o r s , f o r c e s T e le m a c h u s t o e n t e r t a i n th em f o r a p r o l o n g e d p e r ­
io d , s tr a in in g th e re s o u rc e s o f I th a c a .
h im , h o w e v e r, i n t h e fo rm o f A th e n a .
H elp d o e s come t o
The g o d s h a v e t a k e n
p i t y on O d y sse u s and h i s w a n d e r in g s , a n d now P o s e i d e n , h i s
o n ly f o e , h a s l e f t t h e C o u n c il H a ll o f t h e G ods; t h e y a r e
f r e e to a c t w ith o u t d i s s e n t .
A th e n a s t r e s s e s t h e p o i n t t h a t
O d y sse u s h a s p a i d r e s p e c t a n d g iv e n t r i b u t e t o t h e g o d s ;
t h e r e f o r e , t h e y s h o u ld n o t c a u s e h im a n y m ore h a r d s h i p s .
■^Andrew L a n g and o t h e r s , The C o m p lete W orks o f
Homer (New Y o rk : M odern L i b r a r y , 1 9 5 0 )V p . 3 .
Reproduced with permission of the copyright owner. Further reproduction prohibited without permission.
10
15
G iv e n p e r m i s s i o n fro m Z e u s sh e g o e s t o I t h a c a a n d i n s p i r e s
T e le m a c h u s t o a c t , s t a y i n g w i t h him u n t i l t h e o v e r th r o w o f
th e s u ito r s .
T e le m a c h u s s e t s o u t t o s e a r c h f o r h i s f a t h e r
a n d r e c e i v e s a i d , i n f o r m a t i o n a n d g i f t s fro m a l l th e k i n g ­
dom s he v i s i t s .
He i s w elcom ed a s O d y s s e u s ' s o n , a n o b l e ­
m an, and t h e s o n o f a f r i e n d a n d i s a c c o r d e d th e h o s p i t a l ­
ity
he i s d u e .
H ow ever g r a c i o u s h i s v a r i o u s h o s t s a r e no
one o f f e r s to h e lp d is p o s e o f th e s u i t o r s f o r t h i s i s a
p ro b le m o f T e le m a c h u s an d h i s f a m i l y .
r e n d e r e d by h im , f o r i t
J u s t i c e m u st be
i s h i s f a m i l y an d f a m i ly e s t a t e
t h a t i s b e in g h a rm e d .
O d y s s e u s , i n t h e m e a n tim e , i s f i n a l l y on h i s way
hom e.
L e a v in g C a ly p s o , h i s t e m p e s t - t o s s e d j o u r n e y n e x t
p u t s him on t h e s h o r e s o f K in g A le in o u s a n d N a r s i c a a .
H e re i s p r e s e n t e d a p i c t u r e b o t h o f t h e i n f e r i o r and s u p e r ­
i o r r o l e o f women.
N a rs ic a a , th e r u l e r 's d a u g h te r, i s do­
i n g t h e f a m i l y w a s h in g when sh e m e e ts O d y s s e u s .
m e n ia l t a s k s a r e d o n e b y r u l e r s 1 d a u g h t e r s .
Even
On t h e o t h e r
h a n d , i s p i c t u r e d h e r m o th e r , a woman o f g r e a t i n f l u e n c e an d
re s p e c t.
N a r s i c a a b i d s O d y sse u s t o s e e k a sy lu m fro m h e r
m o th e r , n o t f a t h e r B u t when t h o u a r t w i t h i n t h e shadow o f t h e h a l l s a n d t h e
c o u r t , p a s s q u i c k l y th r o u g h t h e g r e a t ch am b er u n t i l th o u come s t t o my m o t h e r . . .P a s s th o u by h im ( h e r f a t h e r ) a n d c a s t
th y h a n d s a b o u t my m o t h e r 's k n e e s . . . I f b u t h e r h e a r t be k i n d ­
l y d i s p o s e d to w a r d s t h e e t h e n i s t h e r e h o p e t h a t th o u s h a l t
s e e th y f r i e n d s a n d come t o t h y w e l l - b u i l d e d h o u s e , a n d to
Reproduced with permission of the copyright owner. Further reproduction prohibited without permission.
16
t h i n e own c o u n tr y .
11
The p o s i t i o n o f women i n The O dyssey i s an am bigu o u s
one.
T h e re a r e su c h women a s P e n e lo p e an d N a r s i c a a , n o b le
women r e s p e c t e d f o r t h e i r f e m i n i n i t y , t h e i r p o s i t i o n a s
w ife o f r u l e r and d a u g h te r o f r u l e r .
H ow ever, th e y h a v e no
r i g h t s , p r i v i l e g e s , o r a u t h o r i t y i n t h e m s e lv e s .
T h e ir p la c e
i s s t r i c t l y a s h e lp m a te s t o t h e i r r e s p e c t i v e r u l e r s .
On
t h e o t h e r h a n d , t h e r e a r e su c h women a s H e le n , C irc e and
C a ly p s o .
They a r e a l l i n v e s t e d w i t h a s u p e r n a t u r a l pow er
o f some k i n d o r a n o th e r an d t a k e t h e i r p l a c e a s e q u a l s w ith
men.
T h ese women, th o u g h ab o v e t h e r a n k o f common p e o p le
by f a r - i n d e e d , H e len i s a noblew om an - a r e endowed w ith
more e a r t h y n a t u r e s t h a n P e n e lo p e o r N a r s i c a a and a lm o s t
seem to b e t h e m ore hum an.
P h y s i c a l p ro w e ss t o g e t h e r w i t h c o u ra g e p l a y s a g r e a t
p a r t i n t h e p u r s u i t o f h o n o r and g l o r y t h a t was so i m p o r t a n t
t o t h e G re e k s .
R e s p e c t i s g iv e n t o O d y sse u s a t t h e Kingdom
o f A lc in o u s when he d e m o n s tr a te s h i s a b i l i t y
w e ig h t.
P h y s ic a l f i t n e s s i s a n e c e s s i t y .
to h u r l a
A lc in o u s* son
s a y s , " . . . f o r t h e r e i s no g r e a t e r g l o r y f o r a man w h ile he
l i v e s , th a n t h a t w hich h e a c h i e v e s by h an d and f o o t . " 12
L ik e w is e t h e a r t s , e s p e c i a l l y o f so n g and d a n c e , a r e r e v e r e d .
A lc in o u s b r a g s , "L o, now a r i s e , y e d a n c e r s o f th e P h o e c ia n s ,
11Ib id . p . 95.
12Ib id , . p . 112.
Reproduced with permission of the copyright owner. Further reproduction prohibited without permission.
17
t h e b e s t i n th e l a n d , an d make s p o r t , t h a t so th e s t r a n g e r
may t e l l h i s f r i e n d s , when h e r e t u r n e t h hom e, how f a r we
s u r p a s s a l l men b e s i d e s i n s e a m a n s h ip , and sp e e d o f f o o t ,
an d i n th e d a n ce a n d s o n g . "13
The w o rld r e p r e s e n t e d i n Homer i s one o f f a m ily
e s t a t e s , t i e s b a s e d on k i n s h i p a n d f r i e n d s h i p .
H onor and
r e s p e c t a r e g iv e n t o men who e a r n i t th r o u g h p h y s i c a l
a b i l i t y an d c o u ra g e .
I n t e r a c t i n g w ith t h e s e human h e r o e s
a r e th e g o d s , im m o rta l an d su p e rh u m a n , b u t endowed w ith
human e m o tio n s and m o ti v e s .
I t i s a w o rld o f m en, e x c e p t
f o r th e e x c e p t i o n a l women, t h o s e p o s s e s s i n g some u n iq u e
q u a l i t y , su c h a s C i r c e * s s o r c e r e s s a b i l i t y , C a l y p s o 's se m i­
d i v i n e n a t u r e , o r H e le n * s m e d ic a l k n o w le d g e .
C h a ra c te rs .
o f Homer?
W hat k i n d o f p e o p le i n h a b i t t h i s w o rld
A lth o u g h The O dyssey h a s a c a s t o f m any, t h r e e
c h a r a c t e r s d o m in a te t h e s t o r y - U l y s s e s , T elem a ch u s and
P e n e lo p e , o u r I t h a c a n f a m i l y .
Our h e ro i s O d y s s e u s .
I t i s h i s a b s e n c e fro m and
s t r u g g l e s t o g e t home t h a t fo rm s th e p l o t o f t h e s t o r y .
The w ord "H ero" f o r O d y sse u s c a n be u s e d , n o t o n ly a s p r o t a g a n i s t b u t i n i t s p r im e m e a n in g - a man o f v a l o r , f o r t i lk
t u d e and b o ld e n t e r p r i s e ,
f o r h e was c e r t a i n l y a l l t h r e e .
^ i b i d . , p. 115.
l ii
Punk and W a g n a ll1s C o m p reh e n siv e D i c t i o n a r y .
p . 292.
Reproduced with permission of the copyright owner. Further reproduction prohibited without permission.
i8
V a r io u s a d j e c t i v e s a r e u s e d t o d e s c r i b e h im , s u c h a s p a t i e n t ,
s t e a d f a s t , g o d - l i k e , d i v i n e , g o o d l y , n o b l e , an d t h e s e g iv e a
k e y t o t h e s t a t u r e o f t h i s man.
v i s i t s sp eak s
E v e ry o n e whom T e le m a c h u s
h ig h ly o f O d y sseu s.
A c c o rd in g t o N e s t o r ,
"T h e re n e v e r a man d u r s t m a tc h w i t h h im on w isd o m , f o r
g o o d ly O d y sse u s v e ry f a r o u t d i d t h e r e s t i n a l l m anner o f
craft.M enelaus
s t a t e s t h a t "no o n e o f t h e A c h a e a n s
t o i l e d so g r e a t l y a s O d y s s e u s t o i l e d
a n d a d v e n tu r e d h im ­
s e l f ." 16
He i s d e f i n i t e l y p i c t u r e d a s a man o f v a l o r .
t h e l e a d e r s i n The T r o ja n War h e f o u g h t b r a v e l y .
One o f
He show s
h i s v a l o r a g a i n i n th e c a v e o f P o ly p h e m u s , t h e C y c lo p s ;
v a l o r a n d c o u ra g e i n t h e d e s c e n t t o H a d e s and t h r o u g h o u t
h i s jo u rn e y .
F o r t i t u d e a l s o i s a q u a l i t y o f h i s f o r he
p e r s i s t s i n h i s q u e s t f o r home a n d f a m i l y th r o u g h o u t a l l
h i s h a rd s h ip s .
B u t p e r h a p s th e h e r o i c q u a l i t y w h ic h h e p o s s e s s e s t o
a much h i g h e r d e g r e e t h a n a l l t h e r e s t i s b o ld e n t e r p r i s e ,
o r c r a f t i n e s s a n d c u n n in g .
I t w as O d y s s e u s who th o u g h t o f
th e r u s e o f th e T r o ja n h o r s e and i t
I s t h i s same s h re w d n e s s
t h a t g e t s him b a c k to I t h a c a a n d r e - e s t a b l i s h e d t h e r e .
En­
dowed w ith a g l i b to n g u e h e i s o f t e n a b l e t o t a l k h i s way
out of s itu a tio n s .
E ven A th e n a a c k n o w le d g e s h i s s h a r p m in d .
^ L a n g . op. g it,., p . 32.
l 6I b i d . , p . 4 8 .
Reproduced with permission of the copyright owner. Further reproduction prohibited without permission.
19
" C r a f t y m u st h e b e , a n d k n a v i s h , who w ould o u td o t h e e i n
a l l m anner o f g u i l e , e v e n i f i t w ere a god e n c o u n te r e d t h e e .
H ardy m an, s u b t l e o f w i t , o f g u i l e i n s a t i a t e , so th o u w a st
n o t e v e n i n t h i n e own c o u n tr y t o c e a s e fro m th y s l e i g h t s t o
k n a v is h w o rd s , w h ich th o u l o v e s t fro m t h e b o tto m o f t h i n e
h e a r t ! 1,1^
O d y sse u s i s p i c t u r e d a s a t r u e f a m i ly man.
A lth o u g h
h e s p e n d s se v e n y e a r s w ith th e nymph C a ly p so i t i s n o t o f
h i s c h o o s in g and he l o n g s t o r e t u r n t o P e n e lo p e a n d I t h a c a .
On t h e v e r y f i r s t p a g e Homer d e s c r i b e s h im , " O d y s s e u s ...
c r a v i n g f o r h i s w ife a n d f o r h i s homeward p a t h . "
*1 f t
O d y sse u s
h i m s e l f t e l l s C a ly p s o , " I know i t w e ll how w ise P e n e lo p e i s
m ean er t o l o o k up o n t h a n t h o u , i n c o m e lin e s s and s t a t u r e .
B u t sh e i s m o r ta l an d th o u k n o w e st n o t a g e n o r d e a t h .
Y et
e v e n s o , I w is h and l o n g d ay by day t o f a r e hom eward and
s e e t h e d a y o f my r e t u r n i n g .
A h e r o , a l e a d e r o f m en, o f g r e a t p h y s i c a l a b i l i t y ,
r e s p e c t e r o f t h e g o d s , l o v e r o f hom e, man o f i n t e l l e c t u a l
w i l e s , O d y sse u s i s a g l o r i f i e d r e p r e s e n t a t i v e o f t h e a n t h r o ­
p o m o rp h ic w o rld fro m w h ic h h e com es.
H is s o n , T e le m a c h u s , show s s i g n s o f b e in g a young
O d y sseu s.
17
18
B a r e l y tw e n ty when t h e s t o r y b e g i n s , h e i s f a c e d
I b id . . p . 20k.
Ib id . . p . 1.
1^ I b id ., P. 77.
Reproduced with permission of the copyright owner. Further reproduction prohibited without permission.
20
w ith a n d overcom e by a home f u l l o f s u i t o r s .
He r e a l i z e s
t h a t i t i s h i s d u ty t o d i s b a n d th e m , b u t he h a s n e i t h e r
th e kn o w led g e n o r th e r e s o u r c e s t o do s o .
b u t u n a b le t o h e lp h i m s e l f .
He i s asham ed
W ith A t h e n a 's h e lp he d e t e r ­
m in es t o s e e k o u t i n f o r m a t i o n a b o u t h i s f a t h e r , v i s i t i n g
th e men who w ere w ith h im i n T ro y .
By h i s c o n d u c t a n d
c h a r a c t e r T elem a ch u s e a r n s th e r e s p e c t o f t h e s e m en.
He
i s one o f t h e few G reek c h a r a c t e r s who d e v e lo p d u r i n g t h e
c o u rs e o f t h e s t o r y , g ro w in g fro m a som ewhat tim o ro u s
y o u t h , g a t h e r i n g h i s s t r e n g t h fro m A th e n a , N e s to r a n d
M e n e la u s.
By t h e tim e h e r e t u r n s t o I t h a c a he i s r e a d y to
s ta n d b y h i s f a t h e r ' s s i d e and a i d him i n d e s t r o y i n g t h e
s u i t o r s and r e g a i n i n g t h e i r hom e.
A lth o u g h he w as b u t a b a b y when O d y sse u s l e f t f o r
th e w a r, T elem a ch u s h a s g r e a t r e s p e c t and e v e n lo v e f o r
t h i s f a t h e r he c a n n o t rem em ber p e r s o n a l l y .
He h a s u tm o s t
c o n fid e n c e t h a t a l l h i s f a t h e r n e e d do i s r e t u r n an d e v e r y ­
th in g w ill s tr a ig h te n o u t.
He i s o v e r jo y e d when he m e e ts
h i s f a t h e r f i n a l l y i n t h e h u t o f Eumafcus a n d a g r e e s t o
o bey him c o m p le te ly i n h i s p l o t t o overcom e th e s u i t o r s .
A t r u e f e e l i n g o f k i n s h i p e x i s t s b e tw ee n t h e s e tw o .
They h a v e s o u g h t a n d fo u n d e a c h o t h e r , an d th e two t o g e t h e r ,
f a t h e r and s o n , e a n p r o t e c t t h e i r home and p o s s e s s i o n s an d
e s t a b l i s h t h e i r d o m in io n o v e r t h e l a n d .
P e n e lo p e I s t h e t h i r d p r o t a g o n i s t , w if e and m o th e r
Reproduced with permission of the copyright owner. Further reproduction prohibited without permission.
o f t h e s e two m en.
She r e p r e s e n t s t r u e G reek wom anhood, an d
h e r r o l e i s t h a t o f s u b m is s io n t o b o t h , now t h a t T e le m a e h u s
i s a m an.
P e n e lo p e i s w is e i n h e r own w ay, t o o , f o r sh e h a s
k e p t t h e s u i t o r s a t bay f o r many y e a r s now p r e s e r v i n g b o th
h e r s e l f and th e l a n d f o r h e r l o r d .
She i s c o m p le te ly l o y a l
t o O d y s se u s; h e r a d m i r a t i o n f o r h i s a b i l i t i e s an d h e r l o v e
f o r h i s m a n lin e s s know no b o u n d s .
She h a s no a u t h o r i t y o f
h e r own, h o w e v e r, a n d c a n n o t p r e s i d e o v e r I t h a c a i n O d y s s e u s '
absence.
H er m ain r o l e w as t o be h o u s e k e e p e r an d k e e p t h e
w h e e ls o f d o m e s tic l i v i n g r o l l i n g s m o o th ly , a n d i t w as h e r
jo b t o l o o k a f t e r t h e c o m f o r t o f g u e s t s .
H er r o l e i n t h i s f a m i l y r e l a t i o n s h i p was a c q u i e s e n c e
t o a l l h e r l o r d an d h e r so n d i d .
She was a much m ore p a s s i v e
e le m e n t b u t h e r f u n c t i o n co m p lem e n te d t h e o t h e r two a n d t h e
t h r e e e le m e n t s , f a t h e r , so n a n d m o th e r , made a h a r m o n io u s ,
i n t e g r a t e d f a m ily u n i t .
I n The O d y ssey th e n a r e c h a r a c t e r s n o b le i n s t a t u r e
an d h e r o i c i n d e e d .
They a r e i n d i v i d u a l s who s t a n d t o g e t h e r
a n d c o n q u e r th e w o r ld .
Reproduced with permission of the copyright owner. Further reproduction prohibited without permission.
CHAPTER IV
JAMES JOYCE AND H IS WORLD
I.
JAMES JOYCE
T im es c h a n g e d g r e a t l y a s t h e y e a r s , m any, many o f
th e m , w ent b y ; an d i n F e b r u a r y , 1882 Ja m es A u g u s tin e
A lo y s iu s J o y c e w as b o r a i n D u b l i n , th e s o n o f John a n d
M ary J a n e J o y c e .
He w as b o r n i n t o a m i d d l e - c l a s s f a m i l y
w hose f o r t u n e was c o n t i n u a l l y d e c r e a s i n g .
H is f a t h e r w as
a g e n tle m a n ; t h a t i s t o s a y , a man o f r e s p e c t a b l e a b i l i t y
20
t h a t f o l lo w s no o c c u p a t i o n .
J o y c e and h i s b r o t h e r s an d
s i s t e r s w ere moved a ro u n d f r e q u e n t l y a s h i s f a t h e r h a d no
a c u t e s e n s e o f t h e r i g h t s o f p r i v a t e p r o p e r t y and p a i d
th e r e n t r a r e l y .
In s p i t e o f th e d e c re a s in g fo rtu n e s
J o y c e m anaged t o g e t a r a t h e r c o m p le te e d u c a t i o n u n d e r
t h e t u t o r s h i p o f t h e J e s u i t s , f i r s t a t C lo n g o w es Wood,
t h e n B e lv e d e r e C o lle g e a n d t h e n t h e U n i v e r s i t y ,
He w as a b o y o f d e l i c a t e p h y s i q u e , h i s e y e s b o t h e r ­
i n g him e v en a s a l a d , b u t o f se e m ly a p p e a r a n c e and s u b t l e
in te llig e n c e .
E ven th o u g h h e w as t h e y o u n g e s t s t u d e n t
when h e e n t e r e d C lo n g o w es h e w as n o t to o l o n e l y n o r o u t o f
p l a c e f o r h e l i k e d new e x p e r i e n c e s and s c e n e s .
From C lo n ­
gow es h e w e n t t o B e lv e d e r e C o l le g e i n D u b l i n when t h e f a m i l y
20
S t a n i s l a u s J o y c e , My B r o t h e r * s K e o p e r (New Y o rk :
V ik in g P r e s s , 1 9 5 8 ) , P* 2 1 .
Reproduced with permission of the copyright owner. Further reproduction prohibited without permission.
23
f i n a n c e s t i g h t e n e d some m ore i n 1 8 9 2 *
An o u t s t a n d i n g s t u ­
d e n t h e won t h e p r i z e f o r g e n e r a l e x c e l l e n c e a t th e end o f
h is f i r s t y e a r.
H is h e s t s u b j e c t s w ere la n g u a g e s .
H is
r e l i g i o u s t r a i n i n g was n o t n e g l e c t e d and he show ed s t r o n g
r e l i g i o u s d i s p o s i t i o n , c o n s i d e r i n g t h e p r i e s t h o o d a t one
t im e , b u t by h i s l a s t y e a r a t B e lv e d e r e t h i s c o n s i d e r a t i o n
had b e e n a b a n d o n e d .
A t th e U n i v e r s i t y C o lle g e h i s i n t e r ­
e s t s i n c l i n e d him t o s tu d y p h i lo s o p h y and m odern la n g u a g e s .
The c u r r ic u lu m b e i n g l e n i e n t , J o y c e was l e f t l a r g e l y to
p u rsu e h i s i n c l i n a t i o n s a t w i l l .
is tic
fa ith .
I t was h e r e t h a t h i s a r t ­
c o n s c ie n c e b e g a n t o em erge an d h e r e t h a t h e l o s t h i s
The b o u n d a r i e s
b e tw e e n a r t and r e l i g i o n em erged
f o r him - a p r i e s t i s p r e o c c u p ie d w ith th e e f f e c t s o f r e ­
deem in g g r a c e o r s i n , b u t a n a r t i s t i s c o n c e rn e d w ith th e
s i n n e r a n d p a r o d y in g t h e w ays o f g r a c e and s i n , n e i t h e r
21
f o r g i v i n g n o r c o n d e m n in g .
J o y c e f e l t t h a t i t was im p e r­
a t i v e t h a t he s h o u ld s a v e h i s r e a l s p i r i t u a l l i f e fro m
b e in g o v e r l a i d a n d c r u s h e d by th e f a l s e one h e h a d o u tg ro w n .
H ow ever, he r e t a i n e d i n t e r e s t i n C a t h o l i c p h ilo s o p h y b e c a u s e
h e b e l i e v e d i t t o b e t h e m o st c o h e r e n t a t t e m p t t o e s t a b l i s h
22
i n t e l l e c t u a l and m a t e r i a l s e c u r i t y .
W ith h i s B .A . d e g re e
K e v in S u l l i v a n , J o y c e among t h e J e s u i t s (New Y o rk :
C olum bia U n i v e r s i t y P r e s s , 1 9 5 8 )> p . l ^ .
22
S ta n is la u s Jo y c e , o p . c i t . . p . 108.
Reproduced with permission of the copyright owner. Further reproduction prohibited without permission.
aill e f t f o r P r a n c e , t h e o r e t i c a l l y t o s tu d y m e d ic in e ; s o o n ,
h o w e v e r, l i t e r a r y p u r s u i t s w ere ta lc in g a l l h i s t im e ,
B ohem ian l i f e
H is
c u t s h o r t by th e im p e n d in g d e a t h o f h i s
m o th e r , he r e t u r n e d to I r e l a n d , r e m a in in g t h e r e u n t i l
a f t e r h e r d e a th .
When h e r e t u r n e d to E u ro p e i n th e f a l l
o f 1904 he h a d N ora B a r n a c le w ith h im .
The r e s t o f h i s
l i f e was to he s p e n t i n E u ro p e - T r i e s t e , Rome, P a r i s ,
Z u r ic h ,
Now h i s l i t e r a r y c a r e e r b e g a n i n e a r n e s t .
Jo y c e w as n o t a p o p u la r w r i t e r and h ad a c o n t i n u a l
s t r u g g l e to g e t h i s w r i t i n g s p r i n t e d .
B o th h i s r e l i g i o u s
v ie w s and t h e a l l e g e d o b s c e n i t y o f h i s w orks c a u s e d I r e l a n d
t o h a v e n o t h i n g to do w ith him a n d , when i n 1 9 1 2 , h e r e ­
t u r n e d to D u b lin to t r y to g e t h i s s t o r i e s , D u b l i n e r s .
p r i n t e d , th e p u b l i s h e r b u rn e d t h e m a n u s c r i p t.
Jo y ce.
He n e v e r r e t u r n e d t o D u b lin a g a i n .
T h is d e c id e d
In s p i t e o f th e
g e n e r a l r e l u c t a n c e t o p r i n t h i s w o rk s , he a t t r a c t e d th e
n o t i c e o f t h e a v a n t - g a r d e l i t e r a r y e n t h u s i a s t s and w r i t e r s .
He s u c c e e d e d i n g e t t i n g D u b l i n e r s p u b l i s h e d i n 191^+> th e
same y e a r he c o m p le te d A P o r t r a i t o f t h e A r t i s t .
The P o r ­
t r a i t was s e r i a l i z e d i n The E g o i s t and th e r e v ie w s t h a t i t
o c c a s io n e d w ere v e r y m ixed i n c h a r a c t e r .
h ad a s m a ll b u t i n t e l l i g e n t p u b l i c .
By 1918 h i s w orks
I n 1922 U ly s s e s was
p u b l i s h e d i n P a r i s by t h e S h a k e s p e a re B ookshop; a f t e r much
h a g g li n g i t w as a l s o p u b l is h e d i n E n g la n d , and I n 1933 ^
was a llo w e d i n t o t h e U n ite d S t a t e s .
H is l a s t w o rk ,
Reproduced with permission of the copyright owner. Further reproduction prohibited without permission.
25
F in n e g a n 1s W ake, w as c o m p le te d i n 1939*
Ja n u a ry 1 3 ,
19^1 he d i e d i n S w it z e r l a n d o f a p e r f o r a t e d u l c e r .
J o y c e , h i m s e l f , was a t a l l ,
t h i n , u n p r e d i c t a b l e m an.
He was a f f l i c t e d w i t h a g r e a t d i s a b i l i t y , e s p e c i a l l y f o r a
w rite r; n e a r-b lin d n e s s .
made h im .
How i n t r o s p e c t i v e t h i s m u st h a v e
I n s p i t e o f t h i s h e h a d a l i v e l y s e n s e o f hum or
and was warm a n d u n r e s e r v e d w ith h i s f r i e n d s .
P a ra d o x ic a l
a s a l l human b e i n g s , he w as d e e p l y p e s s i m i s t i c a s w e l l ,
and t h i s p e s s im is m k e p t h im i n a c c e s s i b l e t o s t r a n g e r s .
A l­
th o u g h h i s w o rk s c o n c e rn th e m s e lv e s w i t h t h e e f f e c t s o f
p o l i t i c a l and r e l i g i o u s i n s t i t u t i o n s h e h i m s e l f was i n d i f ­
f e r e n t t o su c h m a t t e r s .
Two p a s s i o n s d o m in a te d h i s l i f e
-
lo v e o f f a t h e r an d o f f a t h e r l a n d .
Why d i d J o y c e h av e s u c h d i f f i c u l t y g e t t i n g h i s w o rk s
p u b lis h e d ?
P e r h a p s i t was b e c a u s e o f h i s t e c h n i q u e .
The
i n t e r i o r m onologue was a t e c h n i q u e u n f a m i l i a r a n d in c o m p re ­
h e n s i b l e t o m any; b u t e v e n m ore i t w as w hat h e h a d t o s a y ,
n o t how h e s a i d i t ,
t h a t c a u s e d r a i s e d e y e b ro w s .
H is d e p r e ­
d a t i o n o f l o n g - s t a n d i n g s o c i a l i n s t i t u t i o n s an d h i s c o n c e n ­
t r a t i o n on t h e a n i m a l i s t i c , e a r t h y s i d e o f man l e d some
23
c r i t i c s t o c a l l h i s th e l i t e r a t u r e o f th e s e w e r . J
Of
th o s e who b o t h e r e d t o r e a d J o y c e o n l y a few u n d e r s t o o d t h e
m essage h e w as b r i n g i n g a n d t h e c i v i l i z a t i o n h e w as r e f l e c t i n g .
^ 3 P a t r i c i a H u t c h i n s , Jam es J o y c e * s W orld (L o n d o n ;
M eth u en , 1 9 5 7 ) , P* 1X1*
Reproduced with permission of the copyright owner. Further reproduction prohibited without permission.
26
II.
JOYCE'S CIVILIZATION
The t w e n ty - s e v e n h u n d re d y e a r s t h a t p a s s e d b e tw e e n
Homer an d J o y c e saw many c h a n g e s i n t h e c h a r a c t e r o f W est­
e rn C iv iliz a tio n .
R e f l e c t e d I n t h e I t h a c a n f a m i ly w ere
t h e s t r o n g i n d i v i d u a l i s m an d t h e c l o s e t i e s and harm ony
fa m ily l i f e
gave to a p e rs o n .
W ith t h e k n o w le d g e h i s
k i n f o l k w ere r e a d y t o a s s i s t h im a man c o u l d , and in d e e d
was e x p e c te d t o , s t a n d a g a i n s t t h e f o r c e s o f th e w o rld and
c o n q u e r th e m .
E ach man knew h i s p l a c e and b e l i e v e d i n t h e
s t r e n g t h o f t h e s o c i a l an d m o ra l co d e t h a t h i s p o s i t i o n
g a v e h im .
T h i s w as a n a g e o f i n d i v i d u a l i s m and s e l f -
r e l i a n c e i n a c o u n tr y o f w i d e l y - s c a t t e r e d s t a t e s .
I t was
an a g e t h a t i d e a l i z e d m a n 's d i g n i t y , an d t h a t p l a c e d him
i n t h e c e n t e r o f t h e w o rld i n w h ic h h e l i v e d .
Man w as
c r e a t e d f o r h i s own f u l f i l l m e n t .
C ity L i f e .
By 1882 A .D . g r e a t c h a n g e s i n t h e l i v i n g
c o n d i t i o n s o f p e o p le h a d b e e n m ade.
The a g e o f m ass s o c ­
i e t y and c o n f o r m i ty w as e m e r g in g , i f n o t e m e rg e d .
p e r c e n t a g e o f t h e p e o p le l i v e d i n c i t i e s now .
A g re a t
A lth o u g h
t h e im p e tu s to w a r d s c i t y l i v i n g h a d b e g u n i n th e M id d le
A ges i t was t h e m id d le o f t h e l 8 t h C e n tu ry a n d t h e I n d u s ­
t r i a l R e v o lu t i o n w h ic h a c c e l e r a t e d g ro w th o f c i t y p o p u l a ­
tio n .
The I n d u s t r i a l R e v o l u t i o n c h a n g e d o t h e r a s p e c t s o f
s o c ie ty , to o .
Gone w as t h e communal an d c o o p e r a t i v e s p i r i t
Reproduced with permission of the copyright owner. Further reproduction prohibited without permission.
27
■between e m p lo y er and e m p lo y e e .
Now t h e r e was s h a r p d i v i ­
s i o n b e tw e e n o w n ers and m a n a g e rs a n d w o r k e r s .
The f a c t o r y
s y s te m n e e d e d l o t s o f p e o p le t o w ork i n one p l a c e - t h e r e ­
f o r e , t h e g ro w th o f c i t i e s .
Human b e in g s w ere t r e a t e d a s
m a c h in e s o f p r o d u c t i o n , no l o n g e r a s i n d i v i d u a l s .
S c ie n ­
t i f i c p r i n c i p l e s w e re a p p l i e d t o s o lv e t h e p r a c t i c a l p r o b ­
le m s i n i n d u s t r y a n d a g r i c u l t u r e t o th e s u b j e c t i o n o f t h e
human e le m e n t.
The I n d u s t r i a l R e v o lu tio n a n d c i t y l i f e d e a l t a
s h a r p b lo w t o one o f w e s te r n c i v i l i z a t i o n ' s s t r o n g e s t s u p ­
p o r t s an d w e s te r n c u l t u r e ' s p r i n c i p a l t r a n s m i t t e r s , th e
f a m i ly .
life
The u n i t y an d s o l i d a r i t y o f th e f a m i ly t h a t r u r a l
f o s t e r e d w a s, and i s , b e i n g e ro d e d by t h e new v a l u e s
and c u sto m s o f t h e c i t y .
The m achine a g e h a s s p o n s o r e d d i s o r g a n i z a t i o n i n t h e
f a m ily i n v a r i o u s w ay s.
P o l i t i c a l d em o cracy w i t h i t s
s t r e s s upon e q u a l i t y and u p o n t h e i n d i v i d u a l i s in c o n g r u o u s
w ith t h e s t r a t i f i e d
s o c ie ty o f th e fa m ily .
The f a m ily home
i t s e l f h a s b e e n c h a n g e d by c i t y l i v i n g fro m a n i n d e p e n d e n t ,
i s o l a t e d b u i l d i n g u n i t t o a m ore co m pact r e s i d e n c e , o f t e n
i n a b u i l d i n g s h a r e d by o t h e r f a m i l i e s .
One o f th e g r e a t e s t
d i s o r g a n i z e r s o f f a m i ly u n i t y i s t h e o u t s i d e d i s t r a c t i o n s o f
u rb an l i f e .
The f a m i ly i s no l o n g e r d e p e n d e n t u p o n i t s own
m em bers f o r e n t e r t a i n m e n t a n d r e c r e a t i o n .
The c i t y and i n ­
d u s t r i a l l i f e h a v e a l s o b r o k e n t h e econom ic u n i t y o f t h e
hom e.
No l o n g e r a r e a l l m em bers c o n c e n t r a t e d o n t h e r u n n in g
Reproduced with permission of the copyright owner. Further reproduction prohibited without permission.
28
o f t h e f a rm , t h e f a m i ly " b u s i n e s s , "
Now em ploym ent o u t ­
s i d e t h e home f o r one o r more m em bers o f t h e f a m i ly i s
s ta n d a rd p r a c t i c e .
One o f t h e s e m em bers i s o f t e n t h e
w ife a n d m o th e r o f t h e f a m i l y .
T h is e x t r a em ploym ent
h a s g iv e n h e r a new s t a t u s due t o eco n o m ic and p e r s o n a l
in d e p e n d e n c e •
The f a m i ly i n th e T w e n tie th C e n tu ry i s a l e s s
s t a b l e i n s t i t u t i o n t h a n i t w as f o r m e r l y .
The new f o r c e s
fro m i n d u s t r i a l and c i t y l i f e p r e v i o u s l y m e n tio n e d d e m o c rac y w ith i t s e m p h a s is on i n d i v i d u a l r i g h t s , new
s t a n d a r d s o f l i v i n g and e v e n new e t h i c a l s t a n d a r d s have t h i s i n s t i t u t i o n in a s t a t e o f f l u x .
G r a d u a lly c e r ­
t a i n f u n c t i o n s o f t h e f a m i ly h a v e b e e n l o s t t o i t .
R e li­
g io n and e d u c a t i o n a r e n o l o n g e r p r i n c i p a l l y i t s d u t i e s .
M embers o f t h e f a m i ly a r e r e l a t i v e l y in d e p e n d e n t o f e a c h
o th e r.
L a b o r - s a v i n g g a d g e t s , c o m m erc ial a m u se m e n ts, and
so f o r t h h a v e l e s s e n e d d e p e n d e n c e . D iv o rc e i s i n c r e a s i n g
2k
a t a n a lm o s t a p p a l l i n g r a t e .
Y et c e r ta in c h a r a c t e r i s t i c s ,
v a l u e s and n e e d s h a v e b e e n s t r o n g enough t o i n s u r e t h e p e r ­
m anence o f t h i s i n s t i t u t i o n ;
v a l u e s su c h a s t h e d e s i r a ­
b i l i t y o f monogamy, c o m p a n io n s h ip o f th e s e x e s , c h i l d r e n ,
an d eco n o m ic p a r t n e r s h i p .
The f a m i l y r e f l e c t s i n p a r t t h e s t a g e o f c i v i l i z a 2S
t i o n th r o u g h w h ic h i t i s p a s s i n g . ^ The c h a n g in g f u n c t i o n s
------------------------------
R oseoe L ew is A s h le y , Our C o n te m p o ra ry C i v i l i z a t i o n
(New Y o rk : H e n ry H o lt an d Co. , 1 9 3 5 ) * P • ^ 7 •
25I b id ., p .
Reproduced with permission of the copyright owner. Further reproduction prohibited without permission.
29
a n d o r g a n i z a t i o n and t h e d i s i n t e g r a t i n g s t r u c t u r e , a s we
know i t , o f t h e f a m i ly i s in d e e d b u t a p a r t o f t h e r e v o l u ­
tio n a r y changes in o th e r a s p e c ts o f s o c ie ty a t l a r g e .
S c ie n c e .
I n no o t h e r f i e l d w as t h i s c h a n g e s o
r a p i d o r so c o m p le te a s i n s c i e n c e .
The y e a r s 1 8 5 0 - 1 9 1 ^
w itn e s s e d th e a c c e l e r a ti o n o f s c i e n t i f i c p r o g r e s s , f i r s t
i n t h e f i e l d s o f b i o lo g y a n d m e d ic a l s c i e n c e s and t h e n i n
th e p h y s ic a l s c ie n c e s .
T h ese y e a r s n o t o n l y w i t n e s s e d
s t a r t l i n g d i s c o v e r i e s o f t h e i r own, b u t a l s o l a i d
th e
fo u n d a tio n s f o r th e r e v o lu tio n a r y u p h e a v a l o f th e T w e n ti­
e t h C e n tu r y .
The a to m , o n c e th o u g h t o f a s s o l i d , n o w was
p o r t r a y e d a s a m i n i a t u r e s o l a r s y s te m .
r a d i o - a c t i v i t y w as d i s c o v e r e d .
t o be r e l a t i v e .
The p h e n o m e n o n o f
Time and s p a c e w e re know n
P s y c h o a n a l y s is was f o u n d e d .
h e r e d i t y w e re f o r m u la te d .
The l a w s o f
T h ese d e v e lo p m e n ts an d o t h e r s
i n t h e f i e l d s o f p h y s i c s a n d a s tro n o m y l e d t o t h e q u e s t i o n ­
i n g o f f u n d a m e n ta l c o n c e p t s .
The n e w ly d i s c o v e r e d v a s t n e s s
o f t h e cosm os s h r i n k s man t o a n i n f i n i t e s i m a l p i n p r i c k .
I n c r e a s e d s tu d y o f t h e n a t u r e o f t h e ato m h a s l e d t h e
tis ts
t o d o u b t t h e e x i s t e n c e o f any u l t i m a t e .
s c ie n ­
"M o st c a n d i d
s c i e n t i s t s q u i t e f r a n k l y a d m it t h a t s c i e n c e c a n n o t d i s c o v e r
a n y u l t i m a t e s e v e n i n i t s own r e a l m . 11
The w h o le t h e o r y
—
H a r r y E lm e r B a r n e s , An I n t e l l e c t u a l a n d C u l t u r a l
H i s t o r y o f t h e W e s te rn W orld '[ N e w Y o rk : R e y n a l a n d H i t c h ­
cock , I n c • , 19^1 ) , p .1 1 1 2 .
Reproduced with permission of the copyright owner. Further reproduction prohibited without permission.
30
o f c a u s e and e f f e c t i s t h u s q u e s t i o n e d .
The s e n s e o f
c e r t a i n t y a n d s e c u r i t y b a s e d u p o n t h e o l d e r a n th ro p o m o r­
p h i c an d g e o c e n t r i c t h e o r i e s was s t i f l e d by t h e s e new
d i s c o v e r i e s and t h e o r i e s .
Man h a d n e v e r b e f o r e seem ed
so i n s i g n i f i c a n t o r so a d r i f t .
B e s i d e s t h e f o u n d a t i o n s f o r t h e s e i.-^w a n d b e w i ld i n g t h e o r i e s , t h e l a t e N i n e t e e n t h C e n tu ry g e n e r a t e d some
t h e o r i e s w h ich w ere a s r e v o l u t i o n a r y a s an y t h a t h a d e v e r
b e fo re been p ro p o se d .
e v o lu tio n .
The m ost s i g n i f i c a n t w as t h a t o f
In 1 8 5 8 , D arw in and W a lla c e d e l i v e r e d a
j o i n t p a p e r a t The L in n a e a n S o c i e t y e x p o u n d in g t h e t h e o r i e s
o f e v o l u t i o n and n a t u r a l s e l e c t i o n , t h e a p p a r a t u s o f e v o lu ­
tio n .
lo g y .
T h is p a p e r came t o a w o rld l a r g e l y i g n o r a n t o f b i o 27
T h rough t h e l a t t e r p a r t o f t h e N i n e t e e n t h C e n tu ry
m ore a n d m ore was d i s c o v e r e d a b o u t t h e n a t u r e a n d p r i n ­
c i p l e s o f l i f e , many o f t h e s e c h a l l e n g i n g D a r w i n 's c o n ­
c e p ts .
H ow ever, c e r t a i n m o d i f i c a t i o n s o f t h e t h e o r y l e d
i t to be g e n e r a lly a c c e p te d .
T h is N e o -D a rw in ism e x p o u n d s
t h e t h e o r y o f " g r a d u a l t r a n s f o r m a t i o n o p e r a t e d by n a t u r a l
s e l e c t i o n a c t i n g on a M e n d e lia n g e n e t i c o u t f i t o f s e l f 28
r e p r o d u c i n g an d s e l f - v a r y i n g g e n e s ."
^ C h a r l e s D a rw in , O r i g i n o f t h e S p e c ie s (New Y o rk :
M en to r B o o k s, 1 9 5 8 ) , p . x .
28
Ib id . . p . x i i i .
Reproduced with permission of the copyright owner. Further reproduction prohibited without permission.
31
E v ery p h a s e o f l i f e was a f f e c t e d by th e Im p a c t o f
s c i e n c e , m o st s i g n i f i c a n t l y by t h i s i d e a o f e v o l u t i o n .
The a n th ro p o m o rp h ic v ie w o f th e i n t e g r i t y o f man was
p r e t t y w e ll subm erged u n d e r th e f r o n t a l a t t a c k o f e v o lu ­
t i o n a r y b io lo g y and n o rm a l and a b n o rm a l p s y c h o lo g y .
The
s p i r i t t h a t a l l m e n 's p ro b le m s c o u ld b e s o lv e d th r o u g h
r a t i o n a l i s m r e c e i v e d a k i l l i n g b lo w .
No l o n g e r c o u ld
m a n 's U to p ia be r e a c h e d by f o l lo w in g t h e d i c t a t e s o f
rea so n .
S c ie n c e h ad d w a rfe d him and c h a n g e d h i s r e l a t i o n ­
s h ip to n a tu r e .
No l o n g e r c o u ld he c o n c ie v e o f h i m s e l f
s o l e l y a s r a t i o n a l m an.
He was a n im a l a s w e l l .
He was
t h o u g h t o f by some a s p u r e l y a n im a l.
M oral s t a n d a r d s .
T h is m a jo r u p h e a v a l i n r e g a r d t o
t h e p o s i t i o n o f m an, a s s c i e n t i f i c a l l y e x p o se d by M arx,
D a rw in , F r e u d , and E i n s t e i n , l e d to a d e c l i n e i n t h e
b o u rg e o is s ta n d a rd s o f v a lu e .
P s y c h o lo g y an d a n t h r o p o l ­
o g y , two new s c i e n c e s , a t t a c k e d a l l m o ra l v a l u e s .
They a r e ,
a f t e r a l l , s a i d t h e s e s c i e n c e s , o n ly m o res o r fo lk w a y s o f
s o c i e t y and m ust ch an g e a s s o c i e t y c h a n g e s .
made headw ay p a r t l y b e c a u s e c i t y l i f e
T hese a t t a c k s
an d i t s a cco m p an y in g
w o r ld ly p l e a s u r e s h a s a l r e a d y lo o s e n e d m e n 's g r a s p on
s p i r i t u a l v a lu e s and t h e i r acco m p a n y in g m o ra l c o d e s .
T h e re was g r e a t d a n g e r i n t h e s e a t t a c k s a s th e o l d f a i t h s
w e re c ru m b lin g , b u t n o t h i n g new was b e in g w id e ly a c c e p te d
Reproduced with permission of the copyright owner. Further reproduction prohibited without permission.
32
in i t s p la c e .
A new m o r a l i t y f o r d a y s o f p r o s p e r i t y and
m a t e r i a l w e a lth was n e e d e d ,
A new b a s i s f o r hum ane
v a l u e s was s o u g h t b y p h i lo s o p h y a n d l i t e r a t u r e
in n a tu r a l­
is m and r e l a t i v i s m .
By t h e end o f t h e F i r s t W orld War p e s s im is m and
c o n f u s io n w ere ra m p a n t i n t h e p h i lo s o p h y o f t h e d a y .
Many p h i l o s o p h e r s d e s p a i r e d t h e a b i l i t y o f mem t o sa v e
h i m s e l f w ith o u t t h e s u p p o r t o f a u t h o r i t y o r t h e a i d o f
29
s u p e r n a t u r a l p o w e rs .
Many a b a n d o n e d r a t i o n a l man e n ­
t i r e l y a s th e y l o s t c o n f i c e n c e i n m a n 's r e a s o n a s an i n 30
s tr u m e n t f o r g a in i n g k n o w le d g e .
A n ti-In te lle c tu a lis m ,
a s t h i s l a c k o f f a i t h i n t h e r a t i o n a l i t y o f man t o s o lv e
a l l p ro b le m s came t o be c a l l e d , w as t h e p r e v a i l i n g n o te
i n p h i l o s o p h i c th o u g h t.
The i n f l u e n c e o f s c i e n t i f i c
m ethod h a d triu m p h e d e v e n i n t h i s f i e l d .
W h ile s c i e n c e f o r g e d a h e a d a n d made a new c i v i l i z a ­
t i o n , s o c i e t y and s o c i a l c o d e s l a g g e d b e h i n g , t r y i n g t o
c o p e w ith t h e new p ro b le m s c r e a t e d b y t h i s new c i v i l i z a ­
t i o n w ith t h e o ld s o l u t i o n s .
T h e re i s , o f c o u r s e , g r e a t
d a n g e r i n t h i s p r a c t i c e , an d one o f t h e g r e a t e s t n e e d s t o ­
d a y i s f o r s o c i e t y t o c l o s e t h i s gap a n d a d a p t i t s
a r d s t o cope w ith new c o n d i t i o n s .
sta n d ­
A c c o r d in g t o M r. B a r n e s -
29
Edw ard M cN all B u r n s , W e s te rn C i v i l i z a t i o n s ; T h e i r
h i s t o r y an d c u l t u r e . 4 t h e d i t i o n (New Y o rk : W. W. H o rto n
a n d Company, 195*0 > P« 86l .
3° I b i d . . p . 8 5 6 .
Reproduced with permission of the copyright owner. Further reproduction prohibited without permission.
33
T h is s t r i k i n g d i s c r e p a n c y b e tw e e n o u r m a c h in e s and
o u r i n s t i t u t i o n s h a s a lre a d y e x tr a c te d a f r i g h t f u l p e n ­
a l t y . . . I t h a s p ro d u c e d s e v e re d e p r e s s io n s and o th e r
e c o n o m ic d i s a s t e r s .
I t h a s a lm o s t d e s t r o y e d d e m o c ra c y .
I t h a s made o u r l e g a l s y s te m i n a d e q u a t e a n d p ro d u c e d
w id e s p r e a d c o n te m p t f o r la w i n g e n e r a l *
I t h as b red
m o ra l c h a o s a n d e d u c a t i o n a l f u t i l i t y . 31
S c i e n t i f i c m eth o d h a s b e e n b o rro w e d t o s tu d y
s o c i e t y an d i t s n e e d s , b u t t h i s i s o n l y a s to p g a p m e a s u r e ,
n o t a s o lu tio n .
W hat i s n e e d e d i s
"To d i s c o v e r t h e
g a i n s o f s c i e n c e an d a p p ly them n o t a s a p p l i e d s c i e n c e b u t
a s r e m e d ia l hum an s c i e n c e . T h i s
tw e e n one p h a s e o f l i f e
g ap i n d e v e lo p m e n t b e ­
and a l l o t h e r s i s one o f t h e g r e a t ­
e s t c a u s e s o f u n r e s t , b e w ild e r m e n t a n d c o n f u s i o n w h ic h d i s ­
t u r b s th e w o r ld t o d a y .
I t h a s c o n t r i b u t e d t o t h e p e s s im ­
is m and a n t i - i n t e l l e c t u a l i s m
in p h ilo s o p h y .
I t h a s a ls o
a ffe c te d r e lig io n .
R e lig io n .
R e l i g i o n an d r e l i g i o u s v a l u e s w e re l i k e ­
w is e s u f f e r i n g a new o r i e n t a t i o n .
T h e re h a d b e e n r i s i n g
s k e p t i c i s m and i n d i f f e r e n c e i n W e s te rn E u ro p e b e g in n i n g
i n t h e S e v e n te e n t h C e n tu r y ; t h i s w as a c c e l e r a t e d b y th e
p h i l o s o p h y o f t h e E n lig h te n m e n t a n d t h e F r e n c h R e v o lu t i o n
i n t h e E i g h t e e n t h C e n tu r y .
R e ta r d e d t e m p o r a r i l y b y th e
E v a n g e l i c a l M ovem ent a n d t h e r o m a n t i c a l l y i n s p i r e d r e l ­
i g i o u s r e v i v a l a f t e r 1 8 1 5 , by t h e l a t e N i n e t e e n t h C e n tu ry
t h e s k e p t i c i s m h a d r e c e i v e d new s t i m u l u s fro m m a t e r i a l
qi
0 B a r n e s , o p . c i t . , p . IO 8 7 *
3 2A s h le y , o p . c i t . . p . 5 6 5 .
Reproduced with permission of the copyright owner. Further reproduction prohibited without permission.
34
p r o g r e s s , i n d u s t r i a l i s m , m a t e r i a l i s t i c p h ilo s o p h y an d th e
advance o f n a tu r a l s c ie n c e s .
E v e r - i n e r e a s i n g c i t y l i f e p r o b a b ly d i d m ore th a n
a n y t h i n g e l s e t o a l i e n a t e t h e o r d i n a r y man fro m r e l i g i o u s
f e r v o r and d e v o u t p r a c t i c e .
No l o n g e r was t h e c h u rc h h i s
p r i n c i p a l m eans o f s o c i a l i n t e r c o u r s e .
s e c u l a r am usem ents o f many k i n d s .
The e i t y o f f e r e d
In c re a s in g m a te ria l
w e a l t h and e v e r - r i s i n g s t a n d a r d s o f l i v i n g made i t p o s ­
s i b l e t o e n jo y t h e s e a m u se m e n ts.
T h is m a t e r i a l p r o s p e r i t y
l o o s e n e d th e h o l d o f t h e c h u rc h i n a n o th e r w ayj n o l o n g e r
w as t h e d o c t r i n e o f p e n a n c e , s u f f e r i n g and f o r b e a r a n c e so
p o p u la r.
P e o p le c l o s e t o p o v e r t y a r e c o m fo rte d by th e
p r o m is e o f a b e t t e r l i f e
th r o u g h s u f f e r i n g .
P e o p le w ith
p o c k e t s j i n g l i n g a r e n o t a s w i l l i n g to g iv e u p t h e i r com­
fo rt.
The c h u rc h e s h a v e t r i e d t o com bat s e c u l a r i s m and
b r in g back t h e i r f lo c k s .
O f te n t h e y h a v e i n s t i t u t e d d i v ­
e r s e t y p e s o f c u l t u r a l a c t i v i t i e s d e s ig n e d t o a p p e a l t o
y o u th .
T hese a c t i v i t i e s a r e p o p u l a r b u t a c t u a l l y do n o t
s e r v e t h e p u r p o s e f o r w h ic h t h e y a r e i n t e n d e d - t o b r i n g
t h e y o u th i n t o t h e c h u rc h and s p i r i t u a l l i f e .
They b r i n g
th em t o c h u rc h and s e c u l a r l i f e .
S c ie n c e h a s c o n f r o n t e d a n d a rg u e d w i t h r e l i g i o n ,
to o .
The s c i e n t i f i c s p i r i t o f i n v e s t i g a t i o n h a s c r e p t i n .
S c h o la rs - b i b l i c a l c r i t i c s , a n th r o p o lo g is ts , p s y c h o lo g is ts s tu d ie d r e l i g i o n to e x p la in i t .
R e l i g i o u s f a c t s w e re ju d g e d
by th e s ta n d a rd s o f c r i t i c a l i n v e s ti g a t i o n .
As s c i e n c e ,
Reproduced with permission of the copyright owner. Further reproduction prohibited without permission.
35
e s p e c i a l l y n a t u r a l s c i e n c e , f o r g e d a h ea d w ith i t s d i s c o v e r i e s , o l d i d e a s an d C h r i s t i a n b e l i e f s b e g a n t o s h a k e ,
The h y p o t h e s i s o f p e r s o n a l i m m o r t a l i t y seem ed im p ro b a b le
a f t e r t h e d e v e lo p m e n t o f man a s n o t h i n g b u t c o m p lex p r o t o ­
p la s m w ith a m ind c o n s i s t i n g o f h a b i t s and im p u ls e s .
Even
t h e e a r t h ' s s u r v i v a l seem ed l i m i t e d when i t was d i s c o v e r e d
t h a t i t i s g r a d u a lly c o o lin g o f f .
m a s te r o f h i s own f a t e .
Man was n o t e v e n t o be
H e r e d i t y and e n v iro n m e n t d e te r m ­
i n e d h i s o u tc o m e . s '
S c ie n c e and s c i e n t i f i c r e a s o n i n g , t h e n , a t t a c k e d
p e r s o n a l i m m o r t a l i t y , p r e d i c t e d u l t i m a t e e x t i n c t i o n o f th e
human r a c e , a n d n e g a t e d m o ra l fre e d o m .
R e l i g i o n b e ca m e ,
f o r m any, n o t h i n g more t h a n a c h o ic e b e tw ee n s o c i a l j u s t i c e
a n d b e a u t y , s i n c e b e l i e f i n God and s c i e n c e a r e to o c o n ­
f lic tin g .^
e ffe c tiv e .
R e l i g i o n m u st ch an g e a s s o c i e t y c h a n g e s t o be
I f i t d o es n o t , i t I s a th in g o f th e p a s t . 3^
B u t t h i s c h a n g e , t o o , c a u s e s u n r e s t , b e w ild e rm e n t and c o n ­
fu s io n .
33John Herman R a n d a ll, Our Changing C i v i l i z a t i o n
(New York: F r e d e r ic k A. S t o k e s , 1 9 3 ° ) > P # 2 6 5 .
3^i b i d . . p . 267
35 lb id ,. p . 276.
3 ^ A s h le y , op., c i t . . p . 5 3 3 .
Reproduced with permission of the copyright owner. Further reproduction prohibited without permission.
3^
P o l i t ic a l c o n d itio n s .
In t h e s e d a y s o f c o n f l i c t
and c h a n g e p o l i t i c a l i n s t i t u t i o n s w ere n o t s a c r e d .
C h a n g in g w o rld c o n d i t i o n s -
" s h o r te n e d " d i s t a n c e s , i n ­
c r e a s e d d e p e n d e n c e upon t r a d e , e t c . - made r i v a l r y b e ­
tw e en n a t i o n s t a t e s l e t h a l .
T h ese n a t i o n s t a t e s a r e to o
b ig to a d m in is te r p r o p e r ly .
C o n f l i c t s b e tw e e n t h e s e i n ­
te n s e ly p a t r i o ti c
s ta te s a re in e v ita b le .
t h e g lo b e w as l a r g e en o u g h t o
The d a y when
accom m odate tw o o r m ore
p o w e r f u l n a t i o n s t a t e s i n c o m p a r a tiv e harm ony i s o v e r .
A new s y s te m o f i n t e r n a t i o n a l c o o p e r a t i o n m u st b e w orked
o u t.
U n r e s t , b e w ild e r m e n t an d c o n f u s io n com es fro m th e
need f o r t h i s ch an g e, to o .
A rts .
W hat was t h e f a t e o f t h e a r t s t h r o u g h t h i s
u p h e a v a l and new o r i e n t a t i o n ?
As m ig h t be im a g in e d , th e y
s u f f e r e d g rie v o u s ly .
T h e re w as a m u tu a l t u r n i n g away by
a r t i s t and a u d ie n c e .
H is a u d ie n c e was now d o m in a te d by
m a t e r i a l i s t i c i n t e r e s t s a n d c o u ld n o t s p a r e t h e tim e f o r
th e a r t s .
The a r t i s t was p r e s e n t e d w ith a m u l t i t u d e o f
p r o b le m s .
He h a d no com m unity to w r i t e f o r ;
was m ass s o c i e t y , b u t no co m m u n ity .
t r u e , th e re
A rt h a s i t s
tru e
f u n c t i o n when men a r e j o i n e d t o g e t h e r i n i m a g i n a t i o n ,
o r d e r and t h e i r d a i l y b e h a v io r.
b a s is l i f e
W ith o u t t h i s communal
i s i s o l a t e d an d d i s o r d e r e d an d a r t c a n o n ly
se rv e p r iv a te e n d s.
P u s h in g a r t f u r t h e r up t h e s t a i r s o f
t h e i v o r y to w e r w as t h e l a c k o f a r t i s t i c
m odern w o r ld .
s u b s ta n c e i n th e
T he i m a g i n a t i o n and la n g u a g e o f t h e p e o p le
Reproduced with permission of the copyright owner. Further reproduction prohibited without permission.
37
i s t h i n and la c k in g in b e a u ty .
I f t h e a r t i s t w is h e s t o
endow h i s w ork w i t h r i c h n e s s a n d b e a u ty h e c a n n o t ta k e
t h e e x p e r i e n c e o f e v e ry d a y l i v i n g a s h i s m o d e l.
j e c t i o n o f t h e p e o p le p l u s t h e i r l a c k o f a r t i s t i c
The r e ­
su b ­
s ta n c e f o r c e s th e a r t i s t i n t o h im s e lf , th e re b y c u tt i n g
h i m s e l f o f f fro m a n a u d ie n c e e v e n m ore.
F i c ti o n te n d s
to w a r d s a u to b i o g r a p h y i n t h i s r e s u l t a n t c u l t o f A r t f o r
A r t ' s S ake an d t h e autonom y o f a r t and t h e a r t i s t i s p r o ­
c la im e d b y t h e r e f u s a l t o s u b j e c t t h i s a r t t o m o ra l o r
s o c i a l ju d g m e n ts .
The a r t i s t i s , o f c o u r s e , aw are o f , and a f f e c t e d
b y c o n d i t i o n s a ro u n d h im .
I n t h e e a r l y T w e n tie th C e n tu ry
h e e x p r e s s e d c o n c e r n a b o u t s o c i a l and p o l i t i c a l p r o b le m s ,
a b o u t t h e h o p e a n d d e s t i n y o f m an.
He w as a l s o a f f e c t e d
b y t h e d e v e lo p m e n ts i n s c i e n c e , a n d e s p e c i a l l y b y th e
p r o b i n g o f t h e new p s y c h o l o g i s t s i n t o t h e h id d e n s e c r e t s
o f t h e m in d .
little
Man now seem ed t o b e a c r e a t u r e j u s t a
h ig h e r th a n th e ape s . 37
T w e n t i e t h C e n tu ry a r t h a s grown o u t o f t h e c o n d i38
t i o n s o f a w o r ld i n c r e a s i n g l y co m p lex e d an d c o n f u s e d .
I t h a s b e e n a f f e c t e d by i n c r e a s i n g i n d u s t r i a l i s m , t h e
s u r g e o f s c i e n c e , t h e c h a l l e n g e i n m o ra l v a l u e s , th e
h o r r o r o f t h e W orld War a n d i t s d i s i l l u s i o n i n g r e s u l t s .
37
J ‘C ra n e B r i n t o n , The S h a p in g o f t h e M odern Mind
(New Y o rk : M e n to r B o o k s, 1 9 5 3 ) , p . 0^ 5 .
3 ^ B arn e s, p p . c i t . . p . 1160.
Reproduced with permission of the copyright owner. Further reproduction prohibited without permission.
38
F r e u d ia n p s y c h o lo g y and new p h ilo s o p h y h a v e i n f l u e n c e d i t .
I t r e p r e s e n t s t h e d e f e a t , f r u s t r a t i o n and d e s p a i r o f a
b e w i ld e r e d , c h a n g in g s o c i e t y w ith outm oded i n s t i t u t i o n s
and c u l t u r e .
To p r e s e r v e i t s i n t e g r i t y , i t h a s r e t r e a t e d
from t h e mundane t o f a n t a s y , o r t o c y n ic is m .
Ire la n d .
J o y c e g rew up i n I r e l a n d d u r i n g t h e s e
y e a r s o f c h a n g in g v a l u e s .
I r e l a n d s u f f e r e d t h e same d i s ­
e a s e s o f m odern s o c i a l l i f e .
th e p la y th in g s o f c a r e e r i s t s .
P o l i t i c s had d e g e n e r a te d to
R e l i g i o n re m a in e d an o v e r ­
p o w e r in g , b i n d i n g f o r c e b u t i t w as i n c a p a b l e o f p o s i t i v e
s o c i a l im p ro v e m e n ts .
The w o rs h ip o f money was th e c u l t o f
th e d a y s a r t w as c o m m e rc ia liz e d a n d v u l g a r i z e d .
D u b lin i n
190^ w as a c e n t e r o f s o c i a l a tr o p h y and p a r a l y s i s .
A ccord'
i n g t o Gorman - " T h a t r i c h i n c e n t i v e to w a rd s th e f i n e r
a s p e c t s o f l i v i n g t h a t i s a f f o r d e d by u n v e x e d s a t i s f a c t i o n
i n o n e 's p l a c e i n tim e a n d t h e m a g n e tic e x c ite m e n t o f am­
b i t i o u s p e e r s i s a lm o s t c o m p le te ly l a c k i n g . "39
B e s i d e s th e s o c i a l c o n d i t i o n s common to t h e r e s t o f
W e s te rn E u r o p e , I r e l a n d h a d i t s own p o l i t i c a l p r o b le m s .
U n d er E n g l i s h d o m in a tio n i t w a n te d d e s p e r a t e l y t o r u l e i t ­
s e lf.
B u t i t was an im p o v e r is h e d n a t i o n , whose p o p u l a t i o n
h a d b e e n c u t i n h a l f b y t h e fa m in e o f
t o r n by f a c t i o n s .
1939),
l84o,
and now was
P o l i c i e s o f r e v o l t , c o m p ro m ise , o b s t r u c
3 % e r b e r t Gorm an, Jam es J o y c e {New Y ork: R i n e h a r t ,
P* 1 6 3 ,
Reproduced with permission of the copyright owner. Further reproduction prohibited without permission.
3$'‘
t i o n and t r e a s o n w ere a d o p te d by d i f f e r e n t g r o u p s .
The
A n g l o - I r i s h la n d o w n e r s , i n p a r t i c u l a r , w an ted t o p r e s e r v e
th e s t a t u s quo.
The C a t h o l i c s w a n te d t o be f r e e fro m th e
t i t h e c o l l e c t e d by t h e C h u rch o f E n g la n d .
Many P r o t e s t a n t s
w a n te d t h e free d o m o f I r e l a n d a s w e l l t o r i d th e m s e lv e s o f
th e e m p ire t a x e s b u t th e y f e a r e d C a t h o l i c d o m in a tio n .
One
o f th e f a c t i o n s o r g a n iz e d w as S in n F e i n (We O u r s e lv e s ) i n
1906.
M ost n a t i o n a l i s t s w orked f o r home r u l e b y p a r l i a m e n ­
t a r y m eans b u t when th e Home R u le B i l l was p a s s e d i n 1912
th e y j o i n e d t h e S in n F e i n e r s t o f i g h t th e P r o t e s t a n t s who
r a i s e d a n army o f 1 0 0 ,0 0 0 men i n p r o t e s t .
V io le n t c la s h e s
w ere s t i l l o c c u r r i n g i n 1 9 1 ^ when t h e w ar b ro k e o u t and
th e N a t i o n a l i s t s r a l l i e d
to th e B r i t i s h c a u se .
T h ese w ere th e t im e s o f J o y c e , th e n - p o l i t i c a l ,
s o c i a l , econom ic and r e l i g i o u s u p h e a v a l c a u s e d b y new s c i ­
e n t i f i c c o n c e p ts ; s o c a l v a l u e s an d m o ra l c o d e s e v o lv e d i n
a n o t h e r a g e ; a n age o f c i t y l i v i n g an d m a t e r i a l- m in d e d
p e o p le ; an age o f a r t i s t i c d i s e n f r a n c h i s e m e n t .
I t m ust
b e rem em bered t h a t e v e r y a g e a l s o h a s i t s f i n e r p o i n t s
an d t h e m odern w o rld i s no e x c e p t i o n .
T h is w as t h e tim e
o f h i g h e r s t a n d a r d s o f l i v i n g , b e t t e r w o rk in g c o n d i t i o n s ,
g r e a t e m a n c ip a tio n o f women, a n d s p r e a d o f e d u c a t i o n a s
w e ll.
Reproduced with permission o f the copyright owner. Further reproduction prohibited without permission.
CHAPTER V
WORLD OF ULYSSES
I*
THEME
From t h i s w o r ld came U l y s s e s , a l i t e r a r y e x p r e s s i o n
w h ic h i s t h e r e p r e s e n t a t i o n b y i t s c r e a t o r o f t h e c o n d i ­
tio n s o f h is l i f e
and e x p e rie n c e .
J o y c e was an a r t i s t ,
o n e o f t h e d i s e n f r a n c h i s e d o n e s - d l s e n f r a n c h e d by h i s
a u d ie n c e a n d d i s s o c i a t e d a l s o by h i m s e l f fro m c h u r c h ,
f a m i l y an d c o u n tr y .
The p i c t u r e he p a i n t s i s b o u n d t o
b e m ore con d em n in g o f s o c i e t y th a n i t d e s e r v e s .
U ly s s e s i s a n o v e l o f s o c i a l a n a l y s i s , d e v o te d t o
t h e d e s t i n i e s o f t h e lo w e r m id d le c l a s s w h ic h fo rm s t h e
b u lk o f c i t y l i f e .
its
W r i t in g o f one p a r t i c u l a r p l a c e a n d
t r a d i t i o n s h e m e a n t t h i s t o be a m eans o f sh o w in g
t h e w h o le human com edy.
ko
One day i n t h e l i f e
o f a man - j u s t a n o r d i n a r y
man t o l o o k a t , t h i s L e o p o ld Bloom , a J e w is h a d - s o l i c i t o r ,
m a r r i e d , t h e f a t h e r o f tw o , one d a u g h t e r , one d e c e a s e d
so n .
He l i v e s i n D u b lin a n d t h i s d a y , Ju n e l 6 , 1 9 0 H, i s
f i l l e d w i t h h i s t r i v i a l g o in g s a n d c o m in g s , t h e p e o p le h e
H u t c h i n s , o p . c i t . « p . 5»
Reproduced with permission of the copyright owner. Further reproduction prohibited without permission.
Hi
m e e ts and t h e t h o u g h t s h e t h i n k s .
A lso in v o lv e d i n B lo o m 's
d ay i s one S te p h e n D e d a u lu s , a y o u n g D u b lin a r t i s t - i n t e l l e c t ­
u a l.
M arion B loom , L e o p o l d 's w if e M o lly , a p p e a r s e a r l y and
l a t e i n t h e h o o k h u t o c c u p i e s a d o m in a n t r o l e i n B lo o m 's
th o u g h ts t h r o u g h o u t t h e d a y .
II.
WORLD AND ITS CHARACTERS
W o rld .
D u b lin i s th e c i t y , h u t i t c o u ld h e any c i t y
i n t h e w o r ld .
I t h o u s e s a g r e a t m ass o f p e o p le w hose l i v e s
a r e hound t o g e t h e r by t h e c o n f i n e s o f t h e c i t y a n d b y th e
i n t e r m i n g l e d b u s i n e s s , s o c i a l and p e r s o n a l r e l a t i o n s h i p s
th e y e s t a b l i s h .
The r e l a t i o n s h i p s th e y e s t a b l i s h , h o w e v e r,
a r e s u p e r f i c i a l and t r a n s i t o r y .
Bloom e n c o u n t e r s m any, many
p e o p le t h i s d a y , b u t h i s i n t e r a c t i o n w i t h them i s a s f l e e t ­
in g an d a s i n c a p a b l e o f f u l f i l l m e n t a s i s h i s g lim p s e o f
G e rty McDowell on t h e b e a c h .
T h ese p e o p le a r e to o p r e ­
o c c u p ie d w i t h t h e i r own l i v e s and p ro b le m s
to b e a n y more
i n t e r e s t e d i n h i s t h a n t o mock o r ig n o r e th em .
R e la tio n s h ip s
a r e e v e r - s h i f t i n g and u n s t a b l e .
One r e a s o n why t h e s e p e o p le c a n n o t a c h ie v e a s t a b l e
i n t e r - r e l a t i o n s h i p i s b e c a u s e t h e t i e s o f commonly h e l d and
t r u l y a c c e p te d s o c i a l a n d m o ra l v a l u e s a r e m i s s i n g .
R e lig io n
an d th e C a t h o l i c C h u rch i s p i c t u r e d a s an i n s t i t u t i o n d e v o id
o f m e a n in g , b u t s t i l l r e t a i n i n g a n o v e rw h e lm in g ly p o w e r fu l
c o n t r o l o f i t s m em bers b e c a u s e o f t h e i r s u p e r s t i t i o u s b e l i e f .
Reproduced with permission of the copyright owner. Further reproduction prohibited without permission.
k2
T h is i n s t i t u t i o n , h o w e v e r, f o r J o y c e , h o l d s no a n sw e rs a p ­
p l i c a b l e t o th e p ro b le m s men f a c e i n a d a p t in g to t h e i r
m odern c i v i l i z a t i o n .
I t c a n n o t b in d men t o g e t h e r i n a
C h r i s t i a n s p i r i t an y m o re; i t
can o n ly b in d men w ith
c h a in s o f b l i n d n e s s t o i t s e l f .
P o litic a l l i f e
does n o t o f f e r t i e s , e i t h e r .
A lth o u g h
men may l o v e t h e i r h o m elan d a n d , in d e e d th e y d o , t h e r e i s
n o th in g t a n g i b l e f o r a l l t o g ro u p a ro u n d f o r t h e men who
h e a d th e g o v e rn m e n t a r e n o t t h e i r l e a d e r s j th e y a r e p o l i t i ­
c i a n s who h a p p e n t o b e r u n n in g t h e g o v e rn m e n t f o r p e r s o n a l
incom e an d p r e s t i g e , n o t f o r t h e g l o r y o f th e c o u n tr y .
A c c o rd in g t o J o y c e , n e i t h e r t h e C hurch n o r th e S t a t e
f u l f i l l s i t s r e s p o n s i b i l i t y o f e n r i c h i n g th e l i v e s o f i t s
c itiz e n s .
P e o p le c a n n o t be u n i t e d i n common c u l t u r a l l i f e ,
a s th e G re e k s w e re , b e c a u s e t h e i r d e s i r e s ru n t o m a t e r i a l
g r a t i f i c a t i o n s , r a t h e r th a n a r t i s t i c .
T h is i s w h at c a u s e s
t h e a r t i s t to be a n e x i l e fro m s o c i e t y ; h i s com m odity i s
a p p r e c i a t e d o n ly a s t r i v i a t o amuse f o r t h e m in u te .
l a s t i n g v a lu e i s p u t on i t .
No
T h is v ie w i s p l a i n l y i l l u s ­
t r a t e d i n U ly s s e s when tim e a f t e r tim e S te p h e n i s a s k e d t o
d e l i v e r h i s o b s e r v a t i o n s on l i f e
a n d l i t e r a t u r e f o r th e
am usem ent a n d l a u g h t e r o f h i s f r i e n d s .
They a d m ire him f o r
h i s w it b u t do n o t a t t a c h any l a s t i n g v a lu e t o h i s d i s s e r t a ­
tio n s .
" T o n ig h t d e f t l y amid w ild d r i n k and t a l k , to p i e r c e
t h e p o l i s h e d m a il o f h i s m in d .
W hat th e n ?
A j e s t e r a t th e
Reproduced with permission of the copyright owner. Further reproduction prohibited without permission.
43
c o u r t o f h i s m a s t e r , in d u lg e d and d i s e s t e e m e d , w in n in g a
c le m e n t m a s t e r 's p r a i s e .
Why h a d h e c h o s e n th e p a r t ?
N ot w h o lly f o r t h e sm ooth c a r e s s . . .w e a v e , w eav er o f w in d ."
The o n ly h o p e f o r t h e a r t i s t i s
4l
t o re n o u n c e a l l t i e s an d
e x i l e h i m s e l f fro m t h e c i t y , s e e k in g i n i s o l a t i o n t o c u l ­
t i v a t e h i s c r a f t and t o r e c r e a t e l i f e
th r o u g h w o rd s .
J o y c e h i m s e l f s t a t e s , th o u g h n o t i n U l y s s e s :
"No man c a n •
be a l o v e r o f t h e t r u e o r t h e good u n l e s s h e a b h o r s t h e
m u l t i t u d e ; an d t h e a r t i s t ,
th o u g h he may em ploy t h e c ro w d ,
42
i s v e ry c a r e f u l to i s o l a t e h i m s e l f . "
T h is l a c k o f a b i l i t y t o a c h ie v e s t a b l e r e l a t i o n s h i p s
e x te n d s i t s e l f e v e n i n t o f a m i ly l i f e .
Our " f a m i l y ," M o lly ,
L e o p o ld , an d l a t e r S te p h e n , h a v e n o t h i n g i n common w ith one
a n o th e r.
E ac h member l e a d s h i s o r h e r own l i f e b o u n d t o ­
g e t h e r by la w more t h a n a n y th i n g e l s e .
I t i s n o t t h a t th e y
do n o t w an t o r n e e d t h e t i e s o f k i n s h i p ; i t i s m ore a r e s u l t
o f th e f a c t t h a t e a c h i s i n c a p a b l e o f f u l f i l l i n g h i s r o l e ,
o f c o n t r i b u t i n g t h a t p a r t o f h i m s e l f t h a t su c h a r e l a t i o n ­
s h i p dem ands f o r i t s n o u r i s h m e n t .
T h is im p o te n c y i s a r e ­
s u l t o f m odern m ass s o c i e t y a n d i t s a b i l i t y to d e - i n d i v i d ­
u a l i z e man u n t i l he w ith d r a w s h i m s e l f i n t o a r e f u s a l t o com-
Jam es J o y c e , U l y s s e s (New Y o rk : Modern L i b r a r y ,
1 9 4 6 ), p . 2 6 .
^ 2W illia m Y ork T i n d a l l , F o r c e s i n M odern B r i t i s h
L i t e r a t u r e (New Y o rk : V in ta g e B o o k s, I n c . , 1956 ) , p . 2 2 .
Reproduced with permission of the copyright owner. Further reproduction prohibited without permission.
kk
m u n ic a te h i s e m o tio n s a n d d re a m s t o h i s f e l l o w m an.
Y et
e a c h o f th em r e m b e r s w h a t i t was l i k e t o b e lo n g t o a fam ­
i l y a n d e a c h one i s
s e e k in g su c h a r e l a t i o n s h i p
e a c h i n h i s own w ay.
a g a in ,
L e o p o ld l o s t h i s so n w hen h e w as o n ly
e le v e n d a y s o l d ; s i n c e t h e n , f a m i l y r e l a t i o n s w i t h M o lly
have c e a s e d .
He w o u ld l i k e
to r e t u r n to th e e a r l y d ay s o f
c l o s e n e s s , b u t s i n c e t h e r e i s no way t o b r i n g Rudy b a c k ,
th e r e i s n o t enough i n c e n t i v e .
S te p h e n h a s l o s t h i s
f a t h e r - n o t h i s b lo o d f a t h e r , b u t h i s s p i r i t u a l o n e .
H is l i f e ,
to o , i s in c o m p le te .
M o lly i s t h e o n l y o n e to
h a v e seem ed t o h a v e fo u n d a s u b s t i t u t e f o r f a m i l y l i f e
h er s e r ie s of lo v e rs .
in
Y e t e v e n sh e f o n d l y re m e m b e rs e a r l y
m a r r ia g e d a y s a n d h a p p i n e s s w ith B loom .
P e r h a p s sh e i s
to o r e a l i s t i c t o im a g in e t h e p o s s i b i l i t y o f b r i n g i n g t h a t
re la tio n s h ip back.
The w o rld t h a t L e o p o ld Bloom l i v e s i n i s o n e t h a t
o ffe rs l i t t l e
s o la c e to th e i n d i v i d u a l .
It is
a w o rld i n
w h ic h no r e l a t i o n s h i p s b e tw e e n hum ans a r e p o s s i b l e f o r t h e r e
i s n o th in g to t i e
th em t o g e t h e r .
N e ith e r r e l i g i o u s n o r so c ­
i a l v a l u e s c a n b i n d f o r th e y h a v e n o b a s i s i n r e a l i t y .
C u l­
t u r a l m e d ia c a n n o t b i n d f o r th e y a r e n o t s t r o n g e n o u g h n o r
s h a r e d by e n o u g h p e o p l e .
P e r s o n a l I n t e r a c t i o n s c a n n o t b in d
b e c a u s e t h e y a r e s u p e r f i c i a l and g u a r d e d .
C h a ra c te rs .
s o c ie ty ?
W hat k i n d o f p e o p le l i v e d i n t h i s m ass
Our D u b lin " f a m i ly " o f L e o p o ld , M ol2y a n d S te p h e n
a re th e r e p r e s e n ta tiv e s .
Reproduced with permission of the copyright owner. Further reproduction prohibited without permission.
^5
L e o p o ld i s t h e p rim e p r o t a g o n i s t a n d s u p p o s e d ly th e
r e p r e s e n t a t i o n o f e v e ry m a n .
keen sen su al n a tu re .
He i s p i c t u r e d a s a man o f a
He i s h i g h l y c o n s c i o u s o f h i s s u r r o u n d ­
i n g s a t a l l t im e s on t h e s e n s a t e l e v e l fro m th e i n t r o d u c t o r y
s e n t e n c e o f h i s r e l i s h f o r t h e i n n e r o r g a n s o f b e a s t s and
fo w l t o th e l a s t s e n t e n c e r e g a r d i n g him d e s c r i b i n g h i s p o s i ­
tio n in bed.
A ll p e o p le an d h a p p e n in g s a r e i n t e r p r e t e d and
u n d e r s to o d by him on t h i s p rim e l e v e l .
A sim p le man i s B loom , y e t an u n h a p p y o n e .
s lig h te d l i t t l e
He i s a
m an, im p o sed u p o n and p u s h e d a r o u n d .
H is
w if e c e r t a i n l y t a k e s a d v a n ta g e o f him a n d show s no r e s p e c t
f o r h i s p o s itio n a s h e r h u sb an d .
We f i r s t m eet him hum bly
p r e p a r i n g h e r b r e a k f a s t and f o l l o w him a s h e d o e s h e r e r r a n d s .
A c h a r a c t e r i s t i c g e s t u r e o f h i s i s t o s t e p a s i d e when he
m e e ts o t h e r p e d e s t r i a n s .
Bloom i s on e o f t h e a b a n d o n e d men o f s o c i e t y .
g io n n e v e r m ean t a n y t h i n g t o h im .
im a g in a tio n .
R e li­
S c ie n c e d o m in a te s h i s
I t I s i n v e n t i o n an d te c h n o lo g y w h ich r e a l l y
i n t e r e s t h im , b u t o n a l a y m a n 's l e v e l o f k n o w le d g e o f h a l f t r u t h s and s e m i - s u p e r s t i t i o n s .
He i s a p a t r i o t , b u t h e c a n ­
n o t s e r v e h i s n a t i o n b e c a u s e nobody p a y s h im any a t t e n t i o n .
He i s a k in d man a n d a c o n s i d e r a t e o n e , b u t t h e s e q u a l i t i e s
a re l i t t l e
a p p re c ia te d .
H is p e r e g r i n a t i o n s o f Ju n e 1 6 ,
190^ r e v e a l a day o f p s y c h o lo g ic a l f r u s t r a t i o n s and s o c ia l
m a l a d j u s t m e n t s , b u t he a c h i e v e s a c e r t a i n d i g n i t y th r o u g h h i s
Reproduced with permission of the copyright owner. Further reproduction prohibited without permission.
46
p e rs e c u tio n s .
so c ie ty .
I t i s n o t Bloom t h a t i s m a l a d j u s t e d , b u t
As Bloom s a y s , " F o r c e , h a t r e d , h i s t o r y , a l l t h a t .
T h a t’s n o t l i f e
f o r men and women, I n s u l t a n d h a t r e d .
And
e v e ry b o d y knows t h a t i t s t h e v e r y o p p o s i t e o f t h a t I s r e a l ­
ly l i f e .
What? s a y s A lf?
43
o p p o site o f h a t r e d ."
L ove, s a y s Bloom.
I t m eans t h e
U l y s s e s i s a lo n eso m e book and L e o p o ld i s a lo n e s o m e
man.
He h a s no r e a l f r i e n d s and no r e a l home l i f e .
H is
hal'f’- i i e a r t e d a t t e m p t s a t s o c i a l I n t e r c o u r s e a r e I g n o r e d :
i n d e e d , he i s o f ‘Gen r i d i c u l e d .
H is w i f e f r a n k l y and o p e n ly
h a s hcd many l o v e r s , p a r t i a l l y b e c a u s e he n a s t a k e n no i n ­
t e r e s t s in c e th e d e a th o f h i s in f a n t son.
T h o u g h ts o f t n e
son he a l m o s t h a d a l s o f i g u r e l a r g e l y i n B l o o m 's d a y .
J o y c e d e l i b e r a t e l y made Blocm a Jew f o r n e f e l
g
b n a t Je w s
ip;
w ere b e t t e r husbands, b e t t e r f a t h e r s , and b e t t e r sons.
Hew i r o n i c t h i s I s - M o o n , a h u sb a n d w i t h o u t a w i f e ; a
f a th e r w ith o u t a son.
r f Bloom i s e v e ry m a n , s o c i e t y I s com posed o f p e r ­
se c u te d , unhappy, s e n s a te , l o r ^ y
p e o p le .
Y e t Hoc;,; r e ­
t a i n e d h i s k i n d n e s s and r e t a i n e d h i s n o p e .
Tne s p e c i a l s p e c i e s o f h u m a n i t y , t n e a r t i s t - I n t e l l e c t ­
u a l , i s r e p r e s e n t e d i n B te p a e n D e d a l u s .
T n v y an e x lx o fro .
s o c i e t y , h i s r e f u s a l to confers:: t o m e c o d e s o f s o c i e t y sea
43-"James
J o y c e , o p . e i t . , p. 327.
44Seon
G iv e n . Jam es J o y c e : Two D e c a d e s o f C r l t l c i s ,
(New Y o rk : V an g u ard P r e s s , 1 9 4 b ) , p . 2 3 .
Reproduced with permission of the copyright owner. Further reproduction prohibited without permission.
*7
him a p a r t fro m m en.
He b e l i e v e s i n n o t h i n g , l a c k i n g any
p o s i t i v e f a i t h i n t h i s w o rld o f s u p e r f i c i a l v a l u e s an d i n
t u r n he c a n c o n t r i b u t e n o t h i n g t o s o c i e t y .
A lth o u g h he i s
a s c h o o l t e a c h e r when we m eet h im , t h i s s i t u a t i o n i s d e s t ­
in e d n o t to l a s t f o r to o much l o n g e r f o r t h e m in d s o f h i s
s t u d e n t s a r e n o t s h a r p enough f o r h im .
S te p h e n h a s d e v e lo p e d a p r i d e a n d a r r o g a n c e t h a t
b a r s him fro m an y t r u e s e n s e o f com m unity w ith h i s f e l l o w man.
A g a in , h e i s s h a r i n g a b a c h e l o r a p a r t m e n t , so to
s p e a k , w ith tw o o t h e r y o u n g men when we m e e t h im , b u t t h i s
i s n o t d e s tin e d to l a s t e i t h e r .
S e n s i t i v e t o th e d e g r e e
o f h y p e r s e n s i t i v i t y t o an y re m a rk d i r e c t e d a g a i n s t h im , he
s e e s i n s u l t a n d d e r i s i o n i n h a r m le s s r e m a r k s o r j e s t s .
He
p e r p e t u a l l y h a s h i s g u a rd up t o w ard o f f t h e s e a t t a c k s .
Buck a s k s him e a r l y i n t h e m o rn in g why h e d o e s n o t t r u s t
kc;
him m o re . J
T h is q u a l i t y d o e s n o t e n d e a r him t o o t h e r s .
W ith o u t f a m i l y , c h u r c h , o r p r o f e s s i o n h e i s h a rd e n e d
by c y n ic is m a n d i s i n c a p a b l e o f g i v i n g a n y t h i n g b u t s e l f p ity .
He i s i n c a p a b l e o f lo v e an d o f f r i e n d s h i p .
He
t u r n s i n t o h i m s e l f m ore and m ore r e p l a c i n g t h e c o n c e p t o f
a rt fo r a r t 's
s a k e w i t h t h a t o f a r t f o r my s a k e .
S t e p h e n , t o o , i s u n h a p p y , an d y e a r n s f o r f r i e n d s h i p
and com m unity o f s p i r i t ; p e r h a p s m o st o f a l l f o r a f a t h e r ,
b u t he h a s w ith d ra w n so f a r w i t h i n h i m s e l f t h a t h e h a s
little
i n common w ith a n y o n e e l s e .
When h e d o e s m e e t Bloom
-'Jam es J o y c e , o p . c i t . . p . 9 .
Reproduced with permission of the copyright owner. Further reproduction prohibited without permission.
48
he i s i n c a p a b l e o f e v e n r e c o g n i z i n g t h e o v e r t u r e s Bloom
m ak es t o h im , f a t h e r - t o - s o n .
S te p h e n i s a l o n e l y , h i t t e r
m an, n o t f u l l y u n d e r s t a n d i n g t h e i s o l a t i o n a s o c i e t y h a s
b r o u g h t h im , b u t d i s d a i n i n g t h e s o c i e t y w h ic h b r o u g h t i t .
M o lly i s o u r t h i r d p r o t a g o n i s t , b u t we do n o t s e e
much o f h e r .
I n t r o d u c e d t o h e r a t t h e b e g in n i n g a n d en d
o f t h e b o o k , b o t h tim e s sh e i s i n b e d and w h e n ev e r r e f e r ­
e n c e i s made t o h e r th r o u g h o u t t h e d a y i t i s i n c o n n e c t ­
i o n w i t h h e r r o l e a s m ate t o m an.
s e l f - c e n t e r e d , e a r t h y woman.
life
a c ts .
M o lly i s a v o l u p t u o u s ,
She to o i s h i g h l y aw are o f
on a s e n s u a l l e v e l , b u t w h e re a s Bloom j u s t l o o k s , sh e
H e r r e s p e c t f o r men i s n o t to o g r e a t ; w ith h e r wom­
a n l y p o w e rs sh e f i n d s i t e a s y t o d o m in a te h e r u n e n d in g
p a r a d e o f men.
She i s
s t r a i g h t f o r w a r d and u n a b a s h e d i n
h e r i n t e r e s t i n s e x a n d l i f e , w i t h c o n te m p t f o r t h e more
s p e c u la tiv e d i s c i p l i n e s su ch a s p h ilo s o p h y .
W h ile h e r I n ­
t e l l i g e n c e i s f a i r l y r u d i m e n t a r y , sh e i s p e r s o n a l l y sh rew d
a n d an a s t u t e ju d g e o f p e o p l e .
H er s e l f - c o n c e n t r a t i o n h a s
n o t h a rd e n e d h e r h e a r t t o sy m p a th y o r b e a u t y .
O f t h e t h r e e c h a r a c t e r s , M o lly , a woman, seem s t o
b e t h e m o st w e l l - a d j u s t e d t o m odern s o c i e t y .
She n e e d s
c o m p a n io n s h ip a n d w arm th a s much „as t h e two m en, b u t u n ­
l i k e B loom an d D e d a lu s , s h e se ld o m s t o p s t o a n a ly z e w h a t
i s la c k in g In h e r r e la tio n s h ip s .
She h a d r e a c h e d o u t u n t i l
s h e h a s fo u n d s u b s t i t u t e r e l a t i o n s h i p s w h ic h a t l e a s t p a r -
Reproduced with permission of the copyright owner. Further reproduction prohibited without permission.
49
tia lly f ills
th e n e e d .
I t i s t r u e sh e t h i n k s b a c k t o
e a r l y m a r r ia g e d a y s , b u t n o t a s o f t e n , a n d when sh e d o e s ,
w ith much m ore r e s i g n a t i o n to t h e i r t e r m i n a t i o n t h a n
B loom .
M o lly i s much m ore s t a b l e th a n L e o p o ld o r S te p h e n .
She p o s s e s s e s a g r e a t e r s t r e n g t h and f l e x i b i l i t y
e i t h e r o f th e m .
th a n
She h a s t h e c a p a c i t y t o m eet l i f e
and,
b a r g a i n i n g w i t h i t on i t s t e r m s , s t i l l come p e r h a p s n o t
a w in n e r b u t c e r t a i n l y n o t a l o s e r .
to chance th e s ta k e s o f l i f e .
M o lly i s e v e r - w i l l i n g
T h is i s h e r y e s ; a y e s t h a t
i s r e p e a t e d th r o u g h o u t th e book a lw a y s i n c o n n e c ti o n w ith
women.
As Bloom s a y s -
" M o lly , M i l l y .
d o w n ...Y e s , y e s : a woman t o o .
L ife .
Same t h i n g w a te r e d
L if e ."
46
How i r o n i c
t h a t th e o n ly s t a b l e e le m e n t s h o u ld be t h e i n s t a b i l i t y o f
a w om an's a f f e c t i o n s .
Y e t M o lly h a d n o t h i n g t o t i e down
t o e i t h e r - n o t t h i s c o u n t r y , f o r i t w as n o t t h e home o f
h e r c h il d h o o d , n o r L e o p o ld , f o r h e was h e r h u s b a n d i n
n o t h i n g b u t nam e.
P e r h a p s t h e r e a s o n sh e c a n f i n d l i f e
a c c e p t a b l e i s b e c a u se she l o o k s t o o t h e r t h a n t h e i n s t i t u ­
t i o n s Jo y c e f i n d s outm oded f o r h e r s o l u t i o n t o t h e p r o b ­
le m s o f l i f e .
J o y c e h a s shown u s t h r e e p e o p l e , a l l d i s o r i e n t e d
fro m t h e t r a d i t i o n a l i n s t i t u t i o n s o f s o c i e t y - r e l i g i o n ,
f a m i l y a n d c o u n t r y , b u t d i s o r i e n t e d i n d i f f e r e n t w a y s.
M ass s o c i e t y h a s m anaged t o e m a s c u la te L e o p o ld B loom an d
^ I b i d . . p . 88.
Reproduced with permission of the copyright owner. Further reproduction prohibited without permission.
50
t o l e a v e him f r i e n d l e s s and h o m e le s s b u t , a lth o u g h i t
l e a v e s him no o u t l e t f o r th em , i t h a s n o t ta k e n away h i s
q u a l i t i e s o f k i n d n e s s a n d c o m p a s s io n .
S te p h e n D e d a lu s
h a s lo o k e d t o s o c i e t y f o r t h e n o u r is h m e n t o f h i s a r t ,
b u t h a s fo u n d o n ly d r y s h e l l s i n i t s
in s titu tio n s .
b y o n e h e h a s ab an d o n ed c h u rc h , f a m i l y and s t a t e .
i s l e f t b i t t e r , d i s i l l u s i o n e d and c y n ic a l.
One
He
M o lly , t o o ,
i s d i s o r i e n t e d , b u t o n ly fro m t h e sham s and p r e t e n s e s o f
s o c ie ty .
She d o e s n o t a c c e p t t h e s o l u t i o n s s o c i e t y g i v e s
t o a n i n d i v i d u a l ; sh e f i n d s h e r own.
Reproduced with permission of the copyright owner. Further reproduction prohibited without permission.
CHAPTER V I
COMPARISON AND CONCLUSION
J o y c e and Homer com ing t w e n ty - s e v e n h u n d r e d y e a r s
a p a r t have had d i f f e r e n t th in g s to say a b o u t t h e i r r e ­
s p e c tiv e w o rld s .
The w o rld s th e m s e lv e s w e re d i f f e r e n t .
H o m e r's w as a r u r a l o n e , o r i e n t e d a ro u n d t h e c o n c e p t o f
t h e s u p e r - d i g n i t y o f m an.
E ven h i s g o d s w e re m a n - l i k e .
H onor and v i r t u e a c c o r d i n g t o a b e l i e v e d i n a n d l i v e d
by s o c i a l c o d e w ere t h e b a s i s f o r h i s c i v i l i z a t i o n .
K in ­
s h i p t i e s w ere t h e m o st i m p o r t a n t a n d h i g h l y r e s p e c t e d
bonds t h a t h e ld s o c ie ty to g e th e r .
p o w e rfu l.
The f a m i l y w as a l l
The c h a r a c t e r s Homer g a v e u s w e re H e ro e s i n
t h e s t r i c t s e n s e o f t h e w o rd .
T hey p o s s e s s e d t h e i n d i v ­
i d u a l s t r e n g t h t o d o m in a te t h e i r w o r l d .
T hey r e s p e c t e d
an d l i v e d by t h e i r c o d e s , t u r n i n g t o t h e i r f a m i l y f o r
s o la c e and s u p p o rt.
T h ese p e o p le w e re o r i e n t e d t o t h e i r
w o r ld and h a p p y I n i t .
Homer g i v e s u s a p i c t u r e o f th e
d i g n i t y a n d Im p o r ta n c e o f m an.
Ja m es J o y c e g i v e s u s a t o t a l l y d i f f e r e n t p i c t u r e .
A lth o u g h h e m o d e le d th e s t r u c t u r e o f U l y s s e s a f t e r t h a t
o f The O d y sse y t h e e f f e c t i s q u i t e d i s s i m i l a r .
F irs t of
a l l , h e i s d e a l i n g w i t h a t y p e o f c i v i l i z a t i o n Homer w o u ld
n o t h a v e r e c o g n i z e d , an u r b a n o n e .
He g i v e s u s a p i c t u r e
o f m o d e rn , h o m e le s s m an, t h a t u n l i k e O d y s se u s i s n o t e v e r
Reproduced with permission of the copyright owner. Further reproduction prohibited without permission.
52
g o in g to r e a c h hom e.
The i n s t i t u t i o n s m ean t to g i v e u n i t y
t o t h i s s o c i e t y no l o n g e r h a v e t h e p o w er t o b in d - t h e y
h a v e n o t a d a p t e d to m o d em s o c i e t y .
The e p i c v i r t u e s
fo u n d i n Homer o f l o v e , f r i e n d s h i p and m a g n a n im ity a r e
t o t a l l y la c k in g .
T h e re i s no comm union b e tw e e n f a t h e r
an d s o n , L e o p o ld an d S te p h e n , a s t h e r e w as b e tw e e n O d y sse u s
and T e le m a c h u s .
How c o u ld t h e r e b e?
T h e re i s no l o n g e r
an y common m e e tin g g r o u n d .
W hereas The O d y ssey i s a s t o r y o f s u c c e s s a n d t r i ­
umph U ly s s e s i s a s t o r y o f l o s s an d d e f e a t .
O d y sse u s i s
a man o f many w i l e s a n d many sc h e m e s; so i s L e o p o ld , b u t
w h e re a s O d y s s e u s 1 a r e b r a v e , m onum ental an d o f t e n accom ­
p l i s h e d , L e o p o l d 's a r e t r i v i a l a n d o n ly i n h i s m in d .
T e le m a c h u s i s n o t t h e a r t i s t l o o k i n g f o r a n a u d i e n c e , b u t
h e i s th e so n s e e k i n g a f a t h e r .
S te p h e n i s n o t .
In t h i s he i s s u c c e s s f u l;
P e n e lo p e i s t h e s t e a d f a s t sym bol o f home
a n d f a m i ly ; M o lly i s t h e sym bol o f t h e h o m e le s s n a t u r e o f
to d a y ’s fa m ily .
J o y c e d e l i b e r a t e l y c h o s e The O d y sse y f o r
h i s p a r a l l e l s t o r y b e c a u s e t h e c o n t r a s t s w ere so g r e a t .
Prom t h e c o n t r a d i c t i o n s th e c h a r a c t e r s a c h ie v e a s p e c i a l
i r o n y an d p a t h o s .
i t s v a s t la n d s c a p e .
He a l s o c h o s e The O d y ssey b e c a u s e o f
He f e l t i t em b o d ied e v e r y t h i n g - t h e
man o f many d e v i c e s , who h a s known so many men a n d so many
c i t i e s , i s a n a l l - e m b r a c i n g f i g u r e , a c o m p o s ite o f t h e
p e t t i e s t s t r a t a g e m s a n d b r o a d e s t s y m p a th ie s i n hum an
Reproduced with permission of the copyright owner. Further reproduction prohibited without permission.
53
n a tu re .
hi
'
T h is p a r a l l e l u s e o f Homer im p o ses a p a s t
g r a n d e u r up o n p r e s e n t c o n f u s i o n .
T h is i s no G olden
H om eric A ge.
J o y c e n e e d e d some fo rm t o h o ld h i s r e m i n is c e n c e s
and d e s c r i p t i o n s t o g e t h e r , so he c h o se to m old i t on t h e
s k e l e t o n o f The O d y sse y .
A r e s o u r c e f u l , m id d le -a g e d
w a n d e re r m akes h i s way th r o u g h t r i a l s and t e m p t a t i o n s
to w a rd s hom e, w if e and s o n , w h ile a young man s e t s o u t
in to l i f e
w h ich t e s t s and e d u c a t e s him a s he m akes h i s
way to w a rd s h i s l o s t f a t h e r .
T h is i s th e s i m i l a r i t y
b e tw e e n t h e tw o .
Y e t i t i s t h e d i f f e r e n c e s w h ich g iv e
U ly s s e s s t a t u r e .
I t comes fro m a d i f f e r e n t w o rld th a n
t h a t o f Homer - one whose o r i e n t a t i o n and v a lu e s d i f f e r
an d one w h ich p r o d u c e s a d i f f e r e n t k in d o f p e o p l e .
Reproduced with permission of the copyright owner. Further reproduction prohibited without permission.
BIBLIOGRAPHY
A s h le y , R oscoe L e w is. Our Contem porary C i v i l i z a t i o n . New
York: Henry H o lt , 1 9 3 5 .
A tk in s o n , B ro o k s. New York T im e s . June 1 5 , 195&•
B a r n e s, Harry E lm er. An I n t e l l e c t u a l and C u ltu r a l H is t o r y
o f th e W estern W orld. New York: R eynal and H itc h c o c k ,
I n c . , 19m l
B onnard, Andre. Greek C i v i l i z a t i o n , t r . by A. L y tto n S e l l s
New York: The M acm illan C o ., 1957*
B o t s f o r d , George and C h a rle s A lex a n d er R o b in so n , J r .
H e l l e n ic H is t o r y , F o u rth e d i t i o n . New Y ork , The Mac­
m illa n C o ., 1 9 5 6 *
Bowra, C. M. The Greek E x p e r ie n c e . C le v e la n d , O hio: The
W orld P u b lis h in g C o ., 195$•"
B r in t o n , Crane. A H is to r y o f W estern M o r a ls. New York:
H a r c o u r t, B race and C o ., 1959*
B r in t o n , C rane. The Shaping o f th e Modern M ind. New York:
M entor B o o k s, 1953•
Browne, H enry. Handbook o f H om eric S tu d y . London: Longmans
Greene and C o ., 190^7
B u rn s, Edward M cN all. W estern C i v i l i z a t i o n ; t h e i r h i s t o r y
and c u l t u r e , F ou rth e d i t i o n , New York: W. W. N orton
and C o ., I n c . , 195^*
C o n n o lly , F r a n c is X. L i t e r a t u r e ; th e c h a n n el o f c u l t u r e .
New York: H a r c o u r t, B race and C o ., 1953*
D arw in, C h a r le s . O r ig in o f th e S p e c i e s . New York: M entor
B o o k s, 195^*
D ic k in s o n , G. L ow es. The Greek V iew o f L i f e . New York:
D ou b led ay, Doran and C o ., n . d .
D u ra n t, W ill. The L i f e o f G r e e c e . New York: Simon and
S c h u s t e r , 1939*
E a s to n , S te w a r t C„ The H e r ita g e o f th e P a s t . New York:
R in e h a r t and C o . , 1 9 5 5 -
Reproduced with permission of the copyright owner. Further reproduction prohibited without permission.
2
F i n l e y , M. I . The W orld o f O d y s se u s. New Y ork: The V ik in g
P r e ss, 195^.
F u n k and W a g n a lls* C o m p reh e n siv e S t a n d a r d D i c t i o n a r y .
G i l b e r t , S t u a r t , e d . L e t t e r s o f J a n ie s J o y c e . New Y o rk :
V ik in g P r e s s , 1 9 5 7 .
G iv e n s , S e o n , e d . James J o y c e : Two D e ca d es o f C r i t i c i s m .
New Y ork: Vanguard P r e s s , 1 9 ^8 .
Gorman, H e r b e r t. James J o y c e . New Y ork: R in e h a r t and C o . ,
I n c ., 1939.
G o t t s c h a lk , L o u is and D onald L a tc h . The T r a n sfo r m a tio n o f
Modern E u ro p e. C h icago: S c o t t , F oresm an and C o . , 195^*
H a y e s , C a r le to n J . H. and o t h e r s . H is t o r y o f E u rop e. New
Y ork: M a c m illa n , 19^9*
H ig h e t , G i l b e r t . The C l a s s i c a l T r a d i t i o n . New Y ork: O xford
U n iv e r s i t y P r e s s , 19^9•
H u t c h in s , P a t r i c i a . James J o y c e 1s W orld. London: M eth u en ,1957*
J o y c e , Jam es. U l y s s e s . New Y ork: Modern L ib r a r y , 1 9 ^6 .
J o y c e , S t a n i s l a u s . My. B r o t h e r 1s K e e p e r . New York: V ik in g
P ress, 1958.
K a in , R ic h a r d . F a b u lo u s V o y a g e r ; Jam es J o y c e *s U l y s s e s .
C h ica g o : U n iv e r s i t y o f C h ica g o P r e s s , 19^7*
L a n g, Andrew, and o t h e r s . The C om p lete Works o f Homer. New
Y ork: Modern L ib r a r y , 1950*
L e v in , H arry. Jam es J o y c e ; a c r i t i c a l i n t r o d u c t i o n . N o r f o lk ,
C onn.: New D i r e c t i o n s , 19^-1.
L o e r ic h , R o lf R. The S e c r e t o f U l y s s e s . McHenry, 1 1 1 .:
Com pass P r e s s , 1953*
N oon , W illia m T . J o y c e & A q u in a s. New H aven: Y a le U n iv e r s i t y
P ress, 1957.
P h i l l i p s , W. A l i s o n . The R e v o lu t io n i n I r e l a n d . 1 9 0 6 -1 9 2 3 .
Second e d i t i o n . London: Longm ans, G reene &. C o . , L t d . ,
1926.
Reproduced with permission of the copyright owner. Further reproduction prohibited without permission.
3
R a n d a l l , Jo h n H erm an. Our C h an g in g C i v i l i z a t i o n . New Y o rk :
F r e d e r i c k A. S t o k e s , 1 9 3 ° •
S u l l i v a n , K e v in . J o y c e Among t h e J e s u i t s .
C o lu m b ia U n i v e r s i t y P r e s s , 1 9 5 8 *
New Y o rk :
T i n d a l l , W illia m Y o rk . F o r c e s i n M odern B r i t i s h L i t e r a t u r e .
1 8 8 5 - 1 9 5 6 . New Y o rk : V i n t a g e , 1956*
U s s h e r , A r la n d . T h re e G r e a t I r i s h m e n : S haw , Y e a t s , J o y c e .
New Y o rk : M e n to r, 1957*
W hitm an, C e d r ic H. Homer and th e H e r o ic T r a d i t i o n .
C a m b rid g e , M a s s .: H a rv a rd U n i v e r s i t y P r e s s , 1 9 5 8 .
Reproduced with permission of the copyright owner. Further reproduction prohibited without permission.
Документ
Категория
Без категории
Просмотров
9
Размер файла
2 991 Кб
Теги
724
1/--страниц
Пожаловаться на содержимое документа