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Патент USA US2017241

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Oct. "15, 1935.
H. F, FREASE
2,017,241
TILE FOR JOIST AND TILE CONSTRUCTION FOR FLOORS AND THE LIKE
Original Filed May 25, 1931
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TILE FOR JOI’ST AND TILE CONSTRUCTION> FOR FLOORS AND THE LIKE
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INVENTOR
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Oct.'15, 1935.
H. F. FREASE `
2,017,241
TILE FOR JOIST AND TILE CONSTRUCTION FOR FLOORS AND THE LIKE
- original Filed May 23, 1951
5'sheets_shee1; 5
INVENTOR
gw Cìîy/¿ÍÉATTORNEYS
Patented Oct. 15, 1935
` UNl'rso
2,017,241
¿STATES
PATENT OFFICE
2,017,241
TILE FOR JOIST AND TILE CONSTRUCTION
FOR FLOORS AND THE LIKE
Hurxthal F. Frease, Canton, Ohio
Original application May 23, 1931, Serial No.
539,545. Divided and this application Decem
ber 12, 1932, Serial No. 646,868
6 Claims.
joists for each floor may be placed in position
My invention relates to tile or blocks for struc
tures including longitudinally extending lateral
ly spaced load Sustaining members supported at
their ends, and tile or block surface forming
5 members extending between the load sustaining
on the bearing beams of the steel or other main
frame of the building as it is erected, and tem
porary ilooring may be laid over the joists for use
during the further erection of the building, and 5;
for preventing workmen from falling.
When “fire-proof” construction is required
across the outer sides of the load sustaining
members.
however, it has heretofore been necessary to use
ASuch structures may include normally verti
some form of solid reinforced concrete floor, arch
10 cally extending Walls, normally sloping roofs, or tile floor, tile or pan and reinforced concrete 10.
beam door, or special or plural unit tile floor.
normally horizontal floors.
All of these usual types of “lire-proof” iioors
More particularly the present invention relates '
to tile or blocks for iire and heat resisting trans
involve the use of concrete, grout, or mortar, and
Verse load sustaining floors including preferably most of such floors require the use of separate
members for forming spaced surfaces extending
15 steel joists having upper and lower chord mem
bers and the tile or block surface forming mem
bers supported by the joists and forming an
upper floor surface and a lower ceiling surface
forms or centering upon which the concrete «is 15,
poured to make solid ñoors, or upon which con
extending respectively above and below the upper
20 and lower chord members of the joists.
The present invention is a division of subject
matter set forth in my application for United
States Letters Patent for J oist and tile construc
tion for ñoors and the like, filed May 23, 1931,
25 erial No. 539,545, Patent No. 1,891,086.
In the usual steel joistfloor construction, each
which tile is laid up with mortar by masons to
make tile arch floors.
20
Some forms of the special or plural unit tile
floor eliminate centering by the use of tile having
an unusual or special transverse cross section, or
by the use of a plurality of sets of tile units, the
unit of each set having a transverse cross section, 25
different from the other set units. Such special
tile or sets of special tile are very objectionable
from the standpoint of the tile manufacturer,
because special dies are required for forming the
tile, and because it is very diñicult to maintain 30
an adequate supply of the special units to meet
the requirements of builders in various parts of
joist includes transversely spaced longitudinally
extending upper and lower chord members,
means maintaining the chord members in proper
30: load sustaining transversely spaced position, and
end supports which rest upon spaced bearings
such as beams.
The joists are laterally spaced from each other
and extend longitudinally between the bearings,
35; and metal lath or sheet metal decking extends
across and is supported on the upper chords of
the joists and is covered usually by a layer of
concrete or other material for forming the upper
iioor surface, and in the case of ofiice buildings,
„10 public buildings, residences, or the like, metal
lath is usually suspended below the lower chords
of thD joists, and the lower metal lath is covered
with coatings of plaster or the like for forming
the lower ceiling surfaces.
Such usual steel joist floor construction,
whether or not including a ceiling as aforesaid,
does not satisfy the requirements of ñre and heat
resisting, or so-called “fire-proof”, construction,
because load sustaining members of the joists,
:o and the inner surfaces of the lath are not pro
crete is combined with tile or pans, to make tile
and concrete, or pan and concrete floors, or upon
the country.
From the standpoint of erection the usual
workmen available for building purposes have 35
diiiiculty in properly positioning and arranging
the several different shapes or units of tile in
plural unit construction.
Moreover, aside from the standpoint of fire
prooiing, all joist floor constructions commer- 40
cially available prior to the present invention,
have required the combination of more than two
different or separate elements, other than con
crete, grout, or mortar, to provide self-sustain
ing structures having spaced flat iioor and ceiling 45
surfaces.
The objects of the present invention are in gen
eral to provide tile or blocks adapted to improve
and reduce the cost of joist and tile construction,
and specifically are as follows:
50
vided with heat and fire resisting coverings such
First, to provide tile or blocks for a self-sus
as concrete, tile, or the like, and may be subject
to the direct action of heat or ñames.
taining structure including‘spaced flat outer sur
From the standpoint of erection however, joist
55», ñoor construction is very desirable, because the
faces, and which includes, excepting concrete,
grout, or other similar material when used, only
two different sets of elements, namely a set of 55.
22
2,017,241
laterally spaced similar load sustaining elements,
tending between adjacent spanning members, and
and a single set of similar tile or block surface
each block preferably having a notched seat
formed in each of its lower end corners, whereby
each end of each block is supported on one of the
lower chord members of one of the spanning mem- a
bers, and the lower portion of each end of each
block may be, formed for extending beneath the
chord member supporting the block and forming
a concrete or grout retaining shelf, and when it
is desired to eliminate the use of concrete, grout l0
or the like, the upper portion of each end of each
forming elements, preferably refractory tile, the
surface forming elements spanning between and
being supported by the joists;
Second, to provide tile or blocks for a self
sustaining joist and tile structure which is adapted
for meeting the most rigid fire-proofing require
ments, and which may be constructed at a mini
mum cost;
Third, to provide tile or blocks for a joist and
tile structure in which the joists support the tile,
and in Which the tile have a rectangular cross
section, whereby the tile may be made in any
15 usual building tile manufacturing plant Without
requiring special dies;
' "
Fourth, to provide tile or blocks for a “fire
proof” joist and tile structure in which the use
of concrete, grout, or similar material is optional;
Fifth, to provide tile or blocks for a self-sus
20
taining joist and tile structure adapted for sup
porti-ng transverse loads, and in which all the ele
ments including concrete, grout, or similar nia
terial when used, cooperate with each other to
25 attain the maximum efficiency of each separate
element; that is to say the steel of the joist‘is
subject to a maximum tension and a minimum
compression loading, the tile is subject to a
maximum» compression and shear loading and a
30 minimum tension loading, and the concrete, grout
or similar material when used is subject to a maxi
mum` compression and shear loading and a mini
mum tension loading, or if desired. the concrete
may be subject' to no structural loading whatever.
Sixth, to provide tile or blocks for a joist and
tile structure, in which the joist and tile elements
after being properly installed, permanently posi
tion and interlock each other without additional
means, and the complete structure when used as
40' a floor being adapted to resist lateral twisting of
the main frame of the building, as the result of
Wind pressure andthe like; '
Seventh, to provide tile orV blocks for a joist and
` tile structure» particularly adapted for permitting
block may be formed for extending over one or
more ofthe upper chord members, and the ends
of. the block may be positively engaged by con
crete or grout when the same is used to embed 15
the spanning members, and preferably the ends of
the blocks abut against sides of the load sus
taining members for interlocking with the load
sustaining members, whether or not concrete or
other embedding material is used.
20
Preferred embodiments of the invention are
illustrated in'V the accompanying drawings form
ing: part hereof, in which
Figure 1 is a topplan view- illustrating one em
bodiment- of the improved joist> and tile floor 25
structure, including >one form of' improved lever
arch joist, andi onel form of the improved end
notched tile hereof, portions of the floor being
illustrated ñnished, and other portions being illus
trated during the course of construction;
30.
Fig. 2, a sectional vievvA thereof looking at the
side of one of the joists;
Fig. 3, atop plan-view of another form of im
proved lever arch joist particularly adapted for
the improved joist and tileñoor structure;
Fig. 4, a side elevation thereof;
35
Y Fig. 5, a top plan View of a form of improved
bar joist particularly adapted for the improved
joist. and tile floor structure;
Fig. 6, a side elevation thereof;
40»
Fig. '7, a top plan View of another form of im
proved bar joist for use in theimproved joist and
tile floor structure;
Fig. 8, aside elevation thereof;
ticularly adapted- for combination with improved
joiststo` form the improved joist and tile struc
Fig. 9, an enlarged fragmentary transverse sec- «t5`
tional view of the floor structure illustrated in
Figs. 1 and 2;
Fig. 10, a simi-lar view'illustrating the use of
the joist of Figs. 3 and 4 with tile similar tov the
tures.Y
tile of Figs. l', 2, and 9;
the use ofY Vrectangular tile of relatively great
length; and
'
Eighth, to provide improved tile or blocks par
50
The foregoing and other objects are attained
by thek structures, parts, improvements, and com
Fig. 11, a similar View illustrating the use of
the joist of Figs. 5 and 6 with tile similar to the
binations, which comprise the present invention,
and? which are particularly and distinctly pointed
tile of Figs. 1, 2', and 9;
out and- set forth in the appended claims forming
the joist of Figs. '7 and 8 with tile similar to the 65
part hereof.
In general terms the improved structures made
tile of Figs. 1, 2, and 9;
Fig. 13, a similar view illustrating. another em
bodiment of theV improved joist and tile structure
by the use in part of the improved tile or blocks
hereof may be described as including improved
» Fig. 12, a similar View illustrating the use of
taining spanning members, and the improved sur
including the joist of Figs. 3 and 4, and a second
embodiment of the improved tile, and in which 60
no concrete is used, and the method of erection
face forming members, tile or blocks hereof ex
being indicated;
60k laterally spaced longitudinally extending load sus
tending between the spanning members and form
ing spaced flat-surfaces extending across the outer
sides of the rspanning members, each improved
spanning member including one or more longi
tudinally extending upper chord members, one or
more longitudinally extending lower chord mem
bers, and means maintaining the chord members
in proper load sustaining position, each lower
chord member being laterally as well as trans
versely spaced fromv one of the upper chord mem
bers, and the improved blocks preferably compris
ing refractoryV tile, each block preferably having
a rectangular transverse cross-section and eX
Fig. 14, a similar view illustrating another ein
bodiment of the improved joist and tile floor
structure including the joist of Figs. 3 and 4, and
a third embodiment of the improved tile, to
gether with concrete embedding the joist and
tile, the tile beingv formed so as to eliminate the
necessity of separate forms or centering for re- 70
ceiving the concrete when poured;
Fig. 15, a fragmentary isometric perspective
View of the fioor‘structure of Fig. l; and
Fig. 16, an isometric perspective View of one of
the improved tile.
75
3
2,017,241
Similar
numerals
refer to similar parts
throughout the drawings.
~
One embodiment of the improved joist and tile
floor structure is indicated generally at F-I in
Figs. l, 2, and 9. The floor structure F--I in
cludes a plurality of laterally spaced longitudi
nally extending improved lload sustaining span
ning members each indicated generally by J-I,
and a plurality of improved surface forming tile
or blocks each indicated generally by T---I, the
blocks T-I »extending between and bearing on
adjacent spanning members J-I, and forming a
spaced fiat upper floor surface S-f and a spaced
flat lower ceiling surface S--c extending respec
ing and anchor members Ilial and Iûb, and apply
suitable tension loads onthe tie rods I2 and I2’.
For resisting lateral displacement of the arch
strut apexes 3a. and 3b, and for resisting abnor
mal reverse or vibration loading of the joist, a
pair of longitudinally extending reinforcing an
gles I5 and I5' may be secured as by arc welds ‘I
to the apexes 3a and 3b of the struts 2a, and 2b,
on opposite sides thereof, with one leg of each
angle spaced below one of the chord members l0
or bars 5 and 5' and extending laterally from
the side faces of the arch struts to which par
ticular reinforcing angle is secured.
For providing end supports for the arch joist
J-I above the laterally spaced tie rods I2 and
I2', laterally spaced angle end supports Ilia and
15 tively above and below the spanning members
J--I.
Each improved spanning member J--I is pref
erably an improved embodiment of the lever arch
joists set forth in my prior United States Letters
Patent No. 1,686,910,and in my prior applications
25a', and lâh and IED', are secured as by arc
welds l, on opposite sides and at the upper outer
corners I'Ia and I‘Ib of the struts 2a and 2b, re
spectively, and the angle end supports are trans 20
versely spaced above the tie rods I2 and I2', that
for United States Letters Patent, Serial No.
129,424 Patent No~ 1,812,690, and Serial No.
is to say under the normal use of the arch joists
J--I, the lever end supports are above the tie
280,484, Patent No. 1,843,318.
For attaining the particular objects of the
present invention, each of the improved span
rods and the end supports extend longitudinally
beyond the ends ofthe arch joists any desired dis 25
tance coextensive with the terminals 5a and 5b,
ning members or lever arch joists indicated gen
and 5a’ and 5b' of the chord bars 5 and 5', and
the angle end supports and the chord bar termi
erally by J--I, includes triangular arch struts 2a
and 2b which may be formed by diagonally sev
ering a rectangular plate.
The struts 2a and 2b are arranged with their
30
apexes 3a and 3b preferably abutting each other,
nals are preferably secured to each other as by arc
30
welds ï.
Each arch joist J---I is pendulously supported
at its ends by resting the angle end supports i611
and Ifìa', and Ißb and 1Gb", respectively, on suit
able bearings, which may be beams Illa. and IBD,
as at 4.
A pair of laterally spaced longitudinally ex
tending upper chord members or bars 5 and 5'
are secured along the upper edges 6a. and 6b of
the struts 2a and 2b, as by arc welds l; and the
respectively, of the main frame of a building in
dicated generally by I9.
For attaining the most efficient co-action be
tween the improved joist load sustaining mem
bers J-I and the preferred refractory tile sur
face forming members T-I, each joist J-~I in
cludes tile clamping bars Zíia and 20h Secured
bars 5 and 5’ respectively are preferably provided
with terminals 5a and 5b, and 5a’ and 5b’ ex
tending beyond the ends of the arch struts 2a
40 and 2b.
Heel struts 8a and 8a’ are secured, as by arc
welds l, on opposite sides of the base Sa of the
arch strut 2a; and heel struts 8b and 8b’ are
secured, as by arc welds 1, on opposite sides of
the base 9b of the arch strut 2b.
Each heel strut, as illustrated, is preferably a
length of standard angle, and the apex of each
angle heel strut extends transversely of its joist,
and one leg of each angle heel strut abuts the
respectively as by arc welds 'l' on the outer faces
of the laterally extending legs of the angle heel
struts 8a and 8a', and 8b and 8b”, above the tie
rod spacing and anchor members Iûa. and Iûb, 45
respectively.
The tile clampingbars 20a and 20h thus se
cured respectively on the outer ends of the bases
9a and 9b of the arch struts 2a and 2b, co-act
with the tile T-I, in an improved manner which 50 I
will be hereinafter described in detail.
In other words each of the improved joist load
. side face of the arch strut to which it is Secured,
and the other leg of each angle heel strut ex
tends laterally outwardly from the side of the
arch strut to which it is secured, the laterally ex
tending legs of the angle heel struts being pref
erably located at the outer edges of the bases 9a
55
and 9b of the arch struts 2a and 2b respectively.
Laterally extending tie rod spacing and anchor
members |00, and IGZ) are secured respectively as
by arc welds 'l Yon the outer faces of the laterally
extending legs of the angle heel struts Ba and 8a',
60
and 8b and 8b', at the lower ends thereof.
Each laterally extending tie rod spacing and
anchor member is secured at its central portion
to its pair of angle heel struts, and extends lat
erally from each side of the arch strut to which
65
its angle heel struts are secured.
The outer end of each tie rod spacing and an
chor member has formed therein a tie rod re
ceiving aperture II.
70
'
Laterally spaced longitudinally extending tie
rods I2 and I2’ are each provided with threaded
outer ends I3 each of which extends through one
of the apertures l I, and a nut I 4 is screwed upon
each threaded tie rod end I3, and the nuts I4
75 react against the outer faces of the tie rod spac
sustaining members J--I includes longitudinally
extending upper chord members 5 and 5', longi
tudinally extending lower tie rod or chord mem»
bers I2 and I2-’, arch means maintaining the
chord members in proper load sustaining posi
tion, and end supports for penduêously support
.
ing the joists.
~
The lower chord members I2 and l2’ are trans
versely spaced below and laterally spaced at op
posite sides of the upper chord members 5 and
5', and certain of the objects of the present im
provements are attained by utilizing the laterally
spaced lower chord members as bearings for the
lower ends of the tile T-I.
, The lower tie rod or chord members I2 and I2’
may each in itself have a suitable cross-section
for resisting deñection when the tile T--I are
a
being placed in position, it being understood that 70
as hereinafter set forth in detail, after the tile
T-I are placed in position the joists J-I co-act
with the tile T--_-I under load so as to oppose
transverse deíiection.
A
‘_ As illustrated, however, a plurality of lo-ngi 75
4
2,017,241
tudinally spaced closed triangular hanger frames
2| are applied around the upper chord members
5 and '5' and the lower tie rods |2 and l2', the
upper chordmembers and the lower tie rod mem
bers being secured respectively as by welding at
the apexes of the triangular hanger frame. 2|
which may be conveniently formed of wire.
Each-of the preferred refractory tile surface
forming members T-|, is preferably a hollow
10 tile having a rectangular transverse'cross-sec
tion and including normally horizontal upper and
lower rectangular walls Eef and 30o whose outer
surfaces respectively form the floor surface S-f
and the ceiling surface S-c. Outer normally
15 vertical longitudinally extending rectangular side
walls 39a and 3G23 extend between the longitudinal
lateral breadth B ofthe tile, and is also greater
than the transverse depth D.
In erecting the floor F-I, the spanning joist
members J-l are placed in position so that their
end supports lßa and |611', and I6?) and |617', rest
on the bearing beams 18a and |81), respectively,
and the joists J-l are laterally spaced from each
other so that the distance between the tie rod
I2 of one joist and the tie rod I2' of the next
adjacent joist is substantially equal to the length
L’ between the opposite offset lower faces 32 of
the lower end portions of the side walls 3Da and
30h, the web wall 3M, and the lower ceiling form
ing wall 30e of each tile T-l .
Temporary flooring may then be laid across
the arch struts 2a and 2b of the joists, and the
side edges of the walls 36)“ and 39C, and a nor
tile or blocks T-I may be laid directly from
mally vertical longitudinally extending rectangu
above so that each end supporting portion 3|
lar reinforcing web wall 30d may extend between _ rests on the adjacent tie rod |2 or |2' of the ad
2O the upper and lower walls 36j and 30a, and when
jacent joist, the length L of the upper walls 38)’ 20
desired a normally horizontal longitudinally ex
and the upper end portions of the side walls 35a
tending rectangular reinforcing web wall 30e and 30h and the web wall 30d of each tile T-I
may extend between the side walls Bûa and 36h is such that the extremities of the end adjacent
and intersect the vertical web wall 39d.
tile carried by the tie rods I2 and l2' of any par
25
At each end of each tile, an upper end sup
ticular joist J-l are laterally spaced from each 25
porting portion 3|, including upper end portions other and from the upper chord bars 5 and 5', a
of the side walls 30a and 36h, and of the vertical distance to permit concrete, grout, or other com.
web wall 39d, together with the upper wall 301c pression resisting, self-setting plastic material C
and the horizontal web wall 33d, extends lon
to be poured downwardly between the laterally
30 gitudinally beyond preferably vertically offset
spaced tile end portions and the upper chord
lower faces 32 including lower portions of the end bars 5 and 5' of the joist. A centering plank 40
faces of the side walls 30a and 3017, and of the may be supported or suspended in abutment with
vertical web wall 30d, and the end face of the the outer faces of adjacent lower end portions of
bottom wall 30e.
the lower walls 30e, for receiving the plastic ma
35
The lower longitudinally extending faces 33 of terial C when it ispoured, and until it is set.
each end supporting portion 3! are formed by
As `best illustrated in Fig. 9, in the resulting
the lower faces of the longitudinally extending floor structure F-|, the compression resisting
upper end portions of the side walls 35a and 30h, concrete material C completely embeds each
and of the vertical web wall 30d, and are nor
joist, and engages with the end portions of the
40k mally horizontal, and the normally horizontal tile walls.
40
faces 33 form with the normally vertical faces 32
It is also to be noted that the notched seats 34
a notched or rabbeted seat indicated generally of the tile interlock with the supporting tie rods
by 34 in each lower end corner of each tile.
|2 and I2' of the joists J-|.
In other words the improved tile '1"-|, with the
In the floor F-I the side walls of adjacent tile
45 desired upper longitudinally extending end sup
abut against each other and clamping pressure 45
porting portion 3|, at each end thereof, may be is applied against the side abutting tile T--I, due
formed by notching out each lower end corner to the weight of the floor itself, and any trans
of an ordinary green rectangular building tile verse loading thereof, acting through the longi
during the process of manufacture, by the use tudinally spaced clamping bars 28a and 2|Jb be-y
50 of hand notching wires, or machines, well known
tween which the-tile T-l are located.
50
in the art.
It will also be noted that normal transverse
As illustrated all the outer faces of the upper loading of the floor F-l places the concrete C
and lower walls 301‘ and 30C and the side Walls under compression between the laterally extend
33a and 30h of each tile, are smooth, and may ing flanges of the angle heel struts of each joist
55 be glazed; whereby in certain classes of con
J-I.
55
struction no further floor or ceiling ñnish need be
From another standpoint, in the floor F-|,
applied over the outer surfaces of the upper and each tile or block extends between and bears on
lower walls Sûf and 3Go, whereby a glazed tile adjacent spanning joists J-I, and the outer faces
floor and ceiling finish is obtained.
. of the walls 30f and 313e are transversely spaced
60
When desired it is obvious however that the from each other and have side edges abutting 60
outer surfaces of the upper, lower, and side walls each other,
of each tile may be longitudinally tongued and
The outer faces of all the upper floor walls 30f
grooved in the well known manner for receiving of the adjacent tile T-l between any two ad
finishing concrete, plaster, grout, or the like.
jacent joists are alined with each other, and
In order to obtain the maximum advantages similarly the outer faces of all the lower ceiling 65
of the present improvements, it is desirable that walls 30e of the adjacent tile between any two
the overall length L of each tile be substantially adjacent joists are alined with each other, and
longer than the corresponding dimension of tile the transversely spaced alined outer faces of the
walls 30f and 30e form with the outer faces of the
70 used in other types of tile floor construction.
This overall length L may be 18 inches, 24 concrete C the transversely spaced floor and 70
inches, 36 inches or even longer depending upon ceiling surfaces S-f and S-e, each extending
loading and dimensional requirements.
In any event the greatest eñiciency is obtained
75 when the overall length L is` greater than the
laterally and longitudinally with respect to the
spanning joists J-l, and the transverse spacing
between the upper chord members 5 and 5' and
the lower chord members. |2 and i2’ of the span 75
É
2,017,241
ning joists is less than- the transverse spacing of
the surfaces S-f and S-c, and the transversely
spaced upper and lower chord members 5 and 5’
and |2 and i2’ are located between the trans
versely spaced surfaces S-f and S-c, whereby
the desired floor structure having the transverse
ly spaced fiat licor and ceiling surfaces S-f and
S-c is attained by the use of only a plurality of
the joists J-|, a plurality ofthe unitary similar
10 tile T-I, and the concrete C.
A’second embodiment of the improved joist and
tile floor structure is indicated generally at F-Z
in Fig. 10, and includes a plurality of laterally
spaced longitudinally extending improved load
15 sustaining spanning members each indicated
generally by J--2, and a plurality of improved
surface forming tile or block each indicated gen
erally by T-2 and extending between and bear-
ing on adjacent spanning members J-2 and
20 forming a flat upper floor surface S--î-f and a
flat lower ceiling surface S--2-c, the surfaces
S-2-f and S-Z-c being transversely spaced
from each other and extending respectively above
and below the Spanning members J--2.
The spanning members J-Z constitute other
25
embodiments of the lever arch joists, set forth
in my aforesaid prior United States Letters Pat
ent and applications, and are further improve
ments of the joists J-I, whereby the quantity of
30 concrete required for making a “l‘lreproof” floor
is reduced and the structural coaction of the
joists and tile is improved in the floor F-2.
One of the improved joists J-2, detached from
the iioor structure F--2, is illustrated in Figs. 3
35 and 4, and includes triangular arch struts |0211
and |021), and |0211' and |02b’.
The struts |0211 and |021) are arranged with
their apexes |0311 and |031) abutting each other
as at |04; and the struts |0211’ and |02b’ are
40 arranged with their apexes |0311’ and 1031)’ abut
ting each other as at |04', and the struts |021;
and |021) are spaced laterally from the struts
|02a' and |0219'.
An upper chord member'or bar |05 is secured
45 along the upper edges |0611 and |061) of the struts
|0211 and |021), as by arc welds |01; and laterally
spaced from the bar |05, a chord member or bar
|05' is secured along the upper edges |06’a and
|0617’ of the struts |0261.’ and |021)', as by arc welds
50
55
|01.
'
A channel heel strut |08a‘ is interposed between
the bases |0961 and |0911' of the laterally spaced
arch struts |0211 and |0211', and secured thereto
as by arc welds |01; and a channel heel strut
|081) is interposed between the bases |091) and
|0912' of the laterally spaced arch struts i021) and
|0217’ and secured thereto as by arch welds |01.
Laterally extending tie rod spacing and anchor
members ||0a, and ||01) are secured respective
60 ly as by arc welds |01 on the outer faces of the
channel struts |08a and |081) respectively at the
lower ends thereof.
Each laterally extending tie rod spacing and
anchor member is secured at its central portion
65 to its channel heel strut and extends laterally
from each side thereof and from the opposite
sides of the arch struts spaced by the channel
heel strut.
y
The outer end of each tie rod spacing and an
chor member has formed therein a tie rod receiv
ing aperture |||.
Laterally spaced longitudinally extending tie
rods | I2 and ||2’ are each provided with thread
ed outer ends | |3 each of which extends through`
75 one of the apertures | | | and a nut l|4 is screwed
upon'each threaded tie rod end | I3 and the nuts
||4 react against the outer faces of the tie rod
spacing and anchor members ||0a and H01), and
apply suitable tension loads on the tie rods ||2
The lower tie rods or chord members ||2 and
||2’ are transversely spaced below and laterally
spaced at opposite sides of the upper laterally
spaced chord members |05 and |05', and their
respective arch struts.
10
For resisting' lateral displacement of the arch
strut apexes, and for resisting abnormal reverse
or vibration loading of the joists J-2 a longi
tudinally extending channel | |'5 is preferably in
terposed between the strut apexes |0311. and |031), 15
and the strut apexes |0311.' and |03b’ and secured
theretol as by arc welds |01.
For providing end supports f-or the arch joists
J--2 above the laterally spaced tie rods ||2 and
| l2', a preferably channel end support | |611. is in- 20
terposed between the upper outer corners ||1a
and |1111’ of the struts |0201 and |02a', and se
cured thereto as by arc welds |01; and similarly
a channel end support | |61) is interposed between
the upper outer corners ||11) and ||11)’ of the 25
struts |021) and 1021)’ respectively, and secured
thereto as by arc welds |01.
The end support ||6a extends longitudinally
beyond the arch strut bases |0911 and |0911' and
the channel end support H51) extends longitudl- 30
nally beyond the arch strut bases |001) and 1091)’.
Each joist J-Z preferably further includes
tile clamping bars |2011, and |201) secured respec
tively by arc welds |01 on the outer faces> of the
channel heel struts |0811. and |081), above the tie 35Y
rod spacing and anchor members H011, and H01),l
respectively.
A plurality of longitudinally spaced closed
trapezoidal hanger frames |2| are applied about
the upper chord members |05 and |05’ and the 40
lower tie rods | l2 and | I2', and the upper chord
members and lower tie rod members are prefer
ably secured respectively as by welding at the
apexes of the trapezoidal hanger frames |2|.
The preferably refractory tile or blocks T--2 45
are similar in form to the tile T-|, and include
spaced end supporting portions |3| formed by
providing notched or rabbeted seats lindicated
at |34 in each lower end corner of each tile.
In erecting the floor F-Z the spanning joist 50
members J-2 are placed in position so that their
end supports l10n. and |161) rest on spaced bear
ing beams, not shown, and the joists J--2 are
laterally spaced from each other in a manner
' similar to that described for the joists J-I of 55v
the floor F-|.
l
The tile T-2 are then laid in a manner similar
to that described for the positioning of the blocks
T-l, the principal dilference between the floor
F--Z and the floor F-l arising from the use of 60
the upper laterally spaced chord members 5 and
5’ and the arch struts therefor, whereby in the
floor F-2 the concrete material C may be poured
downwardly between the upper chord bars |05
and |05’ of the joists, and also the ends of the 65
tile J-2 may preferably abut directly against
the sides of the adjacent arch struts for effecting
an interlocking structural coaction between the
joists J-2 and the tile T-2.
The third embodiment of the improved floor` 70
structure is indicated generally at F-3 in Fig. 11,
and is generally similar to the floor F--2. The
floor F-S includes laterally spaced longitudinal
ly extending spanning joists J-3 and a plurality
of tile or blocks T-3 extending between and 75
6
2,017,241
bearing on adjacent spanning members J--3, and
forming a flat upper ñoor surface S-S-f and a
flat lower ceiling surface S-S-c, the surfaces
S-S-f and S-â-c being transversely spaced
from each other and extending respectively above
and below the spanning joist members J----3.
The joist members J-S are identical in manner
of use with the joist members J-Z,v but are made
as illustrated by the use of truss construction
10 rather than arch construction.
One of the joists J-3 is illustrated in detail
in Figs. 5 and 6.
A fourth embodiment of the improved ñoor
structure is indicated generally at F-4 in Fig.
12, and is generally similar to the floor structure
F-I, but includes the use of trussed joists J-_-4,
one of which is illustrated in detail in Figs. 7
and 8.
The fifth embodiment of the improved iioor
structure indicated generally at F-5 in Fig. 13,
includes arch joists J-5 which are structurally
similar to the arch joists J-Z, and tile or blocks
T-li, each end of each of which is formed as
illustrated for bearing on one of the joists J-5
25 and for extending above and below the joists
J-5 thereby totally enclosing the joists between
Vthe ends of end adjacent tiles T--5. The tiles
T-5 preferably abut each other sidewise as Well
as endwise, and the floor F-5 is erected as indi
30 cated in Fig. 13 by laterally sliding each joist
J-5 into the alined formed ends of a tempor
arily supported row of the tile T-5.
The sixth embodiment of the improved floor
structure indicated generally by F-S in Fig. 14,
35 is generally similar to the floor F-5, with the
exception that the joists J-S of the floor F-S
are connected with each other laterally as by lat
erally extending rods 5B each end of which is con
nected with one of the laterally spaced arch struts
40 of one of the joists J-5, which are structurally
similar to the ioists J--2.
Y
The tile T-'ô of the floor F-ß are each so
formed that each end extends below its support
ing joist J-S forming a shelf upon which the
45 concrete C may be poured.
It will be observed that in each of the improved
tile T-l to 'IL-6, inclusive, the transverse depth
of the notches is less than ,1/2 the total transverse
depth of the tile, whereby the end portions of the
50 tile web walls may be used for supporting pur
poses, with a relatively high shearing strength
and at the same time ñreproofing of the support
ing joists is attainable.
55
I claim:-`
1. An elongated hollow block having a rectan
gular transverse cross section and including nor
mally outer rectangular walls, rectangular side
walls extending between the longitudinal side
edges of the normally outer rectangular walls,
60 the distance between the outer surfaces of the
outer Walls constituting the depth of the block,
the distance between the outer surfaces of the
side walls constituting the breadth of the block,
and the distance between the end edges of one
65 of the outer walls constituting the length of the
block, the length of the block being greater than
its breadth and greater than its depth, and the
side walls and one of the outer walls including
opposite end portions extending longitudinally
beyond other portions of the side walls and the
4other outer wall, the side wall end portions serv
ing as opposite end supports for the block and
the depth of the side wall end portions being
substantially greater than one-half the total
75 depth of the side Walls.
2. An elongated hollow block including normal
ly outer rectangular walls, a web wall extending
between the normally outer rectangular walls, the
distance between the outer surfaces of the outer
walls constituting the depth of the block, the dis- 15
tance between the longitudinal side edges of the
outer walls constituting the breadth of the block,
and the distance between the end edges of one of
the outer walls constituting the length of the
block, the length of the block being greater than 1n'
its breadth and its depth, and the web wall and
one of the outer walls including opposite endpor
tions extending longitudinally beyond other por
tions of the web wall and the other outer wall,
the web wall end portions serving as opposite 15j
end supports for the block and the depth of the
web wall end portions being substantially greater
than one-half the total depth of the web wall.
3. An elongated hollow block including normal
ly outer rectangular walls, web walls extending 20_
between the normally outer rectangular walls,
the distance between the outer surfaces of the>
outer walls constituting the depth of the block,
the distance between the longitudinal >side edges
of the outer walls constituting the breadthof the 25_
block, and the distance between the end edges of
one of the outer walls constituting the length of
the block, the length of the block being greater
than its breadth and its depth, and the web walls
and one of the outer walls including opposite end 30ì
portions extending longitudinally beyond other
portions of the web walls and the other outer
Wall, the web wall end portions serving as oppo
site end supports for the block and the depth of
the web wall end portions being substantially 35:
greater than one-half the total depth >of the web
walls.
4. An elongated refractory hollow tile block
having a rectangular transverse cross section and
including normally outer rectangular walls, rec- 40
tangular side walls extending between the longi
tudinal side edges of the normally outer rectan
gular walls, the distance between the outer sur
faces of the outer walls constituting the depth
of the block, the distance between the outer sur- 45
faces of the side walls constituting the breadth
of the block, and the distance between the end
edges of one of the outer walls constituting the
length of the block, the length of the Vblock being
greater than its breadth and greater than its 50
depth, and the side walls and one of the outer
walls including opposite end portions extending
longitudinally beyond other portions of the side
walls and the other outer wall, the side wall end
portions serving as opposite end supports for the 55'
block and the depth of the side wall end portions
being substantially greater than one-half the
total depth of the side walls.
5. An elongated refractory hollow tile block in
cluding normally outer rectangular walls, a web 60
wall extending between the normally outer rec
tangular walls, the distance between the outer
surfaces of the outer walls constituting the depth
of the block, the distance between the longitudi
nal side edges of the outer walls constituting the 65
breadth of the block, and the distance between
the end edges of ‘one of the outer walls constitut
ing the length of the block, the length of the
block being greater than its breadth and its
depth, and the web wall and one of -the outer walls 70
including opposite end portions extending longi
tudinally beyond other portions of the web wall
and the other outer wall, the web wall end por
tions serving as opposite end supports for the
block and the depth of the web wall end portions 75
2,017,241
beîng substantially greater than one-half the
total depth of the web Wall.
6. An elongated refractory hollow tile block in
cluding normally outer rectangular walls, web
walls extending between the normally outer rec
tangular walls, the distance between the outer
surfaces of the outer walls constituting the depth
of the block, the distance between the longitudi
nal side edges of the outer walls constituting the
10 breadth of the block, and the distance between
the end edges of one of the outer walls consti
‘7
tuting the length of the block, the length of the
block being greater than its breadth and its depth,
and the web walls and one of the outer walls in
cluding opposite end portions extending longi
tudinally beyond other portions of the web Walls
and the other outer wall, the web wall end por
tions serving as opposite end supports for the
block and the depth of the web wall end portions
being substantially greater than one-half the to
tal depth of the web walls.
HURXTHAL F. FREASE.
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