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July 16, 1935. c. A. MATsoN 2,008,140 AUTOMATIC REVERSE BRAKE Filed Nov. 25, 1952 WN 5 Sheets-Sheet l July 16, 1935-' c. A. MATsoN 5 f 2,008,140 AUTOMATIC REVERSE BRAKE Filed Nov. 25, 1952 _ 3 SheGtS-Sheet 2 July 16, 1935. , c. A. MA'rsQN AUTOMATIC 2,008,140 ` REVERSE BRAKE y ' vFiled Nov. 25, 1932 5 sheets-sheet 5 Patented July 16, 1935 2,008,140 UNITED STATES PATENT OFFICE 2,008,140 AUTOMATIC BRAKE Carl A. Matson, Lynni‘ield, Mass., assigner to The Matson Company, Concord, N. H., a corporation of New Hampshire Application November 25, 1932, Serial No. 644,169 9 Claims. (Cl. 192-4) My present invention relates to a brake mech anism, and Imore particularly to a novel and imn proved automatic reverse brake for automobiles or other mechanical devices. verse `brake mechanism. This ratchet ring is normally restrained from rotation by means of a novel pawl and latch mechanism which ’wil’L‘of course, be hereinafter more fully described. I have heretofore devised several distinct As a further novel feature of my invention, I mechanisms for accomplishing the highly de~ mount this ratchet ring upon a memberiixed to sirable purpose of preventing inadvertent reverse a rigid part of the casing or housing of my de vice, thus still further eliminating wear which clines, and the device of this application per would ordinarily occur, and also reducing likeli tains to this same class or type oi mechanisms. hood of unwanted rotation being imparted t'o Another object of the present invention resides said ring. in the fact that my present device is highly ef Another object of my invention resides in the iic’ient in operation, being positive in use, rugged, construction and arrangement of the locking movement of a motor vehicle, particularly on in~ durable and long lived, while yet possessing the roller carrying means. , ` advantages of simplicity and economy. Other objects and features of the invention re Another feature of the present invention re side in the particular construction and arrange; 15 sides in the fact that a machine equipped with ment of the device and parts thereof, and all of my device may be moved in a rearward direction, -the foregoing, together with other‘objects and either under its own power or by hand, by placing features of the invention, will be hereinafter the normally operative brake mechanism in an more fully pointed out, described and claimed. p inoperative condition or position, this being ac Referring to the drawings illustr’atinga pre complished by simply moving the gear shift lever ferred embodiment of the present invention, to reverse position and thence to neutral posin Fig. l is a side elevation of an automobile tion. transmission mechanism, partly in section, i1-» Another and important feature of the present lustrating my invention applied thereto; 25 invention resides in the fact that the locking ele Fig. 2 is a plan sectional view on the line 2_2 ments, preferably rollers, are held out of idling of Fig. 1; engagement during the forward movement of Fig. 3 is a fragmentary vertical sectional View 30 the device. The importance of this latter-mentioned fea ture will be instantly apparent to and understood by those skilled in this art, as the elimination of idling of the locking elements during movement on the line 3~--3 of Fig. l, with the device in the position assumed during forward speed; Fig. 4 is a vertical sectional View on the line` 30 3~3 of Fig. 1, with the locking rollers in braking position; , ` _ ' ` of the device in a forward direction results in the Fig. 5 is a fragmentary vertical sectional view, total elimination of the major portion of the on an enlarged scale, on the line 5_5 of Fig. 4; friction and Wear which would otherwise be im Fig. 6 is a fragmentary vertical sectional view posed upon these locking elements or devices. similar to a part of Fig. 3, but on an enlarged I accomplish this last mentioned and valuable scale; and p feature by the provision of a novel member which Fig. 7 is a fragmentary Vertical sectional View (if) I have herein termed a drag ring, associated with on the line lle-'l of Fig. 4. ’ the locking elements which in this instance are Referring new to the drawings, for a particular illustrated as rollers, and which drag ring is so description of the invention, its construction, as constructed and arranged as to move said rollers, sembly and operation, it designates a transmis on movement of the vehicle in a forward direc sion casing provided with the usual transmission “‘ tion, to the large end of the wedge chambers, gearing and having rotatably mounted therein thus removing them from contact with the fixed and extending through the rear end thereof a part of the device and preventing their idling transmission shaft Il. Associated with said l during said forward movement, thus eliminating transmission shaft isy a free wheeling unit illus-. chattering, friction and wear, and greatly in trated generally at l2. Mounted on _thetop of creasing the eiii‘ciency, positiveness and life of the transmission casing ifi is a cover i3, in which my novel device. is pivotally mounted the gear shift lever I 3a for A further feature of the present invention re operating the slide rods I4 and I5 associated with. sides in the provision of a novel member which the speed changegearing within the casing I Il. I` have herein termed a ratchet ring, and its as Because of the presence of the free‘wheeling unit Ul Jl- sociated parts, as the fixed part of my novel re l2, itis necessary to equip said' slide rods’ with 35 4.5 2 2,008,140 extensions, in a manner and for a purpose to be in Fig. 3, in order to cause forward movement of , hereinafter described in detail. Attached to the the vehicle to which the device is assumed to be rear of the transmission casing I5 is a casing l1 attached, such forward movement will be effected open at the rear end and provided with a cover independently of the ratchet ring 33, one of the notches 34 of said ring being engaged by the pawl I8 that is secured in position by bolts I9. and said pawl in turn being engaged by the Secured to the splined end of the transmission shaft I I by a nut 2| is one member 22 of the usual latch end 5i of the lever 5t, said lever being knuckle joint, the other member 23 being con forced to the position illustrated in Fig. 3 by the nected to the propeller shaft 24. The hub 25 of plunger 63 controlled by the spring 54 confined 10 the member 22 is smoothed off, to provide a Vseat in the recessv 55 between the plunger G3 and the 10 26 (see Fig. 5) for a drag ring 21, said ring 21 screw plug 63. Such counter-clockwise move being under pressure of the plungers 28 forced ment or rotation of the member 22 will tend to force the rollers 31 to the right, as viewed in Fig. 3, or toward the large end of the wedging 15 Ya part of the casing I1. Interposed between the chambers 35. This movement of the rollers 31 drag ring 21 and the member 22 is an anti-fric toward the large end of the chambers 35 is tion bearing 32, so that the drag of the plungers assisted by the drag ring 21, the elongated studs 28 on the ring 21 will not be aifected by any fric 3° riding in the recesses thereof and free rota thereagainst in the member by the 3l, springs said member 29 in. the being recesses ñXed to tional resistance which might otherwise occur on tion of said drag ring being resisted by the spring- ` pressed plungers The movement of the rollers 20 20 the opposite side of said drag ring. i Surrounding the member 3i and having a sub stantially close nt thereon, although there is a running which I clearance have herein therebetween, referred to,is for a member simplicity 31 to the right, viewing Fig. 3, will cause the studs 33 and 33 to ride in the slots 44, thus posi tively moving said rollers 31 out of contact with the ratchet ring thus entirely eliminating 25 and clarity, as a ratchet ring, because of the fact idling contact of the yrollers 31 with the bore 35 that this ring is provided, on its periphery, with of said ratchet ring during forward movement of a plurality of spaced notches 34. Symmetrically the device. This elimination of idling Contact or engage arranged are recesses about 35, the saidperiphery recesses forming, of the member with the ment on the part of the ,rollers 31 removes the 30 bore 36 of the ring 33, substantially wedge-shaped greatest factor of wear therefrom, thus increasing ' or tapered chambers, in each of which is rotatably and prolonging the life of the mechanism to a mounted a roller 31. material degree. ‘ From an inspection of Fig. l, it will be noted Now assume that with the device in the posi that While the` ratchet ring 33 is mounted on the tion illustrated in Fig. 3, the machine in which 35 member 3|, said ring projects outwardly from it is incorporated is stopped on an incline. Im 35 ' said member and surrounds the member 22, but mediately upon stopping, there would tend to is spaced slightly therefrom, as clearly illustrated be a retrograde movement ofthe vehicle, turning in enlarged detail in Fig. 6, so that the rotation of the member 22 will have no wearing effect on 40 the bore of the ring 33 or on the periphery of the said member 22. the shaft l i and member 22 in a clockwise direc tion as indicated by the arrow in Fig. 4. How ever, the ratchet ring 33 being held against move 40 ment, the drag on the ring 21, together with the As will be noted from an inspection of Fig. 5, Y clockwise movement of the member 22, will force each roller 31 is provided with a short projecting the rollers 31 toward the small end of their re stud 38, on one side, and with a longer projecting spective chambers and toward the high ends of the 45 stud 39 on the opposite side. Unitedfto the mem slots 44, wedging said rollers between the inner ber 22 by screws 40, and on each side thereof, are wall of saidchambers and the bore 36 of the ring rings 4I and 42, the ring 4I having extensions 33, eifectually preventing any inadvertent reverse 43 in each of which is an inclined, slightly arcu movement of the vehicle. « ate slot 44, the ring 42 being provided with cor Now assume that it is desired to move the de 50 responding slots 44. rI‘he drag ring 21 is pro vice in a reverse direction, such as by motion vided with radial recesses or slots 45, correspond under the vehicle’s own power. ri‘he gear shift ing in number to the rollers 31. The short studs lever its is manipulated to reverse position, which 38 are located in the slots 44 in the ring 4i, and movement will cause a movement of the slide rod the long studs 39 project through the slots 44 l5 and its extension 55 tothe rear, and an engage 55 in the ring 42 and into the radial slots or recesses ment of the cam face 5i of said extension with 45 in the drag ring 21. cam face of the lever moving said lever Pivoted at 46 is a lever 41 having thereon a about its pivot 4Q inca counter-clockwise move pawl 48 and located above the pivot 45 is a sec ment, against the tension of the spring-pressed ond pivot 49 on which is mounted a lever 5Fl hav plunger which movement will free the latch 5I 6.0 ing a latch 5I , and also being provided with a cam from the lever 41. Thereupon, movement of the 60~ surface 52. shaft il and member 22 in a clockwise direction, The slide rod I4 is provided with an extension as indicated by the arrow in Fig. will also tend 53 which has a short cam groove 54, and the slide to move the ring and when this movement rod I5 is provided with an extension 55 which has occurs, the cam face El of the particular notch 34 65 an elongated cam groove 56, in which rest the in engagement with the pawl 48 will «force said 65. camsV 51 and 58 respectively on the arm 59, which pawl out of said notch, to the position illustrated in turn -is pivoted in the casingY I1 at 60. in Fig. e. The extension 55 is provided with a cam surface will permit reverse movement of the de 6I and With a cut-away portion 62, as clearly vice, as will be readily understood and appre 70 shown in Fig. 4. ‘ ciated. Upon such movement taking place, when Assuming the device to have been constructed the pawl ¿i8 is displaced from its notch 34, the and arranged as above described, with the parts outer end of the arm 59 will drop into the cam in the position in Fig. 3 and with the transmission grooves 54 and to norma-1 position, and be en shaft II and member 22 rotating in a counter gaged by the lever as illustrated in Fig. 4, 75. clockwise direction, asillustrated bythe arrow holding the pawl ¿i3 out of engagement with the 75 2,008,140 ring 3,3. Thus, when the gear shift lever I3a. is retained in the; position illustrated in `lîig. 4, or moved from reverse position to neutral, the de whether it is returned to neutral position, the - vice will remain in the position illustratedin Fig. latch 68 will be held out of engagement with the 2; The elongated slot 55 permits movement‘of ratchet ring 3.3 by means of the lever 55.! bearing ci the slide rod I5 and its extension 55 to the rear against the outer side of the extension 55. It without effecting any vertical movement of the will thus» be Iappreciated that the lugs j'IG and arm 59, as will be appreciated. It should be li afford means to positively disengage the lock~ noted that with the arm lever 5S lifted and held ing elements` comprising the latch 48 and the in raised position, the spring 64 will force a notch notches 3d, `rather than relying upc-n the cam 1.0, 5l against the pawl 48 to lock said pawl against ming actions of the cam 4faces Sl on reverse the camming action of the surfaces 6l on the rotation ci the ring 33, a feature» that will be ring 33. instantly rd'flllîlarel’lt to and understood by those Now assume that the device is in neutral, as il lustrated'in l, and that it is desired to move 15s to a forward speed. On movement of the gear shift lever I 3a into» rst or low gear, the slide rod I5 and its extension 55 will be moved for wardly, and the arm 59 will be engaged by the rearmost wall of the elongated cam groove 56, f.: raising the arm 5S to the position illustrated in full lines in Fig. 3. This permits the plunger 63 to force the lever 5G in a clockwise rotative move .skilled~ in this art. , _ This feature also eliminates diiiiculties which might possibly ari-,se when relying upon the camming action to disengage the latch 48. For ex ample, if the gears should not be exactly in reg ister, it would frequently be difficult to effect rearward movement of the vehicle in order to exert such camming action. The novel feature 20, just above described, however, entirely obviates and eliminates this difhculty. l ment, the pawl 48 falling to a position against Furthermore, under some circumstances, such, the outer peripheryv of the ring 33. If at this in for` example, as when a vehicle is rolling rear« ' stant, the pawl 68 is in register’ with one of the wardly, and the operator moves the gear shift 25, notches 311, it will engage said notch and the lever IBa to one of the forward speeds during latch 5I will engage said pawl to hold the same such rearward movement, damage, injury, and therein. If, however, the pawl 48 is not in regis considerable shock are likely to be caused by the ter with a notch 35i, upon the slightest retrograde instantaneous meshing or engagement of the movement of the vehicle, the ring 33 will be ro latch 48 with one of the notches 34.' as the ring 30 tated in a clockwise direction, and as soon as 33Y is rotating in its reverse direction. This is the next succeeding notch registers with the pawl obviated however, by mounting the ratchetring f2.8„engagement thereof will take place and fur 33 on a solid `member attached to the casing, as ther retrograde movement be restrained. aforesaid. Upon movement of the gear shift lever i3d from low or i'lrst gear to either ci the other for ward speeds, the arm 59 will be raised out of the cam groove 54, regardless of the direction of movement of the slide rod I4 and its extension 53, tothe position illustrated in dotted lines in As above explained, the said latch 48 will re~` main in the notch engaged thereby until the gear shift lever i3d is again moved toward re verse position. It will thus be appreciated that I have devised a simple, positive, serviceable, and eiñcient, auto Fig. 8, without affecting the relation of the pawl matically operable reverse brake mechanism, and> 40. ¿it and ratchet ring 33. Thus the device, in any Vsince I believe that the same is novel, I have of the forward speeds, is constantly in operative therefore claimed said device broadly in this position, it being necessary to move the gear shift application. es. C.1 lever i3d to reverse position in order to render While I have necessarily described my present 45 the braking device inoperative. invention some-what` in detail, it will-be appre It will be appreciated that when the gear shift ciated that I may vary the size, shape and ar lever i3d is being moved from the neutral posi-- rangement of parts within reasonably wide lim tion, with the device in the position illustrated its without departing from the spirit of the in~ 50 in Fig. 4, the initiation of movement toward a vention. 50 . forward speed will place the device in operative My invention is further described and defined position, without any material time interval be~- in the form of` claims as follows: . ing required to effect this result. l. In a device of the kind described, the Vcom In order to eliminate the necessity of `ñrst mov bination of a driven member, means for applying 55, ing the gear shift lever into or toward reverse power thereto to rotate the same in either di position, and then returning the same to neutral ' rection, a locking element carried by said driven before the vehicle can be moved forwardly or member, a ratchet ring surrounding said driven backwardly, as, for example, on the licor of a member and cooperating with said locking ele-` garage, I provide, on the lever 4l, a lug "IG in Thus, when the rod Iâ is moved rearwardly, as will be the case'when 'the gear shift lever I3 is moved toward reverse position, the cam face 6I of its extension 55, engaging the cam face 52 on the lever 5d, will swing said lever 5B about its pivot 60 register with a lug 'II on the lever Sil. ment to prevent rotation of the driven member in a reverse direction, means including a drag GO ring in constant engagement with said locking ele-ment to hold said'locking element out of en gagement with the ratchet ring on rotation of the driven member in a forward direction, and spring controlled means to normally prevent ro» 49, bringing the lug 'II into engagement with the tative move-ment of said ratchet ring. lug ‘IB and rocking the lever 4l' about its pivot 2. In a device of the kind described, the com 4t until the latch 48 is raised from its cooperat bination with a transmission gearing, including ing notch 3K3 in the ratchet ring 33. This move a transmission shaft, of a driven member car ment, of course, will be against the pressure of ried by said shaft, a locking element carried by P the spring pressed plunger 63, and as the lever said driven member, a ratchet ring surrounding 5!) is rocked in a counter-clockwise direction, the said driven member and cooperating with said arm 59 will drop to its normal position, as clearly locking element to prevent rotation of the driven illustrated in Fig. 4. member in a reverse direction, means including 75 Thereupon, whether the gear shift rod I5 is a resiliently controlled drag ring in constant 75 4 2,008,140 engagement with said locking element to hold driven member in a reverse direction, and a re said locking element out of engagement with the ratchet ring on rotation of the driven member in a forward direction, a pawl normally engag ing said ratchet ring to prevent rotativeV move ment of said ratchet ring, and spring controlled means to hold said pawl in lockingposition.` 3. In a device of the kind described, the com bination of a driven member, means for apply 10 ing power thereto to rotate the same in ,either direction, said driven member having a wedge shaped recess therein, a member fixed to said driven member at each side thereof and having siliently controlled drag ring having a radial slot therein engaged by one of the studs on said roller to hold said locking roller out of engagement with said ratchet ring on rotation of the driven member in a forward direction, said drag ring being spaced from said driven member and free from the direct rotating influence thereof. '7, In a device of the kind described, the com bination of a driven member, means for applying 10 power thereto to rotate the same in either direc tion, said driven member having a wedge-shaped recess therein, a member fixed to said driven inclined guiding slots therein adjacent to said member at each side thereof and having inclined 15 recess, a locking roller located in said recess, guiding slots therein adjacent to said recess, a 15 studs on said roller riding in said slots, a ratchet locking roller located in said recess, studs on said ring surrounding said driven member and co rollers riding in said slots, a ñxed abutment ad operating with said locking roller to prevent ro jacent to said driven member, a ratchet ring ro tat-ably mounted on said abutment and projecting tation of the driven member in a reverse direc 20 tion, and a resiliently controlled drag ring to over and surrounding said driven member and c0 20 hold said locking roller out of engagement with operating with said locking roller to prevent rota the ratchet ring on rotation ofthe driven mem~ ber in a forward direction. 4. In a device of the kind described, the com 25 bination of a driven member, means for applying power thereto to rotate the same in either direc tion, said driven member having a wedge-shaped recess therein, a member fixed to said driven member at each side thereof and having inclined 30 arcuate guiding slots therein adjacent to said recess, a locking roller located in said recess, studs on said roller riding in said slots, a ratchet ring surrounding said driven member and coop tion of the driven member in a reverse direction, and a resiliently controlled drag ring having a radial slot therein engaged by one of the studs on said roller to Vhold said locking roller out of en 25 gagement with said ratchet ring on rotation of the driven member in a forward direction, said drag ring being spaced fromv said driven member and free from the direct rotating inñuence thereof. ' 30 8. In a device of the kind described, the com bination of a driven member, means for applying power thereto to rotate the same in either direc erating with said locking roller to prevent rota tion, said driven member having a wedge-shaped 35 tion of the driven member in a reverse direction, recess therein, a member fixed to said driven and a resiliently controlled drag ring to hold said member at each side thereof and having inclined locking roller out of engagement with the ratchet guiding slots therein adjacent to said recess, a ring on rotation of the driven member in :a for ward direction, 40 5. In a device of the kind described, the com bination of a driven member, means for applying power thereto to rotate the same in either direc- ' tion, said driven member having a wedge~shaped recess therein, a member iiXed to said driven locking roller located in said recess, studs on said roller riding in said slots, a iîXed abutment adja cent to said driven member, a ratchet ring ro 40 tatably mounted on said abutment and projecting over and surrounding said driven member but spaced therefrom and cooperating with said lock ing roller to prevent rotation of the driven member in a reverse direction', and a resiliently controlled drag ring having a radial slot therein engaged by one of the studs on said roller to hold said lock ing roller out of engagement with said ratchet ring on rotation of the driven member in a for member at each side thereof and having inclined guiding slots therein adjacent to said recess, a locking roller located in said recess, studs on said rollers riding in said slots, a ratchet ring sur~ rounding said driven member and cooperating with said locking roller to prevent rotation of the ward direction, said drag ring being spaced from said driven member and free from the direct ro driven member in a reverse direction, and a re siliently controlled drag'ring having a radial slot tating influence thereof. ` therein engaged by one of the studs on said roller 9. In a device Iof the kind described, the com to hold said locking roller out of engagement with bination of a driven member; means for applying said ratchet ring Ion rotation of the driven mem ber in a forward direction. 6. In a device of the kind described, the com bination of a driven member, means for applying Ypower thereto to rotate the saine in either direc 60 tion, said driven member having a wedge-shaped recess therein, a member fixed to said driven power thereto to rotate the same in either direc tion, said driven member having a wedge-shaped recess therein, a locking roller located in said recess, a ratchet ring surrounding said driven member and cooperating with said locking roller to prevent rotation of the driven member in a re 60 verse direction, said ratchet ring being of greater member at each side thereof and having inclined width than said driven member and mounted in guiding slots therein adjacent to said recess, a dependently thereof, and a resiliently controlled locking roller located in said recess, studs on said drag ring to hold said locking roller out of engage rollers riding in'said slo'ts, a ratchet ring sur ment with the ratchet ring on rotation of the 65 rounding said driven member and cooperating driven member in a forward direction. with said locking roller to prevent rotation of the CARL A. MATSON.