Патент USA US2007931код для вставки
July 9, 1935. C. H. BRASELTON 2,007,931 MULTIPLE SOLID ENERGY EMITTER Filed Aug. 19, 1930 2 Sheets-Sheet l l NVENTOR July 9, 1935. c. H. BRASELTQN 2,07,931 MULTIPLE SOLID ENERGY EMITTER Filed Aug. 19, 1950 . 2 Sheets-Sheet 2 I I NVENTQR Patented July 9, 1935 ' ' 2,007,931 UNITED STATES PATENT OFFICE .'2,0o7.9s1 * MULTIPLE SOLID ENERGY EMITTER Chester H. Braselton, New York, N. Y2, assignor to Sirian Lamp Company, Newark, N. J., a cor notation of Delaware Application August 19, 1930, Serial No. 476,342 6 Claims. (Cl, 176-1) This invention relates to energy radiating ap- cium, or other materials preferably of low electron paratus, and particularly to that type of appara- evaporation constants which have been found to tus which utilizes an ionized gaseous atmosphere, emit electrons densely when heated. inconjunction with an electric conductor. , 5 One of the objects of the present invention is to provide an energy radiating device which employs as an element of the radiator, a material 1 The base ?lament is preferably tungsten vwire, although other metal conductors may be used. It is not necessary that the base material be highly re fractory as the operating temperatures are rela 5 which emits energy selectively, when heated. Another object is to provide a radiator combining a selective emitter and a heating unit, which heating unit also functions as a radiator. Still another object of the invention is to uti- tively low, in many cases not being above that of low red heat. rI’he ?lament is preferably coiled and coated with materials as above mentioned, 10 which may be initially in the proportions of 40 grams of barium carbonate, 40 grams of calcium lize, as far as possible, the total energy output of a radiator of the type employing a metallic carbonate, 8 grams of ‘ barium nitrate with a binder of su?icient nitrocellulose dissolved in 15 conductor in an ionizable gas, which gas is actimind by ionization in a, region adjacent the conductor. Further objects of the invention relate to novel means for supporting the heating means ' with reference to the selective radiator, and to 20 ‘other features of the invention which will become ‘apparent on consideration of the following de— scription and of the accompanying drawings, in which: I Fig. l is a view in elevation of one form of the 25 radiator, which may be preferred; Fig. 2 is a detail partly in section of the radiator unit; amyl acetate to hold the coating on the wire, 15 and mounted on a stem support sealed in the bulb of the envelope and the whole baked at a temperature of about 400° C. while a current is passed through the ?lament heating the same to about 600° C. and evacuated to a pressure of 20 about 1/2 micron in order to remove 'water vapor and other gases which may be occluded in the envelope. The potential is then slowly elevated to about 800° 0., thus gradually heating the coat ing on the ?lament until the temperature arrives 25 at a red heat. Gases emitted from the coating and interior of the bulb are in the meantime be Fig. 3 is a modi?cation oi the radiator of Fig. 1, showing a different mode of support for the 30 heater; Fig. 3a is a view in elevation of another embodiment of the radiator; Fig. 4i is a view of another modi?cation of the invention; and 35 Fig. 5 illustrates a modi?ed type of selective radiator adapted for use in the apparatus of Fig. 4. In my related application, Serial No. 459,048, filed June 3, 1930 I have described a type of 40 energy radiating device in which energy is radiated by an activated layer of ‘ionized inert ins removed by the vacuum pump and the pump mg is continued until the pressure ‘is approxi mately .5 micron. The oven is then removed 30 and the current raised to heat the ?lament to about 1200° C. The pump is then shut oh and neon gas is again admitted to about 1/2 mm. of mercury, and a potential applied and raised until a reddish discharge completely ?lls the bulb, this so discharge being concentrated intermediate adja cent parts of the radiator. The ?lament temper ature is then raised to about 1400" C. The bulb is then exhausted to about .5 micron, thus com pleting the activating process for the coating. 40 To complete the radiator neon gas is admitted gases in juxtaposition to a conductor coated with a rich ionizing material. With an appropriate , pressure of gas and proper voltages, it has been 45 found that a halo forms about the conductor which serves as an auxiliary conducting path for to a pressure of 50 mm. of mercury, and then ar gon gas is also added until the pressure is ap proximately 200 mm. of mercury. Of course, the values of voltages, resistance and gas pressure 45 mentioned may be varied within limits in accord an electric current, and also as an important source of radiation, usable either for lighting purposes or for any other purpose which requires 50 the application of radiated energy of de?nite wave frequencies, Inaccordance with said application, a?lament once with requirements. Referring now to the drawings, Fig. 1 illus trates a radiator of the general type hereinabove described, and having improved modi?cations, 50 as will now be set forth. In the envelope I0 is sealed a stem I I, on which is mounted three of appropriate resistance, such, for example, as standards l2, l3, and M. Adjacent the terminals 150 ohms, is coated with various alkaline earth of standards l2 and I 4 is secured a coil 9 of 55 metal oxides such as the oxides of barium, cal- tungsten wire 15 having a coating of electron 55 2 2,007,931 emitting material l6 approximately throughout head 45 which serves as the main energy emitter its coiled length. i The wire of the coil 9 may be either straight or closely coiled so as to increase the effective re of the device. _ _ f In the case of the prior modification the elec trical conductivity of the emitter affects the op sistance per unit length. The coating It may eration of the device and ordinarily the resist be of various alkaline oxides, but a mixture of ance should be high. In the modification of oxides of barium and calcium may be specified Fig. 4, however, the electrical characteristics are as usable in this particular type of radiator. Within the coil 9 of this coated tungsten con 10 ductor is positioned a rod or pencil H which, when heated, selectively radiates in certain well de ?ned frequency ranges, such as that of' the luminous range. Such materials for, illuminat ing purposes are various oxides of rare earth 15 metals such as cerium, yttrium or oxides of thorium, magnesium and calcium. The pencil I1 is supported along the axis of the coil 9 by means of the inturned ends of the standards l2 and H which penetrate into axial 20 recesses l8 and IQ of the pencil IT, as illustrated in Fig. 2 of the drawings. The standard I3 is spotwelded or otherwise at tached to the approximate mid-point of the coil l5 to serve as an auxiliary support therefor, and 25 prevent sagging with consequent contact of the pencil I1 and the coil l5. In operation, when the electric potential is applied to the connecting‘ circuits 20 and 2|, which in turn are attached respectively to the 30 conducting standards 12 and I4, the ?lament IS, with its attached coating I6, is heated until elec trons are heavily emitted from the coating and of minor importance. In operation, heat as derived from electronic‘ and ionic bombardment, from radiation, and gas 10 convection, is received by the cylindrical member 40 and conducted to the radiating head 45. In addition to the connecting standards 46 and 41 by which the coil 4| is supported, and through which electrical conductance is made‘ to the exterior of 15 the bulb, there is provided an additional sup porting standard 40. Other supporting means may also be utilized to the amount necessary to prevent the coil‘ and the heater from sagging and contacting with each other. 20 In Fig. 5 I have illustrated a modification of the solid emitter of Fig. 4, in,’ that the cylindrical body 40 of selective emitting material, such as calcium oxide, is replaced by a refractory metal conductor 50, such as tungsten, this body termi nating in a disc-like head 5|, which in turn fits into a recess 52 formedin the base of a head 53 of selective emitting material of the type utilized in the solid emitter of Fig. 4; that is, calcium oxide. This construction is advantageous, as the 30 greater rapidity of the heat conduction of tung sten or other refractory metal reduces the time an energized atmosphere of ionized gas forms as limit in which the radiator becomes effective after a halo about the conductor, the diameter of which 35 depends upon the pressure of the inert gases, such the electrical circuit is closed. Instead of plac 35 ing the coating material externally of the coil, as argon and neon, within the bulb. The heat the same may be applied within the coil in the energy derived from the ionized gas by bombard ment, as well as by radiation and convection of ‘gases from the ?lament l5, heats up the pencil 40 I‘! to a point where it begins to selectively radiate energy. Where a lamp for illuminating pur material which is subsequently hardened by bak ing. Accordingly, in the claims hereto appended, poses is contemplated, the gases are so chosen shape of 9, rod or pencil or as a plastic core the term “coating” is intended to cover both inner 40 and outer applications of the coating material. The gases employed have been referred to as and the pencil and heater material is so selected monatomic and as readily ionizable, or as vapors that in the operating temperatures a high density of metals. Other gases than those mentioned, 45 of luminous radiation is provided. such as nitrogen, may be employed, providing 45 The exact type of radiation may be varied‘ over appropriate controlling factors are introduced. A wide ranges, not only within the luminous range, fundamental requirement appears to be in con but above or below said range. For instance, a neetion with these gases that the breakdown po radiator of ultra-violet energy may be designed tential of the same along the axis of the conductor 50 as well as a radiator of wave length of lower fre be less than the potential necessary to raise the 50 quency than that of red light. The total energy temperature of the electron emitting material or eifect is the sum of that derived from'the heat coating to its operative temperature of electron ing conductor, the ionized gases surrounding the emission. 55 conductor and the emitting solid body, so that a radiator of maximum e?iciency is available. In Fig. 3 a means of supporting the heating conductor I5 is shown, which varies from that of Fig. l in that the approximate midpoint of 60 the conductor is connected by a conductor 30 to a pencil ll, thus forming a ground, or shunt connection. The utility of this modi?cation lies chie?y in radiators of the type which employ a high voltage and in which it is desirable to break 65 the potential drop into a series of segments, ac cording to the principles described in my co The various turns of the coil 9 are illustrated as separated relatively widely, but in practical 55 operation these coils may be more closely spaced together, and this will be the case whether or not the wire of the coils is straight or itself coiled, as shown in Fig. 1. Moreover, it is not necessary that the coating, if applied externally, be about 60 the whole outer surface of the coils, but may lie only on the inner surface of the coil. Various other modi?cations of the invention may be described, all of which utilize the general idea of associating with the combined metal and 65 pending application Serial No. 476,960. gas conductor unit a solid emitting unit which is In Fig. 4 of the drawings a modi?ed form of adapted to receive energy from the primary con radiator is illustrated in which the solid emitter ducting unit, and these modifications are intended ' 70 is not a part of the electrical circuit, but con to be'within the scope of the claims hereto ap 70 sists of an insulated solid cylindrical unit 40, pended. ' adapted to be positioned within the coated heat I claim as my invention: er coil 4|. This emitter is mounted on the stand 1. In a device of the class described, the combi ard 42 in the stem 43 of the bulb 44, and carries nation of an envelope, a support within said en 75 at its upper end a ?at enlargement forming the velope, a plurality of standards mounted on said 75 3 . I 2,007,931 base, a rod secured to one or more of said stand on said support, and a rod connected to one of ards, said rod adapted when heated to selectively said standards, an electric conductor coiled radiate energy, a heating conductor positioned around said rod, said conductor being supported adjacent said rod and secured to two or more of by other of said standards, an atmosphere of inert said standards through which electrical energy is gas within said envelope, and means including a adapted to be received, a coating of electron emit ting material containingalkaline earth metal ox 5 coating containing an oxide of the alkaline earth, metal group on said conductor to ionize the gas ides ?xed to said conductor, and an inert gas in a region con?ned to the vicinity of said con within said envelope, the pressure of said gas ductor, said rod and conductor constituting the 10 being such as to permit the formation of a layer sole sources of the discharge. of ionized gases adjacent said conductor, and 5. An energy radiating device comprising the said rod and conductor constituting the sole combination of an envelope, a support mounted sources of the discharge. ' ' in said envelope, a plurality of standards mounted 1O 2. An energy radiating device comprising the. on said support, and a rod connected to one of 15 combination .of an envelope, a-support mounted said standards, a coil of conducting material in said envelope, a plurality of standards mount 15' wound around said rod, said conducting material ed on said support, ‘and a; rod connected to one being supported by other of said standards, an of said standards, a coil of conducting material atmosphere of inert gas within said envelope in wound around said rod, a coating containing an 20 alkaline earthvmetaloxide on said conductor, said conductor being supported byother of said stand ards, and an atmosphere of inert gases within said envelope‘, said conductor being connected at its cluding at least ten percent of neon gas, and means to ionize the gas in a region con?ned to 20 ‘the vicinity of said coil, said means including an .electron ‘emitting substance having. an electron ?ow approximately equivalent to barium oxide, approximate mid-pointtothe rod and said rod said rod and coil constituting the sole sources of 25 and conductor constituting the sole sources of the the discharge. ' 25 6. An energy radiating device comprising the ' 3. An. energy radiating device comprising an‘ combination of an envelope, a-support mounted in ’ envelope, 9. support within the envelope, a rod said envelope, a plurality of standards mounted discharge. ‘ ‘ - mounted on said support adapted when heated ' on'said support, and a rod connected to one of said to emit luminous energy selectively, an electrical standards, a coil of conducting material wound 30 conductor adjacent said rod, a coating of electron around said rod, said conductor being supported emitting material containing alkaline earth metal by other of said standards, an atmosphere in ‘ oxides on said conductor, ‘and an atmosphere of cluding argon and neon gas within said envelope, . ionizable gas within the-envelope at a pressure of and means to ionize the gas in a region con?ned about 200 mm. of mercury, said rod and conductor to the vicinity of said coil, said means including 35 constituting the sole sources of the discharge. an electron emitting substance containing an oxide 4. An energy radiating device comprising the of the alkaline earth metal group, said rod and _ combination of an envelope, a. support‘ mounted coil constituting the sole sources of the discharge. I 1 in said envelope, a'plurality .01’ standards mounted . . ' CHESTER H. BRASELTON.