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Effect of oleocanthal and its derivatives on inflammatory response induced by lipopolysaccharide in a murine chondrocyte cell line.

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Vol. 62, No. 6, June 2010, pp 1675–1682
DOI 10.1002/art.27437
© 2010, American College of Rheumatology
Effect of Oleocanthal and Its Derivatives on
Inflammatory Response Induced by Lipopolysaccharide in a
Murine Chondrocyte Cell Line
Anna Iacono,1 Rodolfo Gómez,2 Jeffrey Sperry,3 Javier Conde,2 Giuseppe Bianco,4
Rosaria Meli,5 Juan J. Gómez-Reino,2 Amos B. Smith, III,3 and Oreste Gualillo2
Objective. In joint diseases, cartilage homeostasis
is disrupted by mechanisms that are driven by combinations of biologic factors that vary according to the
disease process. In osteoarthritis (OA), biomechanical
stimuli predominate, with up-regulation of both catabolic and anabolic factors. Likewise, OA progression is
characterized by increased nitric oxide (NO) production, which has been associated with cartilage degradation. Given the relevance of cartilage degenerative diseases in our society, the development of a novel
pharmacologic intervention is a critically important
public health goal. Recently, oleocanthal isolated from
extra virgin olive oil was found to display nonsteroidal
antiinflammatory drug activity similar to that of ibuprofen, a drug widely used in the therapeutic management of joint inflammatory diseases. We undertook this
study to evaluate the effect of oleocanthal and its
derivatives on the modulation of NO production in
Methods. Cultured ATDC-5 chondrocytes were
tested with different doses of oleocanthal and its derivatives. Cell viability was evaluated using the MTT assay.
Nitrite accumulation was determined in culture supernatant using the Griess reaction. Inducible NO synthase
(NOS2) protein expression was examined using Western
blotting analysis.
Results. Oleocanthal and its derivatives decreased lipopolysaccharide-induced NOS2 synthesis in
chondrocytes without significantly affecting cell viability
at lower concentrations. Among the derivatives we examined, derivative 231 was the most interesting, since
its inhibitory effect on NOS2 was devoid of cytotoxicity
even at higher concentrations.
Conclusion. This class of molecules shows potential as a therapeutic weapon for the treatment of inflammatory degenerative joint diseases.
Supported in part by the Instituto de Salud Carlos III
(RETICS Program, RD08/0075 [RIER]), within the VI NP of R⫹D⫹I
2008–2011. Mr. Gómez is recipient of a predoctoral fellowship from
the University of Santiago de Compostela (program for consolidated research groups [GI-1957]). Dr. Bianco is recipient of a
predoctoral fellowship from the University of Salerno through the
International Mobility Programme of the Italian Ministry of Education, Research and University. Dr. Gualillo’s work was funded by
the Instituto de Salud Carlos III and the Xunta de Galicia
(SERGAS) through a research contract and grants PI08/0040 and
Anna Iacono, PhD: Santiago University Clinical Hospital,
Santiago de Compostela, Spain, and University of Naples Federico II,
Naples, Italy; 2Rodolfo Gómez, BS, Javier Conde, BS, Juan J. GómezReino, MD, PhD, Oreste Gualillo, PharmD, PhD: Santiago University
Clinical Hospital, Santiago de Compostela, Spain; 3Jeffrey Sperry,
PhD, Amos B. Smith, III, PhD: University of Pennsylvania, Philadelphia; 4Giuseppe Bianco, PhD: Santiago University Clinical Hospital,
Santiago de Compostela, Spain, and University of Salerno, Salerno,
Italy; 5Rosaria Meli, PhD: University of Naples Federico II, Naples,
Dr. Iacono and Mr. Gómez contributed equally to this work.
Dr. Smith has applied for an international patent (PCT/
US2007/067393) for the use of oleocanthal and structurally and
functionally similar compounds in the therapeutic management of
joint inflammatory diseases.
Address correspondence and reprint requests to Oreste Gualillo, PharmD, PhD, Santiago University Clinical Hospital, Research
Laboratory 9 (NEIRID LAB, Laboratory of Neuro Endocrine Interactions in Rheumatology and Inflammatory Diseases), Building C,
Level 2, Calle Choupana s/n, 15706 Santiago de Compostela, Spain.
E-mail: [email protected]; [email protected]
Submitted for publication October 7, 2009; accepted in revised form February 23, 2010.
The use of nonsteroidal antiinflammatory drugs
(NSAIDs) has been the major pharmacologic approach
to treating the symptoms of degenerative and inflammatory arthropathies, even though these drugs fail to
modify the degenerative processes as the diseasemodifying antirheumatic drugs do (1,2). The search for
alternative therapies that might influence the joint degenerative processes and the resulting lesions is thus of
paramount importance. Toward this goal, recent studies
suggest that food and beverages that are rich in antioxidant and antiinflammatory compounds might contribute to the prevention of inflammatory diseases such as
osteoarthritis (OA) (3–5).
Indeed, many phenolic compounds extracted
from extra virgin olive oil have attracted considerable
attention recently, given their antioxidant (6), antiinflammatory (7), and antithrombotic activities (8). In
addition, olive oil has been suggested to alleviate a
variety of disorders, including cognitive decline due to
neurodegeneration (i.e., Alzheimer’s disease) (9). In
2005, Beauchamp et al (10) isolated and identified an
olive oil phenolic compound, (–)-decarboxymethyl ligstroside aglycone, also known as oleocanthal (oleo for
olive, canth for sting, and al for aldehyde). Similarly to
NSAIDs, oleocanthal induces a strong stinging sensation
in the throat and has a potency and pharmacodynamic
profile strikingly similar to that of ibuprofen; both
compounds inhibit the cyclooxygenase 1 (COX-1) and
COX-2 enzymes (10).
Among the well-known inflammatory mediators,
nitric oxide (NO) plays an important role in the regulation of many physiologic functions (i.e., vasodilatation,
neurotransmission, and inflammation) (11,12). NO produced from the constitutive forms of NO synthase
(NOS), namely, endothelial and neuronal NOS, functions principally as a vasodilator and neurotransmitter,
respectively (13). The third form of NOS, known as
inducible NOS (iNOS; or NOS2), is generally not
present in resting cells but is induced by various stimuli,
which include challenge by bacterial lipopolysaccharide
(LPS), tumor necrosis factor ␣ (TNF␣), interleukin-1␤
(IL-1␤), picolinic acid, lipoarabinomannan, phorbol ester, interferon-␥, and hypoxia (14–18). In contrast to the
constitutive forms of NOS, iNOS is regulated primarily
at the level of transcription, because calmodulin is
already tightly bound and, therefore, iNOS expression is
largely independent of intracellular calcium (19,20).
Accumulating evidence supports a role for NO in
the cartilage degenerative process and the resulting
lesions (21). Previous studies demonstrated that nitrite
(NO2–), the stable end product of NO, was found in
elevated concentrations in the synovial fluid and serum
of patients with rheumatoid arthritis (RA) and OA (22).
In addition, OA cartilage spontaneously produces NO,
probably reflecting the in vivo stimulation of chondrocytes by cytokines (23–25). It appears that the high
amounts of NO released in arthritic joints are mainly of
chondrocyte origin (23,26,27). Moreover, chondrocytes
in superficial cartilage layers are a particularly rich
source of this reactive molecule (28). Therefore, NO
production by iNOS may reflect the degree of inflammation and, as such, may now provide a measure to
assess the effect of potential antiinflammatory agents on
the joint degenerative inflammatory process.
To date, no data have been reported that relate
to the effects of oleocanthal on LPS-induced NO production in chondrocytes. We have now investigated the
effects of oleocanthal and some related synthetic derivatives on NO production and iNOS expression in the
murine chondrogenic cell line ATDC-5, which we have
challenged with Escherichia coli LPS in order to mimic
an inflammatory response in chondrocytes as an in vitro
model of degenerative joint disease.
Reagents. Fetal bovine serum (FBS), LPS (E coli
serotype O55:B5), human transferrin, sodium selenite, MTT
dye, and antibody against ␤-actin were purchased from Sigma.
Dulbecco’s modified Eagle’s medium (DMEM)/Ham’s F-12
medium, trypsin–EDTA, and antibiotics were purchased from
Lonza. Antibodies against phospho–p38 kinase and p38 kinase
were purchased from Millipore.
Cell culture. The ATDC-5 murine chondrogenic cell
line was purchased from RIKEN Cell Bank. Cells were cultured in DMEM/Ham’s F-12 medium supplemented with 5%
FBS, 10 ␮g/ml human transferrin, 3 ⫻ 10–8M sodium selenite, and antibiotics (50 units/ml penicillin and 50 ␮g/ml streptomycin). Cells were used in the undifferentiated state in order
to mimic the loss of differentiation observed in degenerative
joint diseases such as OA (29).
Oleocanthal and derivatives. Figure 1 shows the chemical structure of oleocanthal and the related synthetic derivatives.
Cell treatments and nitrite assay. ATDC-5 cells (viability ⬎95% as evaluated by trypan blue exclusion) were plated
at an initial density of 8 ⫻ 104/well in 24-well plates. After 6
hours of adherence, cells were preincubated for 12 hours with
oleocanthal or oleocanthal synthetic derivatives (1–25 ␮M) and
then challenged for 24 or 48 hours with LPS (250 ng/ml) in the
presence and absence of oleocanthal or derivatives in 5% FBS
medium. All compounds were dissolved in DMSO and added
directly to the culture media. Control cells were treated with
DMSO alone, the final concentration of which (never exceeding 0.5%) had no noticeable effect on the growth of cells.
Nitrite accumulation was measured in the culture medium
using the Griess reaction, as previously described (29).
Cell viability. Cell viability was examined using a
colorimetric assay based on the MTT labeling reagent (30).
Cells (8 ⫻ 103/well) were seeded in 96-well plates. Assays were
performed according to the instructions and protocol provided
by the manufacturer (Sigma-Aldrich). Briefly, cells were preincubated for 12 hours with oleocanthal or derivatives and then
stimulated with oleocanthal or derivatives (1–25 ␮M) alone or
in combination with LPS (250 ng/ml) in 5% FBS medium for
24 hours at 37°C. After that, cells were incubated with 10 ␮l of
MTT (5 mg/ml) for 4 hours at 37°C. Then, after dissolving the
formazan, the spectrophotometric absorbance was measured
Cell protein extraction and Western blotting. ATDC-5
chondrogenic cells were seeded in P100 plates at an initial
density of 1.5 ⫻ 106/plate. After 12 hours of preincubation with
oleocanthal or derivative 231, cells were stimulated for 24
hours with oleocanthal or derivative 231 (1–25 ␮M) alone or in
combination with LPS (250 ng/ml) in 5% FBS medium. Cells
were rapidly washed with ice-cold phosphate buffered saline
and scraped in lysis buffer for protein extraction, as reported
previously (29). Immunoblots were visualized with an Immobilon Western Detection kit (Millipore) using horseradish
peroxidase–labeled secondary antibody. To confirm equal
loading in each sample, the membranes were striped in glycine
buffer at pH 2 and reblotted with anti–␤-actin antibody. The
images were captured and analyzed with an EC3 imaging
system (UVP).
Statistical analysis. Data are reported as the mean ⫾
SEM of at least 3 independent experiments, each with at least
3 independent observations. Statistical analysis was performed
using analysis of variance followed by the Student-NewmanKeuls test or Bonferroni multiple comparison test using the
Prism computerized package (GraphPad Software). P values
less than 0.05 were considered significant.
Figure 1. Chemical structure of oleocanthal and the related synthetic
derivatives used in the study.
using a microtiter enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay reader
at 550 nm (Multiskan EX; Thermo Labsystems).
Oleocanthal and related derivatives suppress
NO production in the LPS-activated ATDC-5 cell line.
In this series of experiments, ATDC-5 chondrogenic
cells were stimulated with LPS (250 ng/ml) in the
presence or absence of oleocanthal or derivatives to
determine if these compounds modulate NO levels in
culture supernatant. As shown in Figure 2, compared
with control cells, ATDC-5 cells challenged with LPS
showed a high accumulation of NO (evaluated as nitrite)
(mean ⫾ SEM 1.38 ⫾ 0.67 ␮M versus 40.12 ⫾ 0.38 ␮M
at 24 hours and 1.31 ⫾ 0.28 ␮M versus 62.78 ⫾ 2.31 ␮M
at 48 hours; P ⬍ 0.001 for each comparison). Oleocan-
Figure 2. Oleocanthal (OC) suppresses lipopolysaccharide (LPS)–induced nitric oxide (NO) production. ATDC-5 cells (8 ⫻ 104) were pretreated
with 1–25 ␮M oleocanthal for 12 hours and then exposed to 250 ng/ml LPS for 24 hours (A) or 48 hours (B). Control cells received drug vehicle.
The culture medium was subsequently separated and analyzed for nitrite levels. NO concentration was determined using the Griess reaction. Values
are the mean and SEM of at least 3 independent experiments. ⴱⴱⴱ ⫽ P ⬍ 0.001 versus control cells. # ⫽ P ⬍ 0.05; ## ⫽ P ⬍ 0.01; ### ⫽ P ⬍
0.001, versus 250 ng/ml LPS alone.
Figure 3. Oleocanthal derivatives suppress LPS-induced NO production. ATDC-5 cells (8 ⫻ 104) were pretreated with 1–25 ␮M oleocanthal
derivatives for 12 hours and then exposed to 250 ng/ml LPS for 24 hours (A) or 48 hours (B). Control cells received drug vehicle. The culture medium
was subsequently isolated and analyzed for nitrite levels. NO concentration was determined using the Griess reaction. Values are the mean and SEM
of at least 3 independent experiments. ⴱⴱⴱ ⫽ P ⬍ 0.001 versus control cells. # ⫽ P ⬍ 0.05; ## ⫽ P ⬍ 0.01; ### ⫽ P ⬍ 0.001, versus 250 ng/ml
LPS alone. See Figure 2 for definitions.
thal by itself (1–25 ␮M) did not affect basal NO production (data not shown). Pretreatment of ATDC-5 cells
with oleocanthal significantly inhibited the LPS-induced
NO production in a dose-dependent manner (Figures
2A and B).
To examine the possibility that oleocanthal de-
rivatives could inhibit LPS-induced NO production, we
carried out experiments under the same conditions as
described above for oleocanthal. As shown in Figure 3,
LPS led to a significant increase in NO levels in the cell
supernatants after 24 hours (Figure 3A) and after 48
hours (Figure 3B). Among all the compounds tested,
Figure 4. Effect of oleocanthal and derivatives on ATDC-5 cell viability. ATDC-5 cells (8 ⫻ 103) were pretreated with 1–25 ␮M oleocanthal (A)
or derivatives (B) for 12 hours and then exposed to 250 ng/ml LPS for 24 hours. Cell viability was measured using the MTT assay as described in
Materials and Methods. Control cells received drug vehicle. Values are the mean and SEM of at least 3 independent experiments. ⴱⴱⴱ ⫽ P ⬍ 0.001
versus control cells. # ⫽ P ⬍ 0.05; ## ⫽ P ⬍ 0.01; ### ⫽ P ⬍ 0.001, versus 250 ng/ml LPS alone. See Figure 2 for definitions.
derivatives 127, 129, 139, and 231 inhibited NO generation in a concentration-dependent manner. However,
derivatives 159 and 166 showed a trend toward inhibiting
NO production after 24 and 48 hours of LPS challenge
at the highest or next-highest concentration.
Effect of oleocanthal and derivatives on ATDC-5
cell viability. Since NO production is proportional to cell
number and cell vitality, we used the MTT assay to
evaluate whether oleocanthal and the derivatives affected cell viability. Oleocanthal alone did not modify
cell viability, except for a significant cytotoxic effect at
the highest concentration. As shown in Figure 4A, LPS
by itself decreased cell viability, whereas pretreatment of
cells with oleocanthal did not significantly affect cell
viability, except at the 25 ␮M concentration.
As shown in Figure 4B, chondrocytes stimulated
with both LPS and oleocanthal derivatives (127, 129,
139, 159, or 166) for 24 hours displayed a significant
decrease in cell viability compared with LPS alone, at all
concentrations for derivative 159 and at the highest
concentrations (25 ␮M or 10 and 25 ␮M) for derivatives
127, 129, 139, and 166. Interestingly, among all of the
oleocanthal derivatives tested so far, only derivative 231
did not show any cytotoxic effect, suggesting that the
pharmacologic activity was not related to any alteration
in chondrocyte viability.
Effect of oleocanthal on iNOS and p38 protein
expression. To investigate whether the inhibitory effect
of oleocanthal on NO production was related to NOS2
synthesis inhibition, we examined NOS2 protein expression using Western blot analysis. As shown in Figure 5,
iNOS protein was markedly induced upon exposure to
LPS for 24 hours. Pretreatment with oleocanthal resulted in a dose-dependent inhibition of LPS-induced
iNOS protein. The effect at the highest dose (25 ␮M)
was related to a cytotoxic effect of oleocanthal. Indeed,
␤-actin expression was strongly reduced at this dose. In
addition, oleocanthal was able to induce a strong phosphorylation of p38 kinase, which was associated with a
decrease in p38 expression at the highest tested doses.
Among the oleocanthal derivatives tested so far,
we chose derivative 231, which had previously shown no
of modification of protein expression, with either structural or signaling proteins.
Figure 5. Effect of oleocanthal alone or in combination with LPS on
inducible NO synthase (iNOS) protein expression and on p38 protein
expression and phosphorylation. ATDC-5 cells (1.5 ⫻ 106) were
pretreated with 1–25 ␮M oleocanthal for 12 hours and then exposed to
250 ng/ml LPS for 24 hours. Inducible NO synthase, phospho-p38, p38,
and ␤-actin (an internal standard) were detected using Western blot
analysis with specific antibodies. Results are representative of 3
separate experiments. CON ⫽ control cells (see Figure 2 for other
effect on cell viability (Figure 4B). As shown in Figure 6,
LPS-mediated iNOS expression was significantly
blunted by this synthetic derivative in a clear dosedependent manner. It is noteworthy that compared with
oleocanthal, derivative 231 had no side effects in terms
Figure 6. Effect of derivative 231 on inducible NO synthase (iNOS)
protein expression and on p38 protein expression and phosphorylation. ATDC-5 cells (1.5 ⫻ 106) were pretreated with 1–25 ␮M
derivative 231 for 12 hours and then exposed to 250 ng/ml LPS for 24
hours. Inducible NO synthase, phospho-p38, p38, and ␤-actin (an
internal standard) were detected using Western blot analysis with
specific antibodies. Results are representative of 3 separate experiments. CON ⫽ control cells (see Figure 2 for other definitions).
In the present study, we have shown for the first
time that oleocanthal, which is present in the phenolic
fraction of virgin olive oil, and the related synthetic
derivative 231 reduce LPS-induced iNOS expression and
NO production in the ATDC-5 murine chondrogenic
cell line in a dose-dependent manner. Under most
conditions, NO is a highly reactive gas that is involved in
the pathogenesis of arthritis. It is noteworthy that normal cartilage produces little NO (25), whereas chondrocytes and synovial cells from patients with OA and RA
produce abundant NO, as do cytokine-challenged chondrocytes (31).
In fact, activated articular chondrocytes produce
more NO than any other cells, including synoviocytes,
hepatocytes, and macrophages (32). In chondrocytes,
iNOS expression is induced by mechanical and biochemical factors, including inflammatory mediators such as
IL-1␤ (33), TNF␣ (34), and LPS (28). An excess of NO
inhibits both proteoglycan and collagen synthesis (35),
activates metalloproteinases (36), mediates chondrocyte
apoptosis (37), and promotes chondrocyte inflammatory
responses (38). Experiments performed in iNOSknockout mice have shown these mice to be resistant to
experimental OA, demonstrating that NO generated
from the up-regulation of iNOS plays a pivotal role in
the catabolic events of OA (39,40). Current treatment
options used to manage OA are not curative and fail to
reverse the degenerative process of OA. Among the
commonly used pharmacologic agents are NSAIDs, corticosteroids, and hyaluronan preparations (41). NSAIDs
in particular are widely used, but their prolonged consumption is associated with serious adverse side effects
such as gastrointestinal ulcerations. The need for effective treatment modalities with fewer side effects has
prompted OA patients to consider complementary approaches to control pain as well as to improve function
and quality of life.
Vegetable oil used in the Mediterranean diet has
clear beneficial effects, particularly in cardiovascular
diseases. Olive oil, which is the main fat used in the
Mediterranean diet, has demonstrated efficacy not only
in several clinical trials, but also in experimental models
of inflammation. Indeed, olive oil significantly reduced
the incidence of experimental autoimmune encephalomyelitis in the guinea pig (42) and increased the survival
rate of MRL/lpr mice, which are prone to autoimmune
disease (43). In comparing fish oil and olive oil supplements in patients with RA in a double-blind, noncrossover study, Cleland et al (44) found improvements in the
painful joint score and grip strength at 12 weeks in those
taking fish oil, while morning stiffness and the analog
pain score improved in both groups. This result was
significant only in those taking olive oil, consistent with
an earlier report by Brzeski et al (45). The beneficial
effect of olive oil was also reported by Darlington and
Stone (46), who found reduced levels of C-reactive
protein (an acute-phase protein which correlates with
disease activity in RA) with olive oil treatment.
The phenolic fraction of virgin olive oil has
generated much interest in its health-promoting properties (47). It is known that the phenolic fraction of virgin
olive oil is directly related to the intensity of throat
irritation. The intensity of throat irritation is dependent
on the concentration of oleocanthal. Indeed, oleocanthal, which has not been identified in any other vegetable oil, is responsible for the stinging sensation localized
to the posterior oropharyngeal region upon consumption of virgin olive oil (10). This sensation has been
described as a peppery bite at the back of the throat and
is similar to that caused by the NSAID ibuprofen. The
latter finding provoked the hypothesis that oleocanthal
might possess pharmacologic properties similar to those
of ibuprofen and several other NSAIDs. Furthermore, it
is worth noting that long-term ingestion of small doses of
oleocanthal via consumption of virgin olive oil may be
responsible in part for the low incidence of heart disease, certain cancers, and other degenerative diseases
associated with the Mediterranean diet (10). More recently, oleocanthal has been described to have potential
pharmacologic properties that may be useful for treating
patients with neurodegenerative diseases, since it is able
to inhibit fibrillization of tau protein, a key protein
involved in the pathogenesis of Alzheimer’s disease and
other tauopathies (48).
In summary, our study shows for the first time
that oleocanthal and its derivative 231 down-regulate
iNOS protein expression in LPS-challenged chondrocytes, resulting in a reduction of nitrite production in the
cellular supernatant. This effect is related to a specific
antiinflammatory pharmacologic property of these
drugs, since the effect is apparently independent of
cytotoxic effects, particularly for the 231 derivative.
Indeed, a low cytotoxic effect of the natural compound
oleocanthal has been observed in our experiments. Presumably, the cytotoxic activity of oleocanthal is linked to
the strong increase in phosphorylation levels of p38
kinase (and to a decrease in its expression), whereas the
saturated derivative 231 is completely devoid of this side
effect. In principle, activation of the p38 signaling pathway during toxic aggression may aim at initiating either
a defense or a homeostatic mechanism and therefore
contribute to cell survival or, alternatively, to the signaling or execution of some of the apoptotic events (49).
There is some evidence, none of which can be ruled out,
for a role of p38 in both directions. Intriguingly, other
drugs of the aryl-propionic family of NSAIDs such as
carprofen can induce early p38 activation driving nuclear
fragmentation in prostate cancer cells (50). The fact that
derivative 231 is completely devoid of this effect makes
this analog a suitable and potential pharmacologic
weapon for the modulation of NO production in chondrocytes.
Further studies remain to be conducted, including
in vivo experiments to investigate the mechanisms of action
of oleocanthal and its derivatives and to examine their
pharmacologic activity using animal arthritis models.
The authors gratefully acknowledge the excellent technical assistance of Miss Veronica Lopez and Miss Beatriz
All authors were involved in drafting the article or revising it
critically for important intellectual content, and all authors approved
the final version to be published. Dr. Gualillo had full access to all of
the data in the study and takes responsibility for the integrity of the
data and the accuracy of the data analysis.
Study conception and design. Meli, Smith, Gualillo.
Acquisition of data. Iacono, Gómez, Sperry, Conde, Bianco.
Analysis and interpretation of data. Meli, Gómez-Reino, Gualillo.
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oleocanthal, effect, induced, response, murine, inflammatory, lipopolysaccharide, line, derivatives, chondrocyte, cells
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