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Monumenta Serica
Journal of Oriental Studies
ISSN: 0254-9948 (Print) 2057-1690 (Online) Journal homepage: http://www.tandfonline.com/loi/ymon20
Locating the Tangut Military Establishment: Uraqai
(Wulahai) and the Heishui Zhenyan Army
Ruth W. Dunnell
To cite this article: Ruth W. Dunnell (1992) Locating the Tangut Military Establishment:
Uraqai (Wulahai) and the Heishui Zhenyan Army, Monumenta Serica, 40:1, 219-234, DOI:
10.1080/02549948.1992.11731232
To link to this article: http://dx.doi.org/10.1080/02549948.1992.11731232
Published online: 27 Apr 2016.
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Date: 12 November 2017, At: 05:18
Monumenta Serica
40 (1 992): 219 - 234
WCATING THE TANGUT MILITARY ESTABLISHMENT:
URAQAI (WULAHAI) AND THE HEISHUI ZHENYAN ARMY
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RUTH
W.
Kenyon College,
DUNNELL
Gambie几 Ohio
In piecing together the history of the 1总ngut state of Xi Xia (10381227) , a researcher stumbles over many obscure and unidentified place
names (not to mention personal names) , some of which were important
centers of activity. The following exercise attempts to trace a tentative
solution to one such onomastic and geographical puzzle that has attracted some controversy.1
The Song shi (486 , p. 14029) describes the 1运ngut establishment of twelve
jian jun si (army intendancies) , six under a Right Wing (y ou xiang) and
six under a Le ft Wing (zuo xiang) , during the reign of Li Yuanhao (Weiming Nangxiao, Jingzong r. 1032-1047). One of the Right Wing armies
bore the name of Heishui Zhenyan. Since the names of the armies contain geographical references apparently indicating their approximate (if
not exact) locations , most scholars have assumed an identity of this Heishui (li t. "Black River") with the renowned town and/or river of the same
name: Qara-Qoto (Mong. "Black City") or Edzina (Tangut "Black
River勺, in the vicinity of the present-day Ejinai Banner, or the upper
reaches of the Edzina River (Ruoshui) northeast of Suzhou (Jiuquan)
where it is marked Heishui on modern maps. The difficulty with this
1) This paper was originally presented at the 195th meeting of the Am erican Orienta1 Society in Ann Arbor, Michigan , 14 -17 Apri1 1985. A Chinese version was 1ateτ
published in Ningxia shehui kexue 1986, 6. In the present version 1 have reversed the conclusion arrived at in the original and Chinese versions , where 1 maintained that the Heishui Zhenyan Army was located at Wulahai. The edition of Song shi used here, Thibei
1978 , is identical in pagination to the new Beijing edition.
TANGLJT MILITARY ESTABLISHMENT
RUTH W. DUNNELL
220
Ll AOI JIN
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TATARS
.
Yin.han HI•
.han
Lan9'
...
UIGHURS
。 Wulilhili
H.ishui
Y 四曹'"
JC
Zh凹'yan
jun
SJ
。。
Shnhou
血luhou
ORDOS
DESERT
UIGHURS
。 Xiliilng
fu
IliilngzhDuJ
..明a
,.....帽,/
Tl BETANS
THE (XI) XIA STATE
1038 -1227
NORTHERN
SONG I JIN
221
RUTH W. DUNNELL
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222
solution is that the Yuan shi geographical treatise 2 states quite clearly
that the Xia 矶'eifu Army had been located at Edzina , near the site of
the old Han commandery of Juyan. This Weifu refers to the Right Wing
Army listed in the above-cited Song shi passage as the Heishan Weifu
Army. Therefore, the Chinese historical atlas Zhongguo lishi ditu ji (vo l.
6, map 36-37), 3 situates the Heishan Weifu Army at Edzina and the
Heishui Zhenyan Army upstream and southwest , in the middle of the
desert north of Suzhou. This defies military logic. Why station two armies along the Edzina River and leave the sensitive northeast frontier
unguarded?
One solution to this logistical puzzle was advanced by the anonymous author of a putative Song map attributed to the eleventh century
statesman , Fan Zhongyan , and found in his collected works in the nineteenth century. This map survives only in the late Qing chronicle by
Zhang Jian , Xi Xia jishi benmo (1 884). It shows the Heishui Zhenyan
Army at Edzina and the Heishan Weifu Army in the Langshan , north
of the great bend in the Yellow River. 4 Although this map has influenced scholars of the last one hundred years , it has recently been shown
to be a late Qing (or at least post-Song) fabrication. 5 Its perpetrator,
however, correctly believed that there must have been an army in the
Langshan area , which abutted the southwestern border of the Li ao and
Jin empires.
Evidence of the existence of a Tangut military establishment north
of the Yellow River loop may be found in another passage from Song
shi (485 , p. 13994-13995) , averring that Li Yuanhao stationed 70 ,000
troops north of the Yellow River up to Wularuo-shan to guard against
shi (Beijing , 1976), 60 , p. 1451 (hereafter YS).
3) Zhongguo lishi ditu ji; vo l. 6: Song, Liao, Jin shiqi (Shanghai , 1975).
4) A similar map, found in an anonymous Qing album , is preserved in the Le nin
Li brary in Moscow. It displays the same disposition of the two armies , with a commentary
rejecting the Yuan shi evidence as unreliable. See E. 1. Kychanov, "Kitaiskii rukopisnyi
atlas kart tangutskogo gosudarstva Si Sia , xraniashchiisia v Gosudarstvennoi Biblioteke
SSSR imeni V. 1. Le nina ," Strany i narody vostoka 1 (1 959): 204-212.
5) Qiu Shi , "Lun suo wei fuzhi Song ben Xi Xia ditu wenti ," Xibei lishi ziliao
1980, 1; reprinted in Bai Bin , ed. , Xi Xia shi lun wenji (Yinchuan , 1984) , pp. 652-659.
2) 卫lan
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TANGUT MILITARY ESTABLISHMENT
223
the Qitans. This Wularuo-shan is apparently a spur of the Yinshan , a
mountain range that runs east-west across the northern bend in the Yellow River. 6 Its western extension is also called Langshan , for which Wularuo may be a local (Tangut?) name. Notably, the Zhongguo lishi ditu
ji map identifies Wularuo-shan with Muna-qan (or Muna-qosighu时,
which according to Mongolian chronicles Chinggis-qan admired as a desirable resting place for an old man , as he embarked on his final campaign against Xi Xia. 7
Can we locate an army superintendency in this site, and if so which
one? Let us examine the evidence for a possible answer.
11
TheXiχia shushi (Wu Guangcher毡, 1826) 12 , p. 7b, states that the Heishui Zhenyan Army was situated at Wulahai-che吨, and the Heishan Weifu Army at Edzina (Juya时, following , no doubt , the notices in Yuan shi
60 , pp. 1451-1452. Wu Guangche吨 's proposed locations for the twelve
army intendancies contain several inaccuracies. Nor did he venture to
identify the whereabouts of Wulahai. This toponym emerges into light
from records of Chinggis-qan's campaigns against Xia , and various attempts have been made by modern scholars to locate Wulahai in the
Alashan (Helanshan) or Gansu Corridor. Even Paul Pelliot , who rejected
most of these solutions , opined that "it must have been in Kan-su proper,
6) Woluoniang-shan in Zhang Jian , Xi Xia jishi benmo, 10, p. 5b; and in Li Tao,
Xu zizhi tongjian changbian (repr. Taibei , 1974), 120, p. 23a , according to Wu Guangcheng , Xi Xia shushi (1 826; repr. Taibei , 1968) , 12, p. 12b, but most versions of Li Tao
available today show the revised Qing orthography e'erning-shan.
7) Antoine Mostaert , Dictionnaire Ordos (Beijing , 1941; repr. 1968) , p. 475: "Muna ,
montagne d'Urat , à l'Ouest de Pao-t'eou et non loin du fleuve Jaune (c'est le muna qan
de Saghang Setchen , p. 98)." Mostaert referred to Isaak Jakob Schmidt's translation of
Erdeni-yin tobéi, Geschichte der Ost-Mongolen (S t. Petersburg , 1829). See also Altan
tobéi , the text published by Harvard University Press in 1952 with a foreword by F. W.
Cleaves , p. 94 (the pages are numbered in Mongolian); Shara tuji (collated texts , translation and introduction by N. P. Shastina , Moscow- Leningrad , 1957) , p. 32; and the Chinese
translation of Erdeni-yin tobéi, 儿fenggu yuan liu , 4, p. 2b (p. 23 of the 1940 Kyoto text
edited and annotated by Gõ Minoru).
224
RUTH W. DUNNELL
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north of the Huang-ho" (by which he did not mean the great bend in
the River).8 Zhongguo lishi ditu ji, vo l. 6, map 36-37 , depicts Wulahaicheng somewhat to the northeast of Ganzhou; but vo l. 7 (1 982 ed.) , map
21 , shows Wulahai north of the Yellow River loop.9
As early as 1939 Cen Zhongmian persuasively argued that Wulahai
can be situated north of the Yellow River bend in the Langshan , near
the site of the old Han (or earlier) fort of Gaoque. lO Following his lead ,
Wu Tianchi likewise situates Wulahai (Wologai) in the Langshan on the
endmap of his Xi Xia shi gao (Chengdu , 1980). In the same work ,
though , Wu places the Heishui Zhenyan Army on the Edzin-ghol northwest of Ganzhou (Zhangyi) (see page 209 and front map) , rejecting Wu
Guangche吨 's location at Wulahai-cheng and following the Zhongguo Iishi ditu ji , vo l. 6. In an appendix (pp. 420- 21) to the 1983 edition of
his book , however, Wu Tianchi argues in favor of locating the Heishui
army intendancy at Wulahai. Le t us first examine the contemporary testimony regarding Wulahai , noting its relationship to Heishui.
III
Most references to Wulahai that 1 have found come from the Yuan shi.
8) P. Pelliot , Notes on Marco Polo (Paris, 1959-63), 1, p. 315. The identification
of Wulahai in Zhongguo diming da cidian (Beijing , 1930; repr. 1968) , zi p. 65 , connects
this place and transcription with that for Uriangghai , which 1 suspect is a different case
altogether. Although such a connection is always possible, the problem of the origins and
subsequent affiliations of the Uriangghai is a thorny one indeed. In any case, they tend
to be located farther north , in southern Siberia.
9) Tan Qixiang , ed. , Zhongguo lishi ditu ji , vo l. 7: Yuan Ming shiqi (Beiji 吨,
1982). An earlier edition of vo l. 7 published in 1975 situates Wulahai northeast of Ganzhou , as in vo l. 6. The 1982 edition corrects the location and adjusts the boundaries of
Gansu province accordingly.
10) Cen Zhongmian , "Yuan chu xibei wu cheng zhi dili di kaogu ," in his Zhongwai
shidi kaozheng (Hong Kong , 1966), 1, pp. 529-539. On the location of Gaoque, see the
relevant maps in Yang Shoujing and Deng Chengxiu , Lidai yudi yange tu (Taibei , 1975);
and Qian Mu , Shiji diming kao (Hong Kong , 1968), p. 857. Wada Sei examines the shifting
location of Fengzhou and Tiande in "Hδshü Tentokugun no ichi ni tsuite," Shirin 16 ,2
(1 931): 185 - 202.
TANGUT MILITARY ESTABLISHMENT
225
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A. YS , 1, p. 14: In the autumn of 1207 Chinggis-qan again campaigned
against Xi Xia , subjugating Woluohai-cheng. Mongol armies did not
withdraw until the spring of 1208 , apparently finding it a suitable wintering place. The Shengwu qin zheng /u has an identical entry regarding
Woluohai-cheng. 11
B. YS , 1, p. 14: In 1209 Chinggis-qan entered Hexi (= Xi时, defeated
a Th.ngut army sent to repulse him , subjugated Wulahai-cheng , took captives , and proceeded on to besiege the Xia capital.
C. YS , 60 , p. 1452: The geographical treatise notes an absence of information on Wulahai Circuit (Iu) , but observes that in 1209 the emperor
(= Chinggis-qan) entered Hexi via a pass north of Heishui-cheng and
west of Wulahai , captured a Tangut general , and subjugated Wulahaicheng. The juxtaposition of the two towns here seems to confirm that
Heishui and Wulahai were the Tanguts' two most important northern
outposts, one in the west and one in the east, facing the Gobi.
D. In the final campaigns of 1226 -1227 , Wulahai is not mentioned in
the Yuan shi or Shengwu qin zheng /u , but does appear in Rashid al-Din
and the Secret History of the Mongo/s , in the form UrukailUraqai. 12
Secret History paragraph 267 states , "Chinggis-qahan moved away from
Chasutu Mountain and set up camp at the city of Uraqai. After setting
out from the city of Uraqai , while he was destroying the city of Dörmegei
(= Li ng-chou) ...," omitting all that occurred otherwise between the time
the qan summered at Chasutu and the battle at Li ngzhou some four or
five months later. Rashïd al-Din's testimony is somewhat vaguer, noting
only that Urukai was among the cities conquered by Chinggis-qan. It is
possible to conclude that the Mongols had kept control of Wulahai since
its earlier conquest in 1209 , and were able to use it as a staging base in
their 1226 operations , as well as in campaigns against the Jurchens from
1211 onward.
Heishui is not mentioned specifically as a target of conquest until
Wang Guowei , Shengwu qin zheng /u jiao zhu (Beiping , 1936), p. 119.
For Rashrd al-Drn , see O. 1. Smirnova , trans. , Sbornik /etopisei (MoscowLeningrad , 1952), 1, p. 231. For the Secret History, see the translation of Igor de Rachewiltz serialized in Papers on Far Eastern History , esp. "Chapter Twelve," PFEH 31 (March
11)
12)
1985): 21-93 , p. 24.
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226
RUTH W. DUNNELL
1226. YS , 1, p. 23: "21st year (1 226) ... 2nd month. (Chinggis-qan) took
Heishui and other towns. Summer, (Chinggis-qan) escaped the heat at
Hunchuishan ..." Hunchuishan , not positively identified , is presumed to
be the Mt. Chasutu (Chin. Xueshan or "Snowy Mountain") of the Secret
History , and was perhaps located north of Hexi between Edzina and
Wulahai , rather than in the Qilian Mountains of southern Gansu. 13 YS ,
60 , p. 1451 notes the conquest or surrender (nei fu of Edzina (= QaraQoto) in 1226 , which must refer to the Heishui of YS , 1, p. 23 cited
above.
E. A variant form , Wunala-cheng , is found in the biography of Li Heng
(YS , 129 , p. 3155); the Yuan wen ωversion has Wuna-cheng. 14 The absence of the element hai might be explained by Kychanov's proposal that
hailghai is a Tangut suffix meaning "walled settlement" (thus cheng is
actually superfluous when hai is present).15 Li Heng's forbears were of
the Xia royal house (xing Yumi shi; Yumi = Weiming). His grandfather
was the commander of Wunala-cheng at the time of Chinggis-qan's early
campaigns against Xia. When the town fell to the Mongols (1209?) he
refused to submit and died. His seven-year old son , Li Heng's father,
wished to follow suit , but in good Mongolian fashion was adopted into
the household of Qasar (Chinggis-qan's younger brother). It is likely
13) See Pelliot's remarks in Notes on Marco Polo, 1, pp. 309, 316 passim. Cen
Zhongmian , citing Menggu youmu ji , notes the existence of a Chasutu north of the Yellow
River in the territory of the Ulate (Urat , see note 5 above) banner (p. 537). See Zhang
Mu , Menggu youmu ji (Taibei , 1968) , 5, p. 9a passim , which mentions the Xueshan called
Chasutu in 肌10ngolian.
14) Su Ti anjue, comp. , Yuan wen lei (Shanghai , 1937) , 21 , p. 257. Cen Zhongmian
doubts the equation of Wunala/Wulahai (p. 530) , owing to the presence of both -nand -1- in this transcription , but he does not cite the Wuna version of Yuan wen lei.
15) Kychanov, "0 nekotorykh naimenovaniakh gorodov i mestnostei byvshei territorii tangutskogo gosudarstva ," Pis'mennye pamiatniki i problemy istorii i kul'tury
narodov vostoka , Proceedings of the 11t h annual scholarly session of the Le ningrad
Branch of the Institute of Oriental Studies (Moscow, 1975), 1, pp. 47-5 1. The Tibetan
word mkhar means "walled settlement" (see H. A. Jaschke, Tibetan-English Dictionary,
1941 ed. , p. 54). In the above-cited article, Kychanov speculates on the possible identity
of Wulahai with a place marked Weilin not too far from the site of Gaoque on the old
"Song" map. As mentioned earlier, the authority of this map is in doubt; Weilin may represent a variant of Wula(hai) , or an entirely different place.
TANGUT MILITARY ESTABLISHMENT
227
that this event refers to none other than the aforementioned Mongol conquest of Wulahai-cheng in 1209.
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F. Support for the supposition that after 1209-10 Wulahai abandoned
resistance to the Mongols , cooperated with or was even controlled by
Mongol interests , may be found in the biography of Xie Zhongwen (YS ,
169 , p. 3977) , a native of Fengzhou , a Jin prefecture northeast of the
Yellow River loop. His father, Xie Muhuan, was a wealthy and hence prominent figure among the settlements in that region:
When the Great Army marched south , he moved to reside in Wula(hai)cheng. When Taizu (= Chinggis-qan) attacked Xi Xia , (Taizu) passed the
town. Muhuan together with the garrison commander met (the Mongol
army) and surrendered. (Muhuan) followed (the Mongol army) to attack
Xijing (= the Jin Western Capital at Datong). . .16
Mongolian attacks on Xijing began in 1212 and concluded in its
final conquest by the beginning of 1217 _I7 But there were no Mongolian
assaults on Xia between 1211 and 1217 , so either the reference to Xi Xia
here is misplaced , or else Xie Muhuan's surrender took place during the
earlier attack of 1209-1210, contradicting Li Heng's testimony regarding
the valor of his kin. There is no reason to question the identity of Wula
and Wunala. Li Heng may have been glorifying his ancestry, or more
likely the reference here to attacking Xi Xia is out of place. The Mongol
armies were so simply passing through Tangut territory on the way to
their primary objective, Jin. Xia authorities at Wulahai were cooperating
with the Mongols , either perforce, as a matter of state policy or out of
private interes t.
Of importance here also is the juxtaposition of Fengzhou and Wulahai. If Xie Muhuan , evidently some kind of merchant-adventurer,
moved from formerly Jin-controlled Fengzhou to the Xia town of Wulahai , then the latter could not have been too far away from the former.
G. Another variant , Wulanghai , occurs in the biography of Guo Shou-
16) For this reference 1 am indebted to F. W. Cleaves , "A Medical Practice of the
Mongols ," Harvard Journal 01 Asiatic Studies 17 (1954): 440-44 1.
17) See Jin shi , 14 and 15; YS , 1; and Igor de Rachewiltz , "Pesonnel and Personalities in North China in the Early Mongol Period ," Journal 01 the Economic and Social
History 01 the Orient 9 (1 966): 117.
228
RUTH W. DUNNELL
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jing (YS , 164, p. 3846), the famous Yuan engineer and water conservationis t. In 1260 Qubilai established a branch secretariat (zhongshu xingsheng) in the former territories of Xi Xia , and deputed Guo Shoujing
to go and restore the abandoned canal system of Zhongxing (later renamed Ningxia). In 1261 Guo memorialized:
Boats traveling along the (Yellow) River from Zhongxing reach Dongsheng
in four days and nights , so the River can be used for transport. Moreover
one can see that Chabo and Wulanghai have many old canal ditches , which
it would be advantageous to restore.
Dongsheng lay on the northeasterly bend of the Yellow River, at the site
of present-day Tuoketuo. Guo Shoujing's testimony leaves no doubt that
Wula(ng)hai was situated near the Yellow River bank , probably along the
outer loop of its northwestern bend, since there is no mention elsewhere
of crossing a river to reach it. This location made it suitable for irrigated
agriculture, which the Tanguts clearly had practiced there, supplying
grain to the local population , garrison troops , and perhaps even enough
to trade with northern neighbors. Chabo was located south of Wulahai ,
on the west bank of the Yellow River. 18
IV
The evidence adduced here confirms Cen Zhongmian's location of Wulahai just beyond the northwestern bend of the Yellow River, in the western
Yinshan. But Wu Guangcheng's situation of the Heishui Zhenyan Army
at Wulahai, supported by Cen Zhongmian (and earlier myself), is less
certain. Heishui ("Black River") and Heishan (li t. "Black Mountain") are
extremely common toponyms in this part of Asia. Cen tentatively identifies the Heishui of 拍an shi notices with the Black River reached by Yelu
Dashi in 1124 after a three-day march north of Tiande Commandery
(Cen , pp. 533 - 534). Although the Heishui of the Zhenyan Army could
refer to the river proposed by Cen or to another river bearing this name
that empties into the Yellow River east of Baotou , 19 this conclusion now
18) The location of Chabotun is given in Bolanxi et al. , comp. ,只lan yi tongzhi
(repr. Shanghai , 1966) 6, p. 550.
19) See map p. 21 in Zhonghua renmin gongheguo fensheng ditu ji (Beijing , 1974).
TANGUT MILITARY ESTABLISHMENT
229
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strikes me as forced. All known references to Heishui in this context , either in Yuan or Xia sources , refer unquestionably to Edzina. It is equally
clear that Edzina (Heishui) and Wulahai (Uraqai) are two distinctly separated places.
We are left with the unhappy alternative of demonstrating that the
Yuan dynastic history (an earlier source, for all its infelicities) is wrong ,
and the Qing cartographer right to locate the Heishan Weifu Army at
Uraqai. 20 Song shi designates the Zhenyan and Weifu armies as being
under the Right (= west) Wing , and the order in which it lists the six
Right Wing armies suggests an arc starting at the capital , moving west
into the Gansu corridor, north to Edzina (Heishu i), circling back east to
the area northwest of the capital and ending with the Heishan Weifu Army, at Wulahai if we accept the logic of this arc. 21 In fact , we do find
a Heishan in this vicinity, mentioned inter alia in the geographical treatises of the Liao (Heishanyu) and Jin (Heishan) dynastic histories , under
the entry for Tiande Commandery.22 North of this , the Liao shi passage
adds , there is a Munashan , which may be related to the Muna-qan/Uratl
Uraqai complex discussed above.
It should be noted that the names and sites of some of the army
intendancies changed over the two centuries of their existence. The names
of the twelve army intendancies listed in the mid-twelfth century Tangut
law code differ rather markedly from the Chinese names found in Song
shi and Yuan shi. A Tangut form of Heishan (but not Heishui) appears ,
which Kychanov locates in the Langshan. 23 If we assume that the 1运ngut
20) Is it possible that the names of the two armies have been scrambled , and should
be Heishui Weifu and Heishan Zhenyan?
21) Chen Bingying , quite independently, made the same suggestion regarding the
order in which Song shi lists the twelve army intendancies. See Xi Xia wenwu yanjiu ,
p. 95.
22) Liao shi (Beijing , 1974), 41 , p. 509; Jin shi (Beijing , 1975), 24 , p. 565. See also
Song shi , 491 , p. 14143 - 44 in the Dangxiang chapter, for a Heishan north of the Yellow
River mentioned in connection with the early eleventh century activities of the Zhuanglang
tribe. For an 831 Tangut raid at Heishan on Uighurs who had surrendered to the Th ng,
and a discussion of the identification of Heishan as one of the peaks in the La ngshan ,
see Okazaki Sei币, Tanguto kodaishi kenkyu (Kyoto, 1972), p. 257.
23) Kychanov, Izmenennyi i zanovo utverzhdennyi kodeks deviza tsarstvovaniia nebesnoe protsvetanie ρ149-1169) , vo l. 1, "Commentary," (Moscow, 1988) , p. 370.
230
RUTH W. DUNNELL
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and Chinese names each have one and the same referent , then closer
study and comparison of the Tangut forms with their Chinese counterparts is the next step, though one strewn with many new puzzles.
In this connection 1 want to comment on an attempt to reconstruct
the Tangut name of Wulahai. Cen Zhongmian (p. 535) cites the note on
Ouiraca (Wulahai) that appears in C. D'Ohsson's Histoire des Mongols
(1834):
Oui-ra-ca veut dire, en langue tangoute, passage par le mur, de Oui dans ,
au milieu de, ra mur, et ca passage; d'apr也 le Vocabulaire des anciens
noms qui se rencontrent dans l' Histoire de la Dynastie Yuan , à la suite
de I'Histoire des quatre premiers souverains de cette dynastie, trad. par
Hyacinthe, p. 379. 24
The work referred to, Istoriia pervykh' chetyrekh' khanov' iz' doma
Chingisova [History of the first four khans of the house of Chinggis] ,
was compiled by the Russian monk Hyacinthe (Bichuri时, based on translations from Yuan shi and Tongjian gangmu , and published in St. Petersburg in 1829. On page vi of the introduction to this book one learns that
Hyacinthe (working at the Russian Orthodox Mission in Beijing) consulted the historical dictionary compiled in 1781- 82 under the Qianlong emperor, Liao, Jin, Yuan, sanshi yujie. Using the revised Qianlong orthography, this compilation provides Manchu transcriptions , definitions , and
often etymological glosses for non-Han terms and names found in the
Liao, Jin , and Yuan dynastic histories. The entry for Wulahai reads:
"Wei-la-ke, in Tangut language wei is middle (center) , la is encircling wall ,
ke is mouth. In chapter one [of Yuan shi] it is the name of Wuluogaicheng" 衙喇喀唐古特需衡中也喇睛圈也喀口也卷一作斡罹孩域名 P
24) C. D'Ohsson , Histoire des Mongols d,ψ uis Tchinguiz-khan jusqu 'à Timour Bey
ou Tamerlan (The Hague丛 msterdam , 1834), pp. 105 -106. A Chinese translation of this
work was published in 1936. See Feng Chengjun , Duosang Menggu shi (Shanghai , 1936),
vol. 1, pp. 63 , 77.
25) Qinding Liao, Jin, Yuan, sanshi yujie (compiled Qianlong 46 [1781-82); repr.
Taibei , 1974), Yuan shi yujie , 4, p. 4a. In his Xi Xia ji (1924) , 27 , p. 5a , Dai Xizhang
had only the original French edition of D'Ohsson to consult , thus did not realize that
Ouiraca = Wulahai , and instead proposed that Weihala-cheng (his transcription of
Ouiraca back into Chinese?) meant Wanli-changcheng (Thousand Ii Lo ng Wall).
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TANGUT MILITARY ESTABLISHMENT
231
Is there any basis for this etymology? Or in fact for the other etymologies given to many Tangut terms and names in this dictionary? A
cursory check of the Tangut dictionaries now available reveals this instance to be a plausible etymology: wei might transcribe a Tangut word
meaning wall (Chin. cheng) , and la(n) a Tangut word glossed as middle
or center (Chin. zhong); ke may correspond to a Tangut word glossed
mouth (kou) in Chinese. 26 The intriguing question arises: in Qianlong's
time was there still someone around who had a command of the Tangut
language (and script) , or were the compilers of this dictionary relying on
written sources, and if so, what were they?
V
In conclusion , for the time being we may assume that the Heishui Zhenyan Army intendancy was located at Edzina , and the Heishan Weifu Army intendancy in the Langshan , at or near Wulahai. Since recent publication of the Tangut law code has made available an important body of
data on the Xia military and administrative system , a full study of the
larger context of this inquiry can now be pursued , perhaps clearing up
these lesser puzzles or establishing their real significance.
The coincidence of the names Wulahai (Uraqai), Wularuo-shan ,
Muna-qan , and Urat (see note 7) in the same area is certainly intriguing ,
but 1 hesitate to draw any conclusions from it at present. On the basis
of this same coincidence (at least of the first three names) , however, we
should be able to refine Pe11iot's reconstruction of Chinggis-qan's final
movements.
26) See the following two dictionaries: Shi Jinbo, Bai Bin , Huang Zhenhua , JJ告nhai
1983): 吃7: 123 (pp. 182, 433) for the character meaning "middle," with
a phonetic gloss of la(n). JJ告nhai does not provide phonetic glosses for the other two characters (# 1446 and 0838). See Li Fanwen , Tongyin yanjiu (Yinchuan , 1986): 28A18 (p. 335)
for a graph meaning "mouth ," given the phonetic gloss of ki:J (Li 's source for this gloss
is unclear); M. V. Sofronov does not gloss this graph in his Grammatika tangutskogo
iazyka (Moscow, 1968 , 11 , #0443) , nor does Nishida Th tsuo in his Seikago no kenkyú
(Kyoto, 1966, 11 , #154-042); 9B22 (p. 240) for the graph meaning "wall" glossed wi (we
in Sofronov, ibid. , #0645); and 49A38 (p. 447) for the graph meaning "middle" glossed
la. But see note 15 above. This etymology remains open to question.
yanjiu (Beijing ,
RUTH W. DUNNELL
232
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Chinese and Japanese References
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Bolanxi 字商盼 et al. , compl., Yuan yi tongzhi 元一毓志. Repr. Shanghai , 1966.
Cen Zhongmian 岑伸勉, "Yuan chu xibei wu cheng zhi dili di kaogu" 元初西
北五城之地理的考古. Zhongwai shidi kaozheng 中外史地考登. Hong Kong ,
1966.
Chen Bingying 隙炳膺 , Xi Xia wenwu yanjiu 西夏文物研究. Yinchuan , 1985.
Dai Xizhang 戴锡章 , Xi Xia ji 西夏祀. 1924.
Dunnell , Ruth W. (R. 部尼商), "Wulahai (Woluohai) he Xi Xia Heishui Zhenyan
junsi"
兀剌海(斡罹孩)和西夏黑水银燕罩司 ,
社舍科肇 1986,
Feng
Ningxia shehui
kexue 事夏
6.
Chengjun 渴承钩,
trans. , Duosang Menggu
shi 多桑蒙古史.
Shanghai ,
1936.
Gõ Minoru 江贾, trans. , Mõko genryü 蒙古源流. Kyoto , 1940.
Jin shi 金史. Beijing , 1975.
Liao shi 遣史. Beijing , 1974.
Lidai yudi yange tu I!f代舆地沿革圃 by Yang Shoujing 揭守敬 and Deng Chengxiu 部承修(?). Repr. Taibei , 1975.
Li Fanwen 李范文 , Tongyin yanjiu 同音研究. Yinchuan , 1986.
Li Tao 李熏 , Xu zizhi tongjian changbian 穰资治通锺是精. Repr. Taibei , 1974.
Menggu yuan liu 蒙古源流 (see Gõ Minoru).
Nishida Tatsuo 西田鹿雄 , Seikago no kenkyü 西夏需 ω 研究. Kyoto, 1966.
Okazaki Seirõ 罔崎精郎 , Tangüto kodaishi kenkyü 夕 Y 夕'一卡古代史研究. Kyoto,
1972.
Qinding Liao, J,切!, Yuan, sanshi yujie 钦定遣金元三史需解. Repr. Taibei , 1974.
Qian Mu 钱穆, Shiji diming kao 史亩地名考. Hong Kong , 1968.
Qiu Shi 求贾, "Lu n suo wei fuzhi Song ben Xi Xia ditu wenti" 输所需穰制宋
本西夏地圃罔题 ,Xibei lishi ziliao 西北匮史资料 1980, 1. Reprinted in Bai
Bin , ed. , Xi Xia shi lun wenji , pp. 652-659.
Shengwu qin zheng lu 重武窥征鲸 (see Wang Guowei).
Shi Jinbo 史金波, Bai Bin 白渍, Huang Zhenhua 黄握辈, eds. , U切hai yanjiu
文海研究. Beijing , 1983.
Song shi 宋史. Taibei , 1978.
Tongjian
gangmu 通量纲目.
Wada Sei 和田清, "Hδshü Tentokugun no ichi ni tsuite" 置州天德罩 ω 位置 l 二?
pτ , Shirin 史林 16, 2(1931): 185-202.
Wang Guowei 王国雄 , Shengwu qin zheng lu jiao zhu 窒武藏征簸校注. Beiping ,
1936.
Wu Guangcheng 吴魔成,却 Xia shushi 西夏喜事. 1826; repr. Taibei , 1968.
233
Wu Tianchi 吴天堤 , Xi Xia shi gao 西夏史稿. Chengdu , 1980, 1983.
Yuan shi 元史. Beijing , 1976. Abbr.: YS.
Yuan wen lei 元文颊. Su Tianjue 荒草天筒, compl. Repr. Shanghai , 1937.
Zhang Jian 强置 , Xi Xia jishi benmo 西夏把事本末. Jinling , 1909.
Zhang Mu 猿穆 • Menggu youmu ji 蒙古游牧自. Taibei , 1968.
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Glossary of Terms and Names Appearing in Text and Map
西州河
州山司宗罩泉延山州都恒州州山吴川沙纳
垂罩石口遣瞌元路
舍潭鳖景穰九居狼商繁李重麟六李温嚼穆
Hexi
Hongzhou
Huanghe
(Huang-ho)
Huizhou
Hunchuishan
Jlan Jun SI
Jingzong
Jishi jun
Jiuquan
Juyan
kou
Langshan
Lanzhou
Ledu
Liao
Li Heng
Li ngzhou
Li nzhou
Liupanshan
Li Yuanhao
lu
Miaochuan
Mingsha
Muna
河洪黄
仲城膀酣溃伸守峨山搏商
一踉州勉泊同州膀州山纳淹州州州'阳州阔州敬北一一幅峪燕山
Baotou
Binzhou
Cen Zhongmian
Chabo
cheng
Datong
Dingzhou
Dongsheng
Dongshengzhou
E 'erming-shan
Ejinai
Fan Zhongyan
Fengzhou (1, 2)
Fuzhou (1)
Fuzhou (2)
Gansu (Kan-su)
Ganzhou
Gaoque
Guazhou
Guo Shoujing
Hebei
Heishan Weifu
Heishanyu
Heishui Zhenyan
Helanshan
包并岑查大定束束鄂额范量邸府甘甘高瓜郭河黑黑黑寅
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TANGUT MI Ll TARY ESTABLl SHMENT
RUTH W. DUNNELL
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234
Xie Zhongwen
Xijing
(Datong fu)
Xijing
(Henan fu)
Xiliang fu
甜 f中温
Munashan
牟那山
neifu
内
府
Ningxia
Qianlong
Qinghai
Qinzhou
Ruoshui
Shazhou
Shizhou
Suizhou
Suzhou
Taizu
Tiande (j un)
Tuoketuo
Weilin
Weiming Nangxiao
Weishui
Weizhou
Woluohai
Woluoniang-shan
W u Guangcheng
Wulahai-cheng
Wulanghai
Wularuo-shan
Wuna-cheng
W unala-cheng
Wu Tianchi
Xiazhou
Xie Muhuan
事
夏
乾
隆
青
海
秦
'HI
揭
水
xing Yumi shi
姓胎谓民
沙
州、l
舆州府
石
版
'j 'i'!
1+1
需
州、l
太
咀
Xingzhou fu
Xining
Xi Xia
Xueshan
Yanzhou (1)
Yanzhou (2)
Yelu Dashi
Yingli
Yinshan
Yinzhou
天德(罩)
托克托
委
林
直名囊睿
j胃
水
威
外|
斡罹孩
队 E展娘山
吴魔成
兀刺海城
兀郎海
午 t鼠荔山
兀纳城
兀纳刺城
吴天瑭
夏
州、1
甜睦歉
西
尽
(大同府)
西
尽
(河南府)
西凉府
西
事
西
夏
a
圭p
牙
山
堕
j十|
延
外l
耶律大石
愿
理
除
山
银
外|
you xlang
右
厢
Youzhou
Yumen
Zhang Jian
Zhangyi
有
州
玉
问
5晨
篮
强
掖
zhong
zhongshu
xingsheng
中
中害行省
Zhongxing
Zhuolo
中
zuo xlang
舆
卓
日崽
左
厢
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