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Accepted Manuscript
Effect of regulated deficit irrigation on fatty acids and their derived volatiles in
?Cabernet Sauvignon? grapes and wines of Ningxia, China
Yan-lun Ju, Min Liu, Ting-yao Tu, Xian-fang Zhao, Xiao-feng Yue, Jun-xiang
Zhang, Yu-lin Fang, Jiang-fei Meng
PII:
DOI:
Reference:
S0308-8146(17)31647-3
https://doi.org/10.1016/j.foodchem.2017.10.018
FOCH 21841
To appear in:
Food Chemistry
Received Date:
Revised Date:
Accepted Date:
4 August 2017
29 September 2017
6 October 2017
Please cite this article as: Ju, Y-l., Liu, M., Tu, T-y., Zhao, X-f., Yue, X-f., Zhang, J-x., Fang, Y-l., Meng, J-f., Effect
of regulated deficit irrigation on fatty acids and their derived volatiles in ?Cabernet Sauvignon? grapes and wines
of Ningxia, China, Food Chemistry (2017), doi: https://doi.org/10.1016/j.foodchem.2017.10.018
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Effect of regulated deficit irrigation on fatty acids and their derived volatiles in
?Cabernet Sauvignon? grapes and wines of Ningxia, China
Yan-lun Jua?, Min Liua?, Ting-yao Tu a, Xian-fang Zhao a, Xiao-feng Yuea, Jun-xiang
Zhangb, Yu-lin Fanga,c*, Jiang-fei Menga,c*
a
College of Enology, Northwest A&F University, Yangling, Shaanxi, 712100 China
b
Ningxia Grape and Wine Research Institute, Ningxia University, Yinchuan, Ningxia,
750000 China
c
Shaanxi Engineering Research Center for Viti-Viniculture, Yangling 712100,
Shaanxi, China
?
These authors equally contributed to this work.
*Corresponding author: College of Enology, Northwest A&F University, No. 22
Xinong Road, Yangling, Shaanxi 712100, China. Tel.: +86-29-87091874; Fax:
+86-29-87092233.
E-mail addresses: [email protected] (Y.L. Fang), [email protected]
(J.F. Meng)
Yanlun Ju: [email protected]; Min Liu: [email protected];
Tingyao Tu: [email protected]; Xianfang Zhao: [email protected];
Xiaofeng Yue: [email protected]; Junxiang Zhang: [email protected]
Abstract: The effect of regulated deficit irrigation (RDI) on fatty acids and their
derived volatiles in ?Cabernet Sauvignon? grapes and wines was investigated during
two growing seasons in the east foot of Mt. Helan, the semi-arid area. The vines
received water with 60% (RDI-1), 70% (RDI-2), 80% (RDI-3), 100% (CK, traditional
drip irrigation) of their estimated evapotranspiration (ETc) respectively. RDI
treatments resulted in lower yield, berry weight and titratable acidity with higher total
soluble solids. RDI-1 increased the content of unsaturated fatty acids in berries and
decreased the level of alcohols and esters volatiles in wines. RDI-2 and RDI-3
enhanced 1-hexanol and esters in wines in comparison with CK. The concentrations
of C6 aroma compounds were closely correlated with unsaturated fatty acids (p<0.05),
especially linolenic acid and linoleic acid. The present results provided direct
evidence and detailed data to explain the effect of RDI on grapes and wines
composition regarding fatty acids and their derived volatiles.
Keywords: Regulated deficit irrigation (RDI); Fatty acids; Volatiles; Cabernet
Sauvignon; Grape; Wine
1. Introduction
Fatty acids are the direct substrate of ?green leaves volatiles? (GLVs) due to their
characteristic of ?green? and fresh odor (Matsui, 2006; Kalua & Boss, 2009; Chen,
Chen, Wang, Hao, & Fang, 2012). The product of hydroperoxides (HPOs), which is
obtained by lipoxygenase (LOX) catalyzed fatty acid, is transformed by
hydroperoxide lyase (HPL) to small molecules of C6 alcohols, C6 aldehydes, C6 esters
(Gomez, Martinez, & Laencina, 1995; Matsui, 2006), these small molecules are the
main source of grape berries and wines aroma (Buttery, Turnbaugh, & Ling, 1988).
Fatty acids and their derived volatiles are essential for grape berries and wine. The
content of fatty acid affects the yeast fermentation process (Alexandre & Charpentier,
1998). Lower fatty acids can slow down the process of fermentation and increase the
content of volatiles acids in wines (Alexandre & Charpentier, 1998). Previous studies
have shown that many environmental factors such as sunlight, temperature and
rainfall are able to strongly regulate the biosynthesis of GLVs in grape berries (Matsui,
2006; Zhang, Fan, Liu, Wu, Li, & Liang, 2014; Mendez-Costabel, Wilkinson, Bastian,
Jordans, McCarthy, Ford, & Dokoozlian, 2014). Viticultural practices, such as leaf
removal (Ju, Liu, Zhao, Zeng, Min, & Fang, 2107; Moreno, Vald閟, Uriarte, Gamero,
Talaverano, & Vilanova, 2017), plant growth regulators (Ju, Liu, Zhao, Meng, & Fang,
2016), training system (Xu, Cheng, Duan, Jiang, Pan, Duan, & Wang, 2015),
mechanical injury (Ju, Chen, Gao, Fang, Wang, & Zhang, 2014), and regulated deficit
irrigation (Deluc, Quilici, Decendit, Grimplet, Wheatley, Schlauch, & Cramer, 2009;
Song, Shellie, Wang, & Qian, 2012) are also factors that affect the biosynthesis,
concentration of volatile compounds and their precursors in grape berries. Among
these factors, RDI is an important measure of sustainable agriculture, especially in
arid and semi-arid area (Bonada, 2014). As reported that RDI can improve water use
efficiency (WUE) of grapevines and reduce the vegetative growth of grapevines,
which may affect fruit growth and fruit quality, especially polyphenols and aroma
(Ruiz, Domingo, & Castel, 2010; Fang, Sun, & Wan, 2013).
Regulated deficit irrigation (RDI) technology mainly refers to the genetic and
ecological physiological characteristics of crops and artificially exert a certain degree
of water stress at stages of crops growth period (Cao, 2002; Li, 2014). Therefore, RDI
can save water and improve crop quality (Wang, Liu, Yu, & Sun, 2005; Li, Zhao, &
Wang, 2013; Ji, Cheng, & Zhao, 2015). In recent years, with the shortage of fresh
water resources being exacerbated by global climate warming, especially in California,
South Australia, Northwest China etc, more and more researchers pay attention to the
application of RDI technology in viticulture. It has found that RDI treatments in the
bud stage did not affected vines normal growth condition, but RDI treatments
inhibited the plant normal growth during the flowering period, the fruit enlargement
period, the veraison and the mature period, respectively (Xu, Zhang, & Cheng, 2015).
RDI could increase the WUE at the germination period of grape, and could improve
the adaptation of plant to the environment (Zhang, Cheng, & Zhang, 2014). Fang, Sun
and Wan (2013) found that with the amount of irrigation increased, the photosynthesis,
the net photosynthetic rate, transpiration rate, CO2 concentration and stomatal
conductance of vines decreased gradually, but the WUE of the vines was significantly
improved. Previous results showed that the RDI could reduce the starch content and
increase the soluble sugar content in the leaves, and then concluded that RDI could
significantly affect the soluble sugar and the distribution of carbon sources in starch
(Dayer, Prieto, Galat, & Pe馻, 2015). Song, Shellie, Wang and Qian (2015) reported
that the concentrations of free C6 compounds decreased, while bound terpene alcohols
and C13-norisoprenoids increased in berries under severity of vine water stress. Above
all, RDI as a vineyard management strategy plays an important role in altering grape
and wine flavors, phenolic compounds and improving vines canopy shape, vines
vigorous, canopy microclimate. However, there are few reports about the effect of
RDI on fatty acids and their derived volatiles in grapes and wines (Song, Shellie,
Wang, & Qian, 2012). Previous researchers paid attention to the effect of RDI on
grape composition (phenols and anthocyanins) and volatile compounds, but the effect
of RDI on fatty acid and their derived volatiles was unclear. In this paper, we focused
on the effect of RDI on the fatty acid composition and its aroma components derived
from LOX pathway, such as C6 or C9 volatiles. At the same time, the relationship
between fatty acid and aroma accumulation was explored.
Therefore, the aim of this research is to elucidate the effect of RDI on fatty acids
and their derived volatiles in ?Cabernet Sauvignon? grapes and wines. The results will
illustrate the effect of RDI on the component changes of the fatty acids and their
derived volatiles in grape berries and their existences in resulting wines. The results
also improve our comprehension in the relationship between fatty acids and their
derived volatiles in grapes and wines. The results can provide a theoretical basis for
the application of RDI in vineyard, located in arid and semiarid regions.
2. Materials and Methods
2.1. Field conditions and materials
The own-rooted ?Cabernet Sauvignon? (Vitis. vinifera L.) vines were used in this
study. The study was carried out during two consecutive seasons, from 2015 to 2016
in a commercial vineyard (Chateau Lilan, 38�? N 105�? E, 1169 m asl) in
Yinchuan (NingXia, China), which is located in the east foot of Mt. Helan with a
semi-arid continental climate and gravel soil (P < 200 mm, ETPpenman > 1100 mm).
Vines were spaced at 3.0 m � 0.6 m and in north?south row orientation with drip
irrigated. A randomized block design was carried out with three replications for each
irrigation treatment. The vines received water with 60% (RDI-1), 70% (RDI-2), 80%
(RDI-3), 100% (CK, traditional drip irrigation) of their estimated evapotranspiration
(ETc) respectively. The amount of irrigation was controlled by controlling the
irrigation time, as the vines received water with two 2.4 L/h drippers per plant and the
irrigation amount was calculated by ETc. Vine water status was monitored by
measuring leaf water potential at midday (?md) using pressure chamber. ETc was
calculated using the Pennman-Monteith model (Allen, Pereira, Raes, & Smith, 1998).
Each replication consisted of five lines of 500 vines, and the study was performed on
300 vines from the three central lines.
When the grape berries Brix reached values of 22-24 癇rix, samples were
collected randomly. In total, six hundred berries of each replicate were collected for
every treatment. All samples were frozen in liquid nitrogen immediately and stored at
?80 癈 before further analysis.
2.2. Chemicals
The reagents for NaOH, NaCl, menthol (analytical grade), petroleum ether and
diethyl ether, H2SO4 was purchased from Kermel Chemical Reagent Co. Ltd. (Tianjin,
China). Chemical standards used for identification and quantification of fatty acids
and volatile compounds were purchased from Sigma-Aldrich (Shanghai, China).
2.3. Determination of Brix, pH, Titratable acidity, Diameter of berry, Berry fresh
weight, and Yield
Brix values were determined using a hand-held digital Atago PAL-1 meter
(Atago Co. Ltd., Tokyo, Japan) and the pH was measured using a Mettler Toledo
FE20 Desktop pH Meter (Mettler Toledo Instruments Co. Ltd., Shanghai, China) (OIV,
2012). Titratable acidity was determined according to the method of OIV. Diameter
was measured by vernier caliper and berry fresh weight was determined by weight of
100 berries. Yield was measured when harvested.
2.4. Vinifications
About 80-L of wine were made in 100 L stainless steel tanks using ?Cabernet
Sauvignon? grapes of each treatment when harvested, all the vinifications were made
in triplicate. Total acidity was adjusted to 5.5 g/L , pectinase (30 mg/L) and SO2 (30
mg/L) were added before alcoholic fermentation started. Then 200 mg/L Laffort
commercial yeasts were added according to the introduction. All the fermentation
were controlled at 25 � 1 癈. Caps were managed twice a day, while the temperature
and must density were recorded. At the end of alcoholic fermentation, wine
oenological parameters were analyzed in triplicate while wine samples were collected
and stored at -40 癈 before further analysis.
2.5. Determination of fatty acid
2.5.1. Extraction of fatty acid of grapes
Extraction of fatty acid was modified according to previous reports as follows
(Curtis, Berrigan, & Dauphinee, 2008). Briefly, dried power of grape skin (5 g) was
used to extract fatty acid. For extraction, petroleum ether and diethyl ether (4:3, v/v)
was mixed, then mixed 10 mL of this solution with dried power at 4 癈 for 24 h. Next,
10 mL of a 0.4 mol/L potassium hydroxide/methanol solution was added, methyl
etherification was performed at room temperature for 2 h, and then centrifuged at
4000 rpm (25 癈) for 10 min. The organic phase was collected after centrifugation.
This extraction procedure was conducted three times and the organic phases were
pooled. Finally, the pooled solution was concentrated to 5 mL under a gentle steam of
nitrogen. The experimental setup comprised 1 mL of the sample solution and 1 礚
methyl heptadecanoate (100 mg/mL) as the internal standard.
2.5.2. GC-MS analysis of the fatty acid composition of grapes
The gas chromatography (Thermo/Finnigan Trace GC Ultra, Thermo Finnigan,
Bremen,Germany)
coupled
with
thermoelectric
TRACE
DSQ
gas
chromatography-mass spectrometry (GC-MS), interfaced with a DB-WAX column
(0.25 mm I.D., 30 m, 0.25 祄; Agilent), were used to analysis the fatty acid according
to the method by Ju et al. (2014) and Chen et al. (2015). Briefly, the high purity helium
(99.9999%) was used as carrier gas (1 mL/min). The oven temperature was held at 8 癈
for 1 min, and then risen to 205 癈 at a rate of 8 癈/min and held for 0.1 min; finally
risen to 240 癈 at a rate of 3 癈/min, held for 20 min; The temperatures of the interface
and ion source were 275 癈 and 230 癈 respectively. The scan range was recorded from
m/z 40-500 with an electron impact (EI) mode at 70 ev. An injection volume of 1 礚,
and a split ratio of 80:1. For fatty acid identification, retention times were compared
with those of standard methyl esters. Quantification of fatty acids was made against
methyl heptadecanoate as an internal standard, as described by Santos, Morais, Souza,
Cottica, Boroski, & Visentainer (2011).
2.6. Determination of volatile compounds
2.6.1. Extraction of volatile compounds in grapes and wines
The methods to extract and analysis volatile compounds were according to our
previous reports (Ju, Liu, Zhao, Meng, & Fang, 2016). Briefly, 100 frozen berries were
deseeded,
grounded
under
liquid
nitrogen,
then
blended
with
1
g
polyvinylpolypyrrolidone (PVPP). Next, the mixture were macerated at 4 癈 for 2.5 h,
then centrifuged at 10,000 rpm (4 癈) for 10 min to collect the clear juice. Then, 5 mL
of clear juice with 20 礚 internal standard 2-octanol (0.32 g/L in ethanol) was blended
with 1 g NaCl in a 15 mL sample vial tightly capped with a PTFE-silicon septum
containing a magnetic stirrer for further analysis.
2.6.2. GC-MS analysis of volatile compounds in grapes and wines
The solid-phase micro extraction fiber (SPME, DVB/CAR/PDMS 2CM,
50/30-祄 ) was heated at 250 癈 for 2 h. The vial containing the sample (juice or wine)
was extracted in a 40 癈 water bath for 30 min while being stirred, and then desorbed at
230 癈 for 3 min into the splitless injection port of a GC-MS instrument
(Thermo-Finnigan Trace 2000/Polaris Q GC/MS, Thermo Finnigan, China) fitted with
an HP-INNW AX column (60 m, 0.25 mm I.D., 0.25 祄; Agilent, Shanghai, China).
The helium was used as carrier gas (1 mL/min). The chromatographic conditions
consisted of an initial oven temperature of 40 癈 for 2.5 min, then risen to 150 癈 at a
rate of 5 癈/min, increased to 220 癈 at a rate of 3 癈/min and held for 30 min. The
temperatures of the ion source and MS transfer line were 250 癈 and 280 癈,
respectively. The scan range was recorded from m/z 33-450 with an electron impact (EI)
mode at 70 ev.
The volatile compounds were identified using the NIST 2002 mass spectrum
library (National Institute of Standards and Technology, USA) and retention times to
those of authentic standards. The peak areas on the total ion chromatogram were used
for quantification. The calibration curve for individual target compounds was built by
plotting the area ratio of target compounds to the internal standard against the
concentration ratio. The regression correlation coefficients of calibration curves were
calculated by the ChemStation data analysis software. The concentrations of volatile
compounds were calculated based on their calibration curves. (Traverso, Pulido,
Rodr韌uez-Garc韆, & Alch�, 2013). All analysis were performed in triplicate.
2.7. Statistical analysis
The SPSS 19.0 software for windows (SPSS Inc., Chicago, IL, USA) was
employed to perform Duncan?s multiple range tests and p < 0.05 as significant level.
Heat maps, Pearson?s Correlation analysis, and partial least squares-discriminant
analysis (PLS-DA) were performed by MetaboAnalyst 3.0 (Xia, & Wishart, 2016).
3. Results and discussion
3.1. Vintage and berry attributes
The weather patterns as this study (Table 1) were the typical climate of northwest
of China (Yinchuan, Xinjiang, etc.), which is very suitable for cultivation of V.
vinifera grapes such as ?Cabernet Sauvignon? (Shellie, 2006).
Irrigation amount had a significant effect (p<0.05) on yield, traverse diameter,
total soluble solids (TSS), titratable acidity, and pH, whereas had no effect (p>0.05)
on longitudinal diameter (Table 2). The effect of irrigation amount on physiological
parameters was more significant in 2015 than that of 2016, which might due to the
precipitation in 2016 was higher than in 2015 during fruit development (Table 1).
However, yield, fresh weight, titratable acid decreased with the reduction of irrigation
amount in two vintage, in concordance with the previous report (Song, Shellie, Wang,
& Qian, 2012). TSS in grape berries had no significant difference between RDI-1,
RDI-2, RDI-3 treatments among two years. TSS in RDI groups were higher than
those in the control, which might be related to the indirect effects of water stress.
Reduced titratable acidity and increased pH after RDI treatments was in concordance
with previous results, which could be attributed to a reduction in malic acid (Song,
Shellie, Wang, & Qian, 2012; Koundouras, Marinos, Gkoulioti, Kotseridis, & Van,
2006).
3.2. Determination of fatty acids and their derived volatiles in grape berries
3.2.1. Fatty acids in grape berries
As shown in Figure 1, eight fatty acids were detected in this study. Three
unsaturated fatty acid (UFAs) were mainly composed of oleic acid, linoleic acid and
linolenic acid, accounting for about 65% of the total fatty acids concentration (Figure
1A). Linoleic (C18:2) and linolenic acid (C18:3) accounted for about 84% of UFAs.
On the other hand, saturated fatty acids (SFAs) consisted primarily of myristic acid,
hexadecanoic acid, octadecanoic acid, eicosanoic acid and tetracosanoic acid.
Hexadecanoic acid accounted for about 82% of SFAs (Figure 1B). Compared to
RDI-2 and RDI-3 treatment, RDI-1 treatment significantly (p<0.05) increased the
concentrations of linoleic acid and hexadecanoic acid in berries in 2015 vintage. In
addition, more linoleic acid and hexadecanoic acid after RDI-1 and RDI-2 treatments
were detected in 2016. In harvested berries, UFAs and SFAs overall presented
different patterns, which might due to the difference of climate between two years
(Table 1). More fatty acids were detected in berries after RDI-1 treatment than control
group in two years, however lower content of total fatty acid were detected in berries
after RDI-3 treatment than control group in two years (Figure 1A and 1B). It has been
well acknowledged that UFAs are not only the precursors of C6 and C9 volatiles, but
also play an important role in plant response to biotic and abiotic stresses (Schaller, &
Stintzi, 2009). RDI-1 berries had higher content of fatty acids, which might due to
grapevine response to severe water deficit after RDI-1 treatment. However, as results
in this paper RDI-3 berries could convert more fatty acids into C6 volatiles, so RDI-3
berries contained lower content of fatty acids. As results in this study, regulated deficit
irrigation could regulate the content and composition of fatty acids.
3.2.2. Fatty acids derived volatiles in grape berries
Volatiles derived from fatty acids mainly consist of straight-chain alcohols,
straight-chain aldehydes, straight-chain acids and straight-chain esters (Wang,
Baldwin, & Bai, 2016). Fourteen aroma components, including straight-chain
alcohols, straight-chain acids, straight-chain esters and straight-chain aldehydes, were
detected in grapes berries (Table S1). Highest content of straight-chain aldehydes
were detected in two vintages, followed by straight-chain alcohols (Figure 1C). RDI
treatments (especially RDI-1 and RDI-2 treatments) significantly increased the
content of straight-chain aldehydes (Figure 1C). The content of straight chain acids
were increased but had no significance. As expected, RDI treatments increased the
aroma content of grape berries, especially the C6 and C9 aroma compounds (Figure 1C
and Table S1). The C6 compounds, including 1-hexanol, hexanal, nonanal and
hexanoic acid, were the most abundant aroma compounds in grapes. The results
suggested that RDI treatments might regulated the biosynthesis of C6 compounds, and
thus enhanced the aroma characteristics of grape varieties. Interestingly, ethyl acetate
and dodecanoic acid methyl ester were detected in 2015 and RDI-3 treatment
increased the content of dodecanoic acid methyl ester significantly, different from
2016. The results in this research suggested that vintage greatly influenced the
composition of grape aroma compounds. RDI-2 treatment berries had higher content
of C6 compounds in 2016 vintage. No significance among different treatments was
observed regarding C6 compounds in 2015. This result was similar to a previous
report, in which three training systems led to different variation patterns of C6 and C9
compounds in two vintages (Xu, Cheng, Duan,, Jiang, Pan, Duan, & Wang, 2015).
High levels of hexanal and 1-hexanol were accompanied by low levels of linoleic
acid in RDI-2 treatment berries in two vintages (Figure 2). However lower levels of
unsaturated C6 alcohols and C9 aldehydes were accompanied by high level of
linolenic acid in RDI-2 treatment berries (Figure 2). The similar patterns were
presented in RDI-3 treatment. In contrast, RDI-1 treatment berries had higher level of
linoleic acid (556.95 mg/kg in 2015 and 391.00 mg/kg in 2016) and produced lower
level of hexanal (934.88 礸/L in 2015 and 1013.62 礸/L in 2016)and 1-hexanol (84.22
礸/L in 2015 and 76.94 礸/L in 2016) in two vintages. The presence of this
phenomenon might be due to the effect of RDI on the enzymatic activity in the
lipoxygenase-hydroperoxide lyase pathway, which in turn affected the conversion of
linolenic acid and linoleic acid to C6 and C9 aroma compounds (Xu, Cheng, Duan,
Jiang, Pan, Duan, & Wang, 2015).
3.3. Oenological parameters and fatty acids derived volatiles in wines
In order to gain a more complete understanding of the effects of regulated deficit
irrigation on the aroma of wine, we performed vinification process using grapes from
different treatments separately under the same conditions. Wine oenological
parameters made from grape berries with different treatments were showed in Table
S2. All of RDI treatments wines presented higher alcohol concentration than control
groups in two vintages, which coincided with higher level of total soluble solids
(Table 2). Wines in 2016 had higher level of titratable acid and lower pH than in 2015.
Higher level of reduced dry extract was determined in 2016 than in 2015. The results
suggested that the vintage also affect wines composition, which was consistent with
previous reports (Xu, Cheng, Duan, Jiang, Pan, Duan, & Wang, 2015).
There were 22 aroma components, including straight chain alcohols, straight
chain acids, straight chain esters and straight chain ketones, were detected in wines
made from grapes separately under different treatments (Table 3). Straight chain esters
were the major compounds, followed by straight chain alcohols and straight chain
acids in two vintages. In 2015 wines, 2-nonanone was detected but not in 2016 wines.
Many researchers had reported that management practice could regulate concentration
of volatiles in wines (Moreno, Vald閟, Uriarte, Gamero, Talaverano, & Vilanova,
2017). The results in this research demonstrated that RDI treatments could affect the
concentration of volatile compounds in wines. In total, the concentration of volatiles
was higher in 2015 wines than in 2016 wines. From the climatic variables of two
vintages (Table 1), it was observed that the precipitation was higher in 2016 than in
2015 during grape development. Previous researchers had reported that a cooler and
wetter environment result in an increased content of C6 adehydes in grapes, but C6
adehydes could be generally converted into the C6 alcohols or acids during
fermentation (Zoecklein, Wolf, P閘anne, Miller, & Birkenmaier, 2008). Our results
were different and might be caused by differences in vintages and yeast fermentation
process. Total straight chain of alcohols, acids and esters increased under RDI-2 and
RDI-3 treatments but decreased under RDI-1 treatment in two years of wines (Table
3); these results suggested that RDI-2 and RDI-3 might give wine more floral, rose,
honey and fruity flavors. In two years of wines, 1-hexanol and hexanoic acid were
significantly increased under RDI-2 and RDI-3 treatments compared with the control
group; these results suggested that RDI-2 and RDI-3 treated grapes could produce
wines with fruity and flowery aroma characteristics. Wines in 2015 contained higher
levels of straight chain esters, while wines in 2016 had higher levels of straight chain
alcohols. This was possibly due to the more efficient transformation from alcohols to
esters by yeast in 2015 wines, because the transformation is affected by fatty acids,
sugar or volatile compounds in grape must (Dennis, Keyzers, Kalua, Maffei,
Nicholson, & Boss, 2012). RDI treatments given wines in 2016 more content of ethyl
acetate, which could give wine more fruity aroma. RDI-2 treatment wines had higher
level of 1-hexanol in two vintages, which was coincided with higher level of hexanal
in grapes (Table 3 and Figure S1). Pentanoic acid, decanoic acid, pentanedioic acid
and monomethyl ester were detected in 2015 wines but not in 2016 wines. In contrast,
undecylenic acid, tetradecanoic acid, (Z)- 9-octadecenoic acid, methyl ester and
methyl salicylate were detected in 2016 wines but not in 2015 wines. Above all, the
present work suggested that the volatile compounds could be affected by the irrigation
amount and the vintage.
3.4. Multivariate statistical analysis
In order to better understand the results, partial least square discriminant analysis
(PLS-DA) as means of multivariate data analysis were performed with the data of
fatty acids and their derived volatiles in grapes and wines. Results in Figure 3A and
3B showed that the first two principal components (PC1 and PC2) accounted about
90.2% (in 2015) and 94.6% (in 2016) of the total variance, respectively. Figure 3A
and 3B showed that three RDI treatments and the control group were clearly separated
from each other. RDI-2 located on positive side of PC1, and RDI-3 sited in positive
side of PC2. Control groups sited in negative side of PC1 and PC2. It might be
explained by the higher difference of metabolites between RDI treatments and control
groups.
For PLS-DA, the normalization of metabolites in this study were performed by
Autoscaling method in the MetaboAnalyst 3.0 and cross-validation was performed by
leave one out cross-validation (LOOCV) method (Figure S2). As seen from Figure 3C,
fifteen compounds were selected. Compared with control groups, RDI-2 and RDI-3
treatments reduced the concentration of linoleic acid in grape berries, whereas
significantly increased hexanal (985.31 礸/L and 840.01 礸/L in 2015; 1221.05 礸/L
and 809.30 礸/L in 2016) and 1-hexanol in berries (85.09 礸/L and 104.43 礸/L in
2015; 70.85 礸/L and 115.13 礸/L in 2016), as well as 1-hexanol and esters in wines
(Figure 3C). On the other hand, RDI-1 increased the concentration of linoleic acid and
linolenic acid, but reduced 1-hexanol and esters in wines. These results suggested that
the concentration of UFAs in grapes significantly influenced the composition of
volatiles in wines. Previous reports noted that fatty acids in the juice would impact
yeast growth, the synthesis of fatty acids and related enzymatic activities (Lilly et al.,
2000).
It has been reported that water irrigation could significantly alter the chemical
composition of grape berries and wines sensory traits (Santesteban, Miranda, & Royo,
2011; Marcos, 2014). In this study, RDI-1 vines had lower yield compared with other
treatments (Table 2). Furthermore, lower level of straight chain alcohols and esters
were detected in RDI-1 wines than RDI-2 and RDI-3 wines (Table 3). These results
suggested that RDI-2 and RDI-3 treated grapes could produce wines with fruity and
flowery aroma characteristics. The present results provided direct evidence and
detailed data to explain the effect of RDI on grape and wine composition regarding
fatty acids and aroma compounds.
4. Conclusion
The effects of RDI on fatty acids and their derived volatiles in ?Cabernet
Sauvignon? grapes and wines was evaluated during two consecutive vintages. RDI-1
vines had lowest yield, berry weight with higher total soluble solids compared with
RDI-2 and RDI-3 (Table 2). The four irrigation methods were separated from each
other according to PLS-DA. RDI-1 produced grape berries with higher level of
unsaturated fatty acids and wines with lower level of straight chain alcohols and
straight chain esters (Figure 1 and Table 3). RDI-2 and RDI-3 increased 1-hexanol
and esters in wines, which given wines more floral, rose, honey and fruity aroma
characteristics (Table 3). Above all, RDI-2 and RDI-3 improved the qualities of
grapes and wines, considering fatty acid derived volatiles.
Acknowledgments
This work was supported by the key research and development program of
Ningxia (Grant No. 2016BZ0602)?and China Agriculture Research System for Grape
(Grant No. CARS-29-zp-6).
Conflicts of Interest
The authors declare no conflict of interest.
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Figure Captions
Fig. 1 Fatty acids of grape berries with different treatments. (A) Content of UFAs
under treatments. (B) Content of SFAs under treatments. (C) Volatile compounds
derived from fatty acids of grape berries.
Fig. 2 Clustered heatmaps of fatty acid and volatile compounds derived from fatty
acids of grape berries with different treatments. Data was normalized by a pooled
sample from control groups.
Fig. 3 Results of PLS-DA. (A) Score plot of samples under different treatments in
2015. (B) Score plot of samples under different treatments in 2016. (C) Selected
compounds based on VIP scores. Partial Least Squares-Discriminant Analysis
(PLS-DA) model was built between the data (X) and the permuted class labels (Y)
using the optimal number of components determined by cross validation for the model
based on the original class assignment. Variable Importance in Projection (VIP) is a
weighted sum of squares of the PLS loadings taking into account the amount of
explained Y-variation in each dimension. VIP scores are calculated for each
component. The colored boxes on the right indicate the relative concentration of the
corresponding metabolites in each group under study.
Figure 1
A
B
2015
2016
2015
2016
C
2015
2016
Figure 2
2015
2016
Figure 3
2016
2015
A
B
C
Tables
Table 1 Monthly weather data during two years of this study
Year
April
May
June
July
August
Septemb
er
Total
Daily average
2015
14.54
18.47
23.93
24.8
21.26
17.36
-
temperature (?)
2016
13.81
17.48
24.26
24.50
23.59
15.61
-
ET0 April
2015
119.79
149.96
178.01
171.37
127.92
85.54
832.60
2016
126.81
143.82
162.44
163.57
141.16
78.47
816.26
Precipitation
2015
5.8
37.6
22.5
33.5
12.2
32.7
144.3
(mm)
2016
25.9
10
48.9
43.4
23.8
34.2
186.2
Solar net
2015
2746.13
3448.88
3701.99
3651.97
3128.87
2235.12
-
2016
2701.32
3318.34
3470.33
3642.65
3305.59
2118.51
-
1?September 30
(mm)
2
radiation(J/cm )
Note: the weather data obtained from micro weather station at experiment site. ET0:calculated
from daily meteorological data according to FAO 56 (Allen et al., 1998).
Table 2 Production parameters for different treatments
Parameter
RDI-1
2015
2016
7.24�
7.82�34
25ba
b
Traverse
12.73�
12.71�6
diameter?mm?
.66c
2b
Longitudinal
13.89�
13.78�4
diameter?mm?
.56a
1a
Wight (g/100
109.40�
121.80�
berries)
4.48a
15a
Total soluble
23.90�
23.55�0
solids (癇rix)
.40a
7a
4.31�
3.15�20
35b
a
4.12�
3.88�04
01b
ab
Yield (ton/ha)
Titratable acidity
(g/L tartaric
acid)
pH
a
RDI-2
Mean
7.48�08c
12.72�01c
13.84�08a
115.60�77
a
23.73�25a
3.73�82b
4.00�17a
2015
2016
7.88�12
8.04�3
ab
2b
13.16�4
13.25�
7c
55b
13.48�5
13.69�
6a
35a
104.90�
110.0�
27a
08b
23.5�30
23.95�
ab
07a
4.80�25
3.11�1
ab
2a
4.28�01
3.73�0
a
3b
RDI-3
Mean
7.98�14b
13.21�06b
13.59�15a
107.45�61
b
23.73�32a
3.96�20ab
4.01�39a
2015
2016
Mean
2015
2016
8.48�2
8.64�0
8.56�03a
8.96�2
9.68�1
1a
8ab
b
3a
2a
12.78�
13.33�
13.06�39
13.91�
14.06�
50b
75b
43a
84a
13.64�
13.79�
13.63�
13.57�
55a
32a
77a
47a
117.8�
124.8�
120.0�
122.0�
03a
66a
50a
12a
23.5�6
23.20�
22.0�4
23.85�
0ab
28a
0b
35a
5.02�0
3.49�0
5.42�0
3.72�2
2ab
6a
1a
4a
3.69�0
3.92�0
3.66�0
3.84�0
4c
4a
4c
4ab
Different letters represent significant difference at 0.05 level among treatments in the same vintage (n=3).
31
Control
b
13.72�11
a
121.3�95
a
23.35�21
ab
4.26�08a
3.81�16b
Mean
9.32�13a
13.99�11a
13.6�04a
121�41a
22.93�31b
4.57�2a
3.75�13b
Table 3 Major volatile compounds in respective wines made from grape berries of treatments (unit: 礸/L)
2015
RDI-1
a
2016
RDI-2
RDI-3
CK
RDI-1
RDI-2
RDI-3
CK
1-Hexanol
19.57�23bc
26.26�65a
24.35�53ab
18.00�13c
16.36�99b
23.78�43a
20.11�21ab
17.05�03b
1-Decanol
0.90�06b
1.36�09a
1.38�09a
1.28�08a
2.12�13a
2.37�14a
1.58�10b
1.90�11ab
1-Undecanol
0.43�03b
0.67�04a
0.46�03b
0.63�04a
1.85�11b
1.75�11b
1.48�09b
2.73�16a
1-Octanol
1.08�07a
1.33�08a
1.31�08a
1.12�07a
1.39�08b
1.85�11a
1.30�08b
1.23�07b
1-octyl alcohol
1.51�09b
2.47�16a
2.3�14a
2.03�13b
0.23�01a
0.16�01b
0.14�01b
0.17�01b
Tridecan-1-ol
0.24�02c
0.20�01c
0.48�03a
0.39�02b
0.31�02a
0.27�02ab
0.09�01c
0.25�02b
4-Penten-2-ol
0.35�02c
0.46�03ab
0.52�03a
0.39�02bc
0.31�02ab
0.34�02a
0.26�02b
0.18�01c
9-Tetradecen-1-ol, (E)-
0.45�03b
0.73�05a
0.63�04a
0.45�03b
24.52�54b
33.48�10a
31.44�98ab
24.28�53b
22.57�36b
30.53�84a
24.95�50ab
23.5�42b
0.59�04a
0.26�02b
ndb
0.30�02b
nd
nd
nd
nd
0.59�04a
0.26�02b
nd
0.30�02b
nd
nd
nd
nd
0.55�03b
0.66�04b
0.67�04b
1.08�07a
nd
nd
nd
nd
Total straight-chain
alcohols
2-Nonanone
Total straight-chain
ketones
Pentanoic acid
Hexanoic acid
4.13�26b
6.29�40a
5.99�38a
3.48�22b
4.57�28a
5.08�31a
4.39�26a
2.64�16b
Octanoic acid
5.33�33b
7.90�50a
8.12�51a
7.91�50a
5.67�34a
5.98�36a
3.68�22b
5.61�34a
Undecylenic acid
nd
nd
nd
nd
0.54�03a
0.45�03ab
0.39�02b
0.49�03b
Decanoic acid
0.74�05b
1.20�08a
1.36�09a
1.25�08a
0.54�03a
0.45�03ab
0.39�02b
0.49�03b
Tetradecanoic acid
nd
nd
nd
nd
0.68�04a
0.6�04a
0.69�04a
0.56�03a
10.76�68b
16.05�01a
16.14�01a
13.72�86b
11.47�69ab
12.11�73a
9.14�55b
9.31�56b
Total straight-chain
acids
32
Ethyl acetate
47.7�00a
52.91�32b
38.07�39a
50.72�19b
55.27�33a
62.82�78a
55.64�35a
54.32�27a
Acetic acid, pentyl ester
40.72�56b
53.21�34a
40.53�55b
45.81�88ab
40.52�44b
48.51�92ab
54.89�31a
50.89�07ab
Formic acid, butyl ester
2.53�16a
2.02�13b
1.12�07c
0.9�06c
2.83�17a
2.88�17a
2.74�16a
2.58�16a
35.31�22b
55.91�51a
46.2�90ab
38.33�41ab
41.12�36b
52.25�05a
35.13�99b
37.03�16b
0.27�02bc
0.38�02b
0.98�06a
0.15�01c
nd
nd
nd
nd
nd
nd
nd
nd
0.31�02b
0.49�03a
0.38�02b
0.16�01c
nd
nd
nd
nd
0.58�04a
0.49�03a
0.3�02b
0.52�03a
126.53�95b
164.44�.33a
126.91�97b
135.91�54ab
140.64�47a
167.43�.09a
149.07�98a
145.5�77a
Octanoic acid, ethyl
ester
Pentanedioic acid,
monomethyl ester
9-Octadecenoic acid
(Z)-, methyl ester
Methyl salicylate
Total straight-chain
esters
a
Different letters represent significant difference at 0.05 level among treatments in the same vintage (n=3).
nd: not detected.
b
33
Highlights
Irrigation with 60% evapotranspiration (ETc) increase the content of unsaturated fatty acids in grape berries.
Irrigation with 60% ETc treatment decrease the level of alcohols and esters volatiles in wines.
Irrigation with 70% and 80% ETc treatments enhance C6 volatiles in wines.
The accumulation of C6 compounds is closely related to UFAs, especially linolenic acid and linoleic acid.
34
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