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j.micromeso.2017.10.026

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Accepted Manuscript
Effect of the oxidation degree on self-assembly, adsorption and barrier properties of
nano-graphene
Rachele Castaldo, Giuseppe Cesare Lama, Paolo Aprea, Gennaro Gentile, Marino
Lavorgna, Veronica Ambrogi, Pierfrancesco Cerruti
PII:
S1387-1811(17)30679-0
DOI:
10.1016/j.micromeso.2017.10.026
Reference:
MICMAT 8602
To appear in:
Microporous and Mesoporous Materials
Received Date: 9 August 2017
Revised Date:
28 September 2017
Accepted Date: 16 October 2017
Please cite this article as: R. Castaldo, G.C. Lama, P. Aprea, G. Gentile, M. Lavorgna, V. Ambrogi,
P. Cerruti, Effect of the oxidation degree on self-assembly, adsorption and barrier properties of nanographene, Microporous and Mesoporous Materials (2017), doi: 10.1016/j.micromeso.2017.10.026.
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ACCEPTED MANUSCRIPT
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Effect of the oxidation degree on self-assembly, adsorption and barrier properties of
nano-graphene
Rachele Castaldo1,2,*, Giuseppe Cesare Lama1,2,*, Paolo Aprea2, Gennaro Gentile1,**, Marino Lavorgna3,
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Veronica Ambrogi1,2, Pierfrancesco Cerruti1
Institute for Polymers, Composites and Biomaterials, National Research Council of Italy, Via Campi
Flegrei 34, 80078 Pozzuoli, Italy.
Department of Chemical, Materials and Production Engineering, University of Naples, Piazzale
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2
Tecchio 80, 80125 Napoli, Italy.
Institute for Polymers, Composites and Biomaterials, National Research Council of Italy, P.le E. Fermi
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3
1, 80055 Portici, Italy.
*
These authors contributed equally to this work
**
Corresponding author email: [email protected]
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ABSTRACT
Oxidized nano-graphene (nGO, lateral size about 200 nm) was synthesized from graphene nanoplatelets
to evaluate the effect of size of the sheets and oxidation degree on self-assembly behaviour, adsorption
and barrier properties of graphene. The obtained nGO samples were characterized by O/C atomic ratio
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between 0.11 and 0.49. nGO water dispersions showed good stability and were effective to adsorb
organic dyes. Bulk and porous self-assembled nGO samples were prepared through water evaporation
and freeze-drying, respectively. For both processes, only higher oxidation degrees yielded self-standing
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structures. Nitrogen adsorption measurements demonstrated that self-assembly by water evaporation of
highly oxidized graphene resulted in a relevant reduction of the BET specific surface area (about 2
m2/g), while freeze-drying promoted the formation of interconnected structures with higher BET SSA
(about 120 m2/g). Barrier properties towards oxygen of nGO were demonstrated on free-standing nGO
films and on nGO coatings applied on a polyethylene substrate.
KEYWORDS: Nano-graphene oxide; Oxidation; Self-assembly; Adsorption; Barrier properties.
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1. INTRODUCTION
Graphene is defined as a flat monolayer of carbon atoms tightly packed into a two-dimensional
honeycomb lattice [1], and is the basis for the realization of several advanced materials and devices,
with applications in a large number of sectors that are expected to revolutionize multiple industrial
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fields [2,3,4,5,6]. One of the key factors for the massive exploitation of graphene is the availability of
facile and sustainable graphene processing methods on a large scale. In this regard, graphene oxide
(GO) is considered the most versatile graphene-based derivative, and is increasingly attracting attention
in materials science [7,8]. GO is produced by oxidation of graphite to graphite oxide, which weakens
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the van der Walls interactions between the stacked carbon planes, followed by exfoliation of graphite
oxide into monolayers or few-layered stacks [9,10]. GO exhibits intriguing chemical-physical
properties, as the planar carbon structure with high density of oxygen functional groups on the basal
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plane or at the edges enables facile chemical modification. Moreover, due to the amphiphilic nature of
GO, the preparation of its stable aqueous dispersions is an effective method for graphene processing,
opening the way for a panoply of applications [7,11,12].
In the last years, the chemistry of GO has been deeply investigated, elucidating the nature of oxygen
containing functional groups formed at increasing oxidation degrees, and how the structural properties
of the material are influenced [13]. In particular, literature has mainly focused on oxidized graphene
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with high O/C atomic ratios, which is still characterized by a stacked graphitic structure but has a wide
interlayer distance, ranging between 0.6 and 1.2 nm [10,14]. Nevertheless, despite GO is mainly used
due to its easy processability, for several applications a final modification step is needed to partially
reduce GO to graphene through chemical or physical methods [15,16].
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During the last decades, it has been demonstrated that a precise control of the self-assembly process of
graphene enables realizing a variety of nanostructured systems with tailored, peculiar morphologies.
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Different approaches resulted in the preparation of free-standing films and membranes, hydrogels and
aerogels, crumpled particles, hollow spheres, sack-cargo particles and Pickering emulsions [17].
Amongst the processing methodologies available to tailor graphene-based structures, particularly
interesting are the self-assemblies at the liquid-air interface [18] and at the dynamic ice-water interface
[19], in view of obtaining bulk and porous GO architectures, respectively. On the one hand, the effect of
the oxidation extent of GO on the water-mediated interlayer interactions has been studied through
molecular dynamics simulations [20], explaining the mechanism underlying self-concentration of GO at
the liquid-air interface. On the other hand, the use of reduced GO has been systematically explored to
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enhance the control on the morphology of 3D porous structures [21]. However, comprehensive
information are still lacking on the effect of the oxidation degree on processability and self-assembly
behaviour of GO, especially at low oxidization degree.
Another relevant aspect of GO self-assembled structures is related to their adsorption properties, and to
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the estimation of the surface area available for the interaction with different adsorbates, such as gases
and water-soluble dyes. Gadipelli and Guo [22] well summarized the gas sorption properties of
graphene and derivatives, whereas Yan et al. [23] detailed the effect of the oxidation degree of GO on
the adsorption of methylene blue from water solutions. Nevertheless, further insight on these aspects is
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still needed to correlate the adsorption properties of GO to the level of interactions occurring between
GO sheets in different architectures.
Typically, the literature on GO synthesis, processing and characterization is focused on large-sized
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sheets of GO, i.e. on GO with lateral size in the range of micrometers, since in most applications a very
large aspect ratio is desirable [24-26]. More recently, a great attention to the role of lateral size of GO
sheets for biomedical applications is being paid. Indeed, smaller GO sheets possess higher antimicrobial
activity, and are more likely taken up by cells, enabling their use as drug delivery vectors, as well as
active agents for the treatment of several diseases [27-30]. A few reports also account for the possible
use of nanometric GO in other applications, such as composites and sensors [31,32]. Nevertheless, for
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nanosized GO, the amount of carbon atoms and oxygen containing functional groups at the edges of
graphene sheets is comparatively much higher with respect to large-sized sheets. Hypothesizing a lateral
size of about 200 nm and 4 µm for nanometric and large-sized graphene, respectively, simple geometric
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considerations show that the ratio between the number of edge atoms in nanosized and large-sized
graphene sheets is as high as 20. Although this phenomenon can evidently affect all the characteristics
of nanosized GO due to the peculiar chemical and electronic properties at graphene boundaries [33,34],
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specific research works on the characterization of nanometric GO are still lacking.
Based on these considerations, this work is focused on the effect of the oxidation degree on the overall
properties, including the self-assembly, adsorption and barrier properties, of partially oxidized nanosized
graphene samples (nGO) with variable O/C ratios, produced by a modified Hummers method from
commercial graphene nanoplatelets (GNP), and processed through water casting and freeze-drying. A
multi-technique characterization of the realized nGO was carried out, to correlate the adopted oxidative
conditions to the physical-chemical properties of the obtained materials. Then, the morphology and the
adsorption behaviour of bulk and porous architectures realized by self-assembly of nGO at the liquid-air
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interface and at the dynamic ice-water interface were investigated. Finally, barrier properties of nGO
were evaluated by measuring the oxygen permeability on free standing nGO films and on nGO coatings
applied on a low barrier polymer substrate.
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2. EXPERIMENTAL
2.1 Materials
Graphene nanoplatelets (GNP) grade C, average lateral dimensions 2 µm according to the datasheet
provided by the supplier, were purchased from XG Science (Lansing, MI, USA).
(Milan, Italy) and used as a reference material.
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A commercial 4 mg/mL graphene oxide water dispersion (GO-com) was purchased from Sigma Aldrich
Sulfuric acid (H2SO4, reagent grade, 96% wt/wt in H2O), hydrochloric acid (HCl, reagent grade, 37%
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wt/wt in H2O), potassium permanganate (KMnO4, > 99.0%), hydrogen peroxide solution (H2O2 30 %
wt/wt in H2O), methylene blue (MB, > 97%) and all solvents were purchased by Sigma Aldrich (Milan,
Italy) and used without further purification.
2.2 Preparation of nGO
Oxidized nano-graphene (nGO) was synthesized by oxidation of GNP following a modified Hummers
method [13,35]. GNP (1 g) was stirred in 25 mL of a 96% H2SO4 solution for 30 minutes, keeping the
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temperature at 0 °C by an ice bath. Then, 0.5, 1, 2 or 3 wt equivalents of KMnO4 were gradually added,
while the temperature of the ice bath was allowed to increase up to room temperature. The resulting
solution was diluted by gently adding 45 mL of water, under vigorous stirring, while keeping the bath
temperature at 70 °C. After stirring for 15 more minutes, 100 mL of H2O2 water solution (3% wt/wt)
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were poured into the mixture. The mixture was kept under stirring for one more hour and then the
resulting dispersion was centrifuged. The precipitate was collected and washed with 3% wt/wt HCl
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water solution. The resulting dispersion was centrifuged again and the precipitate was suspended in 140
mL of distilled water. Centrifugation and washing of the precipitate with distilled water were repeated
until neutrality. Finally, the dispersions were diluted up to a final concentration of nGO of about 4
mg/mL and sonicated with a Sonics Vibracell ultrasonic processor (500 W, 20 kHz) at 25% of amplitude
for 120 min, with 30s/30s on/off cycles. The obtained nGO dispersions were coded as nGO1, nGO2,
nGO3, nGO4, where the number indicates the degree of oxidation obtained using increasing amounts of
KMnO4.
2.3 Self-assembly of nGO
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Cast nGO samples (thickness ranging from about 8 to 15 µm) were obtained from water dispersions
through an assembly process induced by the self-concentration of nGO during water evaporation at the
liquid/air interface. In particular, samples were obtained by water casting at room temperature for at
least 48h, followed by drying in vacuum oven at 90 °C overnight. These systems were coded as nGO1-
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C, nGO2-C, nGO3-C, nGO4-C.
A further series of nGO samples was obtained by assembly at dynamic ice/water interface, realized by
freeze-drying. nGO dispersions (40 mL) were poured in vials and immersed in liquid nitrogen for 10
min. The frozen samples were kept at -20 °C overnight and then freeze-dried at -80 °C and 5x10-2
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mmHg in an Edwards Modulyo freeze-drying equipment for 48h. The obtained systems were coded as
nGO1-FD, nGO2-FD, nGO3-FD, nGO4-FD.
Moreover, the water dispersion nGO4 was also used to realize a coating on a commercial low density
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polyethylene (LDPE) film (70 µm thick, industrially corona treated (surface energy 45 Dyne/cm,
Manuli Tape – Sessa Aurunca, Italy). The nGO4 water dispersion (dry content 2 mg/mL) was applied by
blade coating. The used volume of the dispersion was set to obtain a final dry content of the coating of
0.375 g/m2 that, considering a density of 1.90 g cm-3 for nGO, corresponds to a theoretical thickness of
the coating of about 200 nm. After the application, the water dispersion was left evaporating at room
vacuum for further 24 h.
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temperature for about 24 h, then the treated LDPE film (coded as PE-nGO4) was dried at 25°C under
2.4 Characterization techniques
nGO water dispersions at various concentrations were analysed through dynamic light scattering (DLS)
and UV-visible spectroscopy. DLS measurements were carried out using a Zetasizer Nano ZS (Malvern
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Instruments) at 25 °C and at scattering angle of 173° to evaluate hydrodynamic diameter (dHD) and
polydispersity (PD). pH of water dispersions was 6.5-7.0 for all the tests. The measurements were
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carried out in triplicate. UV-visible spectra were collected on a Jasco V570 UV spectrophotometer in
the 200-800 nm wavelength range and with 0.5 nm resolution, at nGO concentration of 0.0015 mg/mL,
using quartz cuvettes with optical path lengths of 10 mm. Bidistilled water was used as reference. To
separate individual components in the unresolved spectrum of nGO4, spectral deconvolution was
performed using the software Grams/8.0AI (Thermo Scientific), using Gaussian function line shape.
Energy dispersive X-ray (EDX) analysis was performed using a FEI Quanta 200 FEG SEM equipped
with an Oxford Inca Energy System 250 and an Inca-X-act LN2-free analytical silicon drift detector, on
GNP, dried nGO and GO-com samples placed onto aluminium SEM stubs. The analysis was performed
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at 30 kV acceleration voltage. Average results and standard deviation values were based on three
consecutive measurements on different areas of each sample.
Cast nGO and GO-com samples and pristine GNP were analysed by means of Fourier transform infrared
spectroscopy (FTIR) to evaluate the extent of the surface modification. Spectra were recorded with a
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Perkin Elmer Spectrum One FTIR spectrometer using a resolution of 4 cm-1 and 32 scan collections.
Confocal Raman spectra were acquired on cast nGO and GNP by a Horiba-Jobin Yvon Aramis Raman
spectrometer operating with a diode laser excitation source limiting at 532 nm and a grating with 1200
grooves/mm. The 180° back-scattered radiation was collected by an Olympus metallurgical objective
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(MPlan 50X, NA = 0.50) and with confocal and slit apertures both set to 400 mm. The radiation was
focused onto a Peltier-cooled CCD detector (Synapse Mod. 354308) in the Raman-shift range 20001000 cm-1. To separate the individual peaks in unresolved, multicomponent profiles, spectral
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deconvolution was performed using the above mentioned software Grams/8.0AI, using a Voigt function
line shape. By a non-linear curve fitting of the data, height, area and position of the individual
components were calculated [36]. The freeze dried nGO4-FD sample was also analyzed using the same
procedure.
Wide-angle X-ray scattering analysis (WAXS) was carried out on cast nGO samples by means of a
Rigaku model III/D max generator equipped with a 2D imaging plate detector, using a Ni-filtered Cu
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Kα radiation (wavelength 1.5418 Å) at room temperature. To separate the individual peaks in
unresolved WAXS profiles, spectral deconvolution was performed using the software Grams/8.0AI,
using a Lorentzian function. The freeze dried nGO4-FD sample was also analyzed using the same
procedure.
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Thermogravimetric analysis (TGA) of cast nGO samples and GNP was carried out using a Mettler
TGA/SDTA851 analyser. All the samples were analysed in nitrogen flux (30 mL/min) at 2 °C/min
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heating rate, from room temperature to 800 °C, using about 3 mg of material.
Differential scanning calorimetry (DSC) experiments were carried out on cast nGO samples using a TA
Instruments DSC Q2000 calorimeter. The analyses were performed under nitrogen flux (30 mL/min) in
dynamic mode at 10 °C/min heating rate from 100 to 400 °C.
Scanning electron microscopy (SEM) of GNP, cast nGO and freeze-dried nGO samples was performed
by means of a FEI Quanta 200 FEG SEM in high vacuum mode. Before SEM observations, samples
were mounted onto SEM stubs by means of carbon adhesive disks and sputter coated with a 15 nm thick
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Au-Pd layer. All the samples were observed at 10-30 kV acceleration voltage using a secondary electron
detector.
Bright field transmission electron microscopy (TEM) analysis of nGO and GNP and GO-com was
performed on a FEI Tecnai G12 Spirit Twin (LaB6 source) at 120 kV acceleration voltage. TEM images
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were collected on a FEI Eagle 4k CCD camera. Before the analysis, water dispersed nGO and GO-com
samples, diluted at about 2 mg/mL, were collected by immersing TEM copper grids in the aqueous
dispersions. By comparison, GNP was also analysed after dispersion at about 2 mg/mL in N,Ndimethylformamide (DMF) and collection and drying onto TEM grids.
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The adsorption capability of nGO in water dispersion was evaluated by using methylene blue (MB) dye
as a probe [37]. Water dispersions nGO1, nGO2, nGO3 and nGO4 were diluted to 0.030 mg/mL, then
an amount of MB corresponding to about 1.0 g/g of nGO was added by mixing the nGO dispersion with
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suitable amounts of a MB water solution (concentration 0.15 mg/mL). After mixing for 24h at room
temperature, an adduct between of nGO and MB formed, and a precipitate was visible. The nGO/MB
mixture was centrifuged at 10000 rpm for 10 minutes by means of a Hermle Labortechnik Z326K
centrifuge, to separate nGO-MB adducts from the transparent solution. Then, the MB concentration of
the supernatant solution was measured using the above mentioned UV spectrophotometer. A calibration
curve was built to evaluate the MB concentration from the absorbance of the solution at 664 cm-1. The
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adsorption capability of MB by nGO was also used to obtain an indication of the available specific
surface area (SSA) of nGO in water dispersion (MB SSA) [38,39] as detailed in the next section. The
same analytical protocol was applied for the comparative analysis of GO-com.
SSA of GNP, cast nGO and freeze-dried nGO samples was determined through N2 adsorption analysis
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performed at liquid nitrogen temperature by means of a Micromeritics ASAP 2020 analyser, using high
purity gases (> 99.999%). Prior to the analysis, all the samples were degassed at 100 °C under vacuum
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(P <10-5 mbar) for 10 h. SSA was determined from the linear part of the Brunauer-Emmett-Teller (BET)
equation (BET SSA).
Oxygen permeability measurements were performed by means of a Multiperm apparatus (Extra
Solution, Pisa, Italy) working in a gas/membrane/gas configuration, using a measuring surface of 250
mm2, relative humidity 10 ± 0.5%, temperature 25 ± 1 °C and a pressure difference across the sample of
1 atm. Measurements were carried out on cast nGO4-C (thickness ≈ 15 µm), and a LDPE film coated
with nGO4 (PE-nGO4, coating thickness ≈ 200 nm). By comparison, an untreated LDPE film was also
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characterized using the same conditions. For each sample, at least 2 specimens were tested to ensure
reproducibility.
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3. RESULTS AND DISCUSSION
3.1 Synthesis and characterization of nGO
Despite the tendency of water-suspended GO to fold, bend and assume a crumpled or scrolled shape
[40,41], the hydrodynamic diameter (dHD) is considered a parameter directly correlated to the lateral size
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of GO sheets [42,43]. Therefore, dHD of water dispersions of nGO at varying degrees of oxidation was
measured by DLS. For all the samples, the analysis confirmed the obtainment of nGO with nanometric
lateral size by oxidation and ultrasonication of GNP. dHD values of 0.03 mg/mL nGO dispersions ranged
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between about 300 and 200 nm, with a remarkable size decrease with respect to the original GNP (about
2 µm). A deeper discussion on the results of DLS measurement will be reported later in the text, as DLS
was also employed to correlate the self-assembly behaviour of nGO samples to their oxidation extent.
The quantitative analysis of the GNP oxidation, evaluated as the oxygen/carbon atomic ratio, was
carried out by EDX analysis, whose results are reported in Table 1. As concerning plain GNP, the O/C
ratio was about 0.045, demonstrating a detectable level of oxidation even in commercial GNP.
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Increasing oxidation degrees resulted in a monotonic increase of the O/C atomic ratio, with a final value
of about 0.5 measured for nGO4, corresponding to a high oxidation level [9,42]. Indeed, the oxidation
degree obtained for nGO4 is significantly higher than that recorded on commercial GO, characterized
by a O/C ratio of about 0.3 (see Table S1 in Supplementary data).
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The nature of functional groups formed upon oxidation was investigated by FTIR analysis. FTIR spectra
of GNP and cast nGO samples in the 800-2000 cm-1 range are reported in Figure 1a, which shows the
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presence of convoluted bands at 1570-1620 cm-1 attributed to adsorbed water molecules and to C=C
stretching vibrations of unoxidized graphitic domains [45]. The band centered at 1720-1740 cm-1 (grey
rectangle in Figure 1a), whose relative intensity progressively increased with the oxidation degree, was
assigned to C=O stretching vibrations of carboxyl edge groups [46]. Absorption bands attributed to C-O
stretching vibrations of carboxyl and hydroxyl groups were centered at 1040-1150 cm-1 (green rectangle
in Figure 1a), whereas the presence of epoxy groups was evidenced by the typical band due to the C-OC stretching at 1220-1250 cm-1 (orange rectangle in Figure 1a) [47]. As shown in Figure 1a, the
intensity of the adsorption band of C-O was relatively higher at low oxidation degrees. This absorption
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is mainly attributed to hydroxyl groups due to the concomitant low intensity of carbonyl peaks at 17201740 cm-1, whereas the adsorption band attributed to epoxies was significantly more intense for the most
oxidized nGO4-C sample. As concerning the carboxyl groups, their C=O stretching band gradually
increased in intensity with the oxidation degree. These results indicated that the relative amount of the
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oxygen containing groups generated on graphene sheets changed with the conditions used for the
oxidation process, with different species predominating at different oxidation degrees. In particular,
hydroxyl groups seemed to be more relevant at low oxidation degrees, while epoxy groups prevailed at
higher oxidation degrees, being both species mainly present on the basal plane of graphene oxide sheets
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[48]. This is in agreement with molecular dynamic simulations, according to which the epoxy to
hydroxyl ratio increases with increasing the oxidation degree [49]. As concerning carboxyl groups,
which are mostly generated at the edges of graphene oxide sheets, their amount progressively increased
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with the dosage of KMnO4.
FTIR spectrum in the range 800-2000 cm-1 of cast GO-com is reported in Figure S1 (Supplementary
data). As shown, for this sample, although it is evident the presence of the C=O stretching band as a
shoulder of the peak at 1570-1620 cm-1, it is to be remarked the low intensity of the absorption band
attributed to carboxyl and hydroxyl groups (1040-1150 cm-1) with respect to the band typical of epoxy
groups (1220-1250 cm-1). Thus, a large amount of epoxy groups was evidenced for GO-com with
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respect to nGO4-C and nGO3-C. Since the epoxy groups are mainly located on the basal plane of
graphene sheets, this finding confirms the high relevance of edge effects in nanosized GO with respect
to large-size GO sheets.
oxidation degrees.
GNP
nGO1-C
nGO2-C
nGO3-C
nGO4-C
KMnO4/GNP (wt/wt)
-
0.5
1.0
2.0
3.0
O/C atomic ratio
0.044
± 0.11
± 0.18
± 0.26
± 0.49
0.008
0.02
0.01
0.02
0.05
0.14
0.16
0.75
1.23
1.11
11.8
11.3
2.8
2.6
2.0
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Sample
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Table 1. Results of EDX, Raman and WAXS analyses on GNP and cast nGO samples at increasing
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ID/IG
Average aromatic cluster size
(L, nm)*
±
9
26.5
26.6
26.4
24.4
23.3
d1 (nm)
0.336
0.335
0.338
0.365
0.382
FWHM1 (°)**
0.51
0.61
0.90
5.1
5.6
D1 (nm)***
15.8
13.2
9.0
1.6
1.4
2θ2 (°)
-
24.7
24.5
20.9
12.7
d2 (nm)
-
0.360
0.363
0.425
0.697
FWHM2 (°)**
-
-
-
2.6
2.8
D2 (nm)***
-
-
-
3.1
2.8
I2/I1****
0
0.10
0.28
0.48
2.41
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2θ1 (°)
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WAXS
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* Calculated by eq. 1;
** FWHMi = full width at half maximum of the reflection i;
*** Di = mean size of the stacked domains in the direction perpendicular to graphene planes, calculated
from the reflection i (eq. 2);
**** Intensity ratio between WAXS reflection 2, centered at lower 2θ values, and reflection 1, centered
at higher 2θ values
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Figure 1. FTIR (a), Raman (b, in the range 2500-3100 the intensity of the signal has been doubled to
better evidence peaks in the 2D region) and WAXS (c) spectra of GNP and cast nGO samples; UV-vis
spectra (d, 1.5 µg/mL concentration, results of the deconvolution of the spectrum of nGO4 in the inset),
and optical images (e, 30 µg/mL concentration) of water dispersed nGO samples.
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Raman spectra of GNP and cast nGO samples in the 1000-3100 cm-1 range are reported in Figure 1b. In
each spectrum a band centered at 1326-1343 cm-1 (D-band), a complex band with components centered
at 1555-1572 cm−1 (G-band) and 1595-1602 cm−1 (D’-band), an overtone band centered at about 2690
cm-1 (2D-band) and a weaker combination scattering band centered at about 2920 cm-1 (D+G-band)
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were observed.
The D-band is typical of disordered carbon in graphenes, and in particular of any breaking of the
symmetry of the graphene lattice, such as edge effects, sp3-defects, vacancy sites or grain boundaries
[50]. The G-band originates from the in-plane tangential stretching of carbon-carbon bonds in graphene
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sheets. The D’ band, evidenced as a shoulder of the G-band at higher frequencies, is another feature
induced by disorder and defects in the graphene structure. Finally, the 2D-band is characteristic of ABstacked graphene [50]. Non-oxidized GNP spectrum exhibits pronounced G- and 2D-bands. Increasing
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the oxidation degree, the intensity of the D-band increases due to the progressive introduction of
functional groups on the plane and the edges of the sheets. Simultaneously, the intensity of the 2D-band
significantly decreases, due to the disruption of the staggered order by the oxidation process [51].
Moreover, in the 2D region, at higher oxidation degrees, the presence of the D+G band starts to be
evident. By spectral deconvolution, the intensity ratio ID/IG, a parameter indicating the degree of
disorder in the graphene structure, was calculated and reported in Table 1. Results showed that more
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drastic oxidative conditions induced a progressive increase of ID/IG, from 0.14 for GNP, to values > 1 for
nGO3-C and nGO4-C, comparable to those observed for graphene oxide samples with large lateral size
[13]. A small inversion of the trend was observed for sample nGO4, as already reported by Kadam et al.
[51], since when the defect density reaches a higher regime all Raman peaks attenuate, as reported by
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Lucchese et al. [52].Through the analysis of the Raman spectra, the average aromatic cluster size (L) in
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GNP and in each cast nGO sample was calculated applying the empirical equation [37]:
L (nm) = 4 AG/AD
(1)
where AG and AD are the integrated intensities of G and D peaks, respectively.
As shown in Table 1, the average aromatic cluster size, related to the size of extended aromatic domains
left undamaged upon oxidation, monotonically decreased with the increase of the KMnO4 dose, from
11.8 to 2.0 nm. At high oxidation degrees, the obtained average aromatic cluster size values are slightly
higher than those obtained on graphene oxide samples with large lateral size, for which average
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aromatic cluster size values close to 1.3 are reported [37]. This difference can be attributed to the higher
availability in nanosized graphene of edge carbon atoms susceptible to chemical modification, and can
reflect into several properties of the obtained materials, including exfoliation degree, water dispersibility
and adsorption properties.
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WAXS intensity profiles of GNP and cast nGO samples are shown in Figure 1c. Results are reported in
Table 1. For GNP, a sharp diffraction peak at 2θ1= 26.5° (interlayer distance of 0.336 nm) was observed,
which corresponded to a compact stacked planar multilayered carbon structure [37]. Upon mild
oxidation, i.e. the case of nGO1-C and nGO2-C, this peak remained sharp and well resolved. However,
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a peak broadening was observed and quantified through spectral deconvolution. Its full width at half
maximum (FWHM1) increased from 0.51° (GNP) to 0.90° (nGO2-C) due to the early disruption of the
stacking order of the graphite lattice. For nGO1-C and nGO2-C, spectral deconvolution also indicated
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the presence of a second reflection at lower angles, 2θ2 = 24.7-24.5°, corresponding to an increase of the
interlayer distance, up to 0.363 nm. Nevertheless, for these samples, the amount of sheets with increased
interlayer spacing was low, as indicated by the intensity ratio between the reflection 2 and 1, lower than
0.3.
In the case of nGO3-C, the presence of a complex peak at lower angles was observed. By
deconvolution, the first peak, attributed to the packed fraction of nGO sheets, was centered at 2θ1 =
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24.4° (d1 = 0.365 nm), while the second peak was centered at 2θ2 = 20.9° (d2 = 0.425 nm). Moreover,
the progressive disruption of the original stacking order of the graphite lattice, as well as the relative
amount of less densely stacked nGO sheets, were significant, as indicated by the high FWHM1= 5.1°,
and by the I2/I1 ratio = 0.48, respectively.
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Finally, at the highest oxidation degree (nGO4-C), an inversion of the intensities of the first and second
reflection (centered at 2θ2 = 12.7° and 2θ1 = 23.3) was observed. In this case, the peak at lower angles
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(2θ2) was much more intense than the broad reflection at 2θ1 values (I2/I1 = 2.41).Therefore, for nGO4C, most of the nGO sheets showed an average spacing of d2 = 0.697 nm, with a lower fraction having d1
= 0.382 nm. This abrupt change was the consequence of the heterogeneous nature of the oxidized
graphene, constituted by graphitic sp2 domains, and sp3 domains typical of oxidized graphite [13].
The average size (Di) of the stacked domains in the direction perpendicular to the graphene planes was
calculated for cast nGO samples at different oxidation degrees applying the Debye-Scherrer equation to
each reflection centered at 2θi [53]:
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Di = kλ/βi cos θi
(2)
where k is a shape factor whose value can be approximated to 0.89, even if it varies with the shape of
the crystallites, βi is the FWHMi in radians of the reflection i, λ is the wavelength of the radiation used
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and θi is the Bragg angle of the reflection i. As concerning the reflection at higher angles, the average
domain size progressively decreased with increasing the oxidation degree, from about 16 nm for GNP,
to a final D1 value lower than 1.5 nm for nGO4-C. Dividing these domain sizes by the calculated d1
spacing for each sample, the average number of stacked graphene sheets can be obtained, which varied
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from about 47 for GNP, to 39 (nGO1-C), 26 (nGO2-C), and finally 4.4 and 3.7 for nGO3-C and nGO4C, respectively. This demonstrated that the stacking was progressively disrupted on increasing the
oxidation degree. As for the reflection centered at 2θ2, a similar data analysis was not possible for low
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oxidized nGO1-C and nGO2-C due to uncertainty of the FWHM2 values calculated by spectral
deconvolution. Conversely, for nGO4-C, whose reflection centered at the 2θ2 angle was well separated
from that centered at 2θ1, the calculated average number of stacked nGO sheets spaced by about 0.70
nm was close to 4, this value being comparable to that found for the tighter nGO sheets evidenced by
the reflection centered at 2θ1. This finding indicated that nGO4-C consisted of two types of stacked
primary nGO sheets, differing in their average spacing (about 0.38 vs. 0.70 nm) and dimension in the
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direction perpendicular to the nGO planes (1.4 vs. 2.8 nm), but similar in terms of average number of
their constituting nGO sheets. The intensity ratio between the reflections centered at 2θ1 and 2θ2
indicates that for nGO4-C sheets with larger interlayer distance were predominant.
UV-vis spectroscopy was carried out on nGO samples in water dispersion (Figure 1d). For nGO1-
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nGO3, the UV spectrum of the dark nGO dispersions was characterized by quasi-symmetric peaks
centered at 265 nm (nGO1 and nGO2) and 262 nm (nGO3), attributed to π-π* transitions of aromatic C-
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C bonds typical of low oxidized GO samples, such as reduced GO [54]. For the brownish nGO4
dispersion, the UV-vis spectrum consisted of a complex and asymmetric peak with a maximum at about
249 nm and a shoulder at higher wavelength, indicated in figure by an arrow. By baseline correction and
deconvolution (see inset in Figure 1d), the different components of the UV-vis spectrum of nGO4 were
revealed, with the main peaks centered at 234 nm and 263 nm (π-π* transitions of aromatic C-C bonds
of GO and low oxidized graphene, respectively), and at 305 nm (n-π* transitions of C=O bonds of GO).
This result confirmed the co-presence in the nGO4 water dispersion of nano-graphene oxide and a lower
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fraction of less oxidized nano-graphene sheets, already evidenced by WAXS on the corresponding cast
sample (nGO4-C).
Interestingly, all the nGO water dispersions resulted stable (see Figure 1e), as confirmed by the visual
inspection and the substantial invariance of UV-vis spectra 6 months after synthesis, with slight settling
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phenomena observed only for nGO1. This result was rather unexpected considering the very low
oxidation extents, as it has been widely reported that small amounts of ionizable groups are not able to
ensure the stability of the corresponding GO water dispersions [55]. In our case, the obtained results can
be mainly explained taking into account the lateral dimensions of the realized samples, indicating that
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for nano-graphene even low amounts of oxygen-containing functional groups can promote dispersibility
and stability in aqueous media.
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3.2 Thermal analysis of nGO
GNP and cast nGO samples at different oxidation degrees were analysed by TGA in non-oxidative
conditions, in order to evaluate their thermal stability. Results are reported in Table 2 and Figure 2a,b. At
about 150 °C, a relevant mass loss occurred for all the samples, whose extent was directly correlated to
their oxidation degree. The mass loss process was attributed to the thermally-induced decomposition of
labile oxygen-containing groups in GO [38], resulting in the formation of carbon monoxide and dioxide,
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and water. The maximum rate of degradation occurred between 178 and 190 °C. For nGO4-C, in
addition to the main degradation peak, the derivative TGA curve also showed the presence of a shoulder
at higher temperature, as already reported by Kang et al. [56] for GO oxidized in comparable conditions.
for nGO4-C.
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The residual weight at 300 °C decreased from 98 wt% for GNP to 85 wt% for nGO3-C and to 69 wt%
DSC curves of GNP and cast nGO samples are reported in Figure 2c. The calorimetric analysis
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demonstrated the exothermic nature of the process corresponding to the weight loss step occurring in the
range 150-300 °C. The temperature corresponding to the maximum of the DSC thermogram and the
enthalpy of this thermal reduction process are reported in Table 2. As it can be observed, the degree of
oxidation did not significantly affect the temperature corresponding to the maximum of the exothermic
peak. On the other hand, significant increases of ∆Ηexo values were progressively recorded with
increasing nGO oxidation, with an abrupt increment for nGO3-C and nGO4-C, which reached 323 and
809 J/g, respectively. Plotting the obtained ∆Ηexo vs. the oxygen content of nGO cast samples, expressed
as the O/C atomic ratio (see Figure 2d), a change of the slope of the curve was evident at medium
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oxidation levels. To explain this behaviour, results of FTIR analysis can be considered, that
demonstrated that the relative amount of hydroxyl, epoxide and carboxyl groups changed with the final
oxidation degree of nGO. Kang et al. [56] already showed that the ratio among different functional
groups, especially epoxies and hydroxyls, significantly affect the thermal stability of GO. Recently, Qiu
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et al. [57], through theoretical calculations, showed that the decomposition of epoxide groups is
significantly exothermic while the thermal decomposition of hydroxyl groups is isoenthalpic or only
slightly endothermic. Also the thermal decomposition of carboxyl groups is exothermic and
thermodynamically very favourable [58]. All these considerations are consistent with the results
obtained for our systems by DSC analysis. When the oxidation level started to increase, the thermal
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decomposition of hydroxyl and carboxyl groups induced a slow increase of the associated ∆Ηexo. At
higher oxidation extent, a higher concentration of epoxy groups were generated on the basal plane of
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nGO samples characterized by an even more relevant disruption of the stacking order and an increased
interlayer distance. This made the decomposition of the most oxidized nGO samples progressively much
more exothermic, with a steeper increase of the associated enthalpy.
degrees.
Sample
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Table 2. Results of TGA and DSC analyses on GNP and cast nGO samples at increasing oxidation
TGA
Texo
∆Hexo
(%)
(°C)
(J/g)
98
-
0
94
205
40
93
204
87
85
201
323
69
213
809
nGO2-C
nGO3-C
nGO4-C
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nGO1-C
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Residual weight at 300 °C
GNP
DSC
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Figure 2. Results of thermogravimetric and calorimetric analysis on GNP and cast nGO samples at
increasing oxidation degrees: TG curves (a); derivative TG curves (b); DSC traces (c); enthalpy
associated to the thermal decomposition process vs. oxygen/carbon atomic ratio of cast nGO samples
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(d).
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3.3 Self-assembly of nGO
In this work, the processing of nGO was focused on two self-assembly processes. The first one was
induced by the self-concentration of nGO during water evaporation at the liquid/air interface, and it was
aimed at generating cast nGO samples (nGOX-C samples). The second self-assembly process was
realized at the dynamic ice/water interface, and the corresponding nGOX-FD samples were obtained by
freeze-drying nGO from water dispersions. A schematization of casting and freeze-drying processes is
proposed in Figure 3 where, for sake of simplicity, typical nGO oxygen containing functional groups
were omitted and water was represented in light blue.
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Figure 3. Representation of the steps involved in nGO casting (C-I to C-IV) and freeze-drying (FD-I,
FD-II) processes.
3.3.1 Self-assembly at the liquid/air interface
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For what concerns the casting process, it must be considered that in general GO dispersions are
constituted by highly oxidized graphene sheets that create a dynamic network through their dipoledipole interactions. When solvent evaporation occurs, GO sheets at the liquid/air interface tend to
aggregate, and further GO sheets reaching the upper layer interact with the first layer through van der
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Waals forces. Therefore, GO self-concentrates at the interface, progressively forming a layer-by-layer
cast film (steps C-I to C-IV of Figure 3) [59]. Although the mechanism of self-concentration and
stacking of GO layers is widely accepted, only few papers analysed in detail the effect of the oxidation
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degree of GO on the self-assembly, that is the key factor for the formation of GO cast films.
Casting of GNP, nGO1, nGO2 and nGO3 dispersions did not result in the formation of self-standing
films. As shown in Figure 4a, starting from the nGO2 dispersion, the obtained nGO2-C sample was
constituted by discontinuous nGO islands with average size of hundreds of micrometers.
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Figure 4. SEM micrographs of: upper surfaces of (a,e) nGO2-C; (b,f) nGO3-C; (c,g) nGO4-C; (d)
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GNP; (h,i) cross-sections of nGO4-C.
The analysis of the surface of this sample at higher magnifications (Figure 4e) confirmed the low level
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of interaction between nGO sheets, comparable to that observed for GNP (Figure 4d). Very similar
results were observed for nGO1-C. At higher oxidation levels (nGO3-C, see Figure 4b,f) more
pronounced interactions between adjacent nGO sheets were observed. Single nGO sheets were not
clearly identifiable as they were crumpled and well linked to each other. Nevertheless, also in this case
the investigation of the cast sample at low magnifications revealed the presence of several cracks
(Figure 4b) propagating on the surface. Only further increasing the oxidation level, as in the case of
nGO4-C, a large, self-standing and flexible nGO film was obtained. The surface morphology of nGO4C is shown in Figure 4c and g. At low magnification, the continuity of the film and the absence of
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defects was clearly evident. At higher magnification the high level of interaction between nGO sheets
did not allow identifying their original contour and shape, and the sheets resulted merged in a
continuous and regular structure. The cross-sectional assembly of the film is shown in Figure 4h and i.
The analysed sample was characterized by a homogeneous thickness, of approximately 8 µm, with the
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presence of parallel GO stacked layers.
A further insight on the mechanism of self-assembly of nGO at different oxidation levels was obtained
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by TEM analysis (Figure 5).
Figure 5. (a,b,c) Bright field TEM micrographs of a free-standing nGO film on non-coated copper grid
obtained from the water dispersion nGO4; (d) SAED of (b); (e) TEM micrograph of nGO sheets
collected on a carbon-coated copper grid from the water dispersion nGO3.
The formation of a self-standing film at the liquid-air interface of the nGO4 dispersion was confirmed
by the image shown in Figure 5a. Indeed, water evaporation after dipping a non-coated copper grid in
the nGO4 dispersion yielded a self-standing film with a lateral dimension larger than 40 µm covering
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the mesh grids. At higher magnification (Figures 5b and 5c), TEM analysis revealed the fine structure of
the film, and it was possible to identify some of the constituting nGO sheets. Selected area electron
diffraction (SAED, Figure 5d) showed that the film was composed by stacked multilayer nGO sheets
randomly oriented along the film plane [60]. Interestingly, it was not possible to collect self-standing
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films from nGO1-nGO3 dispersions using uncoated TEM grids. As shown in Figure 5e for nGO3, nGO
sheets were not able to self-assemble, and after water evaporation they resulted partially isolated on the
carbon support of a carbon-coated copper grid. Similar results were obtained from nGO1 and nGO2
water dispersions. These findings demonstrated that for nanosized GO, only at higher oxidation degree
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(nGO4, O/C ratio = 0,49) the increased interactions occurring between the oxygen-containing functional
groups led to the self-assembly of nGO sheets into a free-standing film. As concerning the comparison
with large-sized GO, TEM micrographs of GO-com are reported in Figure S2a (Supplementary data).
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As shown, by casting diluted GO-com water dispersions (concentration 0.05 mg/mL) on carbon coated
grids, the micrometric lateral size of commercial GO sheets is evident with respect to nGO samples
analysed in this work. Moreover, despite the low oxidation degree of GO-com, comparable to that of
nGO3, water evaporation after dipping a non-coated copper grid in a concentrated GO-com dispersion
(2 mg/mL) yielded a large self-standing film (Figure S2b).
The strong dependence of the self-assembly behavior on the oxidation degree was confirmed by DLS
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analysis of nGO water dispersions, whose results of DLS are reported in Figure 6 and Table 3.
Analysing the first three degrees of oxidation, nGO1-nGO3, a monotonic decrease of the average
hydrodynamic size was observed with increasing the oxidation degree. dHD was not significantly
affected by the nGO concentration in the range 0.03 to 0.12 mg/mL. Different factors could induce this
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oxidation-dependent size reduction measured by DLS. First, progressive fragmentation could be due to
the harsh oxidation conditions. Nevertheless, unlike ultrasonication, which is associated with relevant
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fragmentation phenomena [29,42,61], no significant effects of the oxidation conditions on the GO size
have been reported in literature [62]. The second factor could be related to the number of energetically
favored conformational states of GO sheets in dependence on the type and amount of oxygen-containing
functional groups on the GO surface. This is consistent with the results obtained by Andryushina et al.
[63], that reported that increasing the amount of oxidized groups and the epoxy/hydroxyl ratio, the
interactions between these groups induce a pronounced crumpling of the sheets, responsible for a
reduction of the hydrodynamic size. However, in our case the unfolding/crumpling mechanism alone
cannot explain the monotonic decrease of the polydispersity from nGO1 to nGO3 as well as the increase
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of the hydrodynamic size recorded at higher oxidation degree (nGO4). Instead, the main factors
affecting the dHD by increasing the oxidation level are, most probably, the self-assembly phenomena of
the nGO sheets. Progressively increasing the oxidation degree from nGO1 to nGO3, more homogeneous
dispersions are obtained, characterized by a reduced average hydrodynamic size and polydispersity.
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However, at higher oxidation degrees incipient self-assembly of the nGO sheets in water is evident, as
confirmed by the trend showed in Figure 6c for nGO4, for which a broadening of the DLS curve and a
progressive increase of the average hydrodynamic size is evident by increasing the concentration from
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0.03 up to 0.24 mg/mL.
Table 3. Average hydrodynamic size of nGO particles (dHD) and polydispersity (PD) evaluated by DLS
at different concentrations (c) of nGO.
c = 0.03 mg/mL
dHD (nm)
296 ± 5
nGO2
242 ± 2
nGO3
200 ± 1
nGO4
224 ± 1
dHD (nm)
PD
0.30
292 ± 2
0.27
0.20
263 ± 4
0.25
0.17
195 ± 2
0.17
0.27
277 ± 4
0.32
(392 ± 27)*
(0.37)*
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* c = 0.24 mg/mL
PD
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nGO1
c = 0.12 mg/mL
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Sample
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Figure 6. Hydrodynamic diameter (dHD) of nGO samples at concentrations of 0.03 mg/mL (a) and 0.12
mg/mL (b). Comparison of the hydrodynamic diameter of nGO4 at increasing concentrations (c).
3.3.2 Self-assembly at the dynamic ice-water interface
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It has been already demonstrated that freeze-drying, followed by a reduction step, allows realizing
hierarchical porous structures from GO dispersions [64,65]. The freeze-drying process and the
formation of a porous structure is regulated by the liquid/GO sheets and the GO sheets/GO sheets
interactions, both affected by the amount of oxygen-containing groups of GO.
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In our work, a simple one-step freeze-drying procedure was adopted, based on freezing nGO solutions
at -20 °C, followed by cryodesiccation. At the end of the process, samples nGO1-FD, nGO2-FD and
nGO3-FD were in powder form, with no macroscopic evidence of formation of a self-standing porous
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structure. Instead, for nGO4-FD, a porous, yet fragile structure was obtained (schematized in Figure 3,
bottom row). Moreover, a drop in sample size occurred upon freeze-drying, as a volume shrinkage of
approximately 50% was observed with respect to that of the initial frozen dispersion. These results
indicated that for nanosized GO, an O/C atomic ratio of about 0.49 is compatible with the formation of
stable low-density porous monoliths by cryodesiccation of GO dispersion [66]. SEM analysis on freezedried samples confirmed these macroscopic evidences. nGO1-FD, nGO2-FD and nGO3-FD exhibited
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similar morphologies, as shown for nGO2-FD in Figure 7(a-c). The samples were made up of particles,
whose size ranged between 1 and 60 µm, formed through agglomeration of nGO sheets upon water
sublimation. Their surface morphology suggested that the nGO sheets were very tightly interconnected,
somehow more than those observed for cast samples (see for instance Figure 7c in comparison to Figure
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4e). On the contrary, freeze-drying of nGO4 induced the formation of an irregular porous structure
(nGO4-FD, Figure 7d) constituted by nGO sheets randomly-connected in large stacks, well shown in
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Figure 7e,f.
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Figure 7. SEM micrographs of nGO2-FD (a,b,c) and nGO4-FD (d,e,f).
Raman and WAXS analysis of the sample nG4-FD allowed to clarify the effect of the process on the
chemistry and the structural properties of freeze-dried sample. Indeed, by Raman analysis nGO4-FD
showed slight differences with respect to the corresponding cast sample nGO4-C. As shown in Figure
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S3 and summarized in Table S2 (Supplementary data), the ID/IG ratio resulted 1.01, slightly lower than
the ID/IG ratio of the corresponding cast sample. Moreover, the calculated average aromatic cluster size,
2.9 nm, was higher than that recorded for nGO4-C.
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The WAXS intensity profiles of nGO4-FD is reported in Figure S4 and results are summarized in Table
S2 (Supplementary data), showing the presence of a complex peak that, by deconvolution, was resolved
in a main components centered at 2θ1 = 23.6° (d1 = 0.376 nm), and a minor component at 2θ2 = 17.9°
(d2 = 0.495 nm), with I2/I1 = 0.20. Therefore, the interlayer distances for the freeze dried sample were
much lower than those shown by the cast nGO4-C sample (d2 = 0.697 nm, d1 = 0.382 nm, with I2/I1 =
2.41) and slightly higher than that of the GNP precursor (0.336 nm), whereas the average number of
stacked sheets was found close to 4, comparable to that found for nGO4-C. The reduced interlayer
distance with respect to nGO4-C indicated the existence of more relevant π-π stacking phenomena
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between graphene sheets in the freeze-dried sample, as already observed by Zhang et al. [67] on reduced
GO aerogels. In our case, even if no reduction steps were performed, both Raman and WAXS results
demonstrated a better reconstruction of the graphitic order for nGO4-FD with respect to nGO4-C. These
findings are in agreement with results reported on large GO sheets by Ham et al. [68], which attributed
3.4 Adsorption capability and barrier properties of nGO
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this effect to an effective removal of water occurring during freeze-drying.
Several studies have been focused on the adsorption efficiency of GO toward different organic
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substances, reporting the increase of dye uptake with increasing the oxidation degree of GO, due to the
enhanced exfoliation and to the presence of adsorption sites more active toward the dye [23,37]. In this
work, the adsorption capability of nGO at different oxidation degrees was evaluated by measuring the
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efficiency of nGO in water dispersion to adsorb MB molecules, used as a dye probe. Results are shown
in Table 4.
As shown, increasing the nGO oxidation degree, a progressive increase of MB adsorption is recorded.
Highly oxidized nGO samples (MB adsorption 695 mg/g for nGO4), show an improvement of the dye
adsorption of about 25% with respect to low oxidized samples nGO1 and nGO2. Nevertheless, the
results demonstrated that also very low oxidized nano-graphenes have high adsorption capability toward
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organic dyes. Moreover, the values of MB absorptions recorded for nGO3 and nGO4 are significantly
higher than those obtained on large-size GO. Indeed, GO-com showed MB absorption capability of 537
mg/g, thus indicating improved adsorption capability of nanosized GO, that can be ascribed to the
comparatively higher amount of functional groups on the edges of the nanometric sheets.
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Moreover, several works have used the MB adsorption to obtain an estimation of the specific surface
area (MB SSA) of GO in diluted water dispersion. Montes-Navajas et al. [39], for instance, evaluated
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the amount of MB adsorbed on the graphene oxide surfaces by successive additions of methylene blue
to a graphene oxide aqueous dispersion, up to the precipitation point. They used a highly oxidized
graphene oxide obtained from oxidation of a commercial graphite by a Hummers modified method, and
measured a SSA of 737 m2/g. McAllister et al. [38] used the MB adsorption method with functionalized
single layer graphene sheets (FGS). They dispersed FGS in water and ethanol, used MB as a probe and
found, for a sample which displayed SSA from 600 to 900 m2/g by N2 adsorption measurements, a MB
SSA of 1850 m2/g, testifying a major exfoliation of FGS in the water/ethanol media. Considering the
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specific surface area of MB (2.54 m2/mg) [69,70], the adsorbed MB amount is correlated to the exposed
area of GO through the following equation:
(3)
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MB SSA = mMB AMB/mGO
where AMB is the area covered by 1 g of methylene blue, and mGO and mMB are the mass of nGO used in
the experiment and the mass of MB adsorbed by graphene oxide, respectively.
Nevertheless, it is to be remarked that this analytical protocol for the SSA determination of GO in water
dispersion is based on the assumption that each MB molecule lies with its largest face parallel to the
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surface of GO sheets, and in this case the area covered by each MB molecule is about 130 Å2 [65,66].
However, if the molecule is tilted (65-70°) with respect to the investigated surface, the covered area is
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reduced to about 66 Å2 per molecule [71], and if its longest axis is oriented perpendicular to the surface,
the covered area is only 24.7 Å2 per molecule [72].
The MB SSA results obtained by MB adsorption measurements for the nGO water dispersions are
reported in Table 4. Low oxidized nGO samples (nGO1 and nGO2) showed MB SSA values close to
1400 m2/g, which were seemingly inconsistent with the results obtained from the other characterization
techniques performed on these samples. Indeed, despite the stability of the dispersions, attributed to the
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nanometric lateral size of the low oxidized graphene nanoplatelets, nGO1 and nGO2 consisted of highly
stacked agglomerates in which oxidized groups are mainly present on the edge of the graphene sheets
and on the basal planes of the external sheets of the agglomerates. For this type of structure, most of the
adsorbed MB molecules are not able to lie parallel to the nGO sheets (upper inset in Table 4), and the
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value of 130 Å2 assumed for the specific surface area of MB molecule, induced an evident
overestimation of the calculated MB SSA value. Using for instance a value of 0.48 m2/mg for AMB in eq.
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3, corresponding to a covered area of 24.7 Å2 per MB molecule, representative of MB molecules
oriented perpendicular to the surfaces, the calculated MB SSA values of nGO1 and nGO2 would
decrease down to about 270 m2/g. A similar effect could be hypothesized also for nGO3 and nGO4,
even if in these cases the extent of the overestimation of the calculated MB SSA value is expected to be
progressively lower because of the lower number of stacked graphene sheets. In particular for nGO4, in
fact, it is reasonable that the adsorbed MB molecules can mainly lie parallel to highly oxidized GO
sheets well dispersed in water (lower inset in Table 4). This hypothesis indicates that the recorded value
of 1760 m2/g represents a quite good estimation of the available specific surface area of nGO4 in
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aqueous media. The overall results obtained by the measurement of the specific surface area of nGO by
MB adsorption cast a shadow on the reliability of the assessment of the extent of exfoliation and the
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available surface area of GO based on this method, especially at low oxidation degrees.
Table 4. MB uptake, specific surface area values calculated by methylene blue adsorption (MB SSA, eq.
3) on nGO water dispersions and by N2 adsorption at 77 K (BET SSA) on cast and freeze-dried nGO
samples. In the insets, model schemes of the orientation of adsorbed MB molecules (light blue
MB SSA
uptake
(m2/g)
(mg/g)
GNP
-
-
BET SSA
(m2/g)
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MB
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segments) onto GO sheets (black segments) at lower and higher oxidation degrees are provided.
480 ± 5
Cast
Freeze-dried
(-C)
(-FD)
557 ± 7
1415 ± 19
346 ± 1
305 ± 1
nGO2
552 ± 30
1401 ± 79
333 ± 1
264 ± 2
nGO3
670 ± 33
1700 ± 83
195 ± 1
148 ± 1
nGO4
695 ± 30
1760 ± 185
1.8 ± 0.1
122 ± 1
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nGO1
Since determination of the surface area is relevant to predict physical and chemical interactions of GO
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with different adsorbates, the specific surface area of GNP and nGO samples was also evaluated in dry
state by volumetric N2 adsorption analysis performed at liquid nitrogen temperature on cast nGO-C and
freeze-dried nGO-FD samples. Results of the BET SSA are reported in Figure 8 and Table 4. Low BET
SSA values observed for bulk GO samples, compared to the theoretical value of 2630 m2/g, are
generally explained considering that the bulk material shows large extent of stacking, making the
interlayer gallery spaces inaccessible to the probe molecules used in surface area analysis [65]. In our
case, starting from a BET SSA of 480 m2/g for commercial GNP, increasing the oxidation degree of
nGO resulted in a progressive decrease of the BET SSA, with an approximate 30% decrease recorded
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for nGO1-C and nGO2-C and 60% decrease for nGO3-C (see Table 4). It should be noted that for
nGO1-C and nGO2-C the recorded BET SSA values are comparable to MB SSA values obtained for the
corresponding nGO1 and nGO2 water dispersions, corrected by considering a value of 0.48 m2/mg for
AMB, i.e. the AMB related to the perpendicular orientation of MB molecules with respect to the
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investigated surfaces.
Figure 8. Nitrogen adsorption isotherms at 77K of GNP and cast nGO samples (a) and freeze-dried
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nGO samples (b).
Interestingly, a very low surface area was recorded for nGO4-C, close to 2 m2/g. Guo et al. [73] already
reported such a drastic reduction of the BET SSA upon film formation by casting of graphene oxide
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dispersions constituted by large GO sheets, even if they were unable to detect the surface area by N2
adsorption at liquid nitrogen temperature due to low amount of available material. Maggio et al. [74]
also reported very low BET SSA values (< 1 m2/g) for GO papers prepared from alkaline dispersions
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and the progressive increase of the specific surface area upon reduction. In our case, the recorded strong
decrease of the BET SSA demonstrated that also for nano-graphene oxide, self-assembly and restacking
phenomena of highly oxidized nGO at the liquid-air interface drive the formation of highly
interlocked/tiled GO paper-like architectures [75]. More specifically, despite the wide interlayer spacing
calculated by WAXS analysis for nGO4-C (about 0.70 nm), these interlayer galleries were inaccessible
to the probe nitrogen molecule used in surface area analysis, as a consequence of the high level of
interaction between oxygen containing functional groups of adjacent graphene oxide sheets.
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Very interesting results were also obtained by the nitrogen adsorption analysis of freeze-dried nGO
samples. For nGO1-FD, nGO2-FD and nGO3-FD, BET SSA values were slightly lower than those
recorded for the corresponding cast samples nGO-C. This finding can be explained taking into account
the results of morphological analysis that, for freeze-dried samples obtained from low oxidized nGO1-
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nGO3 dispersions, showed the presence of micrometric particles constituted by nGO sheets more tightly
interconnected than the corresponding cast samples. On the contrary, BET analysis of nGO4-FD showed
an opposite behaviour. Indeed, in this case the freeze-dried sample showed an increased BET SSA (122
m2/g) with respect to nGO4-C (about 2 m2/g), demonstrating that for highly oxidized nGO samples,
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characterized by a high level of exfoliation in water, the freeze-drying process was able to induce the
formation of highly interconnected porous structures. Although the self-assembly could be further
tailored by controlling other parameters such as the average size and size distribution of the GO
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nanoplatelets, and could be stabilized by chemical or physical reduction processes, the oxidation degree
of the starting nGO must be considered as a crucial factor to obtain and exploit the potential high
surface area of graphene based materials.
Gas barrier properties are another emerging peculiar characteristic of graphene and graphene derivatives
[76]. Enhanced gas barrier performance of graphene/polymer nanocomposites, attributed to the
impermeability of graphene sheets with sufficient aspect ratio to alter the diffusion path of gas penetrant
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molecules, have been summarized in a recent review [77]. Reduced GO coatings have been realized on
polyethyleneterephtalate (PET) films [78] and GO coatings have been also applied on different polymer
substrates [79], showing their ability to significantly reduce the oxygen transmission rate (OTR) of
polymer films. Herein, we have evaluated the oxygen permeability of nGO, to elucidate the effect of the
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low lateral size on barrier properties. In particular, oxygen permeability measurements were performed
on free-standing nGO4-C samples and on nGO-coated LDPE films obtained by rod-coating from the
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nGO4 water dispersion (PE-nGO4). Results are shown in Figure 9.
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Figure 9. Oxygen transmission rate of LDPE film (PE), LDPE film coated with nGO4 (PE-nGO4), and
nGO4-C self-assembled film. The SEM micrograph of cross section of PE-nGO4 is shown in the top
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row.
Despite its aspect ratio, nGO still kept interesting gas barrier properties. The free standing nGO4-C film
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showed an OTR of 9.43*10-14 mol m-2 s-1 Pa-1, whereas the coating applied on the low barrier polymer
substrate was able to reduce the OTR of LDPE from 1.34*10-11 to 3.64*10-12 mol m-2 s-1 Pa-1.
Considering the thickness of the nGO film (≈ 15 µm) and the nGO coating on LDPE (≈ 200 nm), the
corresponding oxygen permeability values were calculated as 1.41*10-18 and 1.00*10-18 mol m-1 s-1 Pa-1,
respectively. This slight discrepancy can be attributed to the inhomogeneous thickness of both the films
and the coatings. These oxygen permeability values are lower than those obtained from GO with
micrometric lateral size [79], indicating that the self-assembling of nGO sheets is not able to completely
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restore the low permeability shown by GO coatings obtained from large sheets. Nevertheless, despite its
reduced aspect ratio, the self-assembly of nGO is still able to yield high gas barrier performances.
4. CONCLUSIONS
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This work presents an insight on the effect of the oxidation degree on the self-assembly, adsorption and
barrier properties of nano-graphene oxide. The obtained nGO samples were characterized by very low to
moderate levels of oxidation. All the nGO water dispersions resulted stable, with slight settling
phenomena observed only at very low oxidation degree.
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The exothermal reduction of nGO was significantly affected by the oxidation degree, and a non-linear
dependence of the enthalpy of this process with type and amount of oxygen-containing functional
groups was detected.
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Two different self-assembly processes were used to prepare nGO architectures, based on the selfconcentration of nGO by water evaporation at the dynamic liquid/air interface, and by freeze-drying at
the dynamic ice/water interface. SEM and TEM analysis on the obtained samples revealed a dependence
of the self-assembly ability of nGO on the oxidation degree. Only at high oxidation level large, defectfree self-standing nGO films were obtained by casting and porous structures constituted by nGO sheets
highly interconnected in large random stacks were achieved by freeze drying.
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As concerning the adsorption of organic dyes, increasing the nGO oxidation degree, a progressive
increase of MB adsorption was recorded. Nevertheless, also very low oxidized nano-graphenes showed
high adsorption capability properties toward MB.
A further insight on the interaction occurring between nano-graphene sheets at different levels of
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oxidation was given by BET specific surface area measurements. In particular, a progressive decrease of
the BET SSA was recorded on cast samples by increasing the oxidation level, with a final SSA of about
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2 m2/g recorded for the highly oxidized sample. In comparison, porous sample obtained by freezedrying of highly oxidized nGO showed an increased BET SSA, demonstrating that the freeze-drying
process partially inhibited interlayer interactions and restacking.
Finally, oxygen permeability measurements evidenced interesting gas barrier properties of nGO coatings
and films, even if the low aspect ratio of nGO was not able to give barrier levels comparable to coatings
obtained by large GO sheets.
Overall, the results herein reported a significant insight on the relevance of the lateral size of GO and its
oxidation degree to tailor the self-assembly, adsorption properties and specific surface area graphene
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oxide materials. In particular, controlling the oxidation extent of nano-graphene in terms of O/C atomic
ratio and type of oxygen-containing functional groups enables to modulate its surface interactions with
the surrounding environment when this material is used for the realization of advanced devices or for
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Highlights
nano-graphene (nGO) with variable levels of oxidation was synthesized
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nGO water dispersions showed good stability even at very low oxidation degrees
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self-assembly of nGO by water evaporation and freeze-drying was investigated
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microstructure, adsorption and barrier properties of self-assembled nGO was studied
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controlling the oxidation extent enables to modulate the properties of nGO structures
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