Chapter 29 The Influence of Employee Empowerment on Organizational Citizenship Behavior Shereen Noranee, Nazlinda Abdullah, Rohani Mohd, Mohd Rahim Khamis, Rozilah Abdul Aziz, Rohana Mat Som and Erma Ammira Mohd Ammirul Abstract Organizational citizenship behavior (OCB) makes an organization more effective over time and across employees. Employee empowerment is necessary for the success and survival of organizations. However, lack of trust toward employee and misunderstanding of the employee empowerment may decrease employee OCB. Hence, the main objective of this study is to examine the relationship between employee empowerment and the dimensions of OCB. This research is based on correlational research which to identify the association between empowerment and the dimensions of OCB. Convenience sampling technique was administered. 123 respondents were among the part-time of degree students from a local university. The ﬁndings indicate that there were positive and signiﬁcant relationship between employee empowerment and all dimensions of OCB. The study concludes that in general, employee empowerment would increase employee work voluntarily, lessen complaints, abrest with latest information, and maintain honesty in equal work pay. S. Noranee (&) R. Mohd M.R. Khamis R.A. Aziz R.M. Som E.A.M. Ammirul Faculty of Business and Management, UiTM, Puncak Alam Campus, 42300 Bandar Puncak Alam, Selangor Darul Ehsan, Malaysia e-mail: [email protected] R. Mohd e-mail: [email protected] M.R. Khamis e-mail: [email protected] R.A. Aziz e-mail: [email protected] R.M. Som e-mail: [email protected] E.A.M. Ammirul e-mail: [email protected] N. Abdullah Faculty of Applied Science, UiTM, Shah Alam 40000, Selangor Darul Ehsan, Malaysia e-mail: [email protected] © Springer Nature Singapore Pte Ltd. 2018 F. Noordin et al. (eds.), Proceedings of the 2nd Advances in Business Research International Conference, https://doi.org/10.1007/978-981-10-6053-3_29 305 306 S. Noranee et al. Keywords Organizational citizenship behavior Employee empowerment Altruism Sportsmanship Conscientiousness Civic virtue Courtesy 29.1 Introduction Organizational citizenship behavior (OCB) is an important employee behavior to maintain the growth and success of the organization. OCB is where the employees act beyond their work-related role. This kind of behavior is not compulsory to possess but it plays a major role for the success of the organization. This behavior is a substantial factor in determining the productivity, efﬁciency and effectiveness of the organization. Almost all organizations would want to achieve their goals and proﬁts and maintain their business in the long run. Hence, the organization must attract the right employees, with the right goals and at the right time. This situation will ensure that the organization can compete with other organizations within their business scope or the same business line. One of the ways for an organization to response to an increasingly complex and competitive external environment is by practicing employee empowerment. Employee empowerment is necessary for the success and survival of organizations (Huq 2015). Employee empowerment in the organizational culture has becoming a trend for organization development. Organizations prefer any ways that can contribute to the achievement toward their goals and objective. Employee empowerment resulted in higher degree of authority for the employees to function independently in their job. Employees are urged to make their own decisions without even consulted or discussed with their own superior, as such this situation will enhance a bottom-up approach (Humborstad and Perry 2011). An employee is said to be empowered when they are given the power to make their own decisions and they have their own saying in the decision-making process. The feeling of empowerment will influence an employee to be loyal, satisﬁed and encouraged to come to work because they are happy and the turnover rate would reduce. OCB gives several advantages such as productivity, innovative, performance, reduced turnover and increase the intention to stay in the organization. While employee empowerment is a situation where the employees are given the right and power to influence people in the decision-making process (Amir and Amen 2014). However, managers tend to avoid empowerment practices due to lack of trust (Ambad and Bahron 2012) which may lead to low employee work performance. In addition, according to Huq (2015), the beneﬁts of employee empowerment committed by employees is not fully understood by both employees and employers. This would decrease OCB among the employees. Hence, the main objective of this study is to examine the relationship between employee empowerment and the dimensions of OCB. 29 The Influence of Employee Empowerment on Organizational … 29.2 307 Organizational Citizenship Behavior (OCB) OCB occurs when the employees perform a task that goes beyond their work related in accordance for the success of the organizations. This behavior will influence their performance to be better and easy to get promoted. Over the past few decades, research on OCB has been focused on the citizenship at work place (Paillé and Grima 2011). This type of employee will go extra mile in order to feel satisﬁed with their work or non-work-related area. An employee is said to have an OCB when he or she possesses the ﬁve dimensions of OCB, namely altruism, sportsmanship, conscientiousness, civic virtue, and courtesy. OCB has an important role for the survival of the organization. OCB will bring satisfaction, team work, customer orientation, and reduced turnover, and it will increase the productivity level among employees (Organ 1988; Najaﬁ et al. 2011). 29.3 Empowerment Empowerment is when the employees are given the autonomy to influence others and the right to participate in the decision-making process (Kumar and Moorthy 2015). Employees that can drive their subordinates to achieve organization’s objectives, goals or targets are considered to have leadership skills. In the past two decades, psychological empowerment has become a very popular topic in management ﬁeld for academic researchers and business practitioners (Kumar and Moorthy 2015). A leader is said to empower employees when he can influence others to get the job done on track. It is important for a leader to empower employees because empowerment will affect the organization as a whole. Employees need to possess critical and analytical thinking in order to be empowered. Delegation, shared decision-making, and participative management are parts of empowerment (Al-Kahtani et al. 2011). 29.4 Relationship Between Employee Empowerment and OCB Over the past few decades, there have been a lot of researchers doing research on empowerment and OCB. Subsequently, there is a positive relationship between empowerment and OCB (Jha 2014). The employees will show a positive behavior in doing the job that needed their extra role that is not within their job description, and this will promote their leadership skills and knowledge in making decisions. OCB and Altruism. Altruism can be considered as helping others voluntarily without being asked for help and it is directed toward a person on a face-to-face basis. Furthermore, altruism includes a various interpersonal acts that will help to 308 S. Noranee et al. maintain the interpersonal and social context within employees. Altruism has a positive relationship with empowerment because there are willingly to lend a helping hand without even being asked for help and they do not take into account whether their behavior will be rewarded or not (Jha 2014). OCB and Sportsmanship. A good sportsmanship behavior should bring the team toward achieving the organizational goals by fostering the right plan to achieve the organizational goals. When the team can work in a systematic way, it will increase the proﬁtability of the company and the employees will treasure the social context that they have between each other. In addition, the organization should promote sportsmanship within their organization, and this has been proved to have a positive relationship with empowerment. OCB and Conscientiousness. When an employee follows all the rules and regulations of the organization, this will create a harmonious and peaceful environment (Priyadharshini and Mahadevan 2014). This type of behavior will give an impact toward the newbies. They will eventually follow all the rules and regulations made by the organization. When the employee obeys the rules and regulations of the work place without even being supervised by their superior (Zhong et al. 2011). According to Jha (2014), empowerment has a positive impact with conscientiousness because it is predicted by the traits, skills, ability and their awareness to condone with the rules and regulations of the organization. OCB and Civic Virtue. Civic virtue is when an employee joins or involves with any activities for the well-being of the company and to maintain the positive image of the company. An employee with this behavior will actively participate with any activities for the betterment of the organization whether in the long or short run. Empowerment have a positive relationship with civic virtue where employees are very cost-minded and they help to ensure that the organization will not be bankrupt by giving out suggestions and opinions that might directly affect the operating efﬁciency. OCB and Courtesy. An employee is considered as committing a courtesy when he or she provides any useable information or prevents any problem from arising within the work limit (Zhong et al. 2011). Employees with courtesy will consider anything such as decision-making results whether it will affect other employees. They are very concern with their co-workers. They want mutual beneﬁts between employees and employer. They will be loyal toward the organizations, supervisors, work groups, and departments (Jha 2014). There is a positive relationship between empowerment and courtesy where the supervisor will think ﬁrst whether his decisions will affect his employees in a positive or negative way (Zhong et al. 2011). Based on the above discussion, the following hypotheses were formulated: H1: The employee empowerment has a relationship with altruism in OCB. H2: The employee empowerment has a relationship with sportsmanship in OCB. H3: The employee empowerment has a relationship with conscientiousness in OCB. H4: The employee empowerment has a relationship with civic virtue in OCB. H5: The employee empowerment has a relationship with courtesy in OCB. 29 The Influence of Employee Empowerment on Organizational … 29.5 309 Methodology This research is based on correlational research which to identify the association between empowerment and the dimensions of OCB. There were 700 distance learning program (DLP) part-time students from the Bachelor of Business Administration (Hons) Human Resource Management program in UiTM Puncak Alam that were selected to be the respondents for this study. From the study conducted, majority of respondents among e-PJJ students in UiTM Puncak Alam consist of female students. Most of the respondents aged between 21 and 23 years, and majority of them was single. Moreover, most of the respondents hold a bachelor degree as their highest education qualiﬁcation. More than 80% respondents are Malay because UiTM only consists of student who is Malay and Bumiputera. Lastly, majority of the respondent’s length of services is more than 3 years which hold a position as an executive in government sector. Convenience sampling technique was administered. According to Kretjcie and Morgan (1970), the minimum sample size for 700 student population is 100 respondents. In total 123 questionnaires were returned which considered as adequate and valid for statistical analysis. All data of the respondents were collected in the spreadsheet using the Google Form. The questionnaire consists of three sections which are demographic information of the respondents such as age, gender, education level, and length of service; Section B is the dimensions of OCB, and Section C consists of employee empowerment items. The questionnaire for OCB dimensions was obtained from Podsakoff et al. (1990),while the employee empowerment items were adopted from Spreitzer (1995), namely 12-item Empowerment at Work Scale. 29.6 Results and Discussion The overall results of the correlation analysis between employee empowerment and the dimensions of OCB are indicated in Table 29.1. From Table 29.1, it can be said that all of the factors are correlated. There was a positive correlation between employee empowerment and altruism (r = 0.585, n = 123, p < 0.01). Overall, there was a strong, positive correlation for both variables. This view is supported by Jha (2014) who writes that altruism has a positive relationship with empowerment because there are willingly to lend a helping hand without even being asked for help and they do not take into account whether their behavior will be rewarded or not. Altruism is a behavior that a person does without even being asked to do so (Zhong et al. 2011). There was a positive correlation between employee empowerment and sportsmanship (r = 0.710, n = 123, p < 0.01). Overall, there was a strong, positive correlation for both variables. Sportsmanship has the strongest correlation with employee empowerment compared to other dimensions of OCB. In the same vein, a Altruism Sportsmanship Altruism 1 Sportsmanship 0.784** 1 Conscientiousness 0.673** 0.728** Civic virtue 0.732** 0.808** Courtesy 0.696** 0.760** Employee empowerment 0.585** 0.710** **Correlation is signiﬁcant at the 0.01 level (two tailed) Correlations Table 29.1 Correlation analysis (N = 123) 1 0.765** 0.710** 0.628** Conscientiousness 1 0.726** 0.698** Civic virtue 1 0.681** Courtesy 1 Employee empowerment 310 S. Noranee et al. 29 The Influence of Employee Empowerment on Organizational … 311 person with positive minded will accept any comments from anyone and will turn the comments into a positive one. When employees can work in a systematic way, it will increase the proﬁtability of the company and the employees will treasure the social context that they have between each other. There was a positive correlation between employee empowerment and conscientiousness (r = 0.628, n = 123, p < 0.01). Overall, there was a strong, positive correlation for both variables. In accordance with the present results, a previous study has demonstrated that empowerment has a positive correlation with conscientiousness because it is predicted by the traits, skills, ability, and their awareness to condone with the rules and regulations of the organization (Jha 2014). A discipline employee will follow all the rules and regulations anywhere they go (Zhong et al 2011). There was a positive correlation between employee empowerment and civic virtue (r = 0.698, n = 123, p < 0.01). Overall, there was a strong, positive correlation for both variables. Increases in employee empowerment were correlated with increases in civic virtue. The present ﬁndings seem to be consistent with other research which found that empowerment has a positive relationship with civic virtue where employees are very cost-minded, and they help to ensure that the organization won’t be bankrupt by giving out suggestions and opinions that might directly affect the operating efﬁciency (Talat et al. 2016). An employee with civic virtue attitude will defend any negative comments being thrown at the company and the will actively participate in any meetings for the betterment of the organization (Lin 2013). There was a positive correlation between employee empowerment and courtesy (r = 0.681, n = 123, p < 0.01). Overall, there was a strong, positive correlation for both variables. Increases in employee empowerment were correlated with increases in courtesy. These results agree with the ﬁnding of a study (Zhong et al. 2011), in which there is a positive relationship between empowerment and courtesy where the supervisor will think ﬁrst whether his decisions will affect his employees in a positive or negative way. An employee with courtesy behavior will be loyal toward the company, and they hate to create any quarrel between their co-workers (Jha 2014). 29.7 Conclusion and Recommendation Employee empowerment correlated with all ﬁve dimensions of OCB which is altruism, sportsmanship, conscientiousness, civic virtue, and courtesy. The employees believed that the employee empowerment would increase their work voluntarily, less of complaints, always keep up with the latest information and maintaining honesty in equal work pay. The employees thought that with employee empowerment, they are able to solve any work-related problems, maintain a positive image by gaining extra knowledge to improve the status quo and acknowledge co-workers in every area. 312 S. Noranee et al. All employers want employees who demonstrate an initiative by taking on and completing tasks with little guidance. Of course, the expectation is that those employees will perform OCB only in ways consistent with the organization objectives and values. Hence, employees should foster an open communication, reward for self-improvement, clearly deﬁne job description, and appreciate employee efforts. All these variables used by researcher would help the organization to consider the important things for the leaders as well other distance learning program (DLP) students who are working or pursuing their studies in UiTM Puncak Alam. Other than that, an organization should look how the relationship of variables (employee empowerment, altruism, sportsmanship, conscientiousness, civic virtue, and courtesy) would give an impact to the organization whether in good effect or vice versa. The following are the recommendations based on ﬁndings from this study. In term of empowerment, it is good to practices greater empowerment for everyone in the organization such as continuous learning and wide involvement (Al-Kahtani et al. 2011). The organization should make all of their employees involve in the decision-making process which will increase their level of empowerment. Besides that, in order to give a greater impact on OCB, the researcher can provide information about goal performance (Fernandez and Moldogaziev 2013). By providing information about goal performance, it can increase the level of OCB among employees. When the employee feels that he or she needs to make sure that the organization runs smoothly, they will play the role of OCB in their daily life. The management should provide a 360° feedback system where the entire unit in organization can evaluate each other so that the management can provide an effective ways to overcome negligence. The employees also should organize their work effectively in order to perform efﬁciently in their day-to-day work basis. Lastly, reward those who perform better or improve greatly in their work area such as by giving bonus on their next pay. This action will keep the employees loyal with the organization. 29.8 Recommendations for Future Research It must be noted that the research focuses only on employee empowerment. It is recommended that future research with the same study may be conducted on the public educational institutions of other cities. In order to get better ﬁnding, researcher may conduct the same survey on other public educational institutions of other cities. This is because different universities may provide different results or ﬁndings. It also must be noted that the research focuses on the dimensions of OCB and employee empowerment. It is recommended that future research explore the study by putting the mediator between the dimensions of OCB and employee empowerment to get the best result such as reward or mental motivation. 29 The Influence of Employee Empowerment on Organizational … 313 Comparative studies are recommended which may be held for private and public institutes and other organization. This similar study can be conducted from organization itself. This is because it will be able to give clear practices that will influence the dimensions of OCB in their organization. The ﬁndings may different from the employee perspective. References Al-Kahtani, A. H., Sulaiman, M., Shariff, S., & Abu Jarad, I. 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