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The epithelium of the hydatid of morgagni in the human adult female.

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The Epithelium of the Hydatid of Morgagni in the
Human Adult Female
T u f t s University School of Medicine, Boston, Massachusetts
The purpose of this payer is to present
certain hitherto undescribed features of the
histology of the hydatid of Morgagni and
also to draw attention to the similarity of
its structure to that of the fallopian tube,
to which it is attached.
In the female, the most cephalic portions
of the mullerian ducts do not enter into
the formation of the fallopian tube and
may be found as small cystlike structures
attached to the tube. They are called the
hydatids of Morgagni. The mesonephric
ducts in the female degenerate except for
the persistence of their cranial portions as
the ducts of the epoophoron. The distal
ends of the mesonephric ducts may become
enlarged to form the cystic vesicular appendages. Adami and McCrae ('14) rereported the presence of such cysts in 20%
of the autopsies performed. These rudimentary structures are of considerable
theoretical importance for, as is the case
with many vestigial structures, they may
undergo pathologic changes which result
in malignancies later in life.
A characteristic finding in the walls of
the hydatid which we examined was the
presence of mast cells in the connective tissue. Previous investigators, Watson ( ' 0 2 ) ,
Zuckerman and Krohn ( ' 3 8 ) , and Cetroni
('39), ignored their presence or were not
aware of their existence. Furthermore, the
disposition of cilia is comparable to that
of the fallopian tube, and further investigation, which we anticipate, may show that
the epithelium of the hydatid undergoes
cyclic changes.
then washed, dehydrated, cleared, and embedded in paraffin. The sections were cut
at 6p. In the studies of the hydatid by
previous investigators, the only technique
used in staining was that of hematoxylin
and eosin. The present studies made use
of techniques not previously employed :
namely, Harris' hematoxylin and phloxine;
Lillie's iron hematoxylin, basic fuchsin,
fast green FCF for mast cells; Mallory's
connective tissue stain; and Verhoeff's
hematoxylin for elastic tissue.
The wall of the hydatid consists of the
following layers: ( 1) a mucosa comprising
a surface epithelium and a lamina propria,
( 2 ) a layer of smooth muscle, ( 3 ) a perimuscular connective tissue layer, and ( 4 )
a serous layer. The mucosa shows the presence of papillae, and in one area a villus
extends into the lumen (fig. 1). In two
areas, fusion of villi have produced loculi
which are observed as small, closed areas
within the mucous membrane (fig. 2 ) .
The epithelium consists of simple squamous, cuboidal and columnar cells. Some
of the cuboidal and columnar cells contain
round hyperchromatic nuclei. The cytoplasm is stained with acid dyes. Some of
the cells contain elongated nuclei which
are located with their axes at right angles
to the long axis of the cell. It is these cells
which are comparable to those of the fallopian tube in that they occupy a basal
position with reference to the other cellular
elements. Attached to many of the epithelial cells are blebs of secretion. Cilia are
present on many of the lining cells when
The hydatid of the human adult female the hydatid exhibits the cuboidal and cohere reported was obtained from a 36-year- lumnar epithelial combination (fig. 3).
old person who died of Hodgkins disease True glands are lacking in the hydatid.
The lamina propria of the mucous memat the New England Center Hospital. The
material was removed 7 hours after death brane fills the space between the epithelial
and immediately fixed in 10% formalin, and muscular layers. It is essentially a net189
work of elastic fibers with some collagenous other is devoid of cilia, but is responsible
fibers and involuntary muscle fibers inter- for the secretion that is found within the
spersed. Fibrocytes, lymphocytes, and an lumen of the hydatjd (fig. 3). It would apoccasional granular leucocyte are found pear, therefore, that cilia are present on
many of the cells of the hydatid as permawithin the framework of fibers.
The next layer of the wall is composed nent specializations which represent a difof smooth muscle. The majority of the ferent functional condition of one of the
fibers are circularly disposed, but an oc- two cell types present in the mucous rnemcasional bundle of longitudinal fibers is brane. According to Watson ( ’ 0 2 ) , cilia
discernible. The spaces between the mus- are present on cells which line the hydatids
cle fibers are filled with elastic and col- of children and disappear with advancing
age. In our preparations of the adult
lagenous fibers.
External to the muscular coat is the hydatid, however, cilia were observed on
serous layer lined with mesothelium. This the cells.
The lumen of the hydatid is partially
layer contains collagenous fibers with scattered fibrocytes and mast cells. There are filled with a quantity of very finely granblood vessels present between the muscular ular, pink staining material precipitated
and fibrous layers, but no lymphatics were from the original content of the cyst by the
action of the fixative (fig. 1). Also within
the lumen are lymphocytes, desquamated
Watson (’02) observed, “The microscope epithelial cells, and an occasional granular
reveals the wall of the hydatid as being leucocyte. However, it is very evident, folcomposed of a single layer of cuboidal epi- lowing the use of Mallory’s connective tisthelium resting on a layer of fibrous tissue.” sue stain, that there are many round blebHowever, he made no attempt to distin- like structures attached to the epithelial
guish between fiber types or cellular com- cells that stain as does the granular precipitate mentioned previously (fig. 3 ) .
ponents of the connective tissue.
acellular elements would appear
No mention is made in the literature of
the presence of mast cells in the hydatid, to contribute their contents to the fluid of
although they were observed in our prep- the cyst.
arations. It is assumed by the authors that
these irregular, flattened cells do not differ
1. The present investigation has atin function from the mast cells present
to clarify the discrepancies perelsewhere in the connective tissues of the
taining to the presence or absence of cilia
The presence or absence of cilia is one in the hydatid of Morgagni.
2. Cilia are a structural differentiation
point which should be clarified. It can be
some of the epithelial cells.
stated that cilia are present on many epi3 . Many cells of the epithelial layer
thelial cells of the hydatid. Ballantyne and
Williams (1891) made the following ob- carry blebs of secretion which contribute to
servation: “The true hydatid. . . is lined by the fluid of the cyst.
4. Further investigation may show that
a mucosa with simple folds covered by a
sex hormones produce cyclic
single layer of ciliated columnar cells. . .”
Fleischl (1871) was of the opinion that, changes within the epithelial lining of the
“the epithelium of the sessile hydatid must hydatid.
be a derivative from germinal epithelium
which is recognized by the fact that the Adami, J. G . , and J. McCrae 1914 Textbook of
mucous membrane consists of ciliated coPathology. 2nd ed. Lea and Febiger, Philadelphia and New York, p. 753.
lumnar cells.” Zuckerman and Krohn (‘38)
W.A. D. 1948 Pathology. The C. V.
who worked with a variety of anthropoids, Anderson,
Mosby Co., St. Louis, Missouri, p. 1127.
found that the epithelium may be simple Ballantyne, J. W.,and J. D. Williams 1891
The histology and pathology of the fallopian
columnar, simple squamous, or simple
tube. Brit. Med. J., I: 107-110; 168-171.
ciliated columnar. In the authors’ opinion
M. B. 1939 Le idatide di Morgagni.
the epithelium consists of two lands of Cetroni,
Ann. Obstet. Gine., Anno LXI, 31 Gennaro Fasc,
cells. One of these is ciliated, and the
DeSouza Ridge, W., and D. Delascia 1941
Estudo anatoma clinic das hidatides Morgagni.
Rev. Gine. Obstet., 375-398.
Fleischl, E. 1871 Das Ovarium Masculinum.
Zbl. med. Wiss., 4: 49-50.
Lillie, R. D. 1948 Histopathologic Technic. The
Blakiston Co., Philadelphia and Toronto, p. 149.
Stowens, D. 1959 Pediatric Pathology. The Williams and Wilkins Co., Baltimore, p. 526.
Watson, J. H. 1902 Origin and nature of hydatid of Morgagni. J. Anat. Physiol., 36: N. S.
XVI, No. 2,p. 147.
Zuckerman, S., and P. L. Krohn 1938 The
hydatid of Morgagni under normal and experimental conditions. Phil. Trans. Roy. SOC.
London, B, 228: p. 147,Biol. Sci.
Clyde W. Monroe and Benjamin Spector
Section of wall of cyst showing two loculi. These structures are formed by fusion of
villi. Note precipitation of secretion. x 100.
2 A villus projecting into the lumen of the cyst showing the usual connective tissue stroma
and outer epithelial layer. X 100.
Clyde W. Monroe and Benjamin Spector
3 Portion of same villus as that shown in figure 2 under a higher magnification. The unequal distribution of cilia is shown in upper third of villus and also o n the epithelium
covering the wall of the cyst. X 450.
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adults, epithelium, hydatid, morgagni, female, human
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