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Патент USA US2007931

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July 9, 1935.
Filed Aug. 19, 1930
2 Sheets-Sheet l
July 9, 1935.
Filed Aug. 19, 1950
2 Sheets-Sheet 2
Patented July 9, 1935
Chester H. Braselton, New York, N. Y2, assignor
to Sirian Lamp Company, Newark, N. J., a cor
notation of Delaware
Application August 19, 1930, Serial No. 476,342
6 Claims. (Cl, 176-1)
This invention relates to energy radiating ap- cium, or other materials preferably of low electron
paratus, and particularly to that type of appara- evaporation constants which have been found to
tus which utilizes an ionized gaseous atmosphere, emit electrons densely when heated.
inconjunction with an electric conductor.
One of the objects of the present invention is
to provide an energy radiating device which employs as an element of the radiator, a material
The base
?lament is preferably tungsten vwire, although
other metal conductors may be used. It is not
necessary that the base material be highly re
fractory as the operating temperatures are rela
which emits energy selectively, when heated.
Another object is to provide a radiator combining a selective emitter and a heating unit, which
heating unit also functions as a radiator.
Still another object of the invention is to uti-
tively low, in many cases not being above that of
low red heat. rI’he ?lament is preferably coiled
and coated with materials as above mentioned, 10
which may be initially in the proportions of 40
grams of barium carbonate, 40 grams of calcium
lize, as far as possible, the total energy output
of a radiator of the type employing a metallic
carbonate, 8 grams of ‘ barium nitrate with a
binder of su?icient nitrocellulose dissolved in
15 conductor in an ionizable gas, which gas is actimind by ionization in a, region adjacent the conductor. Further objects of the invention relate
to novel means for supporting the heating means
' with reference to the selective radiator, and to
20 ‘other features of the invention which will become
‘apparent on consideration of the following de—
scription and of the accompanying drawings, in
Fig. l is a view in elevation of one form of the
25 radiator, which may be preferred;
Fig. 2 is a detail partly in section of the radiator unit;
amyl acetate to hold the coating on the wire, 15
and mounted on a stem support sealed in the
bulb of the envelope and the whole baked at a
temperature of about 400° C. while a current is
passed through the ?lament heating the same to
about 600° C. and evacuated to a pressure of 20
about 1/2 micron in order to remove 'water vapor
and other gases which may be occluded in the
envelope. The potential is then slowly elevated
to about 800° 0., thus gradually heating the coat
ing on the ?lament until the temperature arrives 25
at a red heat. Gases emitted from the coating
and interior of the bulb are in the meantime be
Fig. 3 is a modi?cation oi the radiator of Fig. 1,
showing a different mode of support for the
30 heater;
Fig. 3a is a view in elevation of another embodiment of the radiator;
Fig. 4i is a view of another modi?cation of the
invention; and
Fig. 5 illustrates a modi?ed type of selective
radiator adapted for use in the apparatus of
Fig. 4.
In my related application, Serial No. 459,048,
filed June 3, 1930 I have described a type of
40 energy radiating device in which energy is radiated by an activated layer of ‘ionized inert
ins removed by the vacuum pump and the pump
mg is continued until the pressure ‘is approxi
mately .5 micron. The oven is then removed 30
and the current raised to heat the ?lament to
about 1200° C. The pump is then shut oh and
neon gas is again admitted to about 1/2 mm. of
mercury, and a potential applied and raised until
a reddish discharge completely ?lls the bulb, this so
discharge being concentrated intermediate adja
cent parts of the radiator. The ?lament temper
ature is then raised to about 1400" C. The bulb
is then exhausted to about .5 micron, thus com
pleting the activating process for the coating. 40
To complete the radiator neon gas is admitted
gases in juxtaposition to a conductor coated with
a rich ionizing material. With an appropriate
, pressure of gas and proper voltages, it has been
45 found that a halo forms about the conductor
which serves as an auxiliary conducting path for
to a pressure of 50 mm. of mercury, and then ar
gon gas is also added until the pressure is ap
proximately 200 mm. of mercury. Of course, the
values of voltages, resistance and gas pressure 45
mentioned may be varied within limits in accord
an electric current, and also as an important
source of radiation, usable either for lighting
purposes or for any other purpose which requires
50 the application of radiated energy of de?nite
wave frequencies,
Inaccordance with said application, a?lament
once with requirements.
Referring now to the drawings, Fig. 1 illus
trates a radiator of the general type hereinabove
described, and having improved modi?cations, 50
as will now be set forth. In the envelope I0 is
sealed a stem I I, on which is mounted three
of appropriate resistance, such, for example, as standards l2, l3, and M. Adjacent the terminals
150 ohms, is coated with various alkaline earth of standards l2 and I 4 is secured a coil 9 of
55 metal oxides such as the oxides of barium, cal- tungsten wire 15 having a coating of electron 55
emitting material l6 approximately throughout head 45 which serves as the main energy emitter
its coiled length.
The wire of the coil 9 may be either straight or
closely coiled so as to increase the effective re
of the device.
In the case of the prior modification the elec
trical conductivity of the emitter affects the op
sistance per unit length. The coating It may eration of the device and ordinarily the resist
be of various alkaline oxides, but a mixture of ance should be high. In the modification of
oxides of barium and calcium may be specified Fig. 4, however, the electrical characteristics are
as usable in this particular type of radiator.
Within the coil 9 of this coated tungsten con
10 ductor is positioned a rod or pencil H which, when
heated, selectively radiates in certain well de
?ned frequency ranges, such as that of' the
luminous range. Such materials for, illuminat
ing purposes are various oxides of rare earth
15 metals such as cerium, yttrium or oxides of
thorium, magnesium and calcium.
The pencil I1 is supported along the axis of
the coil 9 by means of the inturned ends of the
standards l2 and H which penetrate into axial
20 recesses l8 and IQ of the pencil IT, as illustrated
in Fig. 2 of the drawings.
The standard I3 is spotwelded or otherwise at
tached to the approximate mid-point of the coil
l5 to serve as an auxiliary support therefor, and
25 prevent sagging with consequent contact of the
pencil I1 and the coil l5.
In operation, when the electric potential is
applied to the connecting‘ circuits 20 and 2|,
which in turn are attached respectively to the
30 conducting standards 12 and I4, the ?lament IS,
with its attached coating I6, is heated until elec
trons are heavily emitted from the coating and
of minor importance.
In operation, heat as derived from electronic‘
and ionic bombardment, from radiation, and gas 10
convection, is received by the cylindrical member
40 and conducted to the radiating head 45. In
addition to the connecting standards 46 and 41 by
which the coil 4| is supported, and through which
electrical conductance is made‘ to the exterior of 15
the bulb, there is provided an additional sup
porting standard 40. Other supporting means
may also be utilized to the amount necessary to
prevent the coil‘ and the heater from sagging
and contacting with each other.
In Fig. 5 I have illustrated a modification of
the solid emitter of Fig. 4, in,’ that the cylindrical
body 40 of selective emitting material, such as
calcium oxide, is replaced by a refractory metal
conductor 50, such as tungsten, this body termi
nating in a disc-like head 5|, which in turn fits
into a recess 52 formedin the base of a head 53
of selective emitting material of the type utilized
in the solid emitter of Fig. 4; that is, calcium
oxide. This construction is advantageous, as the 30
greater rapidity of the heat conduction of tung
sten or other refractory metal reduces the time
an energized atmosphere of ionized gas forms as limit in which the radiator becomes effective after
a halo about the conductor, the diameter of which
35 depends upon the pressure of the inert gases, such the electrical circuit is closed. Instead of plac 35
ing the coating material externally of the coil,
as argon and neon, within the bulb.
The heat
the same may be applied within the coil in the
energy derived from the ionized gas by bombard
ment, as well as by radiation and convection of
‘gases from the ?lament l5, heats up the pencil
40 I‘! to a point where it begins to selectively radiate
energy. Where a lamp for illuminating pur
material which is subsequently hardened by bak
ing. Accordingly, in the claims hereto appended,
poses is contemplated, the gases are so chosen
shape of 9, rod or pencil or as a plastic core
the term “coating” is intended to cover both inner 40
and outer applications of the coating material.
The gases employed have been referred to as
and the pencil and heater material is so selected monatomic and as readily ionizable, or as vapors
that in the operating temperatures a high density of metals. Other gases than those mentioned,
45 of luminous radiation is provided.
such as nitrogen, may be employed, providing 45
The exact type of radiation may be varied‘ over appropriate controlling factors are introduced. A
wide ranges, not only within the luminous range, fundamental requirement appears to be in con
but above or below said range. For instance, a neetion with these gases that the breakdown po
radiator of ultra-violet energy may be designed tential of the same along the axis of the conductor
as well as a radiator of wave length of lower fre
be less than the potential necessary to raise the 50
quency than that of red light. The total energy temperature of the electron emitting material or
eifect is the sum of that derived from'the heat coating to its operative temperature of electron
ing conductor, the ionized gases surrounding the emission.
55 conductor and the emitting solid body, so that a
radiator of maximum e?iciency is available.
In Fig. 3 a means of supporting the heating
conductor I5 is shown, which varies from that
of Fig. l in that the approximate midpoint of
60 the conductor is connected by a conductor 30 to
a pencil ll, thus forming a ground, or shunt
connection. The utility of this modi?cation lies
chie?y in radiators of the type which employ a
high voltage and in which it is desirable to break
65 the potential drop into a series of segments, ac
cording to the principles described in my co
The various turns of the coil 9 are illustrated
as separated relatively widely, but in practical 55
operation these coils may be more closely spaced
together, and this will be the case whether or not
the wire of the coils is straight or itself coiled,
as shown in Fig. 1. Moreover, it is not necessary
that the coating, if applied externally, be about 60
the whole outer surface of the coils, but may lie
only on the inner surface of the coil.
Various other modi?cations of the invention
may be described, all of which utilize the general
idea of associating with the combined metal and 65
pending application Serial No. 476,960.
gas conductor unit a solid emitting unit which is
In Fig. 4 of the drawings a modi?ed form of adapted to receive energy from the primary con
radiator is illustrated in which the solid emitter ducting unit, and these modifications are intended '
70 is not a part of the electrical circuit, but con to be'within the scope of the claims hereto ap
sists of an insulated solid cylindrical unit 40, pended.
adapted to be positioned within the coated heat
I claim as my invention:
er coil 4|. This emitter is mounted on the stand
1. In a device of the class described, the combi
ard 42 in the stem 43 of the bulb 44, and carries nation of an envelope, a support within said en
75 at its upper end a ?at enlargement forming the velope, a plurality of standards mounted on said
3 .
I 2,007,931
base, a rod secured to one or more of said stand
on said support, and a rod connected to one of
ards, said rod adapted when heated to selectively said standards, an electric conductor coiled
radiate energy, a heating conductor positioned around said rod, said conductor being supported
adjacent said rod and secured to two or more of by other of said standards, an atmosphere of inert
said standards through which electrical energy is gas within said envelope, and means including a
adapted to be received, a coating of electron emit
ting material containingalkaline earth metal ox
coating containing an oxide of the alkaline earth,
metal group on said conductor to ionize the gas
ides ?xed to said conductor, and an inert gas in a region con?ned to the vicinity of said con
within said envelope, the pressure of said gas ductor, said rod and conductor constituting the
10 being such as to permit the formation of a layer sole sources of the discharge.
of ionized gases adjacent said conductor, and
5. An energy radiating device comprising the
said rod and conductor constituting the sole combination of an envelope, a support mounted
sources of the discharge. '
in said envelope, a plurality of standards mounted
2. An energy radiating device comprising the. on said support, and a rod connected to one of
15 combination .of an envelope, a-support mounted said standards, a coil of conducting material
in said envelope, a plurality of standards mount
wound around said rod, said conducting material
ed on said support, ‘and a; rod connected to one being supported by other of said standards, an
of said standards, a coil of conducting material atmosphere of inert gas within said envelope in
wound around said rod, a coating containing an
20 alkaline earthvmetaloxide on said conductor, said
conductor being supported byother of said stand
ards, and an atmosphere of inert gases within said
envelope‘, said conductor being connected at its
cluding at least ten percent of neon gas, and
means to ionize the gas in a region con?ned to 20
‘the vicinity of said coil, said means including an
.electron ‘emitting substance having. an electron
?ow approximately equivalent to barium oxide,
approximate mid-pointtothe rod and said rod said rod and coil constituting the sole sources of
25 and conductor constituting the sole sources of the the discharge.
6. An energy radiating device comprising the
' 3. An. energy radiating device comprising an‘ combination of an envelope, a-support mounted in
’ envelope, 9. support within the envelope, a rod said envelope, a plurality of standards mounted
mounted on said support adapted when heated ' on'said support, and a rod connected to one of said
to emit luminous energy selectively, an electrical standards, a coil of conducting material wound 30
conductor adjacent said rod, a coating of electron around said rod, said conductor being supported
emitting material containing alkaline earth metal by other of said standards, an atmosphere in
‘ oxides on said conductor, ‘and an atmosphere of cluding argon and neon gas within said envelope,
. ionizable gas within the-envelope at a pressure of and means to ionize the gas in a region con?ned
about 200 mm. of mercury, said rod and conductor to the vicinity of said coil, said means including 35
constituting the sole sources of the discharge.
an electron emitting substance containing an oxide
4. An energy radiating device comprising the of the alkaline earth metal group, said rod and
_ combination of an envelope, a. support‘ mounted coil constituting the sole sources of the discharge.
I 1 in said envelope, a'plurality .01’ standards mounted . .
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